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Bulletin of the Chemists and Technologists of Macedonia, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp.

19–28 (2004)
GHTMDD – 435 ISSN 0350 – 0136
Received: March 10, 2004 UDC: 677.027 : 075
Accepted: April 30, 2004
Original scientific paper

STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COTTON KNITTED FABRICS AFTER


ENZYMATIC AND ALKALINE SCOURING

Biljana Mangovska, Goran Dembovski, Igor Jordanov


Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, The ”Sv. Kiril & Metodij” University,
Ruger Bo{kovi~ 16, P.O. Box 580, MK-1001 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
e-mail: mangova@ereb1.mf.ukim.edu.mk

Dimensional, pilling and abrasion properties of plain interlock, interlock 6:1 and single jersey fabrics were
tested after enzymatic and alkaline scouring, bleaching and dyeing as well as after several launderings in domestic
conditions. Structural characteristics of knitted fabrics after different ways of finishing such as loop shape factor,
cover factor and density were calculated. Enzymatic scoured bleached and dyed knitted fabrics have improved soft-
ness, higher thickness, better abrasion resistance, smaller tendency toward pill formation and structural characteris-
tics almost the same as alkaline scoured, bleached and dyed.

Key words: enzymes; scouring; bleaching; cotton; fabrics

INTRODUCTION

Apparel knit fabrics are normally prepared Various parameters, such as concentration of
and dyed in exhaust equipment such as winch dye- enzyme, temperature, pH of the bath, bath ratio
ing machine and jets. Scouring, prior to bleaching and the level of agitation influenced the enzyme
and dyeing is usually done in an alkaline process activity. For alkaline pectinase Bio Prep 3000 L
by boiling cotton in sodium hydroxide. This proc- were determined in our previous work [6]. The
ess is rather time consuming and requires large main conclusion was that in general, the alkaline
quantities of chemicals, energy, and water. Addi- scouring could be replaced by bioscouring. The
tionally, the alkaline effluent requires special hand- interaction between alkaline pectinase and the sur-
ing. Alkaline scouring at high temperatures for a face of the substrate was tested on carded ring-
long period of time followed by bleaching can spun, worsted ring-spun and rotor spun yarns in the
abrade the fabrics and create an undesirable dam- form of cones or hanks [7]. Enzymatic scouring of
age and change on the fabric surface. The surface yarns in a cone forms and hanks, independent of
is often fuzzy or in severe cases followed by pill spinning process, was fallowed by lower weight
formation. loss, better uniformity and twice lower pollution of
In the last few years there were several inves- effluent than the alkaline one [8]. Knitted fabrics
tigations about the possibility of replacing the alka- made of enzymatic scoured yarns had a higher
line with a more environmentally friendly bio- weight, softness and stitch density and a lower pill-
scouring process. Different classes of enzymes ing tendency than the fabrics made of alkaline
were investigated such as pectinases, cellulases, scoured [8–9].
lipases and proteases but the best results were ob- This study was undertaken to evaluate the
tained with pectinases [1–5]. Degradation of pectin structural characteristics of tubular knits after the
by the pectinase enzyme facilitated the removal of bioscouring, bleaching and dyeing processes, in
the cuticle components. Therefore pectin is be- winch and jet dyeing machine. The dimensional,
lieved to function as cement in the fiber’s outmost pilling and abrasion properties were studied and
layer. compared to traditional alkaline scouring.
20 B. Mangovska, G. Dembovski, I. Jordanov

EXPERIMENT PART

Weft knitted tubular fabrics of various struc- subjected to a various finishing and laundering
tures made of combed ring-spun 100 % cotton treatment. The details of weft knitted fabric pa-
yarns were processed under same conditions and rameters are given in Table 1.

