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CLASSIFICATION OF BANANA LEAF DISEASES

USING MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHM

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by
AFRIN FATHIMA K (Reg.No:2015104005)
ANCY A (Reg.No:2015104015)
ANU PRIYA R (Reg.No:2015104020)

In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree


of
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
IN
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
APRIL 2018

SETHU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


AN AUTONOMOUS INSTITUION
AFFILIATED TO ANNA UNIVERSITY
PULLOOR,KARIAPATTI-626 115.

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SETHU INSTITUTIE OF TECHNOLOGY
AN AUTONOMOUS INSTITUTION

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this technical project report “CLASSIFICATION OF


BANANA LEAF DISEASES USING MACHINE LEARNING
ALGORITHM” is the bonafide work of AFRIN FATHIMA.K (2015104005),
ANCY. A (2015104015), ANU PRIYA.R (2015104020), who carried out the
technical project work under my supervision.

SIGNATURE SIGNATURE
Mrs. Helina Rajini Suresh M.E.,(Ph.D.,) Mrs. R.Sivaranjani M.E.,(Ph.D).,
HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT SUPERVISOR
Department of ECE Professor/Department of ECE
Sethu Institute of Technology Sethu Institute of Technology
Pulloor, Kariapatti-626 115 Pulloor,Kariapatti-626 115

Submitted for the 15UEC804 - Project Work End Semester Examination held at
Sethu Institute of Technology on …………………….

INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First we like to thank god the almighty for giving us the talent and
opportunity to complete project.

We wish to express our earnest great fullness to our honorable founder


and chairman Mr. S. MOHAMED JALEEL B.Sc., B.L., for his
encouragement extend to us to undertake this project.

We wish to express our sense of gratitude to our principal

Dr. A. SENTHIL KUMAR M.E., Ph.D., for being given guidance kind and
cooperative encouragement, inspiration and keep interest show throughout the

We would like to express our deep sense of gratitude to our Head of the
Department Mrs. HELINA RAJINI SURESH M.E., (Ph.D.)., who extended
their heartiest encouragement, advice and valuable guidance through this
project.

We would also like to acknowledge our deep sense of gratitude to our


guide Mrs. R.SIVARANJANI M.E.,(Ph.D)., for this enthusiastic
inspiration, constant encouragement, sustained guidance and scholarly
advice impaired throughout the course of this project.

We thank our parents, faculty members, supporting staff


and friends for their extended during the time of our project.

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ABSTRACT

Agricultural productivity is something on which economy highly depends. This


is the one of the reasons that disease detection in plants plays an important role
in agriculture field, as having disease in plants are quite natural. Leaf diseases
are a noteworthy risk to sustenance security; however their quick
distinguishing proof stays troublesome in numerous parts of the world because
of the non-attendance of the important foundation. Emergence of accurate
techniques in the field of leaf based image detection and classification has
shown impressive results. This work concentrates the detection and
classification of affected and unaffected leaf. The proposed framework consists
of four parts: Image Pre-processing, Segmentation of the leaf using K-means
clustering to determine the diseased area, feature extraction and classification
of diseases. Texture feature are extracted using second order statistical Gray
Level Co-Occurance Matrix (GLCM) features and classification is done by
using SVM classifier.The proposed method outperforms than the existing work
listed in literature.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER TITLE PAGE NO


No

ABSTRACT iv

LIST OF FIGURES vii

LIST OF ABBREVATIONS viii

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 IMAGE PROCESSING SYSTEM 1

1.1.1 DIGITIZER 1

1.1.2 IMAGE PROCESSER 2

1.1.3 DIGITAL COMPUTER 3

1.1.4 MASS STORAGE 3

1.1.5 HARD COPY DEVICE 3

1.1.6 OPERATOR CONSOLE 3

1.2 APPLICATIONS OF IMAGE PROCESSING 4

2 FUNDAMENTALS OF IMAGE PROCESSING 5

2.1 ILLUMINATION AND REFLECTION 5

2.2 GRAY SCALE 5

2.3 CLASSES IN IMAGE PROCESSING 6

2.3.1 IMAGE REPRESENTATION AND 6


DESCRIPTION

2.3.2 IMAGE ENHANCEMENT 7


2.3.3 IMAGE RESTORATION 8

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2.3.4 IMAGE RECOGNITION &INTERPRETATION 9

2.3.5 IMAGE SEGMENTATION 10

2.3.6 IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION 10

2.3.7 IMAGE DATA COMPRESSION 11

3 LITERATURE SURVEY 13

4 BANANA LEAF DISEASES 19

5 PROPOSED WORK 23

5.2 IMAGE DATASET 23

5.3 IMAGE PREPROCESSING 24

5.4 IMAGE SEGMENTATION 24

5.5 FEATURE EXTRACTION 26

5.5.1 GLCM 26

5.5.2 WORKING OF GLCM 27

5.5.3 HARALICK TEXTURE FEATURES 28

5.6 CLASSIFICATION 32

5.6.1 CONFUSION MATRIX 33

6 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION 35

6.1 INTRODUCTION 35

6.1.1 THE MATLAB SYSTEM 36

7 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 37

8 CONCLUSION 43

REFERENCES 44

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LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE TITLES PAGE
NO. NO.

4.1 PANAMA WILT 22

4.2 LEAF SPOT 22

4.3 ANTHRACNOSE 22

4.4 CIGAR END TIP ROT 22

4.5 CROWN ROT 22

4.6 STEM END ROT 22

4.7 PSEUDO STEM HEART ROT 22

4.8 MOKO DISEASE 22

4.9 BANANA BUNKY TOP VIRUS 22

4.10 MOSAIC VIRUS 22

5.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE PROPOSED WORK 23

5.2 NORMAL LEAF IMAGE 24

5.3 K-MEANS CLUSTERING 25

5.4 CREATION OF GLCM 28

5.5 SVM CLASSIFIER 33

5.6 CONFUSION MATRIX 33

5.7 SYSTEM DESIGN 34

7.1 HEALTHY LEAF 37

7.2 AFFECTED LEAF 38

7.3 CONFUSION MATRIX 1 40


7.4 CONFUSION MATRIX 2 41

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

GLCM - Gray Level Co-Occurance Matrix

SVM - Support Vector Machine

ENT - Entropy

IDM - Inverse Difference Moment

E - Energy

RMS - Root Mean Square

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

The term digital image refers to processing of a two dimensional picture


by a digital computer. In a broader context, it implies digital processing of any
two dimensional data. A digital image is an array of real or complex numbers
represented by a finite number of bits. An image given in the form of a
transparency, slide, photograph or an X-ray is first digitized and stored as a
matrix of binary digits in computer memory. This digitized image can then be
processed and/or displayed on a high-resolution television monitor. For display,
the image is stored in a rapid-access buffer memory, which refreshes the
monitor at a rate of 25 frames per second to produce a visually continuous
display.

