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An Undergraduate Project Thesis Proposal

Presented to the

Faculty of the College of Engineering

University of Cebu – Main Campus

Sanciangko St., Cebu City


In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering


Gonzales, Ansil Jane

Pepino, Audrey

Yeban, Gerald


This thesis paper entitled “An Investigation on the Shortage of Skilled Workforce of the
Construction Industry in Cebu” has been prepared and submitted by Gonzales, Ansil Jane,
Pepino, Audrey and Yeban, Gerald in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering and is hereby examined, accepted and approved.

ENGR. Jo Ann C. Celedio

Adviser Panel Member


Chairman/Research Coordinator, College of Engineering


Dean, College of Engineering


We would like to express our immense gratitude to the distinguished individuals who
have offered their invaluable support and contribution.

First and foremost, we would like to thank our parents with deepest love, respect and
appreciation. Also, to our extended family, the Alonzo family who accommodated and give
guidance to us during the data gathering.

A very special thanks goes to our beloved adviser, we wish to express our deepest
appreciation and gratefulness for the support and feedback throughout this exciting voyage
from the start until the end. Thank you for everything.

We will be forever thankful to our Almighty God, who gives us strength and wisdom
throughout our journey.

Last but not the least, thank you to each and every one of our research partners,
mentors and friends! We are all part of this exhilarating voyage to global growth, innovation
and prosperity!!!
Table of Contents


Title Page I
Approval sheet II
Acknowledgement III
Table of Contents IV
List of Tables VI
List of figures VII
List of Appendices VIII
Abstract IX


1.1 Rationale of the Study

1.2 Theoretical Background

1.3 Statement of the Problem

1.4 Significance of the Study

1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study

1.6 Definition of Terms

1.7 Research Methodology


2.1 Design of Drip Irrigation System

2.2 Drip Irrigation System Components


3.1 Summary
3.2 Conclusion
3.3 Recommendation
List of Tables

Table -- 1: Physical Set Up of Crops

Table -- 2: Spacing of Important Plants/Crops

Table – 3: Flow from polyethylene Tube emitters of 0.96 mm diameter (lph)
Table – 4: Infiltration Rate of Soil
Table – 5: Surface Area Flooded by Emitters

Table – 6: Emitters to install on each valve circuit

Table – 7: Reduction Co-Efficient F for Multiple Outlet Pipeline Friction Loss Co-efficient

Table-8: Friction Head Loss in Meters per 100 m. Pipe Length

Table - 9: Friction Losses for Flow of Water (100m) in smooth Pipes(c=140)

Table - 10: Length of Straight Pipe in Meter giving Equivalent Resistance to Flow in Pipe
Table - 11: Number of Drippers
Table - 12: Suggested run time for Irrigation Systems
List of figures

Figure – 1: Head control components

Figure – 2: Schematic Diagram of Drip Irrigation System (Area = 1ha)
List of Appendices

APPENDIX A: Research questionnaire

APPENDIX B: Drip Irrigation System Accessories
APPENDIX C: Research Environment
Water drip irrigation is very essential tool in sustaining the productivity of agricultural
industries. In which, Mantalongon, Dalaguete is a suitable place for the installation of the
irrigation system for its place is a mountainous part were in water resource is rare and very
important for it was known as the vegetable basket of the province of Cebu. Water drip
irrigation system has its following main purpose”

The study targets to look into the water drip irrigation planning and designing in
Mantalongon Farm, Dalaguete. The study will pursue to accomplish the following objectives,
to investigate the space area of the specific farm, to design the water drip irrigation system,
to determine where the source of water is, and to calculate the specifications of the design.

Research Methodology Frameworks. Preliminary observation of a Good Land Area and

the Location of Water Source on Water Drip Irrigation Installation. Manual Land Area
Measurement and a row to row crops lateral spacing and a direct counting of a Drip Irrigation
Materials. Computation, Organization and Data Tabulation. Finalization and Evaluation of
Result. And Conclusion and Recommendation of our Research Irrigation Proposal.

The design, variety of emitters needed for plant and their discharge square measure
necessary factors in coming up with a drip irrigation system numerous emitters square
measure designed for controlled unleashes of water to the plants. In orchards having wide-
spaced plants, 2 or a lot of lines of laterals could also be needed for every row generally, a loop
with three to four emitters is placed around every plant to supply the desired wetted space
this could be off from the plant stem.
Chapter 1
1.1 Rationale of the study

From the beginning, water drip irrigation is a very essential tool in sustaining the life of
agriculture. It is the most advanced and most efficient of all irrigation methods. It doesn’t
convey only the usage and needs of agricultural, but an integral tool to conduct in saving water.

In an era wherein the science and technology is dominant around the world, a lot of
various development has been rapidly influenced and designed, such as; the setting of timers,
installation of different nozzles, and installation of sensors for rain in the water drip irrigation

The Philippines is known as a tropical country in Asia, which primary lifestyle is

agriculture. But, as it’s said to be tropical, scarcity of water is somehow, on the other hand,
very rampant and such a big issue to the farmers eventually during summer. Each year that
passes, the percentage of the water crisis is increasing. And each year, a higher number of the
population is affected.