T a b l e 1
Parameters of greige weft knitted fabrics
Fabric designation Fabric Structure Yarn Count Fabric weight (dry relaxed) Machine gauge
tex g/m2
Single Jersey 1 Plain 20 127 28
Single Jersey 2 Plain 20 135 28
Interlock 6:1 Striped Interlock 6:1 14 175 24
Interlock Interlock Plain 14 176 20

Interlock striped structure was processed by Plain interlock, interlock 6:1 and single jersey
setting 6 knit 1 miss arrangement of the needles of 1 fabrics were bioscoured 30 min at 55 °C in winch
the one needle bar, which resulted in one-sided dyeing machine in the liquor ratio 20:1 and the
vertical stripped effect. Finally, a set of two inter- bath that contained 1 g/dm3 Wetol NF, Na3PO4 (pH
lock and two plain weft knitted fabrics of the same 9), 0.666 g/dm3 Bio Prep L (alkaline pectinase)
fiber type, same yarn count and similar fabric (Novozyme). 0.5 cm3/dm3 sequester Heptol ESW
weight were obtained. was added and the material treated for 10 min at
Plain interlock, interlock 6:1 and single jersey the same temperature. 3 g/dm3 NaOH, 5 g/dm3
1 fabrics were processed in a winch dyeing machine. Bystabile LF, 0.11 % Tuboblanc HA-PP, 11 Tubo-
The alkaline scouring was done in the bath with liq- blanc COL, 11 cm3/dm3 50 % H2O2 were added,
uor ratio 20:1 with 1 g/dm3 wetting agent Wetol NF, temperature raised at 98 oC and bleached for 60
2 g/dm3 surfactant Romapal 1496, and 3.2 g/dm3 min. The rinsing process was the same as in the
NaOH. The fabric was loaded into the bath at 20 oC. case of alkaline scouring and bleaching.
The bath was heated to 98 oC and the alkaline scour- Bioscouring and half bleaching of single jer-
ing lasted for 60 min. Bleaching was done in the sey 2 fabrics were done in jet. Parameters were the
same bath. The bath was cooled to 60 oC and same as in whinch dyeing machine. Half bleaching
0.5 cm3/dm3 stabilizer Bystabile LF, 11 cm3/dm3 was done in the same bath.
50 % H2O2, 0.11 % optical brightening agent Single jersey 2 fabric was dyed with reactive
Tuboblanc HA-PP and 0.11 % Tuboblanc COL dye. The fabric was treated with 1 g/dm3 Dispergal
were added. The bath was heated to 98 oC and the WD, 10 min at 40 oC, 0.15 % Bezactive blue
fabrics were bleached for 60 min before dropping. HERM was added, and the fabric treated 30 min,
The scoured and bleached fabrics were rinsed at 80 30 g/dm3 NaCl added, again treated 30 min, and 5
o
C 10 min, twice at 60 oC 10 min and cooled g/dm3 Na2CO3 added, temperature raised at 60 oC
10 min. and treated for 30 min. The fabric was rinsed twice
Alkaline scouring and half bleaching of single at 70 oC for 10 min, then soaped at 98 oC for 20
jersey 2 fabrics were done in jet. The liquor ratio min and again rinsed.
was 20:1 and the bath contained: 1g/dm3 wetting The fabrics were immediately dried. The fab-
agent Lavotan DSU, 1 g/dm3 NaOH (pH 10), 0.5 rics dyed in winch dyeing machine were dried
g/dm3 Contavan ALR and 1 cm3/dm3 50 % H2O2. open-width on pin tenter with over feed and stabi-
Bleaching was done 30 min at 98 °C. Half lized at 160 oC. Single jersey 2 fabric dyed in jet
bleached fabric was rinsed twice at 70 oC for was dried in the tubular drier and the compactor as
10 min, once at 40 oC for 10 min and finally neu- a finishing step.
tralized to pH 7.

Bull. Chem Technol. Macedonia, 23, 1,19–28 (2004)


Structural characteristics of cotton knityted fabrics after enzymatic and alkaline scouring 21

