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The EDITORIAL | 06 Sunday, July 28 2019

Poor vs rich
women’s work

HADIA MAJID ity restrictions. Typically,

Chief Editor
such households do not face
uch has been dire economic need, and in

Irfan Athar Qazi

said about the face of conservative so-
women’s low cial norms can afford to
labour force participation have their women out of the
E-mail: (LFP) in Pakistan. This labour force. Where eco-
ranges from not just esti- nomic need rises, limited mates of the rate — an aver- mobility implies that they
age of 20 per cent in 2018 tend to work from home.
— but also the reasons for And although working
Tijarat House, 14-Davis Road, Lahore
our poor performance vis-à- women from middle-in-
vis women’s labour supply. come households usually
0423-6312280, 6312480, 6312429, 6312462 Yet, just considering the earn better than their poorer
Cell # 0321-4598258
mean statistics and thinking counterparts, the reliance on
through the issues for the male kin to access labour
average woman does not do and credit markets due to
justice to the issue. This ar- their own mobility con-
1st Floor Ahmed Plaza near Zong Office
ticle breaks down women’s straints limits their earnings.
LFP by household income; Further, the dependence on
Susan Road, Faisalabad, Ph: 041-8555582 examining the type of work
done and barriers faced by
men means that the income
does not come directly into
each income class, while the woman’s hands. In this,
detailing policy options. digital wallets could help
ISLAMABAD / RAWALPINDI The first striking pattern better women’s access to fi-
N-125 Circular Road, Ph: 051-5551654, is that it is U-shaped. This nancial instruments. More-
5532761, Cell # 0300-8567331 means that while low- and over, improved transport
KARACHI high-income households see including women-only

How to implement a
3rd Floor Kehkashan Mall 172-I Block II PECHS women working, middle-in- buses, well-lit city land-

A Trump card
Opp Rehmania Masjid Main Tariq Road come households have the scapes and safer walking
Ph: 021-34524550, Cell # 0300-8251534 lowest participation rate at spaces, and media cam-
just 13pc. In fact, the bot- paigns highlighting role
tom fifth of households models of working women

drug-control policy
have the highest female LFP could help reduce the
(FLFP) at 22pc, going up to stigma attached to women
25pc in rural Pakistan. This venturing out of their
is unsurprising as the poor- homes. All this would not
est households undoubtedly just enrich earnings for
Prime Minister Imran Khan’s visit to the US has al-
ready been termed a resounding success in the coun- have the highest need. A those already in the labour
closer look at the kind of market, but could also help
work reveals that it is propel others to participate.
try. The visit, which was not even a possibility a few
months back, ended up giving’s Pakistan’s diplomacy mostly in the agricultural Finally, while women

sector, and largely as unpaid from the richer income
family help. In some ways strata tend to work more
a much-needed boost. Primarily, the focus of Imran’s
meeting with President Trump remained on
NADEEM IQBAL for National Security Council Sarwar Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 this is predictable — these than those in the middle, the
Ahmedzai, Minister of State for States as amended by the 1972 Protocol. This women have low average top fifth income quintile
t has been almost two decades and Frontier Regions (Safron) Shehryar convention calls for a prohibition of education and so not many still sees a participation rate
Afghanistan. The last few months have seen Pakistan’s