All causes of this are related to humans. There is no scarcity of water if people are not
interfering with the water cycle like wasting water, deforestation, and increasing the
percentage of pollution. These wrong practices may lead to an insufficient supply of clean,
uncontaminated water for drinking, living, and recreational activities. Because of this, it is very
alarming that sooner or later, there will be a high risk of depletion of water resources.

From the south-east part of Cebu, the very famous Barangay of Mantalongon is visited
by many tourist because of the captivating spots like the High Peaks, Strawberry Farm, and
Sunflower Farm. Because of the high demand for vegetables, farmers are being pushed to their
limit of work. Yes! They already have the crops to be planted on a suitable soil to grow it faster.
But, there is no enough water for a ton of plants. The Farmers of the said area waited for rain
and stock it inside a barrel and pour the water on the large areas of crops, manually. Rain is a
natural happening of mother earth, which no one can predict when it will exactly fall. And
there is no assurance that every day is a rainy day.

The researcher then studies the relation of planning and designing of water drip
irrigation at Barangay of Mantalongon, Dalaguete, to give convenience to the residence,
especially to the farmers, and at the same time to help in saving water. Water drip irrigation
allows a high uniformity of water and nutrients to penetrate to the plants.
1.2 Theoretical Background

Mantalongon, a mountainous area in Dalaguete, Cebu where numerous plant species

can be found. Majority of the people in the area are on farming since they depend on their
crop’s profit for their financial needs but there are unfortunate farmers because some areas
lack in water sources for their crops. Drip irrigation is a helpful solution that we propose to the
said problem. This system potentially save water and nutrients for it allows water to drip slowly
to the roots of plants and this also minimizes evaporation. The efficiency depends on the
design, installation, maintenance, and operation of the drip irrigation system.

Saikia, Hemanta (2011) found that in Assam, there are attempts that are made in
increasing production and productivity in agriculture through adopting modern technology
such as improved seeds and fertilizers but none of it worked. So for sustainable development
of agricultural sector, particular in winter season, availability of irrigation facility is undoubtedly
the most important prerequisite development in flood damaged areas. The modernization of
agricultural practices vis-à-vis increase in productivity of cannot be visualized in the absence
of assured irrigation facilities. At the same time one should also note that if has the potentiality
to produce multiple crops with the use of HYV seeds if it is backed by adequate minor irrigation
facility since natural fertility of flood-prone areas is higher as compared to other areas.
Therefore, effects of such disasters on the agricultural of Assam can be minimized by following
appropriate alternative agricultural practices where minor irrigation can be an alternative of

Radhakrishnan, S. A2 (1978) has observed that in Tamil Nadu State, since most of the
surface water resources are already tapped, there is a dire need for development of ground
water resources. The ground water potential of an area is at present determined by the state
Ground Water Directorate based on certain assumptions and field observation. It is established
beyond doubt that detailed hydro-geological studies should be made for estimating ground
water potential, more precisely. There are a number of problems to be sorted out while
introducing ground water disciple.
D. Suresh Kumar and K. Palanisamy (2010) have found that adoption of drip irrigation
technology has increased the net sown area, net irrigated area and thereby has helped in
achieving high cropping intensity and irrigation intensity. It has been found that there is a
significant shift towards crops such as coconut, grapes and banana found of scarcity of human
labor and water. As the cropping pattern decide the adoption and suitability of drip irrigation,
wide spread adoption of micro irrigation could be promoted in regions where shift towards
crops like coconut, grapes and banana are common. The analysis of economics of crop
cultivation under drip and control has revealed that the drip method of irrigation has a
significant impact on resources saving, cost of cultivation, yield of crops and farm profitability.
The physical water and energy productivity is significantly high in drip over the flood method
of irrigation. One could conclude that the drip irrigation has a significant bearing on the private
costs and benefits and hence on profit of farmers. Thus, our policy focus may be tilted towards
the promotion of drip irrigation in those regions where scarcity of water and labor is alarming
and where shifted towards wider-spaced crops is taking place.

S. N. Srinivas and C K Jalajakshi4 (2004) have observed that usually all members of a
family operate the pump. However, the head of the family operates it more. Women generally
operate only on a stop-gap basis. However, in a few cases, labor is being hired to operate the
pump. The wages of hired labor varied from Rs 15 to 25 per day. It was left that TP (Treadle
Pump) operation is much easier than other types of manual irrigation systems in the study
area. On average, a TP is operates for about 100 days in a year. More than 60 percent of
households owning TP have been using it for more than or equal to three hours on an
operating day. It was found that the discharge from all types of TPs is higher than other manual
irrigation systems like the swing basket, tend and dhekuli, which are common in the study area.
On average well maintained TPs give a discharge of about 50 to 90 liters per minute at a depth
of about 4.54 m. TPs were found to be effective to operate a command area of about one acre.
It is most suited for marginal and small farmers. The design of the TP is more improved and
convenient to operate in comparison with other type of devices using human power. A
comparison of system efficiencies indicates that it is much more efficient than a diesel pump.
It also scores over other manual - irrigation devices with much higher system efficiencies. The
study results show that the system efficiency for a diesel engine in the comparable field
situation has been only 3.64 per cent, whereas for TPs it was over 40 per cent. The system
efficiency of dhekuli was over 6 per cent, however, dhekuli generally cannot be operated for
longer duration because the operator gets too tired and the water table in the well goes down.
Among the other devices, the swing basket can only lift water from surfaces such as channels.
In addition, it requires two persons to operate. Tenda, common in Orissa, can lift water from
the surface and the operation is also strenuous.

