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3 Ansichten20 SeitenLow cycle analysis

low cycle fatigue in ansys

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metal laminates

1

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, 2Fatigue and Fracture Lab., Department of Aerospace

Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Received Date: 27 April 2014; Accepted Date: 24 September 2014; Published Online: 2014

A B S T R A C T The aim of this paper is to develop an elastic–plastic-damage constitutive law and a tool

for simulation of delamination initiation and propagation in ﬁbre metal laminates

(FMLs) under low-cycle fatigue loading regime. In the previous studies, the signiﬁcance

of plasticity in delamination growth and modelling of FMLs was not considered. Hence,

cohesive zone law that combines the damage evolution with plasticity is developed. The

new fatigue damage model is implemented as user-written subroutines that links with

ANSYS based on the cohesive ﬁnite element method. The cohesive zone model constitu-

tive law has been veriﬁed by modelling of the delaminated adhesively bonded aluminium

joint under normal and shear loadings and compared with the available results in the

literature. The developed procedure and tool have been used for the analyses of DCB

and ENF specimens under uniform and variable loadings. The obtained results for

progressive damage and delamination and stress–strain curves are discussed in this paper.

Keywords cohesive zone; delamination; ﬁbre metal laminate; low-cycle fatigue; plasticity.

b, c = material parameters related to Cofﬁn–Manson relation

bf, cf = parameters derived from calibration tests of low-cycle fatigue

B = transformation matrix that depends on nodal coordinates and on deriva-

tions of approximation functions

C(d) = inverse of the elastic-damage tensor

d = scalar damage parameter

dmon = monotonic contribution of the damage parameter

dcyc = cyclic contribution of the damage parameter

Ded = elastic-damage tensor that relates the CZM stresses to the elastic strains

Depd = elastic–plastic-damage stiffness matrix

D0ij = undamaged penalty elasticity tensor

E11 = Young’s modulus in the longitudinal direction-1

E22, E33 = Young’s modulus in the transverse direction-2, and through the thick-

ness direction-3

f = generic nonlinear function of dcyc and Vα

G12, G13, G23 = shear moduli

Gc = critical strain energy release rate in the mixed-mode fracture condition

GT = sum of strain energy release rates in various pure modes

GIc = critical strain energy release rate in mode I

© 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 00, 1–20 1

2 F. MAZAHERI AND H. HOSSEINI-TOUDESHKY

h0 = CZM element thickness

H = hardening modulus

K = CZM penalty stiffness

K Te = stiffness matrix of each element

KT = CZM penalty stiffness in plastic part

m = degree of nonlinearity of damage evolution law

N = cycle number

Nf = cycle number at ﬁnal failure

R = displacement ratio

s, t, n = components of local coordinate system

u, v, w = displacement in the direction of x,y,z, respectively

Vα = causal variables related to the excitation that causes the damage

phenomenon

α = maximum applied effective strain

β = mode mixing ratio

γ0 ; γ0tn ; γ0sn ; ε0n = single-mode shear and normal strains at softening onset

γ_ = plastic multiplier

δij = Kronecker delta function

ε = total strain tensor

εe = elastic strain tensor

εp = plastic strain tensor

ε__p = plastic strain increment

εp = effective plastic strain

ε_

p

= increment of effective plastic strain

εm = effective strain of cohesive zone model element under the mixed-mode

condition at integration point

ε0m = effective strains at delamination onset and complete de-cohesion

f

εm = effective strains at complete de-cohesion

εxz = shear strain

εz = normal strain

η = material parameter obtained from experiments

v12, v13, v23 = Poisson’s ratios

ρ = reference mass density

σ = cohesive zone model stress tensor

σ 0n ; σ 0 = normal cohesive zone model strength

σy = yield stress

δmin, δmax = minimum and maximum displacement values in a cycle

σz = normal stress

τ 0, τ 0 = shear cohesive zone model strength

τ xz = shear stress

ϕ = yield function

ψ = Helmholtz free energy per unit mass

ψ ed = elastic-damage contribution to the free energy

ψp = plastic contribution to the free energy respectively

ψ0 = a convex function

Ωe = represents the sub-region allocated by element

(glass ﬁbre/aluminium), ARALL (aramid ﬁbre/aluminium)

Fibre metal laminates (FMLs) consist of alternating and CARAL (carbon ﬁbre/aluminium) attract a number of

layers of aluminium alloy and ﬁbre-reinforced composite, aircraft manufacturers.1,2 FMLs have been successfully in-

which are adhesively bonded using the matrix material of troduced into the Airbus A380.3–5 For example, ARALL

© 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 00, 1–20

LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE DELAMINATION IN FIBRE METAL LAMINATES 3

has been developed for the lower wing skin panels of zone model (CZM) was ﬁrst suggested by Dugdale,23

the former Fokker 27 aircraft and the cargo door of and later, Barenblatt24 and Hillerborg et al.25 added

the Boeing C-17,6,7 and GLARE was selected for the signiﬁcant contributions. Since then, many authors have

Boeing 777 impact resistant bulk cargo ﬂoor. It has published papers on the cohesive zone approach or devel-

been well documented that these hybrid materials display opment of CZM elements for progressive damage

improved characteristics in terms of weight saving and analyses of components. Cohesive zone modelling is a

impressive fatigue and damage properties of ﬁbre- powerful method to consider the material nonlinearity

reinforced composite materials in addition to ﬁre resis- of bonded joints in both monotonic and cyclic loading;

tance and durability of metals.8 The ﬁbres have bridging hence, it is capable to model low-cycle fatigue condition.

effect; that is, they are less sensitive to fatigue loading Hosseini-Toudeshky et al.26 investigated concurrent

and transfer the loads over a crack, so lower the stress transverse cracking and induced delamination propaga-

intensity at the crack front and reduce the crack growth tion using a generalized micro-meso approach and exper-

rate. As a result, the crack growth lives of the FMLs have imental validation. A layer-wised ﬁnite element model

been signiﬁcantly extended comparing to the monolithic was developed to predict the delamination growth of

aluminium panels.9,10 post-buckled composite laminates under quasi-static

Nowadays, it is often stated that fatigue accounts for at compression loading using cohesive elements.27 Further-

least 90% of all service failures due to mechanical more, cohesive zone modelling was employed in Ref. [28]

reasons. Fatigue failure is speciﬁcally insidious because to study the effects of delamination size and stacking

it occurs without any obvious warning. Therefore, meth- sequence of laminates on delamination growth under

odology for fatigue failure prediction is of immense quasi-static compression loading. Hosseini-Toudeshky

importance in practice.11 Damage evolution mechanism et al.29 also proposed a CZM ﬁnite element model to

is one of the important focuses on fatigue life prediction simulate the progressive debonding between composite

of components made of composites, aluminiums and patch and cracked aluminium panels concurrent with

other hybrid materials.12,13 For low-cycle fatigue condi- the crack growth in the base panel under high-cycle

tions, the stress is large enough to create plastic strain; fatigue loading. Hosseini-Toudeshky et al.30 also

hence, fatigue failure results from cyclic strain under developed de-cohesive law to simulate delamination

several thousand cycles. Low-cycle fatigue is usually growth of post-buckled laminate under high-cycle

characterized by the Cofﬁn–Manson relation, best fatigue loading. The proposed ﬁnite element model

described by the material relation between plastic strain considered the geometry nonlinearity of post-buckling

amplitude and life, which is known as the strain-life and material nonlinearity of CZM simultaneously.