1.1 The Image processing System

A typical digital image processing system is given in Fig.1.1

Digitizer Mass Storage

Image Digital Operator


Processor Computer Console

Display Hard Copy


Device

Fig 1.1 Block Diagram of a Typical Image Processing System

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1.1.1 Digitizer

A digitizer converts an image into a numerical representation suitable for


input into a digital computer. Some common digitizers are Microdensitometer.

1. Flying spot scanner


2. Image dissector
3. Videocon camera
4. Photosensitive solid- state arrays.

1.1.2 Image Processor

An image processor does the functions of image acquisition, storage,


preprocessing, segmentation, representation, recognition and interpretation and
finally displays or records the resulting image. The following block diagram
gives the fundamental sequence involved in an image processing system

Problem Image Segmentation Representation


Domain Acquisition & Description

Knowledge Recognition & Result


Preprocessing
interpretation

Fig 1.2 Block Diagram of Fundamental Sequence involved in an image

Processing system

As detailed in the diagram, the first step in the process is image


acquisition by an imaging sensor in conjunction with a digitizer to digitize the
image. The next step is the preprocessing step where the image is improved
being fed as an input to the other processes. Preprocessing typically deals with

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enhancing, removing noise, isolating regions, etc. Segmentation partitions an
image into its constituent parts or objects. The output of segmentation is usually
raw pixel data, which consists of either the boundary of the region or the pixels
in the region themselves. Representation is the process of transforming the raw
pixel data into a form useful for subsequent processing by the computer.
Description deals with extracting features that are basic in differentiating one
class of objects from another. Recognition assigns a label to an object based on
the information provided by its descriptors. Interpretation involves assigning
meaning to an ensemble of recognized objects. The knowledge about a problem
domain is incorporated into the knowledge base. The knowledge base guides the
operation of each processing module and also controls the interaction between
the modules. Not all modules need be necessarily present for a specific function.
The composition of the image processing system depends on its application.
The frame rate of the image processor is normally around 25
frames/second.
1.1.3 Digital Computer
Mathematical processing of the digitized image such as convolution,
averaging, addition, subtraction, etc. are done by the computer.
1.1.4 Mass Storage
The secondary storage devices normally used are floppy disks, CD ROMs
etc.
1.1.5 Hard Copy Device
The hard copy device is used to produce a permanent copy of the image
and for the storage of the software involved.
1.1.6 Operator console
The operator console consists of equipment and arrangements for
verification of intermediate results and for alterations in the software as and

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when require. The operator is also capable of checking for any resulting errors
and for the entry of requisite data.
1.2 Applications of Image Processing
Importance and necessity of digital image processing stems from two
principal application areas: Improvement of pictorial information for human
interpretation and Processing of scene data for autonomous machine perception.
Digital image processing has a broad spectrum of applications such as remote
sensing, image storage and transmission for business applications, medical
imaging, acoustic imaging, and automated inspection of industrial parts.
Images acquired by satellites are useful in tracking of earth resources,
geographical mapping, prediction of agricultural crops, urban growth, weather,
flood and fire control. Space imaging applications include recognition and
analysis of objects contained in images obtained from deep space-probe
missions. There are also medical applications such as processing of X-Rays,
Ultrasonic scanning, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Nuclear Magnetic
Resonance Imaging, etc.
In addition to the above mentioned applications, digital image processing
is now being used in solving a wide variety of problems. Though unrelated,
these problems commonly require methods capable of enhancing information
for human interpretation and analysis. Image enhancement and restoration
procedures are used to process degraded images of unrecoverable objects.
Successful applications of image processing concepts are found in astronomy,
defense, biology and industrial applications. The images may be used in the
detection of tumors or for screening the patients. The current major area of
application of digital image processing techniques is in solving the problem of
machine vision.

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CHAPTER 2
FUNDAMENTALS OF IMAGE PROCESSING

The ultimate goal of any image processing technique is to help an


observer interpret the content of an image.

2.1 Illumination and Reflectance

The term image refers to a two dimensional light intensity function,


denoted by f(x, y), where the value or amplitude of f at spatial coordinates (x, y)
gives the intensity of the image at that point. Light is a form of energy and is
hence nonzero and finite. The images people perceive in day to day life consist
of light reflected from objects. The basic nature of the image may be
characterized by two components

a. The amount of source light being incident on the scene being viewed
and
b. The amount of light reflected by the objects in the scene.

The former is known as the Illumination and the latter is known as the
Reflectance components of the image.
2.2 Gray Scale
The intensity of a monochrome image f at coordinates (x, y) is known as
the gray level (l) of the image at that point. It is evident that
Lmin  l  Lmax --------- (2.1)
Where,
Lmin is the minimum gray level

Lmax is the maximum gray level

And the only requirement is that Lmin be positive and Lmax be finite.