Testing methods 3. Moderate Pilling


4. Slight Pilling
All fabrics were inspected for uneven bleach- 5. No Pilling.
ing and dyeing problems that may have occurred. A fuzzy rating was developed using the fol-
The greige fabrics were evaluated for weight, lowing fuzzy rating system:
stitch density and thickness. The finished fabrics
1. Extremely Fuzzy
were tested as received for weight, stitch density,
2. Considerably Fuzzy
thickness, Berger Whiteness for scoured and
3. Noticeably Fuzzy
bleached fabrics, visual rating of hairiness, pilling
4. Slightly Fuzzy
and abrasion resistance. All scoured and bleached
5. Not Fuzzy.
fabrics were washed with detergent at 60 oC in
domestic washing machine and flat dried. Before Shrinkage was determined by measuring the
the laundering cycles the square of 300 × 300 mm samples before and after washing and the percent-
was drawn. Changes in the original area were cal- age area shrinkage was calculated as:
culated after the fifth laundering cycle followed by
Sa = S11 + S12 – (S11S12)/100 (1)
drying and conditioning. Two specimens of each
sample, washed in separate loads, were tested. Sa is area shrinkage (%), S11 widthwise-linear
Wale and course density were measured using shrinkage (%), S12 lengthwise linear shrinkage (%).
a magnifying glass; ten measurements for each
dimension were made at different places on the To evaluate the resistance to abrasion, the
knit fabrics. The mean values of courses/cm and fabrics were subjected to 20 000 rubs, material to
wales/cm were then calculated and the product of material, which is of commercial interest. The knits
these means was used to determine the stitch den- were tested for abrasion resistance using the uni-
sity of the sample, which is usually considered to versal wear tester Rubster (Metrimpex) of 5 N
indicate shrinkage. load. The number of cycles for the whole appear-
To evaluate the surface appearance of the fab- ance was followed.
rics, a visual rating system was used. The visual The bleaching effects were characterized as
rating scale was as follows: Berger whiteness measured on the spectrophoto-
1. Very Severe Pilling meter Datacolor.
2. Severe Pilling

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The results of measurements of weight, stitch extraction. During this process part of the waxes
density, thickness and Berger whiteness of enzy- and seed coat fragments remained on the cotton
matic and alkaline scoured knits are given in Table surface, which is the reason why enzymatic
2. To obtain good wettability of the material for scoured cotton, has lower value of Berger white-
subsequent bleaching and dyeing, the removing of ness.
the impurities during scouring is necessary. Alka- Enzymatic scoured fabrics bleached with hy-
line scouring was done in the presence of NaOH, drogen peroxide, did not contain seed coat frag-
wetting agent and surfactant at 98 oC. Such a ments and showed lower whiteness than alkaline
treatment tends to remove the non-cellulose mate- one (results of half bleaching of single jersey 2,
rial by turning pectin into sodium pectat, proteins Table 2). Bleaching in the presence of the optical
into soluble sodium salts of different amino acids, brightening agent resulted in obtaining fabrics of
solubilizes the ash and certain proportion of ligni- the same whiteness as the alkaline scoured and
fied substances and almost completely removes the bleached (Table 2). Enzymatic scoured and
seed coat fragments. Parts of cotton proteins in bleached knits had improved softness.
turn of protoplasmatic residues, that are thought to
For each fabric type of the given stitch length,
cause cotton coloration, are hydrolyzed which re-
as the finishing process progresses, the wale den-
sults in higher degree of whiteness.
sity increases, whereas there is little change of the
Pectinases break down the pectin in the cuti- course density (Table 2). As a result of the com-
cle of the cotton and thereby assist in the removal plete removal of cotton impurities, followed by
of waxes, proteins, oils and other impurities during higher stiffness of the yarn [6], after alkaline

Glas. hem. tehnol. Makedonija, 23, 1, 19‡28 (2004)


22 B. Mangovska, G. Dembovski, I. Jordanov

scouring and bleaching, the increase in wale den- than after enzymatic. Alkaline scouring and
sity was higher than after enzymatic. Stitch density bleaching of knits were characterized with a higher
increased from 11 to 30 %. The increase is 4 to 7 decrease of fabric thickness than enzymatic.
% higher after alkaline scouring and bleaching

T a b l e 2
Dimensional Properties of Greige and Finished Knit Fabrics
Wales Courses Stitch density loops Fabric thickness Weight Whiteness
Samples
cm cm s/cm2 mm g/cm2 (%) Berger

Single jersey 1
Control 12.33 18.77 230.07 0.598 126.8 21.37
Enzyme scoured 14.66 19.33 283.37 0.598 151.3 38.96
Enzyme scoured bleached 15.66 18.66 292.21 0.589 147.3 120.02
Alkaline scoured 16.00 18.00 288.00 0.576 150.2 54.71
Alkaline scoured bleached 16.33 19.33 315.60 0.561 147.8 119.90