curves.14,15 The novelty of this work is considering elastic–

In FMLs, the fatigue phenomenon involves several plastic-damage constitutive law for cohesive zone

damage mechanisms that result in the degradation of modelling that is valid for low-cycle fatigue regime.

mechanical properties. One of the most important Previously developed models are valid for high-cycle

fatigue damage mechanisms is the interlaminar delam- fatigue regime considering the Paris law for damage

inations.16–18 Guo et al.19 derived an accurate expres- growth. The origin of considered irreversibility in

sion and test method for the delamination growth some of the previously performed works was not plas-

under high-cycle fatigue loading with different stress ticity that occurs in low-cycle fatigue regime. In this

ratio in hybrid bonded laminates. Lin20 performed an paper, the delamination growth of FMLs under low-

experimental study to examine the fatigue delamina- cycle fatigue loading is analysed. For this purpose,

tion growth in CARAL under cyclic loading. Guo 20-node three-dimensional CZM elements with small

and Wu21 developed an analytical model for fatigue thickness have been developed as a user element in

crack growth (FCG) in FMLs considering bridging the ANSYS ﬁnite element software. The mixed-mode

effect under various cyclic stress levels and stress ratio bilinear elastic–plastic-damage constitutive law with a

in high-cycle fatigue regime. The predicted crack damage evolution derived from the Cofﬁn–Manson

growth rates were in good agreement with the experi- relation has been used in order to simulate the

mental results. mixed-mode stress ﬁeld at the delamination front.

Using fracture mechanics approach in mixed-mode Therefore, the new proposed CZM links plasticity

progressive delamination analysis requires complex parameters to damage mechanics. The damage param-

moving mesh techniques to advance the initial crack eter is a function of the loading conditions as well as

front. One of the most appealing continuum damage the experimentally determined material parameters

mechanical techniques to predict the initiation and for low-cycle fatigue. Various loading conditions for

growth of delamination instantaneously without the need GLARE3 are considered for the analyses, and the

of remeshing is the cohesive zone approach.22 Cohesive obtained results are discussed in this paper.

© 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 00, 1–20

4 F. MAZAHERI AND H. HOSSEINI-TOUDESHKY

matrix with integration scheme used for the determina-

Solutions and analyses of complex mechanical phenom- tion of the stresses in the integration points in part 2.3

ena without assumptions and simpliﬁcations can be a very (category (a)). Finally, the total damage is assumed to be

cumbersome task or impossible in many cases. As the the sum of the damage caused by the monotonic loading

issue in this paper is the analysis of low-cycle fatigue and the damage resulted from the cyclic loading (assump-

delamination initiation and propagation analyses in tion of category (a)). To determine the damage parame-

FMLs, we are faced with several complexities in terms ter in low-cycle fatigue, the differential equation of

of loading, plasticity, damage and anisotropic multi- damage accumulation developed by Lemaitre and

material component. All assumptions are brieﬂy Chaboche in 199632 is used. For this purpose, a general

explained here, and they can be also followed in the nonlinear damage evolution law relating cyclic damage

following sections of the paper through the equations, parameter and causal variables is considered. Then this

results presentations and discussions. The main assump- relation is simpliﬁed by the assumption of decoupling be-

tions invoked in different sections can be divided into tween the cyclic damage and casual variables (assumption

two categories: of category (b)). The plastic strain increment in each

cycle is considered as the only causal variable of this non-

a. Those related to speciﬁc material behaviour.

linear damage evolution. This increment of plastic strain

b. Those related to neglecting speciﬁc effects or simpli-

in the low-cycle fatigue regime is related to the number

fying relations.

of cycles to failure and the material parameters of the

For developing the elastic–plastic cohesive zone Cofﬁn–Manson rule (assumption of category (a)). In

constitutive law, the Helmholtz free energy is calculated Lemaitre and Chaboche model,32 the contribution of

with the hypothesis of decoupling between elastic- the elastic part, that is, high cycle part of strain in the

damage and plastic hardening parts (category (a)). In Cofﬁn–Manson rule is negligible with respect to the total

the elastic-damage part of Helmholtz free energy, we part of damage (assumption of category (b)). A linear

neglect the compressive normal stress effect because of accumulation rule for damage evolution law is also

preventing the penetration of layers (category (b)). For considered for determining of the cyclic damage parameter

the three-dimensional CZM element with small thick- (assumption of category (b)).

ness, we assume the penalty stiffness to be equal to the

slope of the stress–strain curve (assumption of category

(a)). We derived stress–strain relation using the second Elastic–plastic CZM constitutive law

principle of thermodynamics in the form of the The constitutive equation for the elastic–plastic-damage

Clausius–Duhem inequality (assumption of category theory associated with cohesive zone modelling in low-

(a)). A bilinear cohesive constitutive equation has been cycle fatigue regime is described in this section. In this

used in this paper. This assumption is in the category theory, it is assumed that the Helmholtz free energy per

(a). It is assumed that the onset of damage can be unit mass, ψ, is a function of state variables:33

predicted using the quadratic failure criterion (assump-

tion of category (a)), and compressive normal stresses p

do not affect the delamination onset (assumption of cate- ψ ¼ ψ εei ; εi ; d ; i ¼ 1; 3 (1)

gory (b)). It has been assumed that the critical strain

energy release rate per unit thickness of the cohesive p

zone is equal to the area under the effective stress–strain where εei is the elastic strain tensor, εi is the plastic strain

relation (assumption of category (a)). By this assumption, tensor, and d is the scalar damage parameter. Under the

the effective strain at the complete de-cohesion is hypothesis of decoupling between elastic-damage and

derived. Also, the B-K (Benzeggagh and Kenane31) crite- plastic hardening, the speciﬁc free energy is assumed to

rion has been used to determine the critical strain energy be given as34

release rate (assumption of category (a)). To describe the

return mapping algorithm for the integration of the p

ψ ¼ ψ ed εei ; d þ ψ p εi ; i ¼ 1; 3 (2)

elastic–plastic cohesive zone modelling, we assume the

von Mises plasticity model with isotropic hardening

(assumption of category (a)). For the derivation of the where ψ ed and ψ p are the elastic-damage and plastic con-

integration algorithm, it is more convenient to use the tribution to the free energy, respectively. In the present

squared form of the yield function (assumption of formulation of solid-like CZM element35 shown in Fig. 1,

category (b)). To guarantee the quadratic convergence the following form is postulated for the elastic-damage

of the Newton–Raphson method, it is necessary to potential with crack closure effect:36

© 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 00, 1–20

LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE DELAMINATION IN FIBRE METAL LAMINATES 5

Fig. 1 Reference and local coordinate systems in solid-like 20 node cohesive zone model element.

