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IS : 1805 - 1973

( Reaffirmed 1998 )
Indian Standard
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
RELATING TO STONES : QUARRYING
AND DRESSING

( First Revision)

Second Reprint JANUARY 1999

UDC 691.21:001.4

@ Copyright 1974

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS


MANAIL BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARC
NEW DELHI 110002

Gr 2 February 1974
IS t 1805- 1973

Indian Standard
GLOSSARY OF_ TERMS
RELATING TO STONES : QUARRYING
AND DRESSING

( First Revision)
Stones Sectional Committee, BDC 6

Chairman Representing
SHRI C. B. L. MATHUR Public Works Department, Government of
Rajasthan, Jaipur

Members
SHEI K. K. AQRAWALA Builders’ Association of India, Bombay
SARI K. K. MADHOK I Alternate 1
SH~I T. N. BIXAR~AVA ’ Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs, Shipping &
Transport
CXIEP ARCHITECT Central Public Works Department, New Delhi
LALA G. C. DAS National Test House, Calcutta
SHRJ P. R. DAS ( Alternate)
DEPUTY CHIEF ENUINEER Public Works Department, Government of Kerala,
(B&R) Trivandrum
DEPUTY DIRECTOR ( RESEARCH) i Publg tEz;ks Department, Government of Orissa,
CONTROL & RESEAROH U
LABORATORY
DR M. P. DHIR Central Road Research Institute (CSIR ),, New Delhi
SHRI R. L. NA~DA (Alternate, )
DIRECTOR ( CSMRS ) Central Water & Power Commission, New Delhi
DEPUTY DIRECTOR ( CSMRS ) ( Alternate)
DIRECTOR, MERI Building & Communication Department, Govern-
ment of Maharashtra, Bombay
RESEARCH OFFICER, MERI (Alternate)
EXECUTIVE E N o I N E E R Public. Works Department, Government of Uttar
( RESEARCH ) Pradesh, Lucknow
SHRI M. K. GUPIA Himalayan Tiles and Marble Pvt Ltd, Bombay
SHRI S. D. PATHAK (Alternate)
DR IQBAL ALI Engineering Research Laboratory, Government of
Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad
SHRI A. B. LINQAM ( Altcmute)
SHRI D. G. KADKADE Hindustan Construction Co Ltd, Bombay
SRRI V. B. DESAI ( Alternote )
( Continued on page 2 )

Q CopVright 1974
BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS
This publication is protected under the Indian CopYright Act (XIV of 1957 ) and
re reduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the
pu g lisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act.
IS:l805-1973
(Conlinucd from puge I )
Members Rcpresenring
Srrnr T. R. MEAANDRU Institution of Engineers (India.), Calcutta
SHRI MOHINDERJIT SIN~H Messrs Stonco, Delhi
&RI S. R. NAIR Directorate General Border Roads, New Delhi
SIIRI PREnf SWARUP Department of Geology & Mining, Government of
Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow
-SRRI A. K. AGARWAL ( Alternate )
SIIRI S. N. RAMANATHAN Directorate General of Mines Safety (Ministry of
Labour & Rehabilitation ), Dhanbad
SHBI, M.* MAHATO ( Alternate ) 1.