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If i and i are the minimum and maximum values of the
min max

illumination and r and r are the minimum and maximum values of


min max
reflectance respectively, we have
L i r -------- (2.2)
min min min
L i r -------- (2.3)
max max max

The interval Lmin ,Lmax  is called the gray scale of the image. Normally the
image is shifted to the interval [0,L] where l=0 is considered black and l=L is
considered white.
2.3 Classes in Image Processing
An image processing system may handle a number of problems and have
a number of applications but it mostly involves the following processes known
as the basic classes in image processing
1. Image Representation and Description
2. Image Enhancement
3. Image Restoration
4. Image Recognition and Interpretation
5. Image Segmentation
6. Image Reconstruction
7. Image Data Compression
2.3.1 Image Representation and Description
Any processed image must be represented and described in a form
suitable for further computer processing. Basically, representing a region
involves two choices
1. In terms of its external characteristics (its boundary) and
2. in terms of its internal characteristics (the pixels comprising the
region)

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The next task is to describe the region based on the chosen representation.
Generally an external representation is chosen when the primary focus is on
shape characteristics. An internal representation is selected when the primary
focus is on reflectivity characteristics such as color and texture.
Some of the available representation approaches are,
1. Chain codes
2. Polygonal approximations
3. Signatures
4. Boundary segments
2.3.2 Image Enhancement
The principle objective of enhancement technique is to process an image
so that the result is more suitable than the original than for a specific application
[1]. Most enhancement techniques are very much problem oriented and hence
enhancement for one problem may turn out to be degradation for the other.
Enhancement approaches may be classified into two broad categories.

1. Spatial domain enhancement techniques


2. Frequency domain enhancement techniques.

The former refers to processing the image in the image plane (pixels)
itself while the latter techniques are based on modifying the Fourier (or any
other) transform of an image. In general enhancement techniques for problems
involve various combinations of methods from both the categories.
Some examples of enhancement operations are edge enhancement,
pseudo coloring, histogram equalization, noise filtering, unsharp masking,
sharpening, magnifying, etc. The enhancement process does not increase the
inherent information content present in the image but only tries to present it in a
suitable manner. Enhancement operations may be either local or global. Global

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operations operate on the entire image at a time while local operations define
spatial masks (small sub images) over which the operation is to be performed.
2.3.3 Image Restoration
The ultimate goal of restoration techniques (as in image enhancement) is
to improve the image in some sense. However, unlike enhancement, restoration
is a process that attempts to recover an image that has been degraded by using
some apriori knowledge of the degradation phenomenon. Thus restoration
techniques are oriented towards modeling the degradation and applying the
inverse process in order to recover the original image. This approach usually
involves formulating a criterion of goodness that will yield some optimal
estimate of the desired result.
Early techniques for digital image restoration were derived mostly from
frequency domain concepts. However, modern methods take advantage of the
algebraic approach. Although a direct solution by algebraic methods generally
involves the manipulation of large systems of simultaneous equations, under
certain conditions computational complexities can be reduced to the same level
as required by traditional frequency domain restoration techniques. Restoration
techniques may be either linear or non-linear.
Image restoration may be classified into three major types.
1. Restoration models: Image formation, detector and recorder,
noise model, sampled observation.
2. Linear filtering Inverse / pseudo-inverse filter, Wiener filter,
FIR filter, Kalman filter, semi recursive filter.
3. Other methods Speckle noise reduction, maximum entropy
restoration, Bayesian methods, blind deconvolution, etc.

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2.3.4 Image Recognition and Interpretation
Image recognition or analysis is a process of discovering, identifying and
understanding patterns that are relevant to the performance of an image based
task. One of the principle goals of image analysis is to endow a machine with
the capability to approximate similar to human beings. An automated image
analysis system is capable of exhibiting various degrees of intelligence.
Some of the associated characteristics are,
1. The ability to extract pertinent information from a background of
irrelevant details.
2. The capability to learn from examples and to generalize this
knowledge.
3. The ability to make inferences from incomplete information.

Image analysis can be divided into three basic areas.


1. Low level processing which deals with functions requiring no
intelligence
2. Intermediate level processing which deals with the task of
extracting and characterizing components in an image resulting
form a low level process and
3. High level processing which involves recognition and
interpretation and is generally termed as intelligent cognition.
The predominant concept underlying image interpretation methodologies
is the effective organization and use of knowledge about a problem domain.
Current techniques for image interpretation are mostly decision – theoretic
methods, some of which are predicate logic, semantic networks, expert systems,
etc.

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2.3.5 Image Segmentation
Image segmentation is a technique for extracting information from a
image. This is generally the first step in image analysis. Segmentation
subdivides an image into its constituent parts or objects. The level to which this
subdivision is carried depends on the problem being solved. Segmentation is
stopped when the objects of interest in an application have been isolated.
In general, autonomous segmentation is one of the most difficult tasks in
image processing. This step determines the eventual success or failure of the
analysis. Effective segmentation rarely fails to lead to a successful solution.
Segmentation algorithms for monochrome images generally are based on one of
two basic properties of gray level values
1. Discontinuity
2. Similarity
In the first category, the approach is to partition an image based on abrupt
changes in gray level. The principal areas of interest within this category are
detection of isolated points and detection of lines and edges in an image. The
principal approaches in the second category are based on thresholding, region
growing, region splitting and region merging. The concept of segmenting an
image based on discontinuity or similarity of the gray level value of its pixels is
applicable to both static and dynamic images. In the latter cases, motion can be
used as a powerful queue to improve the performance of segmentation
algorithms.
2.3.6 Image Reconstruction
An important problem in image processing is to reconstruct a cross
section of an object from several images of its trans-axial projections. A
projection is a shadow gram obtained by illuminating an object by penetrating
radiation. Each horizontal line is a one dimensional projection of the horizontal
slice of the project. Each pixel on the projected image represents the total
absorption of the radiation along its path from the source to the detector. By
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rotating the source detector assembly around the object, projection views for
several different angles can be obtained. Image systems that generate such slice
views are called computerized tomography (CT) scanners. These
reconstructions are of several types.
1. Transmission tomography
2. Reflection tomography
3. Emission tomography
4. Magnetic resonance imaging
5. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging
If a three dimensional object is scanned by a parallel beam, then the entire
three dimensional objects can be reconstructed from a set of two dimensional
slices, each of which can be reconstructed using several available algorithms.
2.3.7 Image Data Compression
An enormous amount of data is produced when a 2-D light intensity
function is sampled and quantized to create a digital image. The amount of data
generated may be so great that it results in impractical storage, processing and
communication requirements.
Image compression addresses the problem of reducing the amount of data
required to represent a digital image. The underlying basis of the reduction
process is the removal of redundant data. This amounts to transforming a 2-D
pixel array into a statistically uncorrelated data set. The transformation is
applied prior to storage or transmission of image. Later the compressed image is
decompressed to reconstruct the original image or an approximation to it. Initial
focus in this field was on the development of methods for reducing video
transmission bandwidth, a process called bandwidth compression.
Image compression is the natural technology for handling the increased
spatial resolution of today’s imaging sensors and evolving broadcast television
standards. Applications of data compression are in broadcast television, remote
sensing via satellite, military communications via aircraft, radar and sonar,
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teleconferencing, computer communications, facsimile transmission, document
and medical imaging, hazardous waste control applications and the like.