ρψ ed εei ; d ¼ ð1 d Þψ 0 εei (3) equations:

8

d ψ 0 δ3i < εe3 > ; i ¼ 1; 3 >

< KI εm ≤ ε0m

Ded ¼ ð1 d ÞK I þ dK I c ε0m < εm < εmf ; Ic

>

: f

In this equation, the second term prevents the pene- KIc εm ≥ εm

2 3

tration of layers due to compressive normal stresses. 0 0 0

Where the < > operator indicates the zero value for neg- 60 0 0 7

¼6 4

7

ative inside value, δij is the Kronecker delta function, ρ is a < εe3 > 5

0 0

reference mass density and ψ 0 is a convex function < εe3 > (8)

deﬁned as

1 where εm is the effective strain of CZM element under

ψ 0 εei ¼ εei D0ij εej ; i ¼ 1; 3 ; j ¼ 1; 3 (4) the mixed-mode condition at the integration point,

2

which is determined by the following equations. ε0m and

where D0ij is undamaged penalty elasticity tensor, which f

εm are the effective strains at the delamination onset

can be determined by the following equation: and complete de-cohesion, respectively, and will be in-

troduced later.

D0ij ¼ δij K ; i ¼ 1; 3 ; j ¼ 1; 3 (5)

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

εm ¼ < εn >2 þ γ2shear (9)

where K is the penalty stiffness. For zero-thickness CZM

elements, the penalty stiffness parameter is equal to the

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

slope of the stress-relative displacement curve. On the

γshear ¼ γ2sn þ γ2tn ; γsn ¼ 2ε23 ; γtn

other hand, for the solid-like CZM, this parameter is

the slope of the stress–strain curve.27 Using the second ¼ 2ε13 ; εn ¼ ε33 (10)

principle of thermodynamics in the form of the

Clausius–Duhem inequality, the state laws are obtained

Under pure mode I, II or III loading, the onset of

as follows:37

damage can be determined simply by comparing the

∂ψ stress components with their respective allowable values.

σi ¼ ρ ¼ ð1 d ÞD0ij εej (6) However, under mixed-mode loading, the damage onset

∂εei

and the corresponding softening behaviour may occur

d D0ij δ3i < εe3 > ; i ¼ 1; 3

before any of the involved stress components reaching

their respective allowable values.38 It is assumed that

A bilinear cohesive constitutive equation has been the onset of damage can be predicted using the quadratic

used in this paper. A conveniently compact representa- failure criterion, and compressive normal stresses do not

tion of elastic-damage constitutive law can be obtained affect the delamination onset:39

by using the matrix notations:

< σ n > 2 τ sn 2 τ tn 2

þ 0 þ 0 1¼0 (11)

σ ¼ Ded εe (7) σ 0n τ τ

where εe and σ are the elastic strain and CZM stress ten-

sors and Ded is the elastic-damage tensor, which relates In the aforementioned equation, σ 0n and τ 0 are the nor-

the stresses to the elastic strains. It can be found as a mal and shear CZM strengths. In solid-like CZM, model

© 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 00, 1–20

6 F. MAZAHERI AND H. HOSSEINI-TOUDESHKY

K is the slope of the stress–strain curve. Because of the is the sum of the strain energy release rates in various

lack of material behaviour data in 1, 2 and 3 directions, pure modes.

we used the simpliﬁcation assumption and considered

the same penalty stiffness in all directions. Using the Return mapping algorithm

same penalty stiffness in modes I, II and III, the stress

To describe the implicit elastic predictor/return mapping

components before softening onset are

scheme for the integration of elastic–plastic cohesive

σ i ¼ K εi ; i ¼ 1; 3 (12) zone modelling, the elastic–plastic strain split is deﬁned

as

ing onset are

where ε is the total strain tensor. Assuming isotropic

σ0 hardening von Mises model, the yield function, ϕ, is

ε0n ¼ n (13) deﬁned as

K

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

3 T

τ0 ϕ σ ðd; ε Þ; σ y ðε Þ ¼

e p

σ Pσ (20)

γ0 ¼ γ0tn ¼ γ0sn ¼ (14) 2

K σ y ðε Þp

;

2 3

2 0 0

The mode mixing ratio, β, is also deﬁned as 60 2 07

P¼64

7

γshear 25

β¼ (15) 0 0

εn 3

where σ y is the yield stress and εp is the effective plastic

strain. The plastic ﬂow rule is also deﬁned as

The effective strain at delamination onset, ε0m , is ob-

tained by the substitution of (9), (10), (12), (13), (14) rﬃﬃﬃ

∂ϕ 3 Pσ

and (15) into (11) and solving for εm: _ε p ¼ γ_ ¼γ_ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ (21)

∂σ 2 σ T Pσ

8 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

>

> 1 þ β2

< ε0 γ0 where ε__p is the plastic strain increment and γ_ is the plastic

n 2 εn > 0

εm ¼

0 2

ðγ0 Þ þ βε0n (16) multiplier. The hardening variable evolution is deﬁned as

>

>

:

γ 0

εn ≤0

ε_ ¼ γ_

p

(22)

p

It has been assumed that the critical strain energy

The loading and unloading conditions are41

release rate of the cohesive zone is equal to the area under

effective stress–strain relation. By this assumption, the γ_ ≥0 ; ϕ≤0 ; γ_ ϕ ¼ 0 (23)

effective strain at the complete de-cohesion is given by

8

>

< 2Gc For the derivation of an integration algorithm, it is

εn > 0

εfm ¼ K h0 εm

0

(17) more convenient to use the squared form of the yield

>

: f

γsn εn ≤0 function, which, in the present case, can be handled more

easily. Then, Eqs 21–23 are replaced with

where h0 is the CZM element thickness. The B-K 8

(Benzeggagh and Kenane31) criterion has been used to > 1 1

>

> ϕ ¼ σ T Pσ σ 2y ðεp Þ

>

> 2 3

determine the critical strain energy release rate, Gc, in >

<

the mixed-mode fracture condition: ∂ϕ

ε_ p ¼ γ_ ¼ γ_ Pσ (24)

>

> ∂σ

>

> rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

GT GI η >

>

Gc ¼ GIc þ ðGIIc GIc Þ (18) : ε_ p ¼ γ_ 2σ T Pσ

GT 3

where η is a material parameter in mixed-mode crack

growth conditions. It can be obtained by curve ﬁtting The implicit elastic predictor/return mapping algo-

of the obtained experimental critical strain energy rithm starts with computing the elastic-damaged predic-

release rate versus mode mixing ratio curve,40 and GT tor state in time intervals [tn, tn + 1]:

© 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 00, 1–20

LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE DELAMINATION IN FIBRE METAL LAMINATES 7

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ!