since Pakistan has been boasting Khan Afridi said that Pakistan had been poppy cultivation as a most suitable skills that the labour market of only 16pc. Being the
role being appreciated more by the US at the highest
of making itself poppy-free. How- declared a poppy-free country in 2001, measure for protecting public health and outside of agriculture de- most educated, women from
mands. What is of concern this class likely have the
levels. This essentially shows that Trump’s team work-
ever, the country becoming drug-free re- but around 85 percent of the world’s welfare and preventing the diversion of
mains an elusive dream. poppy was produced in Afghanistan, and drugs into illicit traffic. is that, despite providing requisite skills demanded by
ing on Afghanistan is pleased with Pakistan’s recent ef-
forts. On the question of terrorism there was not any Official statistics show a constant in- collective efforts were needed to eradi- Ratified in 1977, the Convention on much-needed help on their better-paid occupational
crease in drug use. Estimates from 2013 cate its cultivation there. Psychotropic Substances, 1971 estab- family farm or other busi- categories. And although
show 6.7 million drug users in the coun- “We, along with global partners, in- lishes an international control system for ness, they are not sharing in their families may not need
serious criticism of Pakistan. It’s interesting to note
that the issue of terrorism didn’t even become a major
try. These are six-year-old statistics that cluding UN agencies, should provide the psychotropic substances. It responded to the profits. This has far- them to work, economic
yet need to be updated by regular peri- Afghan people an alternative means of the diversification and expansion of the reaching consequences on theory suggests that the lost
the value that is placed on wages and a failure to re-
talking point in official meetings between the military
odic surveys. livelihood so that they could ditch poppy spectrum of drugs of abuse and intro-
as well as the civilian leadership. Imran during his con-
Drug control has to be two-pronged plantation and grow other crops,” Mr duced controls over a number of syn- women’s work, their status, coup the high investment of
with equal emphasis on supply reduction Afridi said. thetic drugs according to their abuse and often leaves them as the education should make it
poorest members of their re- too costly for them to stay
versations at various forums made it clear that the
– limiting the smuggling, trafficking and The minister was referring to Pakistan potential, on the one hand, and their ther-
distribution of narcotics – and demand becoming poppy-free at the start of this apeutic value on the other. spective households. out of the labour market. A
country’s policy concerning the issue of terrorism had
shifted radically. So far, Washington seems to endorse reduction, which is reducing the demand century with a massive reduction in its The Convention against Illicit Traffic Of course, the approxi- high household work bur-
of illicit drugs through preventive edu- cultivation from 9,400 hectares in 1992 in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Sub- mation of an FLFP of 22pc den could be a possible rea-
cation, treatment, and rehabilitation as to some 243 hectares in 2000-01. This stances, 1988, which was ratified in for poor women is likely a son for not working. But a
Pakistan’s stance on terrorism.
An unexpected major achievement that Islamabad
well as harm reduction programmes. success story was achieved by imple- 1991, provides for comprehensive meas- severe underestimate as it higher household income
While demand reduction is people- menting a crop substitution programme ures against drug trafficking, including fails to account for work in also implies a greater ability
the informal sector. Indeed, to hire help. Another reason
was able to extract from Trump was the latter’s dis-
centric, supply management extends with the support of the international provisions against money laundering and
cussion of the Kashmir crisis and willingness to medi-
benefits to other countries too. However, community, mainly the US government. the diversion of precursor chemicals. It outside of agriculture, it is is a marriage market that
ironically, there is a policy bias in favour The Dir district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provides for international cooperation the informal sector that sees places a premium on
a large proportion of work- women who are highly edu-
ate between India and Pakistan. What made the
of supply reduction at the cost of demand has been poppy-free since 1999 with full through, for example, extradition of drug
reduction. The 2010-14 drug control enforcement of a ban on poppy cultiva- traffickers-controlled deliveries and ing women from low-in- cated but stay at home once
situation worse for New Delhi was Trump’s reference

