Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

Types or Educational Technology

As Lumsdane suggests, educational technology has the following three forms—


1. Hardware Approach.
2. Software Approach.
3. System Approach.

1. Hardware Approach. The use of engineering machines in teaching is called Educational


Technology-1. It is to be remembered that physical science and engineering technology have
given birth to Educational Technology-1. Davis has said clearly that Educational
Technology-1 or Hardware Approach is the application of physical science in education and
teaching with which the teaching process is being mechanised gradually so that maximum
pupils may be educated in minimum time and at low cost.
Educational Technology includes cinema, gramophone, radio tape-recorder, projector,
computer, closed circuit television (CCTV) and electronic video-tape etc., all the teaching
machines the use of which makes the teaching more and more effective in order to achieve
the teaching objectives. It has already been mentioned that the human knowledge has three
aspects. These are—(1) Preservation (2) Transmission, and (3) Development.
It should be remembered that the history of preservation of the knowledge is believed to exist
since the printing machines started. The knowledge is preserved with these machines in the
form of books which are shelved in the Libraries. Not only this, now we see that the
knowledge is also preserved through tape-recorder and films in addition to books.
The second aspect of human knowledge is its expansion or transmission. A teacher can
impart knowledge himself to his pupils but such direct benefitters happen to be small in
number. Now a days, transmission or expansion of the knowledge is supported by machine
like mike, radio and television etc.
With these, thousands of pupils enjoy this home-delivery of such benefits. In this way, due to
educational technology-1, surprising changes have occurred in the process of education. The
correspondence courses and open-university are the gifts of educational technology.
The third aspect of the human knowledge is its development. For this aspect, provisions are
made for research work. In the research programmes, the main function is the collection and
analysis of data. For this purpose, presently the researcher uses the electric machines and
computers. Hence, all the three aspects of knowledge allow the use of machines.
In short, now the teaching process has been mechanised. This mechanisation of teaching
process is termed as Educational Technology-1 or Hardware Approach.

Software Approach. Educational Technology-2 or Software Approach is also named as


Instructional Technology or Teaching Technology or Behavioural Technology. It must be
remembered that Educational Technology-2 does not allow the use of engineering machines.
However, psychological principles of teaching and learning are utilized so that desirable
changes in the behaviour of the pupils may be brought about. If the machines are even used,
this is done only to make the subject-matter effective. Hence, the Educational Technology-2
is concerned with the teaching objectives in behavioural terms, principles of teaching,
methods of teaching and techniques, reinforcement of instructional-system, feed-back devices
and evaluation.
In nut-shell, in Educational Technology-2 or Software Approach, it is tried to develop all the
three aspects i.e. Input, Process and Output.
The above description makes it clear that the Educational Technology-1 or Hardware
Approach means the use of machines in teaching, while Educational Technology-2 or
Software Approach means the use of teaching and learning principles. In this way, there is
close relationship between Educational Technology 1 and 2.
3. Systems Approach. Educational Technology-3 or System Analysis is also known as
Management Technology. It was developed after World War-II. It has provided a scientific
basis to the decision-making regarding the problems associated with administration,
management, commerce, industry and army. Remember that Educational Technology-3 helps
to study the problems of educational administration and management in a scientific and
conclusive way. By using it, we can make the educational system, educational administration
and management effective. In short, Educational Technology-3 helps in the development of
educational administration and formulation of instructional out-line. By using it educational
system, educational administration and management can be made more effective and less
costly. Hence, these days the educational technology-3 occupies an important place in the
field of teaching.
The above description makes it clear that the Educational Technology-1 or Hardware
Approach means the use of machines in teaching, while Educational Technology-2 or
Software Approach means the use of teaching and learning principles. In this way, there is
close relationship between Educational Technology 1 and 2.

3. Systems Approach. Educational Technology-3 or System Analysis is also known as


Management Technology. It was developed after World War-II. It has provided a scientific
basis to the decision-making regarding the problems associated with administration,
management, commerce, industry and army. Remember that Educational Technology-3 helps
to study the problems of educational administration and management in a scientific and
conclusive way. By using it, we can make the educational system, educational administration
and management effective. In short, Educational Technology-3 helps in the development of
educational administration and formulation of instructional out-line. By using it educational
system, educational administration and management can be made more effective and less
costly. Hence, these days the educational technology-3 occupies an important place in the
field of teaching.

Meaning of Teaching Aids


As we all know that today's age is the age of science and technology. The teaching learning programmes have also
been affected by it. The process of teaching - learning depends upon the different type of equipment available in the
classroom.

Need of Teaching Aids


1) Every individual has the tendency to forget. Proper use of teaching aids helps to retain more concept permanently.

2) Students can learn better when they are motivated properly through different teaching aids.

3) Teaching aids develop the proper image when the students see, hear taste and smell properly.

4) Teaching aids provide complete example for conceptual thinking.

5) The teaching aids create the environment of interest for the students.

6) Teaching aids helps to increase the vocabulary of the students.

7) Teaching aids helps the teacher to get sometime and make learning permanent.

8) Teaching aids provide direct experience to the students.


Types of Teaching Aids

There are many aids available these days. We may classify these aids as follows-

. Visual Aids

. Audio Aids

. Audio - Visual Aids

1) Visual Aids
The aids which use sense of vision are called Visual aids. For example :- actual objects, models, pictures, charts, maps,
flash cards, flannel board, bulletin board, chalkboard, overhead projector, slides etc. Out of these black board and chalk
are the commonest ones.

2) Audio Aids
The aids that involve the sense of hearing are called Audio aids. For example :- radio, tape recorder, gramophone etc.

3) Audio - Visual Aids


The aids which involve the sense of vision as well as hearing are called Audio- Visual aids. For example :- television,
film projector, film strips etc.

Importance of Teaching aids

Teaching aids play an very important role in Teaching- Learning process. Importance of
Teaching aids are as follows :-

1) Motivation
Teaching aids motivate the students so that they can learn better.

2) Clarification
Through teaching aids , the teacher clarify the subject matter more easily.

3) Discouragement of Cramming
Teaching aids can facilitate the proper understanding to the students which discourage the
act of cramming.

4) Increase the Vocabulary


Teaching aids helps to increase the vocabulary of the students more effectively.

5) Saves Time and Money

6) Classroom Live and active


Teaching aids make the classroom live and active.

7) Avoids Dullness
8) Direct Experience
Teaching aids provide direct experience to the students