8 e trial 1 1 2

> ε ¼ εen þ Δε ; Δε ¼ εenþ1 εen ðσ nþ1 ÞT Pσ nþ1 σ 2y εpn þΔγ ðσ nþ1 ÞT Pσ nþ1 ¼ 0

>

< nþ1 2 3 3

σ enþ1

trial

¼ Ded εenþ1

trial

(25) (33)

>

>

: p trial p

εnþ1 ¼ εn

where the unknowns now are the stress array, σ n + 1, and

the plastic multiplier, Δγ, and C(d) is the inverse of the

elastic-damage tensor:

The next step is to check for plastic admissibility of 8

the elastic trial state by the following computation: > ðK I Þ1 εm ≤ε0m

1 > <

1

C ðd Þ≡ D ed

¼ ðð1 d ÞK I þ dK I c Þ εm < εm < εmf

0

1 trial T trial 1 2 p trial >

>

:

ϕ trial ¼ σ Pσ nþ1 σ y εnþ1 (26) ðK I c Þ1 εm ≥εm

f

2 nþ1 3

(34)

Finally, by substituting (32) into the consistency con-

dition (33), the return mapping for the elasto-plastic

ϕ trial

≤0 (27)

CZM element is reduced to the following scalar nonlin-

ear equation having Δγ as the only unknown:

Then the process is in an elastic condition within [tn, rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ!

tn + 1], and we update the values by e ðΔγÞ≡ ξ ðΔγÞ σ ε þΔγ 2 ξ ðΔγÞ

ϕ

1 1 2 p

(35)

2 3 y n 3

ð:Þnþ1 ¼ ð:Þtrial

nþ1 (28)

Here, we have conveniently deﬁned

T T

Otherwise, the return mapping algorithm needs to be ξ ðΔγÞ≡ σ trial

nþ1 A ðΔγÞ P AðΔγÞσ trial

nþ1 (36)

applied. The implicit return mapping in the present case

consists of solving the following system of algebraic

equations: With

εenþ1 ¼ εenþ1

trial

ΔγPσ nþ1 (29) AðΔγÞ≡½C ðd Þ þ ΔγP 1 C ðd Þ (37)

p 2

εnþ1 ¼ εpn þΔγ ðσ nþ1 ÞT Pσ nþ1 (30) rated with the yield function. Thus, the return mapping

3 for the elastic–plastic CZM element is carried out as fol-

lows. Firstly, the consistency Eq. (35) is solved using the

1 1 p Newton–Raphson algorithm. Then the other variables

ðσ nþ1 ÞT Pσ nþ1 σ 2y εnþ1 ¼ 0 (31) are updated as

2 3

8

>

> σ nþ1 ¼ AðΔγÞσ trial

nþ1

p

for εenþ1, εnþ1

and Δγ where σ n + 1 is a function of >

>

Solved >

>

< εnþ1 ¼ C ðd Þσ nþ1

> e

εenþ1deﬁned by the constitutive law (6). It is also possible

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ (38)

to reduce the number of unknowns of return mapping >

> p p 2

>

> εnþ1 ¼ εn þ Δγ ξ ðΔγÞ

equations for the von Mises model. Having the incre- >

> 3

>

: P

mental plastic multiplier as the unknown, the ﬁve- εnþ1 ¼ εPn þ ΔγPσ nþ1

variable return mapping system (29)–(31) can be reduced

to a single scalar nonlinear equation. To this end, we

substitute (30) into (31) and rearrange (29) using the

inverse constitutive law (6). Then the original return Elastic–plastic-damage consistent tangent operator

mapping system reduces to

To guarantee the convergence of the Newton–Raphson

method, it is necessary to determine properly the tangent

stiffness in every iteration step. It can be obtained in a

σ nþ1 ¼ ½C ðd Þ þ ΔγP 1 C ðd Þσ trial

nþ1 (32) classical way from the stiffness matrices of all elements.

© 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 00, 1–20

8 F. MAZAHERI AND H. HOSSEINI-TOUDESHKY

ξ ¼ εtrial

nþ1 E P Eεtrial

nþ1 (46)

h i h i

K Te ¼ ∫Ωe ½BT Depd ½BdΩ (39)

Using the standard relation for the differential of the

inverse of a matrix in (42) and the chain rule yields the

where [Depd] is so called elastic–plastic-damage stiffness identity as

matrix, [B] is the transformation matrix that depends on

dE ¼ E P E dΔγ (47)

the nodal coordinates and on derived of approximation

functions and Ωe represents the sub-region allocated by

the element. The quadratic convergence of the Straightforward differentiation of the aforementioned

Newton–Raphson method is ensured by the use of a con- expression (46) together with (47) gives

sistent elastic–plastic-damage stiffness matrix with an

integration scheme used for the determination of stresses dξ ¼ 2 σ Tnþ1 P E dεtrial

nþ1 σ nþ1 PE Pσ nþ1 dΔγ

T

(48)

at the integration points, so called consistent tangent

operator.43 The elastic–plastic-damage consistent tangent

operator is deﬁned as Substitution of the aforementioned formula into (45)

followed by the substitution of the resulting expression

dσ nþ1 dσ nþ1 into (41) and straightforward algebraic manipulations

Depd ≡ ¼ trial (40)

dεnþ1 dεnþ1 gives

where σ n + 1 is the outcome of the return mapping algo- dσ nþ1 ¼ ½E μðE Pσ nþ1 Þ ⊗ðE Pσ nþ1 Þdεtrial

nþ1 (49)

rithm. We start by differentiating (29) that, together with

where the scalar μ is deﬁned as

the elastic-damage law, gives

1

dσ nþ1 ¼ E dεtrial μ¼ (50)

nþ1 dΔγ Pσ nþ1 (41) σ Tnþ1 PE Pσ nþ1 þ 32HΔγ

2ξH

where

The explicit expression for the matrix form of the

E ¼ ½C ðd Þ þ ΔγP 1 (42) elastic–plastic-damage tangent operator consistent with

the CZM return mapping is then given by

Differentiation of the plastic consistency (35) and Depd ¼ E μðE Pσ nþ1 Þ ⊗ðE Pσ nþ1 Þ (51)