master plan has allocated Rs6.8 billion tion – the drug control objective of the transfer of proceedings. come households. This is they are mothers. For such
especially true in urban Pak- women in particular, the
to a conversation with India’s Prime Minister Modi,
to the supply-side while provision for the $38 million Dir District Development The national legal and legislative
demand-side was a meagre Rs1.6 billion. Project, implemented in two phases over processes initiated to regulate and then istan where poor, unedu- proliferation of the internet
where the latter allegedly asked for US mediation to
resolve the issue of Kashmir. Trump’s statement, how-
Seventy-five percent of these allocations 16 years beginning in 1985. eradicate poppy cultivation dates back to cated women make up the and the advent of both web-
were to be mobilized from foreign The idea of this project was extracted the Opium Act of 1857 that was intro- bulk of domestic workers — based start-ups as well as re-
estimated at 8.5 to 11 mil- mote work stations in recent
ever, was denied by India within hours. The visit has
donors. But if these allocations were re- from a USAID study ‘Cause, Effect & duced to regulate the cultivation of the
offered bilateral security cooperation and military-to-
alized and if the targets set in the master Remedies of Poppy Cultivation in poppy and the manufacturing of opium lion workers. And while years provide an option of
plan were achieved do they remain a se- here at least women’s work working in high-value-
Swabi-Gadoon Area’, which is available followed by the Opium Act, 1878. The
is remunerated, it is fre- added jobs from home. Re-
military relations a much-needed boost. At one point
cret? in the Library of Congress, USA. Dangerous Drugs Act, 1930, was also in-
quently below minimum gardless of income strata, a
The situation seems to be quite bad as As part of the plan, the most signifi- troduced to take further measures to sup-
during President Trump’s meeting with Imran, the for-
wage, with poor if any ben- hostile working environ-
last year the media reported that only cant Gadoon Amazai industrial estate press contraband traffic and abuse of
efits (even paid sick leave), ment for women serves as a
mer mentioned that the security assistance for Pak-
around 300 drug addicts could be given was established in Swabi in 1988. The dangerous drugs. Pakistan adopted these and is oftentimes hazardous. major deterrent for all. For
istan can come back depending on what both countries
limited treatment facilities at one time in government extended incentives such as legislations in 1947 at the time of its in- Thus, when it comes to some it keeps them out of
the country. Public-sector hospitals pro- tax exemption, low-interest rates, and dependence. The Control of Narcotic
achieve concerning Afghanistan. Finally, another
women from low-income the labour market alto-
major accomplishment for Pakistan is that Imran got vide detoxification services to drug ad- exemption of duties on imported ma- Substances Act, 1997 imposed a ban on households, it is lack of gether, while for others it
dicts only. And there exist no treatment chinery and raw material. As a result, the cultivation of narcotic plants and skills and poor education cuts short their time at the
and rehabilitation services. 325 industrial units were established in possession of narcotic drugs as well as
along with Trump very well on a personal level. More-
that seems to be the primary workplace. For those who
over, Imran’s meeting with Trump is likely going to set The Anti-Narcotics Force though has the area with the investment of Rs53.836 import and export of narcotic drugs. This barrier to earning better. In must work, poor working
set up three model addiction treatment billion, providing job opportunities to act also imposed a ban on trafficking or this, Pakistan Skills Devel- conditions mean a substan-
and rehabilitation Centres in Islamabad, over 14,843 people. However, a 2015 financing the trafficking of narcotic