Single jersey 2
Control 11.00 19.66 216.26 0.680 135.1 19.27
Enzyme scoured half bleached 14.33 18.66 267.39 0.697 158.0 69.15
Alkaline scoured half bleached 14.66 17.33 254.05 0.626 145.2 75.11
Enzyme scoured half bleached dyed 14.00 18.33 256.60 0.604 138.8
Alkaline scoured half bleached dyed 12.66 19.00 240.54 0.610 158.2

Interlock 6:1
Control 13.13 16.00 210.08 0.969 174.9 19.17
Enzyme scoured 14.73 15.33 225.80 0.896 185.1 35.87
Enzyme scoured bleached 16.63 15.00 249.45 0.899 197.2 123.82
Alkaline scoured 15.70 14.30 224.50 0.870 187.2 54.43
Alkaline scoured bleached 17.16 15.30 262.50 0.857 190.6 128.03

Interlock plain
Control 10.00 19.30 193.00 0.905 175.9 21.25
Enzyme scoured 12.66 16.66 210.91 0.803 191.2 34.58
Enzyme scoured bleached 13.66 16.60 227.50 0.820 183.4 125.55
Alkaline scoured 13.33 17.66 235.40 0.882 205.4 54.84
Alkaline scoured bleached 15.66 15.00 234.90 0.803 197.2 128.57

The values of weight, thickness, stitch density plained by the fact that the crystalline, microfibril-
and Berger whiteness after five launderings are lar structures in cellulosic fibers are not penetrated
given in Table 3. During all wet treatments as well by water. Swelling therefore occurs only between
as laundering, cotton fibers swell about 40 % by microfibrillar structures and consequently their
volume, longitudinal swelling accounting for only orientation in the fiber determines the swelling ani-
about a 1–2 % increase in fiber the length. This sotropy. During this process in knitted cotton fab-
markedly anisotropic swelling behavior is ex- rics the shape and orientation of the loops change

Bull. Chem Technol. Macedonia, 23, 1,19–28 (2004)


Structural characteristics of cotton knityted fabrics after enzymatic and alkaline scouring 23

as the fibers swell and relax towards their mini- knitted loops. Course density after laundering, in-
mum energy conformation. The loops usually be- creases 7.5 % for single jersey 1, around 8 % for
come rounder in shape causing shrinkage in the interlock 6:1 and is almost unchanged for the inter-
wale direction, especially when the fabric has been lock plain. Stitch density also increases 27 % for
previously dried under tension. In order to release enzymatic and 22 % for alkaline scoured and
the stresses imposed by bending twisted yarns into bleached single jersey 1.20 and 19.5 % for inter-
loops, the loops themselves tend to twist out of the lock 6:1 and 26 and 25 % for interlock plain. In-
plane of the fabric. This causes shrinkage in the creasing of the fabric thickness and weight fol-
course direction and often produces significant lowed laundering.
differences in twist level in the two legs of the

T a b l e 3
Dimensional properties of knitted fabrics after five launderings
Wales Courses Stitch density loops Fabric thickness Weight Whiteness
Samples
cm cm s/cm2 mm g/cm2 (%) Berger

Single jersey 1
Control 12.33 18.77 230.07 0.598 126.8
Enzyme scoured 15.30 20.30 310.59 0.597 161.5 66.62
Enzyme scoured bleached 15.60 20.30 316.68 0.588 160.9 104.02
Alkaline scoured 15.00 20.00 300.00 0.587 159.16 81.02
Alkaline scoured bleached 14.60 20.30 296.38 0.573 159.10 105.39

Single jersey 2
Control 11.0 19.66 216.26 0.680 135.1
Enzyme scoured half bleached 12.60 19.30 243.18 0.627 143.4 82.04
Alkaline scoured half bleached 14.00 18.30 256.20 0.600 151.56 86.87

Interlock 6:1
Control 13.13 16.00 210.08 0.969 174.9
Enzyme scoured 16.10 17.00 173.70 0.921 223.2 67.62
Enzyme scoured bleached 14.90 17.60 262.24 0.913 207.7 111.59
Alkaline scoured 15.03 18.00 270.54 0.914 207.7 85.94
Alkaline scoured bleached 15.10 17.30 261.23 0.902 199.1 113.82