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

using the identity, σ y ¼ 32 ξ , which holds under plastic

ﬂow, yield the equation

Damage evolution law in low-cycle fatigue

e ¼ 1 dξ 2 dσ y ξ dΔγ þ 1 Δγ dξ ¼ 0

dϕ (43)

2 3 dεp 2 In this section, the general constitutive law of the bilinear

CZM element in the low-cycle fatigue regime is pro-

posed as shown in Fig. 2. In this ﬁgure, plastic deforma-

The hardening modulus is deﬁned as tion is large enough to produce degradation in the

material property of the cohesive zone. It is worth to note

dσ y KKT that in this modelling, loading and unloading must be

H¼ ¼ (44)

dεp K K T accounted in each cycle of elastic–plastic-damage analysis

of the CZM element.

where KT is the penalty stiffness in plastic region. Then, Generally, it is deﬁned that d = 0 at undamaged condi-

from the aforementioned equations, we have tion and d = 1 at ﬁnal failure. Under general cyclic load-

ing, the total damage, d, is the sum of the damage

3 2

dΔγ ¼ 1 HΔγ dξ (45) caused by monotonic loading and the damage resulted

4Hξ 3

from cyclic loading.

Using the elastic-damage law and the aforementioned

deﬁnition for E, the scalar ξ deﬁned by (36) can be equiv- where dmon is the monotonic and dcyc is the cyclic contri-

alently written as bution of the damage parameter. For bilinear constitutive

© 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 00, 1–20

LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE DELAMINATION IN FIBRE METAL LAMINATES 9

Fig. 2 Low-cycle fatigue bilinear cohesive zone model element constitutive law.

mined by the following equation:

d cyc ðN Þ

δd cyc N

∫ ¼ G d cyc ðN Þ ¼ ∫ h V α N ’ δN ’ (56)

0 g d cyc 0

f

εm α ε0m

d mon ¼ (53)

f

α εm ε0m The integral in the right hand side of (56) is a linear

operator. Hence, we have a nonlinear damage evolution,

the nonlinearity being related to the G(dcyc), associated

where α is the maximum applied effective strain, εm, in all with a linear accumulation. Let us consider particular

previous iterations. In 1996, Lemaitre and Chaboche32 excitation of Vα(N) = Vα = constant, with explicit integra-

developed a common mathematical basis for the damage tion of (56) leads to

parameter in low-cycle fatigue in terms of a differential

equation of damage accumulation described as follows. N

If the general nonlinear damage evolution law is consid- G d cyc ðN Þ ¼ ∫ hðV α Þ δN ’ ¼ hðV α Þ N (57)

0

ered,

∂d cyc

¼ f d cyc ; V α ðN Þ α (54) = 1. Then, we can rewrite (57) with assuming N = Nf as

∂N

¼ 1; 2; …; nα Gð1Þ

Nf ¼ (58)

hðV α Þ

where N is the cycle number and an independent variable

where G(1) = 1 can be considered without loss of general-

in the damage evolution. The causal variables Vα are re-

ity and hence

lated to the excitation that causes the damage phenome-

non. For instance, they may be the cyclic stress/strain

amplitude or mean stress amongst other causes. The 1

V α ¼ h1 (59)

function f is generic nonlinear. By the assumption of Nf

decoupling between the cyclic damage and casual vari-

ables in (54), we have

Considering Eq. (54) with Eq. (59), the general ex-

pression yields to

∂d cyc

¼ g d cyc hðV α ðN ÞÞ α (55)

∂N

∂d cyc 1 1

¼ 1; 2; …; nα ¼ f d cyc ; h (60)

∂N Nf

As a result, the explicit integration of (55) is possible Then the simple form of the aforementioned equation

and leading to assuming no relation with damage evolution and cyclic

© 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 00, 1–20

10 F. MAZAHERI AND H. HOSSEINI-TOUDESHKY

ear relation for damage evolution is

m

∂d cyc 1

¼ (61)

∂N Nf

lution law. In the analysis of the low-cycle fatigue,

when the plastic deformation effects become dominant

compared to the elastic deformation effects, a suitable

choice for causal variable is the plastic strain incre-

ment. Hence

V α ðN Þ ¼ Δεp ðN Þ (62)

power law that relates the number of cycles to the ﬁnal

failure and the constant amplitude of the effective plastic Fig. 3 Typical nonlinear damage evolution.

strain applied in each cycle:44

At this point, we have d < 0.5:

c

N f ¼ N f ðΔε p Þ ¼ b½Δεp (63)

N f =2 m

X 1

N =N f ¼0:5

d cyc ¼ < 0:5 (68)

where b and c are material parameters with the following i¼1

N f ði Þ

relations:

c1

1 1 f Assuming a small increment, Nf (i) ≈ constant, and

c¼ ; b¼ (64)

cf bf Eq. (68) can be rewritten as

N =N f ¼0:5

where bf and cf derived from calibration tests of low-cycle N f ð1mÞ ¼ 2d cyc <1 (69)

fatigue. In Lemaitre and Chaboche model, the contribu-

tion of elastic part, that is, high cycle part of strain in the

Cofﬁn–Manson rule is negligible with respect to the total By making use of Eq. (63), Eq. (69) gives

damage. Equation (63) corresponds to the deﬁnition of 2 3

the failure domain. Therefore, assuming a linear accumu- N =N f ¼0:5

log 2d cyc

lation rule, one has a damage evolution law as m¼14 5 (70)

log ðbÞ clogðΔεp Þ

m m

∂d cyc 1 1 pc

¼ ¼ ½Δε (65)

∂N N f ðΔεp Þ b With attention to the order of the material parameter

in (70) from a calibration of the low-cycle fatigue in

and damage accumulation after N cycle is Cofﬁn–Manson rule and the amplitude of effective plas-

tic strain, the degree of nonlinearity of damage evolution

N m N m law is always 0 < m < 1. It must be determined in every

cycN

X 1 X 1

¼ ¼ ½Δεp ðiÞc (66) analysis with its particular loading condition and material

d

i¼1

N f ðΔεp ðiÞÞ i¼1

b selection to give the damage parameter, 0 < d < 1. For ex-

ample, we estimate m = 0.2 for high-density polyethylene

adhesive and m = 0.25 for epoxy adhesive.