Image data compression methods fall mainly into 3 categories,


1. Pixel coding
a. Run length coding
b. Bit plane coding
c. PCM/Quantization
2. Predictive coding
a. Delta modulation
b. Line by line DPCM
c. 2-D DPCM
3. Transform coding
a. Zonal coding
b. Threshold coding
c. Multi-dimensional techniques

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CHAPTER 3
LITERATURE SURVEY

[1] Pooja.V, Ragul Das and Kanchana, “Identification Of Plant


Leaf Diseases Using Image Processing Techniques”, IEEE, 2017.

This paper proposes a disease detection and classification technique with


the help of machine learning mechanisms and image processing tools. Initially,
identifying and capturing the infected region is done and latter image
preprocessing is performed. Further, the segments are obtained and the area of
interest is recognized and the feature extraction is done on the same. Finally the
obtained results are send through SVM Classifiers to get the results. The
Support Vector Machines outperforms the task of classification of diseases;
results show that the methodology put forward in the paper provides
considerably better results than the previously used disease detection
techniques.

[2] R.Meena Prakash; G.P.Saraswathy; G.Ramalakshmi,” Detection


of Leaf Diseases and Classification using Digital Image Processing”,
IEEE, 2017.

This paper, image processing techniques are used to detect the plant leaf
diseases. The objective of this work is to implement image analysis &
classification techniques for detection of leaf diseases and classification. The
proposed framework consists of four parts. They are (1) Image preprocessing
(2) segmentation of the leaf using K-means clustering to determine the diseased
areas (3) feature extraction using statistical Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix

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(GLCM) features and classification is done using Support Vector Machine
(SVM).

[3] Prajwala TM , Alla Pranathi , Kandiraju Sai Ashritha ,


Nagaratna B. Chittaragi and Shashidhar G. Koolagudi, “Tomato Leaf
Disease Detection using Convolutional Neural Networks” , IEEE ,
2018.

This paper adopts a slight variation of the convolutional neural network


model called LeNet to detect and identify diseases in tomato leaves. The main
aim of the proposed work is to find a solution to the problem of tomato disease
detection using the simplest approach while making use of minimal computing
resources to achieve results comparable to state of the art techniques. Neural
network models employ automatic feature extraction to aid in the classification
of the input image into respective disease classes. This proposed system has
achieved an average accuracy of 94-95% indicating the feasibility of the neural
network approach even under unfavourable conditions.

[4] Vijai Singh, Varsha and Misra, “Detection of unhealthy region


of plant leaves using Image Processing and Genetic Algorithm”,
IEEE, 2015.

This paper presents an algorithm for image segmentation techniques used


for automatic detection as well as classification of plant leaf disease and survey
on different disease classification techniques that can be used for plant leaf
disease. Image segmentation, which is an important aspect for disease, is done
by using genetic algorithm.

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[5] Yogesh Dandawate and Radha Kokare, “An Automated
Approach for Classification of Plant Diseases Towards Development
of Futuristic Decision Support System in Indian Perspective”, IEEE,
2015.

This paper focus on the approach based on image processing for detection
of diseases of soybean plants. The soybean images are captured using mobile
camera having resolution greater than 2 mega pixel. The purpose of the
proposed project is to provide inputs for the Decision Support System (DSS),
which is developed for providing advice to the farmers as and when require
over mobile internet. Our proposed work classifies the images of soybean leaves
as healthy and diseased using Support Vector Machine (SVM). The algorithm
comprises of four major steps: image acquisition analysis and classification.
The SVM classifier proves its ability in automatic and accurate classification of
image. Finally, it can be concluded from the experimental results that this
approach can classify the leaves with an average accuracy of 93.79%. The
proposed system will enable the farmers to get advice from the agriculture
experts with minimal efforts.

[6] Davoud Ashourloo, Hossein Aghighi; Ali Akbar Matkan;


Mohammad Reza Mobasheri; and Amir Moeini Rad, “An
Investigation Into Machine Learning Regression Techniques for the
Leaf Rust Disease Detection Using Hyperspectral Measurement”,
IEEE, 2016.

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This paper investigated on 1) using partial least square regression
(PLSR), v support vector regression (v-SVR), and Gaussian process regression
(GPR) method for wheat leaf rust disease detection, 2) evaluating the impact of
training sample size on the results, 3) the influence of disease symptoms effects
on the predictions performances of the above-mentioned methods, and 4)
comparisons between the performance of SVIs and machine learning
techniques. In this study, the spectra of the infected and non- infected leaves in
different diseases symptoms were measured using a non-image
spectroradiometer in the electro- magnetic region of 350 to 2500nm. In order to
produce a ground truth dataset, we employed photos of a digital camera to
compute the disease severity and disease symptoms fraction. The result
represent that the machine learning techniques is contrast to SVIs are not
sensitive to different diseases symptoms and their results are reliable.

[7] Halil Durmu, Ece Olcay Gune and Murvet Kirci, “Disease
Detection on the Leaves of the Tomato Plants by Using Deep
Learning”, IEEE, 2017.