DR A. V: R. RAO National Buildings Organization, New Delhi


DEPUTY DIR~CTOX
( MATERIAI,S ) ( Ailemafc )
SHRI M. L. SETHI Department of Geology and Mining, Government of
Rajasthan, Jaipur
SRRI Y. N. DAVE ( Alternate )
DR B. N. SINHA Geological Survey of India, Calcutta
SUPERINTENVIN~ E NO I N E E R Public Works Department, Government of Madhya
[CAPITAL PBOJE~T (c) Pradesh, Bhopal
CIRCUS ]
EXECUTIVE ENCIINB KR
( DFSI~NS ) ( Alternnlc )
SUPEHINTENDIN~ EN n I N E E R Public Works Department, Government of Mysore,
( D~sroNa ) Bangalore
ST~PEHINTENDIN~ E N o I N 14:E R Public Works Department; Government of Tamil
( DISI~NS & MAI~INE Wonrts) Nadu, Madras
DY:PIJTY CI~IEF ENOINEEI~
( I & D ) ( Alternnte )
ST~FERINTENDINQE N o I N E E R Public Works Department, Government of Andhra
( DESIGN & PLANNING.) Pradesh, Hyderabad
SUPERINTENDI~‘G E N o I N x ICR Public Works Department, Government of West
( PLAK.NIN(: CJRCIX) Bengal, Calcutta
S~~PE~IXTENIXN~ E N G I N E F:11 Public Works Department, Government of Assam,
(R 8: B), GAUHATI bW!LE Gauhati
S~PERIXTEN~IS~ SL’RVEYO~ OF Public Works Department, Government of Himachal
_._
\vonss Pradesh, Simla
SILRI M.Y. Yoor Engineer-in-Chief’s Branch ( Ministry of Defence ).
.
Snlrr K. N. SUIJH.~RAO ( Altertiate )
SHRI D. A.II’rlrA SrxruA, Director General, ISI ( Ex-o#cicioMember )
Director (Civ Engg )

SHRI K. hl. MATHUR


Deputy Director ( Civ Engg ), ISI

2
*-ml_.. ,“_._ . .._ “~..I. _. .,.

IS t 1805- 1973

Indian Standard
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
RELATING TO STONES : QUARRYING
AND DRESSING

( First Revision)
0. FOREWORD
0.1 This Indian Standard ( First Revision) was adopted by the Indian
Standards Institution on 12 October 1973, after the draft finalized by the
Stones Sectional Committee had been approved by the Civil Engineering
Division Council.
0.2 Stone is a well-known material finding use in a number of construc-
tion works. In the use of building stone a clear understanding of the
meaning of the various terms used in quarrying. and dressing will be of
great help. This glossary has been prepared to fulfil this objective. This
standard was first published in 1961. In the last 12 years a number
of more Indian Standards have been formulated in this field and this
revision has been prepared so as to include only such terms which are
related with the field of stone used in construction.

1. SCOPE
1.1 This standard covers definitions of terms relating to stone (used for
construction purposes) quarrying and dressing including the tools used
for these.
NOTE -For glossary of terms relating to geology (mining terminology) and
blasting, reference should be made to IS : 5940-1970* and IS : 4863-1968t respectively.
The detailed classification of rocks for building is covered in IS : 1123-19572. The
terms pertaining to masonry construction are covered in IS : 1597 ( Part I ) - 1967$.

2. QUARRYING TERMS
2.1 Blasting -The operation of breaking rock by boring a hole in it,
filling it with explosive charge and firing.
~__...__. ~-
*Glossary of mining terms ( geology ).
+Glossary of mining terms ( drilling and blasting).
$Rlethod of petrographical examination of natural building stones.
$Code of practice for construction.of.stone masonry: Part I Rubble stone masonry.

3
IS: 1805-1973

2.2 Clay Holes-Holes filled with clay, varying from 5 to 25 mm in


diameter; defects often found in limestonesand sandstones when breaking
down large bloCks for masonry.
2.3 Crushing -The further operation on the rock after blasting, namely,
breaking and reducing the rock to required sizes in mechanical crushers.
2.4 Drilling-The operation of making holes in the rock.
2.5 Quarry Sap-The natural moisture found in freshly quarried stone.
In some stones as the sap evaporates, a protective coat is formed on the
stone.
2.6 Rabble- Stone of irregular shape and size as quarried.
2.7 Sand Holes- Defects found in sand stones, similar to the clay holes
found in limestones.
2.8 Screening-The process of passing the crushed rock materials
through one or more screens to separate it into a series of different sized
products, the material in each being approximately of the same size.
2.3 Shake-Fractures which occur across the surface of the rock and
which break across the plane of cleavage.
2.10 Tamping-The filling of a hole containing explosive charge with
clay or other non-inflammable material with a view to enhancing the force
of explosion.
2.11 Vent-A fissure indicative of displacement and constituting a source
of weakness in a stone.