To determine the range of the degree of nonlinearity Figure 4 illustrates the ﬂowchart of progressive

for the damage evolution law, we may focus on a typical elastic–plastic-damage analyses. In these analyses, the

point of N/Nf = 0.5 in Fig. 3: yield stress, CZM strengths, fracture energies and pen-

alty stiffness in the elastic and plastic regions should be

N =N f ¼0:5

d ¼ d mon þ d cyc (67) updated.45 This ﬁgure also shows the location of the user

© 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 00, 1–20

LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE DELAMINATION IN FIBRE METAL LAMINATES 11

node brick element with small thickness (Fig. 1). The el-

ement thickness has been recommended to be about 0.01

of the layer thickness in elastic-damage analyses. But,

using of such small thickness values produces numerical

and convergence difﬁculties in the elastic–plastic-damage

analyses. Therefore, the CZM element thicknesses of 0.1

and 0.2 mm were used for elastic–plastic-damage analyses

in different cases. These values are almost equal to the

cohesive thickness between the layers. The elastic–

plastic-damage law for the description of material deg-

radation under low-cycle fatigue loading is investigated

with respect to its prediction for three fundamental

tests as follows:

1 Validation of the developed model with the analysis of

the damage growth in adhesively bonded aluminium

joints with different loading conditions.

2 Investigation of delamination growth and cycle num-

ber to ﬁnal failure in FML under mode I and mode

II with a displacement ratio R ¼ δδmax

min

¼ 0.

3 The inﬂuence of the variable amplitude loading (VAL)

Fig. 4 Flowchart of progressive elastic–plastic-damage analysis. on damage growth rate in FML under mode-I and

mode-II fracture and the displacement ratio R = 1.

analyses and linked to the master solver. Damage growth in adhesively bonded aluminium

plates

To validate the proposed model of elastic–plastic-damage

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION constitutive law for CZM element, the obtained results

from the developed procedure are compared with the

The presented CZM element and user material have available numerical results in Ref. [46]. In Ref. [46],

been linked to the ANSYS software by user programmable FCG along the CZM elements is studied. Instead of

features. The CZM element is a three-dimensional 20- using the Paris equation, the actual process of material

Aluminium

E(GPa) v

70 0.33

Cohesive zone model element

GIc(N/mm) GIIc(N/mm) η bf cf m

0.422 1.279 2 0.06514562 0.116 0.2

K(GPa) KT (GPa) σ y(MPa) σ 0(MPa) τ 0(MPa)

0.3 0.1 3.3 6.66 6.66

E: Young’s modulus.

GIc: critical strain energy release rate in mode I.

η: material parameter obtained from experiments.

m: degree of nonlinearity of damage evolution law.

KT: cohesive zone model penalty stiffness in plastic part.

σ 0: normal cohesive zone model strength.

v: Poisson’s ratio.

GIIc: critical strain energy release rate in mode II.

bf, cf: parameters derived from calibration tests of low-cycle fatigue.

K: cohesive zone model penalty stiffness.

σ y: yield stress.

τ 0: shear cohesive zone model strength.

© 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 00, 1–20

12 F. MAZAHERI AND H. HOSSEINI-TOUDESHKY

separation during FCG along the CZM elements is de- In the ﬁrst test, a shear loading was applied, and in the

scribed by the use of an irreversible constitutive equation second test, the model response was examined in two level

for the cyclic traction-separation behaviour within the of loading sequences with different load directions and

CZM approach. This reference considered two- load levels. Besides, we developed gap element50 with the

dimensional constitutive law for stress–strain relation user material subroutine to model the initial delamination

and therefore used four-node cohesive elements for in order to prevent penetration of each layer to another

modelling. Also, an exponential constitutive law was one under compressive cyclic loading (Fig. 5).

considered in Ref. [46], but we used a three-dimensional To investigate the effect of mesh size on the results,

bilinear constitutive law that is compromising between the model has been analysed with two different mesh

the numerical cost and approximation. sizes. The coarse mesh contained 352 elements including

This model is representative of initially delaminated 60 CZM, 60 gap and 232 solid elements and the ﬁne

adhesively bonded plates consisting of aluminium sub- mesh contained 532 elements including 120 CZM, 60

strates bonded by a modiﬁed high-density polyethylene gap and 352 solid elements were analysed. Figure 6 indi-

adhesive. The material data used in this investigation cates the damage accumulation in the middle layer of the

are presented in Table 1.46–49 initial delamination front (point A is located within the

The study investigated an adhesively bonded joint, solid adhesive and 0.1 mm far from the two adhesive-

with a thickness of 9.4 mm, a width of 25.4 mm, a length aluminium joints) due to the ﬁrst loading sequence, that

of 216.0 mm and an initial delamination length of is, shear loading. Figure 6(b) also shows the damage con-

127.0 mm for normal and shear loading using the principles tour of the CZM elements and damage accumulation at

of normal superposition. When we consider the elastic- point A versus the number of cycles. This ﬁgure shows

damage model, the problem will be irreversible, and we a reasonable agreement between the predicted damage

can’t use the superposition to derive the accurate result results from this study and in Ref [46]. It should be noted

for the damage accumulation. Similarly in the elastic– that the resultant damage accumulation values in the ﬁrst

plastic-damage analysis, we have the two irreversibility loading sequences are smaller than those predicted in

sources, and using the superposition for damage accu- Ref. [46]. This difference is due to the consideration of

mulation leads to inaccurate results. But to prevent the compressive stresses at the front of the delaminated area

problem complexity, we assumed that the irreversibility because of plastic strain accumulation. This compressive

of two loading block is not coupled, and the superposition stress reduces the rate of damage evolution in a low-cycle

of the damage accumulation is acceptable. The thickness fatigue regime.

of CZM elements is 0.2 mm. Computations in the example In the second loading sequence shown in Fig. 7, the

are performed under load-control condition. Both the model predicts a reduction in the fatigue strength with

normal and shear loadings followed a sinusoidal function. ongoing damage accumulation during the ﬁrst loading

Fig. 5 Geometry and loading conditions for adhesively bonded joint: (a) shear loading and (b) normal loading.

© 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 00, 1–20

LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE DELAMINATION IN FIBRE METAL LAMINATES 13

Fig. 6 One level loading case study: (a) cyclic shear loading and (b) comparison of obtained damage evolution with those predicted by Roe and

Siegmund.46

block (15 cycles), such that damage will continue to accu- law. Also, it should be noted that the plastic strain accumu-

mulate during the second loading block (45 cycles). lation in the coarse meshed model is smaller than the

Speciﬁcally, the results presented in Fig. 7 demonstrate ﬁne mesh; hence, the damage growth rate is smaller

that using the present model, the damage accumulation than ﬁne mesh.

is coupled between the normal and shear direction of

loading in the elastic–plastic-damage cohesive zone.

Delamination growth in FMLs under mode I and

It should be noted that the resultant damage accu-

mode II

mulation values in the second loading sequences are

greater than those predicted in Ref. [46]. This differ- The composite layers in FMLs may consist of 2, 3 or 4

ence is due to the consideration of three-dimensional unidirectional or cross-ply layers. The alloy for the metal

elastic–plastic CZM constitutive law. The plastic strain layers can be selected from a wide range of different

accumulation increases the rate of damage evolution in metal alloys such as aluminium alloys. A similar freedom

a low-cycle fatigue regime. Furthermore, Figs 6 and 7 of choice is available for the composite materials. Of

show good agreement between the obtained results course, compatibility is important, and the hybrid lami-

with coarse and ﬁne mesh models and available results nates should offer special features when compared with

in both loading sequence with nonlinear damage evolution individual metal alloys and full composites.