This paper physical changes in the leaves can be seen with RGB cameras.
In the previous studies, standard feature extraction methods on plant leaf images
to detect diseases have been used. In this study, deep learning methods were
used to detect diseases. Deep learning architecture selection was the key issue
for the implementation. So that, two different deep learning network
architecture were tested first AlexNet and then SqueezeNet. For both of these
deep learning networks training and validation were done on the Nvidia Jetson
TX1. Tomato leaf image from the Plant Village dataset has been used for the
training. Ten different classes including healthy images are used. Trained
networks are also tested on the images from the internet.

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[8] Jobin Francis , Anto Sahaya Dhas D , Anoop B K ,
“IDENTIFICATION OF LEAF DISEASES IN PEPPER PLANTS
USING SOFT COMPUTING TECHNIQUES” , IEEE , 2016.

This paper provides an evaluation study on the existing disease detection


is plants. The case of a plant, the term disease is defined as any impairment
happening to the normal physiological function, producing characteristics
symptoms. The studies of plant disease refer to studying the visually observable
pattern of a particular plant. The identification of plants, leaves, stems and
finding out pests or diseases, or its percentage is founded very effective in the
successful cultivation of crops. The naked eye observation is the approach
adopted by many of the farmers for the detection and identification of plant
diseases. It requires continuous monitoring and found less useful on large farms.
Also, the farmers are unaware of non-native diseases. With the aid of imaging
technology the plant disease detection systems automatically detects the
symptoms that appear on the leaves and stem of a plant and helps in cultivating
healthy plants in a farm. These systems monitor the plant such as leaves and
stem and any variation observed from its characteristic features, variation will
be automatically identified and also will be informed to the user.

[9] Shima Ramesh; Mr. Ramachandra Hebbar, “Plant Disease


Detection Using Machine Learning”, IEEE, 2018.

This paper makes use of Random Forest in identifying between healthy


and diseased leaf from the data sets created. Our proposed paper includes
various phases of implementation namely dataset creation, feature extraction,
training the classifier and classification. The created datasets of diseased and

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healthy leaves are collectively trained under Random Forest to classify the
diseased and healthy image. For extraction features of an image we use
Histogram of an Oriented Gradient (HOG). Overall, using machine learning to
train the large data sets available publicly gives us a clear way to detect the
disease present in plants in a colossal scale.

[10] Pranjali B Padol; Prof. Anjali A. Yadav, “SVM Classifier Based


Grape Leaf Disease Detection”, IEEE, 2016.

This paper is intended to aid in the detection and classification leaf


diseases of grape using SVM classification techniques. First the diseased region
is found using segmentation by K-means clustering, then both color and texture
feature are extracted. Finally classification technique is used to detect the type
of leaf disease. The proposed system can successfully detect and classify the
examined disease with accuracy of 88.89%.

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CHAPTER 4

BANANA LEAF DISEASES


Panama Wilt: This is a soil-borne fungal diseases and gets entry in the
plant body through roots. It is most serious in poorly drained soil. Initial
symptoms or yellowing of lower leaves, including leaf blades and petioles. The
leaves hang around the Pseudostem and wither. In the Pseudostem of the
diseased plant, yellowish to reddish streaks are noted with intensification of
colour towards the rhizome. Wilt is severe in poor soil with continuous
cropping of banana. Warm soil temperature, poor drainage, light soil and high
soil moisture are congenial for the spread of the diseases.

Leaf spot, Leaf streak or Sigatoka diseases: Yellow Sigatoka is one of


the serious diseases affecting the banana crop. Initial symptoms appear in the
form of light yellowish spots on the leaves. A small number of these enlarge,
become oval; the color also changes to dark brown. Still later, the center of the
spot dies, turning light grey surrounded by a brown ring. In severe cases,
numerous spots coalesce, killing large part of the leaf. Rainfall, dew and
temperature determine the spread of the disease. Condition favouring mass
infection is most common during the rainy season with temperature above 21 0c.

Anthracnose: The disease attacks banana plants at all stages of growth.


Disease attacks the flowers, skin and distal ends of banana heads. The
symptoms appear as large brown patches covered with a crimson growth of the
fungus. The disease fruit turns black and the fruit is shrivelled.

Cigar End Tip Rot: A black necrosis spread from the perianth into the
tip of immature fingers. The rotted portion of the banana finger is dry and tends
to adhere to fruits.

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Crown Rot: The characteristics symptoms are blackening of the crown
tissues, which spreads to the pulp through the pedicel resulting rotting of the
injected portion and separation of fingers from the hand.

Stem-end Rot: The fungus enters through the cut stem or hand. The
invaded flesh becomes soft and water-soaked.

Pseudostem Heart Rot : The first indication of heart rot is the presence
of heart leaves with part of the lamina missing or decayed. In severe cases, the
inner leaves of the crown first turn yellow, then brown and finally die. In more
severe cases all the leaves and the plant die.

Head Rot : Newly planted suckers get affected, leading to rotting and
emitting foul odour. In older plants rotting at the collar region and leaf bases are
seen. In advance cases trunk base becomes swollen and split.

Bacterial Wilt or Moko Disease : The young plants are affected


severely. In the initial stages the bacterial wilt is characterized by the yellowish
discolouration of the inner leaf lamina to the petiole. The leaf collapses near the
junction of the lamina with the petiole. Within a week most of the leaf exhibit
wilting symptoms. The presence of yellow fingers in otherwise green stem
often indicates the presence of moko disease. The most characteristics
symptoms appear on the young suckers that have been cut ones and begin
regrowth. These are blackened and stunte. The tender leaves from the suckers
yellow necrotic.

Banana Bunchy Top Virus: The diseases transmitted to the plant by the
aphit vector Pntaloni nigronervosa and dwarf bananas are very susceptible to
this disease. Primary symptoms of the disease are seen when infected suckers
are planted. Such infected suckers putforth narrow leaves, which are chlorotic
and exhibit mosaic symptoms. The affected leaves re brittle with their margins
rolled upwards. Characteristics symptoms of bunchy top virus is the presence of

20
interrupted dark green strikes long the secondary veins of the lamina or the
midrib of the petiole. The diseased plants remain stunted and do not produce
bunch of any commercial value.