Natarajan, V. K5 (1982) has observed that minor irrigation schemes were planned to
augment the irrigation potential, increase in gross irrigated area and intensity of cropping.
Accordingly, the implementation of this programmer gave rise to a higher intensity of
cropping, changes in the cropping pattern, changes in the gross irrigated area, increase in
annual income and employment, more particularly of the weaker sections. However, it was
noticed that failure of power supply, steep increase in oil prices and strains in the management
of community wells have affected the programed, to some extent.

Review of the Related Literature

Mantalongon, Dalaguete is a place far from the coastal areas, were in its normal
lifestyle is agriculture. Due to its mountainous area, there are only a few sources of water
available which give a big problem to the farmers. There are a lot of solutions that can be
applied to this problem, such as:

 Prisilla (2012)
 Water is one in all nature’s most vital gifts to man, due to the rise in population
food demand for somebody's being is additionally increasing. Over the past
few decade usages of water for irrigation has inflated hysterically. Water
is impure because of wastage and contaminants within the industries. Saving
water is very important. This final aim is achieved by the victimization of the
exiting ANN system. It’ll give how to avoid wasting floodwater within the fields
for future irrigation functions.
 Chetana (2012)
 The automatic Wireless Watering System could be
an easy system, that notifies the user concerning its standing the 2 modes of
operations give the user with the choice of associate degree automatic and
manual method. The system conjointly provides the log file of the
events disbursed.
 Jyothipriya (2013)
 The GSM primarily based Zigbee Controlled coil Valve for drip irrigation system
proves to be a period feedback system that monitors and controls all the
activities of the drip irrigation system with efficiency mistreatment this
method, one will save force, water, and power consumption is reduced by 2
hundredth and half-hour in comparison to existing.
1.3 Statement of the Problem

The study targets to look into the water drip irrigation planning and designing in
Mantalongon Farm, Dalaguete. The study will pursue to accomplish the following objectives:
1. To investigate the space area of the specific farm in terms of:
a. Physical Set-Up
b. Area of each Crops
2. To design the water drip irrigation system, which involves:
a. Selection of Dripper Type and Proper Lateral Pipe Diameter of Inside and
Outside Line
b. Process and Maintenance of System
3. To determine where is the source of water.
4. To calculate the following:
a. Water Inflow
b. Water Peak Requirements
c. Water Outflow
d. Length of sub and main
e. Total Head loss
f. Horse Power Requirement of Pump
g. Irrigation Time
h. Total Number of Drippers
1.4 Significance of the Study

The result of the study will be a primary basis for the water drip irrigation operation
plan for Mantalongon farm. The following are the group of people and individuals that can
benefit the study:

For the farmers, this will reduce the exerted effort and time in watering the plants. It
also gives an efficient and easier work.

For the Government, this will share and gives knowledge and importance in planning
and designing water drip irrigation in their community.

For the Environment, this will help to minimize the usage and to save water.

For the Future Researcher, this will give an overview of water drip irrigation.
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study is confined itself to understand the influence of irrigation on farm economy.
It does not cover the technical and managerial aspects of irrigation are not considered for this

The validity of the present study is subject to the following limitations. These includes:
1. Initial Heavy Investment.

 Most of the farmers may not afford this investment because it demands high
cost of installation and its initial cost required for the procurement of the
system. However, in such a long term it is more beneficial because it saves
water, fertilizers and labor and it also produces more crops.

2. Extensive Maintenance Requirement.

o It is the most serious problem in irrigation
o It affects the flow rate and uniformity of water application that may
lead to crop damage and decreases yield
 Pipeline leaks and puncturing of tubes
 Animals such as rabbits, dogs and etc. can chew the damage drip line
 Ants and insects enlarges the opening in drip tubing
 Accidentally cut or dug-up during replacement or repairing utilities in nearby
 Subjected to malfunctioning are filters, chemical injectors, pressure regulators,
water meters or pumps which is liable for maintenance
 Salinity Hazards.
 Drip system must be managed properly although it can be used under saline
conditions. Because there is a possibility of accumulation of salts, common
causes are:
o Salts present in soils
o Soils that are pushed to the fringes of the wetted area (formed due to
the emitters
 Economic and Technical Limitations.
 For economical values it is expensive:
o In terms of initial heavy investments and,
o Annual maintenance, if it is not used properly
 For technical limitations:
o Prohibit of proper use of the components increases the amount of cost
for the maintenance
 High Skill Requirement.
 Difficult in water drip irrigation:
o Procedures for preventing or correcting emitter clogging and rectifying
equipment failure
o Injection of fertilizers and other chemicals

In connection, a higher skill is needed to design, install, management and maintenance with
water drip irrigation system.
1.6 Definition of Terms

Air Valve – a device for controlling the flow of air, as from the pipe or tank

By Pass Valve – serves to control pressure in the system by diverting a portion of the flow

Control Head – consists of valves to control the discharge and pressure in the entire system

Clog – block with an accumulation of thick, wet matter

Discharge Rate – is the volumetric flow rate of water that is transported through a given
cross sectional area