Fig. 7 Two level loading case study: (a) shear and normal loading amplitudes and sequence and (b) comparison of the obtained damage evo-

lution with those predicted by Roe and Siegmund.46

© 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 00, 1–20

14 F. MAZAHERI AND H. HOSSEINI-TOUDESHKY

We consider double cantilever beam specimens The explained components have been analysed for the

(DCB) for mode I and end notch ﬂexure specimens delamination growth rate under various loading condi-

(ENF) for mode-II condition. Computations in this part tions. For this purpose, ﬁrstly, the mode-I delamination

are performed under displacement-controlled conditions growth in the DCB specimens with different applied

with sinusoidal function and the ratio of R = 0. An impor- displacements is investigated. Figure 9(a) shows varia-

tant difference between the two material types is the tions of the damage parameter versus a number of load

occurrence of plastic deformation of the thin FML in cycles at the middle of the initial delamination front

mode-I and mode-II tests. As the plastic deformation (point A) for different applied displacements (from 0.75

consumes energy and cannot be distinguished from the to 1.05 mm) and the ratio of R = 0. Also, Fig. 9(b) shows

required energy for delamination, special considerations the normal stress–strain variations at point A for different

have to be employed to obtain reliable values for the frac- applied displacements. Figure 9(c) shows the contour of

ture toughness. Several modiﬁcations were made to the the damage parameters for applied displacement 0.75

original test speciﬁcations. The original test specimens and 1.05 mm. Figure 9(a) indicates that with increasing

were designed for composites instead of FML that show the magnitude of applied displacement, the number of

elastic deformations during the experimental procedure. cycles to create delamination decreases.

One modiﬁcation is using additional layers of 7075 For each applied displacement, by increasing the

aluminium alloy with the thickness of 4.1 mm that pre- number of cycles the damage accumulation and there-

vents plasticity occurrence during both mode-I and fore, delamination growth increases (Fig. 9(a)) and the

mode-II experiments.51 stress amplitude in the stress–strain curve decreases

The ﬁnal specimens used for the simulations (Fig. 9(b)). Figure 9(b) implies that increasing the applied

contained a set of Aluminium 7075-T6 doublers on both displacement causes more plastic strain accumulation.

sides with the thickness of 4.2 mm. In between, it was The contours of the damage parameters at the CZM

chosen a GLARE3 lay-up in which the aluminium layers elements show the delamination growth as depicted in

and composite laminate [0/90] had a thickness of 0.3 mm Fig. 9(c) after 5 cycles for applied displacement of

and 0.5 mm, respectively. The thickness of the CZM 1.05 mm and 120 cycles for applied displacement of

element was 0.1 mm, and resin adhesive layer between 0.75 mm. The damage parameter value of 1 at an integration

the aluminiums and doublers was 0.2 mm. The ﬁnal spec- point of an element means delamination at that integration

imen contains the thickness of 10 mm, width of 25 mm, point. This ﬁgure also shows that at an applied displacement

and length of 150 mm. The initial delamination length of 0.75 mm, the domain of delaminated area (black area with

was 50 mm. Aluminium substrates and composite lami- damage factor of about unity) is smaller than that for the

nates bonded to each other with epoxy as an adhesive. applied displacement of 1.05 mm, but the domain of the

The geometry and loading condition of the specimen in damaged area is much greater than that for the applied

both modes are illustrated in Fig. 8(a) and (b). Totally, displacement of 1.05 mm, as it passed more cycles to reach

each model contains of 1048 elements where 80 elements the ﬁnal failure.

of them are CZM elements. To evaluate the delamination In the second stage, the mode-II delamination growth

growth in this FML containing the initial delamination in the ENF specimens with different applied displace-

under mode I and mode II in low-cycle fatigue loading ments is investigated. Figure 10(a) shows variations of

using the developed approach, the presented material the damage parameter versus a number of load cycles at

properties in Table 2 were used.47–53 the middle of the initial delamination front (point A)

Fig. 8 Double cantilever beam and end notch ﬂexure geometries and loading conditions for of GLARE3 specimens: (a) mode I and (b) mode

II.54

© 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 00, 1–20

LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE DELAMINATION IN FIBRE METAL LAMINATES 15

Aluminiums

E(GPa) v

70 0.33

Glass/epoxy

53.98 9.412 5.548 3 5.548 0.33

Cohesive zone model element

GIc(N/mm) GIIc(N/mm) η bf cf m

4 2 2 0.06514562 0.116 0.25

K(GPa) KT(GPa) σ y(MPa) σ 0(MPa) τ 0(MPa)

1.8 0.5 22 40 40

E: Young’s modulus.

E11: Young’s modulus in the longitudinal direction 1.

G12, G13, G23: shear moduli.

GIc: critical strain energy release rate in mode I.

η: material parameter obtained from experiments.

m: degree of nonlinearity of damage evolution law.

KT: cohesive zone model penalty stiffness in plastic part.

σ 0: normal cohesive zone model strength.

v: Poisson’s ratio.

E22, E33: Young’s modulus in the transverse direction 2, and through the thickness direction 3.

v12, v13, v23: Poisson’s ratios.

GIIc: critical strain energy release rate in mode II.

bf, cf: parameters derived from calibration tests of low-cycle fatigue.

K: cohesive zone model penalty stiffness.

σ y: yield stress.

τ 0: shear cohesive zone model strength.

Fig. 9 Double cantilever beam (DCB) results for various applied displacements and R = 0: (a) damage parameter versus number of cycles, (b)

normal stress–strain curves and (c) damage contours for displacements of 0.75 and 1.05 mm.

© 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 00, 1–20

16 F. MAZAHERI AND H. HOSSEINI-TOUDESHKY

Fig. 10 End notch ﬂexure results for various applied displacements and R = 0: (a) damage parameter versus number of cycles, (b) shear stress–

strain curves and (c) damage contours for displacement 0.3 and 0.55 mm.