Banana Streak Virus: A prominent symptom exhibited by BSV is


yellow streaking of the leaves, which become progressively necrotic producing
black streaked appearance in older leaves. This virus is transmitted mostly
through infected planting materials, though mealy bugs and more probably
Saccharicoccus sacchari are also believed to transmit it. Shoot tip culture does
not eliminate it from vegetatively propagated materials.

Mosaic Virus: The disease characterized by typical mosaic symptoms on


the leaves. Mosaic plants easily are easily recognized by their dwarf growth and
mottled, distorted leaves. The earliest symptoms appear on younger leaves ass
light green or yellowish streaks and bands giving a mottled appearance. The
aphit vector aphis gossypii transmits the disease.

Banana Bract Mosaic Virus: This symptoms appear as yellow green


bands or mottling over an entire are of young leaves. The affected leaves shows
abnormal thickening of veins. Bunch development is affected.

21
Fig 4.1 : Panama Wilt Fig 4.2 : Leaf Spot Fig 4.3 : Anthracnose

Fig 4.4 : Cigar End Tip Rot Fig 4.5: Crown Rot Fig 4.6: Stem End Rot

Fig 4.7: Pseudostem Heart Rot Fig 4.8: Moko Disease Fig 4.9: Banana Bunchy Top Virus

Fig 4.10: Mosaic Virus

22
CHAPTER 5

PROPOSED WORK

In the proposed work consist of four parts. They are:


Image Preprocessing
Image Segmentation
Feature Extraction
Classification

5.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM

Fig 5.1 : Block Diagram of the proposed work

23
5.2 IMAGE DATASET
In this step the sample images are collected from the dataset.For which a
training set of 360 images and a testing set of 260 images is constructed. The
standard jpg format is used to store these images. Then the input image is
resized to 256×256 pixels.

Fig 5.2 : Normal Leaf Image

5.3 IMAGE PREPROCESSING


Image pre-processing is used to enhance the quality of the image
necessary for further processing and analysis. It includes color space conversion
and image enhancement. The RGB images of leaves are converted into L*a*b*
color space. The color transformation is done to determine the luminosity and
chromaticity layers. The color space conversion is used for the enhancement of
visual analysis.
5.4 IMAGE SEGMENTATION
Image segmentation is the process used to simplify the representation of
an image into meaningful form, such as to highlight object of interest from
background. The K-means clustering algorithm performs segmentation by
minimizing the sum of squares of distances between the image intensities and
the cluster centroids. The main idea is to define k centers, one for each cluster.
These centers should be placed in a cunning way because of
different location causes different result. So, the better choice is to place

24
them as much as possible far away from each other. The next step is to take
each point belonging to a given data set and associate it to the nearest centre.

Fig 5.3 : K-Means Clustering

When no point is pending, the first step is completed and an early group
age is done. At this point we need to re-calculate k new centroids as barycentre
of the clusters resulting from the previous step. After we have these k new
centroids, a new binding has to be done between the same data set
points and the nearest new centre. A loop has been generated. As a result of this
loop we may notice that the k centers change their location step by step until
no more changes are done or in other words centers do not move any more.
Finally, this algorithm aims at minimizing an objective function know as
squared error function given by:

𝑣(𝑣) = ∑𝑣 (‖𝑣𝑣 − 𝑣
𝑣‖)
2
------ (5.1)
𝑣,𝑣=1

Algorithmic steps for K-means clustering:

Let X = {x1,x2,x3,……..,xn} be the set of data points and V = {v1,v2,…….,vc}


be the set of centers.

25
1) Randomly select ‘c’ cluster centers.

2) Calculate the distance between each data point and cluster centers.

3) Assign the data point to the cluster center whose distance from the cluster
center is minimum of all the cluster centers..

4) Recalculate the new cluster center using:

𝑣𝑣 = (1⁄𝑣1 ) ∑ 𝑣
𝑣=1 𝑣
1 ------ (5.2)
1

where, ‘ci’ represents the number of data points in ith cluster.

5) Recalculate the distance between each data point and new obtained cluster
centers.

6) If no data point was reassigned then stop, otherwise repeat from step 3).

5.5 FEATURE EXTRACTION

A statistical method of examining texture that considers the spatial


relationship of pixels is the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), also
known as the gray-level spatial dependence matrix. The GLCM functions
characterize the texture of an image by calculating how often pairs of pixel with
specific values and in a specified spatial relationship occur in an image, creating
a GLCM, and then extracting statistical measures from this matrix. (The texture
filter functions, described in Texture Analysis cannot provide information about
shape, that is, the spatial relationships of pixels in an image).
5.5.1 GRAY LEVEL CO-OCCURANCE MATRIX(GLCM)

In 1973, Haralick introduced the co-occurrence matrix and texture


features which are the most popular second order statistical features today.
Haralick proposed two steps for texture feature extraction. First step is

26
computing the co-occurrence matrix and the second step is calculating texture
feature based on the co-occurrence matrix. This technique is useful in wide
range of image analysis applications from biomedical to remote sensing
techniques.
5.5.2 WORKING OF GLCM
Basic of GLCM texture considers the relation between two neighbouring
pixels in one offset, as the second order texture. The gray values relationships in
a target are transformed into the co-occurrence matrix space by a given kernel
mask such as 3×3, 5×5, 7×7 and so forth. In the transformation from the image
space into the co-occurrence matrix space, the neighbouring pixels in one or
some of the eight defined directions can be used; normally, four direction such
as 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° is initially regarded, and its reverse direction (negative
direction) can be also counted into account. It contains information about the
positions of the pixels having similar gray level values.
Each element (i, j) in GLCM specifies the number of times that the pixel
with value I occurred horizontally adjacent to a pixel with value j. In Figure
computation has been made in the manner where, element (1, 1) in the GLCM
contains the value 1 because there is only one instance in the image where two,
horizontally adjacent pixels have the values 1 and 1. Element (1, 2) in the
GLCM contains the value 2 because there are two instances in the image where
two, horizontally adjacent pixels have the values 1 and 2. Element (1, 2) in the
GLCM contains the value 2 because there are two instances in the image where
two, horizontally adjacent pixels have the values 1 and 2. The GLCM matrix
has been extracted for input dataset imagery. Once after the GLCM is
computed, texture features of the image are being extracted successively.