Drip Irrigation – a system of crop irrigation involving the controlled delivery of water
directly to individual plants through a network of tubes or pipes

Dripper / Emitter – are devices that connect to the drip line or hose

Flood Irrigation – a group of application techniques involving the distribution of water in

the field by gravity flow of water over the soil surface

Flow Rate – is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time

Flush Valve – is a self-closing valve designed to release a large volume of water when

Head Loss – the head pressure or energy lost by water flowing in a pipe or channel as a
result of turbulence caused by the velocity of the flowing water roughness of pipe, channel
walls or fittings

Lateral Flash Valve – allow system to flush at each operating interval to help keep the
system clear of debris that may clog the emitters

Main Line – removes sediment and other particles large enough to clog emitters. Reduces
incoming water pressure which is sometimes too high for drip irrigation system.

Poly tube / Lateral – used to simply transport water from one point to another or used as
a barrier to prevent flood damage
Pump – a mechanical device using sanction or pressure to raise or move liquids, compress
gases, or force air into inflatable objects such as tires

Pressure Gauge – an instrument indicating pressure

Saline – containing or impregnated with salt

Sand Filter – a filter used in water purification and consisting of layers of sand arranged
with coarseness of texture increasing downward

Sand Separator Hydro – Cyclone – are used in variety of applications, including

classification, desliming, fines recovery, densifying and dewatering

Screen Filter – is a type of filtration of water using a rigid or flexible screen to separate sand
and other fine particles out of water for irrigation or industrial applications

Sub-main Line – a pipe line which is connected to the main line

Ventury – can also be used to inject a liquid or gas into another liquid. A pump forces the
liquid flow through a tube connected to a venture to increase the speed of fluid

Water Withdrawal – measurable as the quantity of water withdrawn from the source for a
particular activity over a specific period of time

Wetting Front – this zone is characterized by a steep hydraulic gradient and forms a sharp
boundary between the wet and dry soil

Emitter – are the devices that connect to the drip line or hose. They are the small pieces
of equipment that disperse the water onto the plants.

Air release / Vacuum breaker – is an attachment commonly placed on a bibcock valve or

toilet or urinal flush valve that prevents water from being siphoned backward into the
public drinking water system.

Spaghetti / Extension tube – Use to Connect Barbs and Emitters to Orchard Tubing

Arid climate or steppe climate – is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below
potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate
1.8 Research Methodology

The following discussion focuses on Conceptual Frameworks on our research study.

Research Methodology Frameworks

Preliminary observation of a Good Land Area and the Location of

Water Source on Water Drip Irrigation Installation

Manual Land Area Measurement and a row to

row crops lateral spacing and a direct counting
of a Drip Irrigation Materials

Computation, Organization and Data Tabulation

Finalization and Evaluation of Result

Conclusion and Recommendation of our

Research Irrigation Proposal
The flow of the Study

Preliminary observation of a Good Land Area and the Location of Water Source on Water Drip
Irrigation Installation
The researcher conducted a preliminary observation of the Land area at Mantalongon,
Dalaguete, Cebu City, and the water source, which is the resource in our study. We capture
the land area and the plants for the next step. We also ask the owner of the land for help, for
we want to know more and the thing we need to do in our research.

Manual Land Area Measurement and a row to row crops lateral spacing and a direct counting of
a Drip Irrigation Materials
The method that the researcher used for getting primary data by measuring the farm
area, the lateral spacing of the crop, the kinds of crops planted, and even the materials to use
in installing the project.

Computation, Organization and Data Tabulation

After getting the primary data by measuring the farm area, the pipeline’s length, the
number of crops, etc., we calculate the water peak requirement, the head loss to get the
maximum water that came out in all emitters that placed in every crops or plant.

Finalization and Evaluation of Result

The researcher made a final output from the computed data, and the results of the
evaluated area, the provision of water needed in a hectare of crops through pipes from the
source, are not capable of using at the same time.

Conclusion and Recommendation of our Research Irrigation Proposal

The final and last step made by the researcher to come up with a precise conclusion
and recommendations that would give an idea on how to solve drip irrigation in that particular
area, especially a big size of land.
Presentation of Results, Analysis and Interpretation

The specification of the proposed Drip Irrigation System and its design parameters are
the following detailed data below. The data are categories by function and were it place in the
proposed Irrigation System.
2.1 Design of Drip Irrigation System
Physical Set Up of Crops

Table - 1: Physical Set Up of Crops

Crops Area Spacing

(planting geometry)

Cabbage 60cm to 45cm in dia. 457.2 mm

Chinese Cabbage 10 to15 cm in dia. 457.2 mm

Tomatoes 40 to 50 cm spread 508 mm

Egg Plant 40 cm spread 635 mm

(The area of plant depending on their growth may vary)