Fig. 11 Comparison of log–log relation of plastic strain amplitude versus number of cycles to failure between end notch ﬂexure (ENF) and

double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens for R = 0.

for different applied displacements (from 0.3 to 0.55 mm) are shown for the applied displacements of 0.3 and

and the ratio of R = 0. Also, Fig. 10(b) shows the shear 0.55 mm. For the applied displacement of 0.3 mm, the

stress–strain variations at point A for different applied domain of the delaminated and damaged area is much

displacements. Similar to the previous DCB tests, it is greater than that for the applied displacement of

found that with increasing the magnitude of the applied 0.55 mm. In both Figs 9 and 10, greater plastic strain in-

displacement, the required number of cycles to create crements are observed for larger applied displacements.

delamination at point A decreases. In Fig. 10(c), the Finally, Fig. 11 shows the plastic strain amplitude Δεp

contours of the damage parameters at the cohesive area against the number of cycles to failure, Nf, in the ENF

© 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 00, 1–20

LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE DELAMINATION IN FIBRE METAL LAMINATES 17

Fig. 12 Double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens with different displacement cycle sequences and R = 1: (a) damage parameter versus num-

ber of cycles, (b) normal stress–strain curves and (c) contours of damage for high to low and low to high blocks.

and DCB specimens with zero displacement ratios. The amplitude blocks and low to high amplitude blocks are

major resource for a comparison is the Cofﬁn–Manson considered. The displacement amplitudes are 1 and

rule, which postulates a power law relation between the 0.8 mm for high and low loading blocks, respectively. Each

amplitude of the plastic strain increment and the number displacement sequence contains a high and a low ampli-

of cycles to failure, that is, a straight line in a log–log plot. tude loading block 5 cycles each. These blocks are ﬁrstly

This ﬁgure shows that for the same number of cycles to applied to the DCB specimen. Figure 12(a) shows the

failure, in a low-cycle regime, the plastic strain amplitude variations of damage accumulations versus cycle numbers

in ENF specimen is greater than that for DCB specimen. at point A due to different blocks. Figure 12(b) shows

According to the damage evolution relation (Eq. (65)), by the normal stress–strain curves at point A for different

increasing the plastic strain increment, the rate of cyclic blocks. Figure 12(a) and (b) indicates that in the high to

damage growth also increases. Hence, the cyclic damage low block case, accumulation of plastic strains is larger

evolution in mode II is greater than in mode I in a low- than that obtained for the low to high block case; hence,

cycle regime. damage accumulation and damage growth rates is greater

than the low to high block case. Damage parameter

contours at the cohesive area have been shown for both

Damage growth in FMLs under variable loadings

loading blocks in Fig. 12(c). These contours clearly show

In this section, the inﬂuence of VAL and inﬂuence of the that the damaged area in the high to low applied displace-

displacement ratio on the damage growth rate in FMLs ment sequence is larger than that predicted for the low to

under mode-I and mode-II conditions are studied. Similar high sequence.

to the previous section, DCB and ENF specimens are The described loading blocks are also applied to ENF

analysed under displacement-controlled condition with specimens with the displacement ratio of R = 1. The

sinusoidal function and the ratio of R = 1. For this displacement amplitudes are 0.5 and 0.3 mm for high

purpose, two displacement sequences of high to low and low loading blocks, respectively. Figure 13(a) shows

© 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 00, 1–20

18 F. MAZAHERI AND H. HOSSEINI-TOUDESHKY

Fig. 13 End notch ﬂexure (ENF) specimens with different displacement sequence and R = 1: (a) damage parameter versus number of cycles,

(b) shear stress–strain curves and (c) contours of damage for high to low and low to high blocks.

Fig. 14 Variable amplitude loading results for double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notch ﬂexure (ENF) specimens with R = 1: (a) damage

parameter versus number of cycles and (b) stress–strain curves.

the variation of damage accumulation versus cycle num- of plastic strains is larger than that predicted for the low

bers at point A due to different loading blocks. Figure 13 to high loading block; hence, damage accumulation and

(b) shows the obtained shear stress–strain curves at point the damage growth rates are greater than those obtained

A for different loading blocks. Fig. 13(a) and (b) indicates for the low to high loading blocks. Similar to the ob-

that for the high to low amplitude blocks, accumulation tained results for zero displacement ratio, below

© 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 00, 1–20

LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE DELAMINATION IN FIBRE METAL LAMINATES 19

10 cycles, the rate of cyclic damage growth in ENF spec- developed formulations and tool can be used for progres-

imens is greater than those obtained for DCB specimens. sive damage analyses of laminates under the low-cycle

Hence, for the high to low amplitude blocks, the damage fatigue loadings. Moreover, the delamination growths

growth rate is large enough to create delamination, that versus the load cycle number in FMLs under mode-I

is, damage parameter reaches to about unity (delamination and mode-II fracture conditions with the displacement

initiation) at about 8 cycles for ENF specimens and 10 - ratio of R = 0 were investigated. It was shown that in a

cycles for DCB specimens. Damage parameter contours low-cycle fatigue regime, the delamination growth rate

at the cohesive area for two loading blocks are shown in of FML in mode II is greater than mode-I condition. It

Fig. 13(c). These contours clearly show that delaminated was also shown that the damage growth rate and domain

and damaged area in the high to low applied displacement of the delaminated area in FMLs under VAL in mode-I

sequence is larger than the low to high sequence. and mode-II conditions with the displacement ratio of

Finally, for a general sense, the differences between R = 1 in the high to low applied displacement sequence

the predicted damage growth rates for VAL with is greater than the low to high sequence.

R = 1 under mode-I and mode-II conditions are

discussed. Figure 14(a) shows the damage accumulation

versus load cycle numbers. Dimensionless stress–strain

curve associated with this damage accumulation has been REFERENCES

also presented in Fig. 14(b). Obviously, the obtained

results for DCB and ENF specimens are not under 1 Fan, J. Y., Guan, Z. W., Cantwell, W. J. (2011) Structural

similar displacement amplitudes. behaviour of ﬁbre metal laminates subjected to a low velocity

impact. Sci China - Phys Mech Astron, 54, 1168–1177.

It can be observed from Fig. 14 that the stress level in 2 Sinmazçelik, T., Avcu, E., Bora, M. Ö., Çoban, O. (2011) A

ENF specimen is lower than the DCB specimen, but the review: ﬁbre metal laminates, background, bonding types and

damage growth rate in mode II is larger than mode I in applied test methods. Mater. Des., 32, 3671–3685.

both high to low and low to high loading blocks. The 3 Beumler, T., Pellenkoft, F., Tillich, A., Wohlers, W., Smart, C.

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accumulation in mode II under variable loading that 4 Botelho, E. C., Silva, R. A., Pardini, L. C., Rezende, M. C.

causes unstable damage growth. Hence, it is predicted (2006) A review on the development and properties of continuous

that the ﬁnal failure in mode II in the high to low loading ﬁber/epoxy/aluminum hybrid composites for aircraft structures.

sequence occurred in lower stress level and smaller Mater. Res, 9, 247–256.

applied displacement values. Two facts are also found 5 Yehia, A., Bahei-El-Din, A., Amany, G., Botrous, B. (2003)

Analysis of progressive ﬁber debonding in elastic laminates. Int

from Fig. 14(a). Firstly, as the plasticity is an irreversible

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