up a direct line of communication between the White
opment Fund’s initiative for tial fall in the overall sense
Quetta, and Karachi but they too can study of the Institute of Management drugs. Moreover, it imposed a ban on promoting vocational train- of well-being. Legislation
House and Imran’s office, bypassing the thick bureau-
cracy on both sides. Essentially, this will help in terms cater to the needs of only 150 drug ad- Sciences, Peshwar, said that in 1992, the owning, operating premises or machin- ing becomes important. such as the Punjab Domes-
dicts. In 2019, after a gap of five years, incentives to the Gadoon Amazai Indus- ery for the manufacture of narcotic drugs Here, though, we need to tic Workers Act, 2019,
Pakistan has a new National Anti-Nar- trial Estate were withdrawn, which led as well as the acquisition and possession
of sidestepping hitches that usually occur between the
make sure that the skills are which provides provisions
two countries when a direct line of communication is cotics Policy. On demand reduction, to the closing of 133 units. At present, of assets derived from narcotic offenses. high value-added if we are for minimum wage, mater-
there are not much changes from the the industrial estate is in deep crisis. There was also prohibition on aiding, to have any significant im- nity and sick leave amongst
2010 plan – that is, to create awareness Additionally, the illicit opium-grow- abetment or association in narcotic of-
pact on earning capacities. others, and the Protection
through civil society, media, and educa- ing areas received assistance in con- fences. All this shows that the new pol- Moreover, it is not enough against Harassment of
It’s expected that Trump’s office would like to con-
tional institutions. The new thing is the structing transport and social welfare icy has all the legal ingredients, except to imbue skills. Rather, it is Women at Workplace,
emphasis on the need to conduct a drug infrastructures, irrigation, and land lev- the highest federal and provincial politi-
tinue to remain in touch with Khan when it comes to
important to integrate these 2010, are steps in the right
use survey every three years. There is an elling to increase alternative crop pro- cal will for implementation. Political will women into supply chains direction, but are not
progress concerning the Afghan peace process. Islam-
abad would like to use such an opportunity to sort out urgent need to give vibrancy to demand ductivity. Farmers were advised that can be structured into drug control by and build their networks of enough. Further interven-
reduction in the policy by setting a base- crops would be eradicated, and non- setting up the National Anti-Narcotics access. With a higher edu- tions such as more flexible
line and tangible targets with a specific compliance could lead to their prosecu- Council (NANC) under the chairman- cational achievement than work hours, improved ma-
other issues in the bilateral realm. Above all, Khan’s
visit has given Pakistan’s diplomacy a major public re- time frame and monetary allocations. tion. There was ‘bombardment’ of ship of the prime minister with all chief that of low-income house- ternity and childcare provi-
Pakistan has been a transit country to resistant villages with heavy artillery, as ministers and federal and provincial holds, women in the mid- sions, a reduction in the
the drugs cultivated in Afghanistan. The well as aerial spraying of hard to reach ministers of interior, and inter-provincial
lations boost in Washington, which Islamabad fully in-
dle-income strata certainly gender pay and other bene-
new official prescription to save Pak- crops with herbicides. If farmers re-cul- coordination. The NANC, which is pro- have a larger skill-set and fits gap, are needed. After
tends to take advantage of. While it’s too early to
istanis from drugs seems to be eradicat- tivated opium after the initial eradica- posed by both the 2010 and 2019 poli-