Interlock plain
Control 10.00 19.30 193.00 0.905 175.9
Enzyme scoured 14.60 19.00 277.40 0.880 222.3 67.30
Enzyme scoured bleached 14.00 18.60 260.40 0.860 217.6 112.45
Alkaline scoured 14.60 18.30 267.18 0.890 225.8 87.13
Alkaline scoured bleached 14.60 17.60 256.96 0.840 214.2 116.01

Comparing the results from Table 3 it can be weight than the alkaline scoured and bleached
concluded that enzymatic scoured, bleached and ones. An increase of whiteness on enzymatic and
laundered knit fabrics have higher thickness and alkaline scoured fabrics after five launderings is

Glas. hem. tehnol. Makedonija, 23, 1, 19‡28 (2004)


24 B. Mangovska, G. Dembovski, I. Jordanov

due to the bleaching and optical brightening com- Abrasion resistance, dimensional changes and
ponents in the washing detergent. The decrease in virtual rating after finishing and after five launder-
whiteness of the bleached fabrics did not depend ings are presented in Table 4.
on the way of scouring.

T a b l e 4
Abrasion resistance, dimensional changes, visual rating pilling and fuzziness
Abrasion resistance Shrink. Visual rating pilling (1)
o
/hole (%) and fuzziness (2)
After finishing After 5 launderings After finishing After 5 launderings
(1) (2) (1) (2)
Single jersey 1
Enzyme scoured bleached 2558 1682 –11.54 5 5 4 4
Alkaline scoured bleached 1612 1273 –4.5 4 4 3 3
Single jersey 2
Enzyme scoured half bleached 20 000 (no hole) 2934 7.6 5 5 4 4
Alkaline scoured half bleached 20 000 (no hole) 1614 –3.1 4 4 3 3
Interlock 6:1
Enzyme scoured bleached 12 227 3005 14.4 5 5 5 5
Alkaline scoured bleached 1572 1500 19.63 5 4 4 3
Interlock plain
Enzyme scoured bleached 12 278 3458 7.6 5 5 4 4
Alkaline scoured bleached 1678 1733 –3.1 4 4 3 3

Alkaline scoured and bleached knit fabrics The visual surface pill rating of enzymatic
showed low resistance to abrasion, the holes scoured knit fabric after finishing was 5. Lower
showed up at 1572, 1678 and 1612 abrasion rubs visual pill ratings were found on the alkaline
for interlock 6:1, interlock plain and single jersey scoured and bleached fabrics 4. After five launder-
1, respectively. The number of rubs after five laun- ings enzymatic scoured and bleached fabrics were
derings was similar. Removing the cuticle in an rated as 4 while alkaline scoured and bleached fab-
alkaline scouring process followed by bleaching at rics as 3. All alkaline scoured and bleached fabrics
high pH resulted in a decrease of the DP of cotton had visual fuzziness rating of 3.
[10] and higher degree of damage. Enzymatic The ratio of fabric constants kc/kw gives the re-
scoured and bleached knit fabrics showed higher lationship between the course and wale density i.e.
resistance to abrasion. The best results were ob- the ratio between the loop width and length, which
tained on interlock 6:1 and interlock plain over 12 is called a loop shape factor [11]. This factor gives
000 rubs and 2558 for single jersey 1. But after 5 information about the geometry of the loop. Fig. 1
launderings abrasion resistance dropped on 3000 and 2 represent loop shape factor values of dry re-
rubs for interlock and 1682 for single jersey 1. laxed (D), enzymatic scoured (ES), enzymatic
During the washing cycles with the detergent that scoured and bleached (ES+B), alkaline scoured
contained bleaching agents, TAED, additional (AS) and alkaline scoured and bleached samples
damage occurred resulting in lower resistance to (AS+B) before and after laundering.
abrasion but still twice higher on enzymatic
scoured and bleached fabrics than on alkaline
scoured and bleached ones. Half bleached knit fab-
rics showed the same behavior after laundering.