Table -- 2: Spacing of Important Plants/Crops

Sr.No Crops Spacing

1 Cabbage 457.2 mm

2 Chinese Cabbage 457.2 mm

3 Tomatoes 508 mm

4 Egg Plant 635 mm

(Crop spacing is regarding the number of crops planted during a unit space. it's regarding the
gap between one plant and another. Overcrowding of crops might cut back yields and it
should additionally lower the standard of the fruits created owing to competition for light-
weight and soil nutrients)
Performance and Design of emitters
The design, variety of emitters needed for plant and their discharge square
measure necessary factors in coming up with a drip irrigation system
numerous emitters square measure designed for controlled unleashes of water to the plants.
Manufactures of drip systems should state optimum operative pressure and discharge and
therefore the electrode is chosen that application rate equals the absorption rate of soil so
that no water inactivity takes place on the surface of the soil. In some systems, a brief length
of a versatile plastic tube of little diameter is employed as an associate degree electrode.
This tube is usually zero.96mm diameter and is inserted through holes in walls of the
laterals this is often normally referred to as a microtube system. To be due totally
different lengths of zero.96mm polythene tube underneath numerous pressure.
Table -- 3: Flow from polyethylene Tube emitters of 0.96 mm diameter (lph)

Length of Pressure in supply line (Atmosphere)


mm 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.75 1 1.5

7.5 6.1 10.4 13.9 20.2 27.2 33.2 44.7

15.5 4.1 6.7 9 12.8 17 20.7 27.4

25 2.9 4.7 6.3 8.9 11.8 14.4 19

35 2.3 3.7 4.9 7 9.3 11.3 15

50 1.8 2.9 3.8 5.5 7.3 8.8 11.7

75.5 1.4 2.2 2.9 4.2 5.6 6.8 9

100 1.1 1.8 2.4 3.4 4.5 5.5 7.3

125 0.96 1.6 2 2.9 3.9 4.7 6.3

150 0.84 1.4 1.8 2.6 3.4 4.2 5.5

175 0.75 1.2 1.6 2.3 3 3.7 4.9

200 0.69 1.1 1.5 2.1 2.7 3.3 4.4

250 0.6 0.97 1.3 1.8 2.4 2.9 3.8

300 0.53 0.85 1.1 1.6 2.1 2.6 3.4

(Another methodology of cathartic water from laterals is through tiny perforations within
the walls that square measure generally known as "soakers".)

The water came from emitters fall on the bottom and is absorbed by the soil. The
wetted space depends upon the soil kind and rate at that water comes out of emitters. The
infiltration rate for numerous forms of soil and therefore the expanse wetted because
of drippers at numerous flow rates.
In orchards having wide-spaced plants, 2 or a lot of lines of laterals could also be needed for
every row generally, a loop with three to four emitters is placed around every plant to
supply the desired wetted space this could be off from the plant stem.

Table – 4: Infiltration Rate of Soil

Sr. No. Texture Infiltration Rate (cm/hr.)

1 Coarse sand 2.0 to 2.5

2 Fine sand 1.2 to 2.0

Fine sandy
3 loam 1.2

4 Silty loam 1.0

5 Clay loam 0.8

6 Clay 0.5

(The inflation rate of different type of soil)

Table – 5: Surface Area Flooded by Emitters

Sr. No. Emitter flow Soil infiltration rate (cm/hr.)


0.25 0.5 0.75 1.0 1.25 1.50

Wetted Area (sqm)

1 1.0 0.4 0.2 0.13 0.1 0.08 0.07

2 2.0 0.8 0.4 0.27 0.2 0.16 0.13

3 3.0 1.2 0.6 0.40 0.3 0.24 0.20

4 4.0 1.6 0.8 0.53 0.4 0.32 0.27

5 5.0 1.0 1.0 0.67 0.5 0.40 0.33

6 6.0 1.2 1.2 0.80 0.6 0.48 0.4

7 7.0 1.4 1.4 0.93 0.7 0.56 0.47

8 8.0 1.6 1.6 1.07 0.8 0.64 0.53

(The area that's wetted by the emitters within the soil relying influx of water of the emitters)
No. of emitters

The number of emitters relies on the amount of wetting for every plant. Generally, 30-
70 % of the realm is wetted dependent upon plant spacing, nature & development of root
zone the quantity of electrodes needed per plant is calculable because of the magnitude
relation of the speed of irrigation demand to the emitter discharge. If the one electrode is
provided, it should be placed 15-30 cm. from the bottom of the plant.
Table – 6: Emitters to install on each valve circuit.

Emitter volume used Any water supply 20mm (3/4″) water 25mm (1″) water
that comes out of a Supply. Use a 20mm Supply. OK to use a
building, such as a (3/4″) valve. 20mm (3/4″) valve.
Hose bib. Any system
With a pump*.

2.0 l/hr. (0.6 gph) 300 300 700

4.0 l/hr. (1 gph) 180 180 420

(Actual emitter used for most soil type 2.0 l/hr. (0.6 gph) emitters is suitable and


The Main Line in a very drip system ought to follow the land contour as closely
as potential. If there's a slope, ought to be created for pressure variations thanks
to amendment in elevation. A fall of one m in elevation is loved a rise in pressure
of concerning zero.1 atmospheres wherever the most lines area unit arranged down on a
slope, the rise in pressure thanks to elevation amendment might part catch up on the friction
head loss to produce nearly uniform pressure at every electrode, the tube ought to be
of spare diameter to avoid excess friction losses. The water delivered within
the path is free through emitters spaced on the provision line the full friction head loss thanks
to lateral openings will be calculated by multiplying the pinnacle loss over the full length by a
discount Co-efficient given in Table half-dozen. However, the extra head loss on account of
diversion of result the main/laterals into the
emitters should be severally additional whereas estimating the full head for purpose
of hard the power unit of the pump set. Friction head loss for numerous flow rates in
plastic tubes of various sizes.
The allowable pressure calls in inject and laterals rely upon the in
operation pressure needed at emitters. The pressure distinction between the proximate and
distant points on the availability line mustn't exceed 2 hundredths which can keep the
variation of discharge inside 10 percent of its worth...
Table – 7: Reduction Co-Efficient F for Multiple Outlet Pipeline Friction Loss Co-efficient