The US visit
predict the nature of Pakistan and the United States’ likely see greater demand all, it is only through con-
ing poppy cultivation from Afghanistan tion, they were prosecuted. Pakistan is a cies, has yet to be set up, will pave the across different sectors. certed, wide-ranging medi-
and other adjoining states. During a re- party to the three UN drug control con- way for proactive demand-reduction ac- However, a primary reason ations that we can get
long-term relations, for the immediate term, Pakistan
has scored a major win. cent visit of Adviser to Afghan President ventions. In 1999, it ratified the Single tivities in the country. for their low LFP is mobil- women from all walks of

MALIK MUHAMMAD ASHRAF a boost to economic ties between the two This endeared him well to those with money that the entire country including have never seen any Pakistani leader ad- ganizations. Pakistan has suffered the
countries and to enhance US investments whom he interacted on different forums army and security forces are on the same vocating the national narrative with so most in the war against terror and logi-
rime Minister Imran Khan has in Pakistan. including President Trump who was an page for a common objective of peaceful much clarity and conviction. Pointing out cally speaking it is in the country’s inter-
returned after a three-day visit to The firm and realistic advocacy of the attentive listener to what the prime minis- solution of the Afghan conflict. While ad- the wrong actions of the US in the past est to promote and support the process of
the US where he interacted with Pakistani narrative on bringing peace to ter was trying to postulate. He invariably dressing the audience at the US Institute and admitting mistakes made by Pakistan reconciliation in Afghanistan and facili-
President Trump, met US Congressmen Afghanistan by the prime minister re- emphasized the need to recalibrate rela- of Peace, the prime minister was brave in the past could not have been uttered by tate the exit of US forces from that war
and women, speaker of the Congress, sec- ceived due acknowledgement and appre- tions between the two countries. The enough to admit that the policy of ‘strate- anyone who was not sure about the legit- ravaged country since their presence is
retary of state, addressed a think-tank au- ciation, prompting President Trump to prime minister not only advocated the el- gic depth’ and interference in Afghanistan imacy of his cause. having an adverse spill-over effect on all
dience and also had an exclusive session say that the US and Pakistan were work- ements of trust and truth but also practi- had failed and damaged Pakistan. On the The fact is that Pakistan has been mak- the regional countries, more so on Pak-
with Fox TV. ing together to find a solution to the cally demonstrated it while speaking to nature of future relations with the US, he ing sincere efforts for promoting recon- istan. Logically speaking, Pakistan would
His engagements in the US were ac- Afghan conflict. The visit undoubtedly members of the US Congress. Like al- observed “We would like to have a rela- ciliation in Afghanistan and facilitating be the last country to act in a duplicitous
corded high-profile coverage by both in- was a tremendous success as far as creat- ways, he maintained that Pakistan fought tionship based on mutual trust, as equals, the process of dialogue between the US manner in that regard. It was wrong on the
ternational and domestic media and there ing a better understanding of the Pakistani the US war on terror which also endan- as friends and not as before when Pak- and the Taliban. The country’s participa- part of the US administration to look
seems almost consensus on one point: that position on Afghanistan is concerned as gered the country’s existence; he reiter- istan wanted aid and it was asked to per- tion in multilateral forums to facilitate in- askance at our efforts for peace and zero
it was a historic opportunity for both the well as in putting across its narrative on ated that Pakistan was in a defensive form certain tasks for the US”. The terface between Taliban and the Afghan tolerance against terrorism and terrorist
countries to mend fences and give new di- the regional security situation and rela- position and therefore the demand for ‘do bottom line of his narrative as enunciated government as well as dialogue between entities.
rection to their ties. tions with regional countries, particularly more’ should not have been made to Pak- with his discussion with President Trump the Taliban and the US is a testimony to Pakistan initiated action against ter-
President Trump showed extraordinary India. Relations between the two coun- istan. and at other forums was that it was in the its sincerity of purpose in promoting rorist entities in South and North
enthusiasm in welcoming his guest, and tries have attained an encouraging direc- He said these were the harsh ground re- interest of both the US and Pakistan to peace in Afghanistan. Of late, these ef- Waziristan through Operation Zarb-e-
admitted that the latter was a popular and tion. alities which no previous government ex- find an end to the conflict in Afghanistan forts have been also recognized by Presi- Azb and Operation Raddul Fasaad to
great leader who had done a lot to extend This success owes to the fact that Prime pressed to the US administration. He and this common objective needed to be dent Trump, the US administration and track and take out the sympathizers and
cooperation to the US in promoting rec- Minister Imran Khan was very candid and assured the US legislators that Pakistan pursued with an ambience of mutual trust. the entire world community. Hopefully, remnants of terrorists hiding in different
onciliation in Afghanistan and facilitating forthcoming in putting into proper per- would do everything possible to bring the Prime Minister Imran Khan’s dis- the visit has cleared the residual misgiv- parts of the country as well as action
dialogue with the Taliban, unlike past spective the war on terror, the sacrifices Taliban to the negotiating table, caution- courses struck a chord of cordiality with ings regarding Pakistan’s indiscriminate against the proscribed entities. That is
regimes who in his words did not do that. rendered by Pakistan and the wrong poli- ing that making that happen was not an all his interlocutors and all those who in- action against all terrorist entities and the still going on. In fact, Pakistan has been
He also hinted at the possibility of giving cies pursued by Pakistan in Afghanistan. easy undertaking. He was right on the teracted with him. Honestly speaking, I sustained campaign against proscribed or- the victim of terrorism sponsored by