Bull. Chem Technol. Macedonia, 23, 1,19–28 (2004)


Structural characteristics of cotton knityted fabrics after enzymatic and alkaline scouring 25

Interlock 6:1 Interlock Plain The cover factor represents a measure of fab-
Single Jersey 1 ric tightness and is expressed as a ratio of the yarn
2.00
count square root and the stitch length. Weft knit-
1.75 ted fabrics of the higher cover factor have tighter
1.50 structure. The plot Fig. 2 shows a cover factor val-
ues relating to the type of treatment for interlock
k /k

1.25
6:1 interlock plain and single jersey1 samples.
1.00
a)
0.75 Interlock 6:1 Interlock Plain
1.80 Single Jersey 1
0.50
D ES ES+B AS AS+B 1.70

K / tex1/2mm–1
1.60
a)
b) 1.50
Interlock 6:1 Interlock Plain
2.00 Single Jersey 1 1.40
1.75 1.30
1.50 1.20
kC/kW

1.25 D ES ES+B AS AS+B


1.00
0.75
Interlock 6:1 Interlock Plain
0.50 Single Jersey 1
1.80
ES ES+B AS AS+B
1.70
K / tex1/2mm–1

1.60
Fig. 1. Loop shape factor of enzymatic and alkaline coured
1.50
and bleached samples before (a) and after laundering (b)
1.40
1.30
It is noticeable that dry relaxed fabrics reach
higher loop shape factor than the finished ones. 1.20
Compared to other samples, the interlock plain ES ES+B AS AS+B
possesses the highest value of the loop shape fac-
b)
tor. The high value of this factor could suggest
widthwise shrinking, which is confirmed in the Fig. 2. Cover factor of enzymatic and alkaline scoured and
case of the interlock plain. After finishing the loop bleached samples before (a) and after laundering (b
shape factor value drops for all structures. Sug-
gested values for stable weft knitted fabrics are
There is a slight rise of fabric cover factor af-
about 1.2–1.3. However, a broader range of this
ter scouring and scouring and bleaching for enzy-
factor is 1.18–1.53 [12]. So the interlock plain and
matic and alkaline treated fabrics compared to the
the single jersey1 attain expected loop shape factor
dry relaxed one. The cover factor values of single
values, while interlock 6:1 has lower values than
jeresey1 were higher compared to the interlock
expected. After 5 repeated cycles of laundering
fabric. Both interlock fabrics have cover factor
there is a less difference of the loop shape factor
values of about 1.4, which is expected for weft
according to the way of finishing all samples (Fig.
knitted fabric. The cover factor of single jersey1 is
1b). There is no substantial difference of loop
about 1.7, that is somewhat higher than expected,
shape values between enzymatic and alkaline
but is still inside the expected values for this kind
treated samples, which suggests that all the sam-
of structures (1–2 tex1/2mm–1) [11]. Regarding the
ples have similar geometry regardless of the way
kind of treatment there is no remarkable difference
of finishing.
between enzymatic and alkaline treated fabrics be-

Glas. hem. tehnol. Makedonija, 23, 1, 19‡28 (2004)


26 B. Mangovska, G. Dembovski, I. Jordanov

fore and after five repeated cycles of laundering. modulus of interlock 6:1 interlock plain and single
The comparison of cover factor values of enzy-
Interlock 6:1 Interlock Plain
matic and alkaline treated scoured, half-bleached 26 Single Jersey 1
and dyed single jersey2 fabrics, shows that the type 25
of treatment does not affect the fabric cover factor, 24
and almost all treated samples obtain cover factor 23
values of around 1.54 (Fig. 3a). This remains the 22
same after five repeated cycles of laundering (Fig.

δ
21
3b). 20
19
1.60 18
Single Jersey 2
17
–1

1.55
K / tex mm

D ES ES+B AS AS+B
1.50
1/2

jersey of different finishing mode.