No. of outlets F No of outlets F

1 1 8 0.42

2 0.65 10 to 11 0.41

3 0.55 12 to 15 0.40

4 0.50 16 to 20 0.39

5 0.47 21 to 30 0.38

6 0.45 21 to 37 0.37

7 0.44 38 to 70 0.36
(The total head at purpose zero should match with the whole head at purpose one,
adjusted for any increase within the head of the pumps, losses to pipe friction
and alleged "minor losses" thanks to entries, exits, fittings, etc. Pump head developed is
mostly perform of the flow through the system, with head rise decreasing with increasing
flow through the pump.)

Table – 8: Friction Head Loss in Meters per 100 m. Pipe Length

Flow (lph) Inside diameter (mm)

9.2 11.7 12.7 13.9 15.8 18.0 19.0

Head loss in meter per 100 m length of pipe

200 10.2 5.2 2.5 1.7 0.8 0.4 0.3
400 39.0 18.0 8.6 5.7 2.7 1.6 1.1
600 -- 39.0 18.0 13.0 5.9 3.2 2.5
800 -- -- 30.0 21.0 10.0 5.5 4.1
1000 -- -- 45.0 30.0 16 8.3 6.2
1200 -- -- -- 42.0 21.0 11.0 8.8
1400 -- -- -- 56.0 28.0 16.0 11.0
1600 -- -- -- -- 36.0 20.0 15.0
1800 -- -- -- -- 45.0 25 19.0
2000 -- -- -- -- 54.0 30.0 23.0
(The Frictional Head loss of water in the pipe by every 1ooM Pipe length)
The pressure needed at the proximate finish of laterals and the maximum friction loss
at that time ought to 1st be determined. Friction losses because of valves, risers, connectors,
etc., ought to be extra to the current. Sometimes, two or a lot of laterals at the same
time operate from the inject and these have to be compelled to be properly accounted
for within the design.
The friction head loss in mains is often calculable by the Hazen-Williams formula is given
Hf = 10.68 x (Q/C) x D x (L+Le)

Where: hf = Friction head loss in pipe (m)

Q = Discharge (M /sec)

C = Hazen Willian constant (140 for PVC pipe)

D = Inner dia of pipe (m)

L = Length of Pipe (m)

Le = Equivalent length of pipe and accessories


The design of the lateral pipe involves the choice of the desired pipe size for a given
length to fulfill the desired amount of water to the plant this can be the
foremost necessary element of the system as an oversized range of pipes per unit of land
is needed and also the pipe value is specified the system is economically viable. In coming up
with the lateral, the discharge and operative pressure at emitters are needed to
be famed and consequently, the allowable head will be determined by a similar formula as the
Design Criteria

The pressure head of the electrode of any lateral ought to be calculated supported the
discharge demand of every emitter.
1. It ought to be ensured that the pinnacle loss within the lateral length between the
primary and last electrode is inside 100 percent of the pinnacle obtainable at the
primary emitter.
2. The friction head loss within the inject mustn't exceed 1m/100m length of
the mainline.
Friction head loss for numerous discharges is given in table eight and equivalent lengths
of straight pipe in meters giving equivalent resistance to flow in pipe fittings.
Table - 9: Friction Losses for Flow of Water (100m) in smooth Pipes(c=140)

Discharge Bore diameter (mm)

20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150
0.5 16.4 5.5 1.6 0.56 -- -- -- -- -- --
1 -- 10 6 2 0.68 -- -- -- -- --
1.5 -- -- 12.7 4.3 1.45 0.4 -- -- -- --
2 -- -- 16 7.3 2.5 0.68 0.25 -- -- --
3 -- -- -- 15.5 5.2 1.45 0.53 -- -- --
4 -- -- -- 26.4 6.9 2.5 0.9 0.3 -- --
5 -- -- -- -- 13.4 3.8 1.36 0.46 -- --
6 -- -- -- -- 18.8 5.2 1.9 0.64 0.22 --
7 -- -- -- -- -- 6.9 2.5 0.84 0.29 --
8 -- -- -- -- -- 8.9 3.2 1.1 0.37 0.15
9 -- -- -- -- -- 11.1 4 1.36 0.46 0.19
10 -- -- -- -- -- 13.4 4.9 1.65 0.55 0.32
(The friction loss of smooth pipes for flow of water in the pipes in every 100m pipe)
Table - 10: Length of Straight Pipe in Meter giving Equivalent Resistance to Flow in Pipe

[IS: 2951 (Part II) - 1965] (Equivalent Length in Mtrs.)