27
Fig 5.4 :Creation of GLCM
5.5.3 HARALICK TEXTURE FEATURES
Haralick extracted thirteen texture features from GLCM for an image.
The important texture features for classifying the image into water body and
non-water body are Energy (E), Entropy (Ent), Contrast (Con), Inverse
Difference Moment (IDM) and Directional Moment (DM).
The thirteen texture features are,
 Contrast
 Correlation
 Energy
 Homogeneity
 Mean
 Standard
 Entropy
 RMS
 Variance
 Smoothness
 Kurtosis
 Skewness

28
 IDM.
Andrea Baraldi and Flavio Parmiggiani (1995) discussed the five
statistical parameter energy, entropy, contrast, IDM and DM, which are
considered the most relevant among the 14 originally texture features proposed
by Haralick et al. (1973). The complexity of the algorithm also reduced by
using these texture features.
Let i and j are the coefficients of co-occurrence matrix, M i, j is the
element in the co-occurrence matrix at the coordinates i and j and N is the
dimension of the co-occurrence matrix.

a) CONTRAST
Contrast measures intensity contrast of a pixel and its neighbour pixel
over the entire image. If the image is constant, contrast is equal to 0. The
equation of the contrast is as follows,
Contrast   ( p )(i 
N 1 2

i, j 0 ij
j) ------ (5.3)

b) ENERGY
Energy is a measure of uniformity with squared elements summation in
the GLCM. Range is in between 0 and 1. Energy is 1 for a constant image. The
equation of the energy is given by equation,
N 1 2
Energy   (p ) ------ (5.4)
i, j 0 ij

c) HOMOGENEITY
Homogeneity measures the similarity among the pixels. Its range is
between 0 and 1. Homogeneity is 1 for a diagonal GLCM. The equation of the
Homogeneity is as follows,
( p2 ) ------ (5.5)
Homogeneity  
N 1
ij
2

i, j 0
[1  (i 
j) ]
d) CORRELATION
29
Correlation measures how correlated a pixel is to its neighbourhood. Its
range is in between -1 and 1.
(i   )( j   )
Correlation  
N 1
(p ) ------ (5.6)

i, j0 ij 2

e) ENTROPY
This concept comes from thermodynamics. Entropy (Ent) is the measure
of randomness that is used to characterize the texture of the input image. Its
value will be maximum when all the elements of the co-occurrence matrix are
the same. It is also defined as in Equation

Entropy  i, j0 M (i, j)( ln( M (i, j))) 


N 1 ------ (5.7)

f) INVERSE DIFFERENCE MOMENT


Inverse Difference Moment (IDM) is a measure of image texture as
defined in Equation . IDM is usually called homogeneity that measures the local
homogeneity of an image. IDM feature obtains the measures of the closeness of
the distribution of the GLCM elements to the GLCM diagonal. IDM has a range
of values so as to determine whether the image is textured or non-textured.
N 1
1
IDM  
 1 (1 j) M (i, j) ------ (5.8)
2
i, j0

g) SKEWNESS
Skewness is a measure of the asymmetry of the data around the sample
mean. If skewness is negative, the data spreads out more to the left of the mean
than to the right. If skewness is positive, the data spreads out more to the right.
The skewness of the normal distribution is zero.
The skewness of a distribution is defined as,

)
2
E( x ------ (5.9)
Skewness 


2

30
h) KURTOSIS
Kurtosis is a measure of how outlier-prone a distribution is. The kurtosis
of the normal distribution is 3. Distributions that are more outlier-prone than the
normal distribution have kurtosis greater than 3; distributions that are less
outlier-prone have kurtosis less than 3. Some definitions of kurtosis subtract 3
from the computed value, so that the normal distribution has kurtosis of 0.
The kurtosis function does not use this convention.

The kurtosis of a distribution is defined as,

)
4
E( x ------ (5.10)
Kurtosis 


4

i) ROOT MEAN SQUARE

The RMS block computes the true root mean square (RMS) value of the
input signal. The true RMS value of the input signal is calculated over a running
average window of one cycle of the specified fundamental frequency,

RMS  1 t f

t 
2 ------ (5.11)

T t T
where f(t) is the input signal and T is 1/(fundamental frequency).

As this block uses a running average window, one cycle of simulation


must complete before the output gives the correct value. For the first cycle of
simulation, the output is held to this specified initial RMS value.

j) STANDARD DEVIATION

For a random variable vector A made up of N scalar observations, the


standard deviation is defined as

31
1 ------ (5.12)

N
S 
 N  1 i 1 A  
i

where μ is the mean of A:


1 ------ (5.13)
  A
N
i 1 i
N
The standard deviation is the square root of the variance. Some
definitions of standard deviation use a normalization factor of N instead of N-1,
which you can specify by setting w to 1.
5.6 CLASSIFICATION
Classification is done by using SVM Classifier to produce the better
accuracy. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is kernel-based supervised learning
algorithm used as a classification tool. The training algorithm of SVM
maximizes the margin between the training data and class boundary. The
resulting decision function depends only on the training data called support
vectors, which are closest to the decision boundary. It is effective in high
dimensional space where number of dimensions is greater than the number of
training data. SVM transforms data from input space into a high-dimensional
feature space using kernel function. Nonlinear data can also be separated using
hyper plane in high dimensional space. The computational complexity is
reduced by kernel Hilbert space
The idea of support vector machine is to create a hyper plane in between
data sets to indicate which class it belongs to. The feature vector is given as
input to the classifier. The feature vectors of the database images are divided
into training and testing vectors. The classifier trains on the training set and
applies it to classify the testing set. The performance of the classifier is
measured by comparing the predicted labels and actual values.

32
Fig 5.5 SVM Classifier
5.6.1 CONFUSION MATRIX
A confusion matrix is a table that is often used to describe the
performance of a classification model (or "classifier") on a set of test data for
which the true values are known. The confusion matrix itself is relatively simple
to understand, but the related terminology can be confusing.