1.45
a)
1.40
Interlock 6:1 Interlock Plain
D

27 Single Jersey 1
+H

+H
B+

B+
ES

AS

H
+

+
ES

AS

25
a)
23
1.60
δ

Single Jersey 2 21
1.55 19
–1
K / tex mm

1.50 17
1/2

ES ES+B AS AS+B
1.45
b)
Fig. 4. Linear modulus of enzymatic and alkaline
1.40 scoured and bleached samples before (a)
ES+HB+D AS+HB+D and after laundering (b)

b)
Both interlock samples obtain linear modulus
Fig. 3. Cover factor of enzymatic and alkaline scoured half
bleached and dyed samples before (a)
of about 24 and 25, which is somewhat higher than
and after laundering (b) the expected values of 23 for the interlock cotton
fabric. Single jeresey1 has linear modulus of about
20, which is close to expected values of 21 for cot-
Compactness or fullness of the weft knitted ton plain weft knitted fabrics [13]. So, all of the
fabric could be expressed through several coeffi- structures obtain realistic values of linear modulus.
cients such as linear modulus, square modulus and The same is true for laundered samples (Fig. 4b).
volume modulus. These coefficients express filling There is no significant difference of linear modulus
of the empty space in the fabric, i.e. space that is between the enzymatic and alkaline scoured samples.
occupied by the stitch or space between neighbor- Fig. 5 represents the linear modulus of enzy-
ing stitches. The linear modulus of the fabric (δ) is matic and alkaline scoured, half-bleached and dyed
expressed as a ratio between the stitch length and single jersey2 fabrics, before and after laundering.
the yarn diameter. This coefficient determines We can see that enzymatic scoured samples have
physical and mechanical properties of the fabric slightly higher values of linear modulus before
such as density, stretchability, elasticity, tightness, (Fig. 5a) and after (Fig. 5b) laundering than the
thickness and weight. Fig. 4 represents linear alkaline ones. All treated samples obtain a linear
modulus between 22.3 and 22.5, which is some-

Bull. Chem Technol. Macedonia, 23, 1,19–28 (2004)


Structural characteristics of cotton knityted fabrics after enzymatic and alkaline scouring 27

what higher than the theoretical of 21 suggested for where again alkaline scoured, half-bleached and
the cotton plain weft knitted fabric. dyed fabric retains the higher density (Fig. 7b).
24 0.28 Interlock 6:1 Interlock Plain
Single Jersey 2
23 Single Jersey 1
0.26
23

ρ (g/cm3)
0.24
22
22 0.22
21
0.20
D
B

D
B
D

+H

B+

B+
+H

0.18
+H
ES

+H
AS
ES

AS

D ES ES+B AS AS+B
a)
a)
Interlock 6:1 Interlock Plain
Single Jersey 1
Single Jersey 2 0.28
23
23 0.26

ρ (g/cm3)
22 0.24

22 0.22

21 0.20
21 0.18
20 ES ES+B AS AS+B
ES+HB+D AS+HB+D b)
Fig. 6. Density of enzymatic and alkaline scoured and
b) bleached samples before (a) and after laundering (b)
Fig. 5. Linear modulus of enzymatic and alkaline scoured half
bleached and dyed samples before (a) and after aundering (b) 0.27 Single Jersey 2
0.25
ρ (g/cm3)

0.23
The density of the fabrics is calculated from 0.21
fabric's weight and thickness. The plot in Fig. 6a 0.19
represents changes of fabric density against the 0.17
0.15
type of finishing treatment before (a) and after (b)
laundering.
D

B
D

D
+H

+H
B+

B+
ES

AS
+H

+H

As expected, fabric density rises after finish-


ES

AS

ing all knitted structures. Alkaline samples (inter-


lock 6:1 and single jersey1) show higher density a)
than enzymatic ones. On the contrary, the interlock 0.27
Single Jersey 2
plain structure shows higher density after enzy- 0.25
matic scouring than after alkaline one. However,
0.23
ρ (g/cm3)

regarding scouring and bleaching, the same sample


has higher density after alkaline bleaching. In gen- 0.21

eral, alkaline scoured fabrics have a higher density. 0.19


After laundering all samples increase their density. 0.17
The interlock plain sample reaches almost the same 0.15
density regardless of the type of finishing, while ES+HB+D AS+HB+D
alkaline scoured interlock 6:1 has lover density
compared to enzymatic one (Fig. 6b). b)
Fig. 7. Density of enzymatic and alkaline scoured, half
In the process of scouring and half-bleaching bleached and dyed samples before (a) and after laundering (b)
(Fig. 7a) the enzymatic and alkaline samples reach
almost the same density. Regarding the process of
scouring, half-bleaching and dyeing, the alkaline
scoured sample shows a higher density than the
enzymatic one. This is not changed after washing,