Sr. No. Pipe size Elbow 90 Bend Standard Sluice Foot or

(mm) bend Tee valve Reflux

(Ks = 0.7) (Ks = 0.12) (Ks = 0.4) (Ks = 0.4) (Ks = 3.5)
1 25 0.536 0.396 0.704 0.077 2.04
2 40 0.997 0.569 1.131 0.142 3.05
3 50 1.296 0.741 1.704 0.185 3.96
4 65 1.814 1.037 2.384 0.259 5.18
5 80 2.241 1.281 2.946 0.320 6.10
6 100 2.959 1.691 3.889 0.422 8.23
7 125 4.037 2.307 5.306 0.576 10.0
8 150 5.125 2.928 6.735 0.732 12.0
(It ought to be noted that the pressure drop across a fitting is
set primarily by however the pure mathematics of the fitting causes changes within
the direction and rate of the fluid flow. On the opposite hand, the friction between the
fluid and also the fitting walls contains a comparatively minor result on the pressure
drop this suggests that the fabric of construction of the fitting has little or no result on the
pressure drop and (for example) a plastic globe valve can have an equivalent pressure
drop as a steel valve with equivalent pure mathematics and in fact for an equivalent flow
of an equivalent fluid)
2.2 Drip Irrigation System Components

Head Control Components

Figure – 1: Head control components

Pump (Manta Series Pump 1,200 gph)

Max Watts = 84

Horse power = 3.5hp

Water Outflow = 1,200 gph

Max Head = 11 feet

Output pipe dia. = 25mm

Water Carrier System

Main line

Diameter pipe size = 25mm polyethylene irrigation pipe

Sub main line

Diameter pipe size = 20mm polyethylene irrigation pipe

Water distribution system

Lateral pipe

Diameter pipe size = 1/2” polyethylene irrigation pipe


Adjustable Flow Pressure Compensating Dripper Emitter

Emitter 2.0 l/hr. (0.6 gph)

Total Number of Drippers

Table - 11: Number of Drippers (for 1ha)

Crops No. of Emitters

Cabbage 47,840
Chinese Cabbage 47,840
Tomatoes 38,750
Egg Plant 24,800
(The total emitters to be used per 1ha of land in
one type of crops planted)
Table - 12: Suggested run time for Irrigation Systems

Plant type Climate Establishment Period Regular Maintenance

Turf and High Plant Arid 23-53 min/day 21-35 min/day

Water Use Plant Semi-arid 27-45 min/day 18-30 min/day

Sub-Humid 23-38 min/day 15-25 min/day

Humid 14-23 min/day 9-15 min/day

Medium Water Use Arid 20-33 min/day 13-22 min/day
Plants Semi-arid 17-29 min/day 11-19 min/day

Sub-humid 15-24 min/day 10-16 min/day

Humid 9-15 min/day 6-10 min/day

Low Water Use Plants Arid 9-14 min/day 6-9 min/day

Semi-arid 8-12 min/day 5-8 min/day

Sub-humid 6-11 min/day 4-7 min/day

Humid 5-6 min/day 3-4 min/day

(For all inline drip product, pulsing programming many shorter irrigation phases per
day rather than one long phase promotes capillary distribution of water. This avoids
saturating the soil and is suggested for any run time longer than twelve minutes.)
Figure – 2: Schematic Diagram of Drip Irrigation System (Area = 1ha)

A representation of Drip Irrigation System Schematic Diagram that shows the pipeline
connection the distribution of water throughout the emitters to the soil wherein the plants
can absorb. The main line represent the red line, the submain line as blue line, and the black
line are the laterals shown in figure 2.
Chapter 3


Drip systems are adaptable to oddly shaped fields or those with uneven topography or
soil texture; these specific factors must be considered when designing the drip system. Drip
systems also can work well where other irrigation systems are inefficient because parts of the
field have excessive infiltration, water puddling, or runoff.

3.1 Summary

Farm area 1ha

Dripper Type

Adjustable Flow Pressure Compensating Dripper Emitter – Emitter 2.0 l/hr. (0.6 gph)

Lateral Pipe Diameter of Inside and Outside Line

Main line – Diameter pipe size = 25mm polyethylene irrigation pipe

Sub main line – Diameter pipe size = 20mm polyethylene irrigation pipe

Lateral pipe – Diameter pipe size = 1/2” polyethylene irrigation pipe

Maintenance of System


Flushing inline drip irrigation systems may be a crucial maintenance procedure. If used,
automatic flushing valves facilitate avoid, however, might not stop, particulate build-up. At a
minimum, manual flushing and visual scrutiny of the water is usually recommended annually.
To manually flush a system with automatic flush valves, break apart or take away the flush
valves initial.