Fig 5.6 Confusion matrix

 True positives (TP): These are cases in which we predicted yes (they
have the disease), and they do have the disease.
True positive=TP/actual yes ------ (5.14)
 True negatives (TN): We predicted no, and they don't have the disease.
True negatives =TN/actual no ------ (5.15)

33
 False positives (FP): We predicted yes, but they don't actually have the
disease. (Also known as a "Type I error.")
False positive=FP/actual yes ------ (5.16)
 False negatives (FN): We predicted no, but they actually do have the
disease. (Also known as a "Type II error.")
False negatives =FN/actual no ------ (5.17)

5.7 SYSTEM DESIGN

The following flow chart is the proposed model;

Fig 5.7 : System Design

34
CHAPTER 6
SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.1.1 THE MATLAB SYSTEM:
MATLAB is an abbreviation of matrix laboratory. It is multi-paradigm
numerical computing software which uses the 4th generation of programming
Language (MATLAB programming language) developed by Mathworks.
MATLAB is able to do plotting of functions and data, matrix manipulations,
creation of user interfaces, implementation of algorithm, and interfacing with
programs written in other languages. It is widely used by the people from
different background of field and knowledge such and science, engineering,
economist, and the researchers.

MATLAB is a high-performance language for technical computing. It


integrates computation, visualization, and programming in an easy-to-use
environment where problems and solutions are expressed in familiar
mathematical notation. Typical uses include:

 Math and computation


 Algorithm development
 Modeling, simulation, and prototyping
 Data analysis, exploration, and visualization
 Scientific and engineering graphics
 Application development, including graphical user interface building

MATLAB is an interactive system whose basic data element is an array that


does not require dimensioning. This allows you to solve many technical
computing problems, especially those with matrix and vector formulation, in a

35
fraction of the time it would take to write a program in a scalar non interactive
language such as C or FORTRAN.

The name MAATLAB stands for matrix laboratory. MATLAB was


originally written to provide easy access to matrix software development by the
LINPACK and ARPACK projects. Today, MATLAB uses software developed
by the LAPACK and ARPACK projects, which together represent the state-of-
the-art in software for matrix computation.

MATLAB features a family of application-specific solution called toolboxes.


Very important to most users of MATLAB, toolboxes allow you to learn and
apply specialized technology. Toolboxes are comprehensive collections of
MATLAB functions (M-file) that extend the MATLAB environment to solve
particular classes of problems. Areas in which toolboxes are available include
signal processing, control system, neural networks, fuzzy logic, wavelets,
simulation and many others.

36
CHAPTER 7

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The proposed work is evaluated over the database of 120 images of


banana leaves. The database consists of images of 60 healthy leaves and 40
diseased leaves. A detailed study is completed to investigate the use of advance
in image processing for the detection of plant diseases. A system for diagnosis
the detection of plant disease has been developed using the Matlab application.
The image data of the leaves is collected by using a digital camera. Algorithms
for segmentation, feature extraction and classification based on image
processing techniques were designed .The normal images and the cluster images
of banana leaves are shown in Fig7.1. The Feature extraction process used gray
level co-occurrence methodology (GLCM method), shape and texture based
featured extraction.

HEALTHY LEAF

(a) (b) (c) (d)

(e) (f) (g) (h)

37
(i) (j) (k) (l)

Fig 7.1 : (a),(e),(i) and (m) Healthy leaf , (b),(f),(j) and (n) Cluster 1 , (c),(g),(k)
and (o) cluster 2 ,(d),(h),(l) and (p) Cluster 3

AFFECTED LEAF

(a) (b) (c) (d)

38
(e) (f) (g) (h)

(i) (j) (k) (l)

(m) (n) (o) (p)

Fig 7.2 : (a),(e),(i) and (m) Affected Leaf , (b),(f),(j) and (n) Cluster 1 ,
(c),(g),(k) and (o) Cluster 2 ,(d),(h),(l) and (p) Cluster 3

In GLCM method, both the color and texture of an image are taken into
account, to arrive at unique features, which represent that image.The affected
and the clustered images of banana leaves are shown in Fig 7.2 The manual
feeding of the datasets, in the form of digitized RGB color photographs was
implemented for feature extraction and training the data. After training, the test
data sets were used to analyze the performance of accurate classification. The
main characteristics of disease detection are speed and accuracy. Hence, there is
working on development of automatic, efficient, fast and accurate which is use
for detection disease on unhealthy leaf. To segment the leaf area, the K-means
clustering technique is used for segmentation of image then feature extraction is
done using both texture as well as color features. Then finally SVM

39
classification technique is used to detect the type of leaf diseases. This
algorithm helps in identifying the presence of diseases by observing the visual
symptoms seen on the leaves of the plant. Our approach is in the form of table
of confusion (sometimes also called a confusion matrix), is a table with two
rows (predicted class) and two columns(actual class) that reports the number
of false positives, false negatives, true positives, and true negatives. This allows
more detailed analysis than mere proportion of correct classifications
(accuracy).
OUTPUT

Fig 7.3 : Confusion Matrix 1

40
This confusion matrix shows the accuracy rate of 77%, when we take
sample images of training(40) and testing(20) for classification of healthy and
affected banana leaf.

Fig 7.4 : Confusion Matrix 2

This confusion matrix shows the accuracy rate of 85%,when we take


sample images of training(100) and testing(10) for classification of healthy and
affected banana leaf.

Comparing to the above confusion matrix it produce the higher accuracy


because of using higher amount of sample images in the training set.

41
CHAPTER 8

CONCLUSION

Agricultural sector is still one of the most important sector over which the
majority of the Indian population relies on. Detection of diseases in banana leaf
is hence critical to the growth of the economy. The Detection of banana leaf
Diseases has been developed using the MATLAB Application. The
segmentation of the diseased part is done using K-Means segmentation. Then,
GLCM texture features are extracted and classification is done using SVM.
SVM classifier was used for the accurate classification of the diseases which
will help the farmers to reduce the pesticide usage as well as to increase the
crop yield. Future work can be done by considering the different Support Vector
Machine kernels to obtain higher accuracy with lower execution time and more
features can be considered to increase the accuracy.

42
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