Glas. hem. tehnol. Makedonija, 23, 1, 19‡28 (2004)


28 B. Mangovska, G. Dembovski, I. Jordanov

CONCLUSIONS

Enzymatic scoured and bleached knitted fab- higher weight, better abrasion resistance and
rics have improved softness, lower stitch density, smaller tendency toward pill formation.
higher thickness and almost the same whiteness Enzymatic and alkaline scoured, bleached or
compared to the alkaline scoured ones. dyed knitted fabrics have almost the same struc-
After several launderings, enzymatic scoured tural characteristics.
and bleached knitted fabrics have higher thickness,

REFERENSES

[1] M. Hartzell, Y. Hsieh, Enzymatic scouring to improve [7] I. Jordanov, B.Mangovska, Enzymatic scouring of yarns
cotton fabric wettability, Textile Res. J., 68, 233–241 for towels, 1st Internatioal Textile, Clothing & Desing
(1998). Conference – Magic World of Textiles, Dubrovnik, 2002,
[2] Li Yonghua, I. Harding, Treating cotton with cellulases pp. 278–282.
and pectinases: Effects on cuticule and fiber properties, [8] I. Jordanov, B. Mangovska, Enzimatsko i alkalno iskuha-
Textile Res. J., 68, 671–679 (1998). vanje pamu~nih pre|a i pletiva, Textil, 52, 104–110
[3] Li Yonghua, I. Harding, Enzymatic scouring of cotton, (2003).
surfactants, agitation, and selection of enzymes, Textile [9] B. Mangovska, I. Jordanov, Enzymatic bio-scouring on
Chemist and Colorist, 30, 23–29 (1998). cotton yarns and characterization of knitted goods made
[4] G. Buschle –Diller G.Y. Mogahzy, Effects of scouring of them, 3rd International Conference of the Chemical
with enzymes, organic solvents, and caustic soda on the Societies of the South-Eastern European Countries on
properties of hydrogen peroxide bleaching cotton yarn, Chemistry in the New Millennium-an Endless Frontier,
Textile Res. J., 68, 920–929 (1998). Bucharest, p. 286.
[5] Li Yonghua, I. Harding, Enzymatic scouring of cotton: [10] B. Mangovska, I. Jordanov, Bleaching and dyeing of
effects on structure and properties, Textile Chemist and enzymatic scoured cotton knitted fabrics, 1st International
Colorist, 29, 71–76 (1997). Textile, Clothing & Desing Conference – Magic World of
[6] I. Jordanov, B. Mangovska, Optimiranje enzimatskog Textiles, Dubrovnik, 2002, pp. 301–305.
iskuhavanja i njegova usporedba s alkalnim iskuhavan-
jem, Tekstil, 50, 501–508 (2001).

Rezime

STRUKTURNI KARAKTERISTIKI NA PAMU^NI PLETENINI PO ENZIMSKO


ILI ALKALNO IZVARUVAWE

Biqana Mangovska, Goran Dembovski, Igor Jordanov

Tehnolo{ko-metalur{ki fakultet, Univerzitet „Sv. Kiril i Metodij“,


Ru|er Bo{kovi} 16, p.fah 580, M.K-1001 Skopje, Republika Makedonija

Klu~ni zborovi: enzimi; izvaruvawe; belewe; pamuk; pletenini

Dimenzionalnata stabilnost, pilingot i posto- faktor na formata na kotelecot, pokrivniot faktor


janostite na abrazija se sledeni kaj interlok, inter- i gustinata. Enzimski izvarenite, belenite i boe-
lok 6:1 i desno levi pamu~ni kulirni pletenini po nite pletenini imaat zgolemena mekost, pogolema
enzimskoto i alkalnoto izvaruvawe, belewe i boewe debelina, podobri otpornosti na abrazija, pomala
kako i po nekolku perewa vo ma{ina za perewe vo tendencija kon sozdavawe na piling i sli~ni struk-
doma{ni uslovi na rabota. Presmetani se struktur- turni karakteristiki so alkalno izvarenite,
nite karakteristiki na pleteninite kako {to se belenite i boenite pletenini.

Bull. Chem Technol. Macedonia, 23, 1,19–28 (2004)