Injection systems are comparatively cheap, give Associate in Nursing easy-to-

use thanks to apply a good type of solutions, and add nice flexibility to maintaining an inline
drip irrigation tube gentle solutions of atomic number 17 or acid will be applied to treat
potential biological growth or water quality issues.
Water with vital amounts of dissolved minerals (hard water) might leave metallic
element deposits, that over the time limit or impede water flow once planning for systems
with H2O, contemplate Associate in Nursing injection system to permit periodic applications
of a gently acidic answer to dissolve these deposits.
NOTES: Consult native codes for installation ways, approvals, and steering. Most
jurisdictions need a reduced pressure dedicated flow assembly for Associate in injection
In areas with cooling climates, winterization is required to get rid of enough water
from the irrigation system to make sure cooling and enlargement of water don't crack
the parts this could be finished with a high-volume compressor. Open all manual flush valves
and destruct all automatic flush valves make sure the pressure once processing out the
system doesn't exceed 50 PSI. It’s the amount of air, no pressure, that effectively removes

Inline drip tubing is easy to repair:
• Locate the purpose of injury by tracing any visible hot-water heater to the break or
• Expose the pipeline and cut out the broken portion
• Run the system to flush the lines from each side
• Install a barbed connector to re-join the pipe or splice in an
exceedingly new section of the inline drip tube
3.2 Conclusion
The researcher’s concluded that the main problem in the said area is not the facilities,
not the innovation of machinery to be installed but the resources of water instead. Yes,
installation of a water drip irrigation system can help through conserving and saving water, but
without enough volume of water, the system will not function well; the needed water of each
plant will not be enough to be sustained. Or the water will not be equally distributed.

Therefore, a simple design of the new irrigation system is not compatible with the area.
It needs understanding and experts to study thoroughly to accommodate the whole hectare.
The field contemplate revealed that spill water framework and fertigation can possibly
broaden effectiveness in common item, vegetable yields and sugarcane basically other than
safeguarding resources, for example, water, manure, control, work and so forth when
contrasted with customary water system rehearses.

The money related examination revealed that spill water framework was seen as a
profitable and capable advancement for common item, sugarcane and vegetable harvests with
positive NPV and higher IRR than client cost of capital. With diminished separating setbacks
and by keeping up the dirt prosperity the MI development is shown to be a domain cordial
3.3 Recommendation
We the researcher’s proposed a recommendation to the Municipal Government
should install a water system for a stable flow of water supply not just only for recreational
activities but also to agricultural needs.

The results of the present study revealed for future research endeavor in several
directions as suggested below:

 To have an accurate idea about the impact, future studies be conducted by including
social parameters like expenditure incurred by farmers on children’s education, food
consumption, GDP growth rate, debt’s repayment etc.,.
 In the present study variables that are directly influencing the impact have been
studied. Further, studies can be carried out to find out the influence of other factors
such as institutional linkages, transfer of technology, input availability, agronomic &
technical support to farmers, disbursement of loans by financial institutions, necessity
of subsidy etc. for improving the sustainability of program.
 The study was conducted in plain areas, however the impact of micro irrigation
technology on the crops raised in different soil textural class including problem soil /
situations such as saline & alkaline areas, using saline water, undulated topography
etc., can further be studied.

Book: Pressurized Irrigation Techniques Chapter14: Drip Irrigation

Basic of Drip Irrigation for Fruit and Vegetable Crops

David Bryla (USDA-ARS Horticultural Crops Research Unit

Amresh Chandra Pandey Presentation, Birsa Agricultural University

Book: Drip irrigation design & installation guide

E. Sathyapriya1* M.R. Naveenkumar2 and V. Dhivya3

1&2 Ph.D. Scholars, Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology,

Ph.D. Scholars, Department of Agricultural Entomology, TNAU, Coimbatore.

EM 8782 • Revised March 2013, Drip Irrigation: An Introduction C.C. Shock
Drip Irrigation Book Standards







Drip Irrigation System Accessories

Air release / Vacuum breaker By Pass Valve

Size = 25mm Dn 20 1” dia. Important in any

The air
system through
release valve
which water or oil
allows air to
is pumped to
escape the system
on its initial start-up maintain an even
until the system is pressure and keep
full of water. the system
Non Return Valve
To flow through them in only one
RWB Non-return valve
25mm dia.

Sand separator Hydro Cyclone

Sand Eliminator, removes sand and other

solids from pumped water and other
fluids. There are no screens, cartridges,
or filter elements.
Plastic Venturi Pressure Gauge

Venturi are used to measure the speed An instrument indicating pressure.

of a fluid, by measuring the pressure

changes from one point to another along
the venture.
Back-wash Valve Sand Filter

As the backwash water leaves the tank, Filter used in water purification and

the dirty water is released out of the consisting of layers of sand arranged with

waste port of the valve, which may be coarseness of texture increasing

connected to a pipe or discharge hose. downward

Screen filter

A type of filtration of water using a rigid

or flexible screen to separate sand and
other fine particles out of water for
irrigation or industrial applications.
Control Valves Flush Valves

A valve used to control fluid flow by A self-closing valve designed to

varying the size of the flow passage as release a large volume of water when
directed by a signal from a controller. activated.

The wide used fitting used in

drip irrigation system.

Start Connector Nipple

The tight used fitting used in The tight with grilled used fitting used
drip irrigation system. in drip irrigation system.
End cap Spaghetti / Extension tube

Used to stop the water flow at The wide used fitting used in

the end of an irrigation system, drip laterals with spaghetti micro-

reducing water waste. tubes in 120 m2 area.

Research Environment

The Cabbage that can grow an area of 60cm to 45cm in diameter

with a spacing of 457.2mm.

The Chinese cabbage that can grow an area of 10cm to 15cm in

diameter with a spacing of 457.2mm.
The Chinese cabbage that can grow an area of 10cm to 15cm in
diameter with a spacing of 457.2mm.

The Cabbage that can grow an area of 45cm to 60cm in diameter

with a spacing of 457.2mm.