3. DRESSING TERMS
3.1 Chisel Drafted-Thedressing done with a drafting chisel in narrow
strips of width generally about 2 to 5 cm.
3.2 Close Picked-The finish obtained by further dressing a punched
surface by means of a point chisel SOthat the ridges or chisel marks left
over are not more than 1’5 mm.
3.3 Combed-Having all irregularities on the exposed surfaces of soft
stones worked off by the use of a drag or a comb. The comb is dra’wn
over the surface of the stone in all directions after it has been roughly
reduced to a plane with a saw or chisel, making it approximately smooth.
3.4 Drafted Margin- A tooled margin from 2 to 5 cm wide worked on
the face of a rough squared stone.
3.5 Dragged -See 3.3.
3.6 Face-Bedded-A stone cut with the laminae running vertically and
parallel with the face.

4
IS : 1805 - 1973

3.7 Fine=T~oled -The smooth finish obtained by further dressing a close


picked surface in which all the projections are removed, the surface
having 3 to 4 lines per centimetre width.
3.8 Fluted -Having a surface worked into a regular series of concave
grooves.
3.9 Furrowed - Having a surface consisting of small flutings.

3.16 Hammer-Dressed - Having a rough face prepared with a hammer.

3.11 Joint Bedded- A stone cut with the laminae running vertically and
parallel with the joints.
3.12 Mitring, External - The labour in forming the intersection oftwo
mouldings, splays *and the like; the seen faces making an angle greater
than 180”.
3.13 Mitring, Internal-The labour in forming the intersection of two
mouldings, splays and the like; the seen faces making an angle
less than 180’.

3.14 Moulded - Cut to the profile of a moulding.

3.15 One-Lined Dressed - See 3.24.


3.16 Palmane Dressing - A type of finish which is done in two courses
after two line dressing of the stone so as to get very uniform surface.
NOTE- The tool used is known as ’ Palmane ’ which is 4 cm square at the tool
end and has a square cut of 3 cm square at tool faces.

3.17 Picked -A dressing obtained by means of a point tool or a pick


(see also 3.2).
3.18 Pitched Faced-A surface produced by dressing the edges only
with a pitching tool leaving superfluous stone on the face to remain there
presenting the appearance of the natural rock.
3.13 Polished - Having a high-gloss mirror-like finish.
3.26 Punched Dressing -A finish obtained by further dressing a rough
tooled surface by means of a punch chisel so as to show a series of ridges.
The depth of gap between the surface and a straight edge shall not exceed
3mm.
3.21 Q?larry-Faced -This term is applied to the natural surface formed
when a stone is detached from mass in the quarry or to the surface of
fracture formed when a stone is split.
3.22 Pee&d-A surface worked into a regular series of convex ridges.

5
IS : 1805- 1973

3.23 Rock-Faced-The natural face of the rock or a dressing resembl-


ing it.
3.24 Rough-Tooled- A finish obtained by means of a plane chisel or a
boaster, so that the surface has a series ofbands 4 to 5 cm wide all over
the surface more or less parallel to tool marks. The marks may be
horizontal, vertical or oblique as required. The depth of gap between
the surface and a straight edge shall not exceed 3 mm.
3.25 Rubbed-A finish obtained by rubbing with abrasive to the degree
of smoothness required.
3.26 Sanded-Finished by rubbing with abrasive.
3.27 Three-Line Dressed--See 3.2.
3.28 Two-Line Dressed-See 3.20.

4. TOOLS FOR DRESSING AND QUARRYING


4.1 Axe- A mason’s tool with r+head of hard tempered steel which is
tapered to an edge on one or both ends and fitted with a wooden handle.
4.2 Boaster- A broad-faced chisel used for dressing a stone to a compa-
ratively smooth surface.
4.3 Box Trammel-A tool used for scribing parallel or concentric lines
on circular work or positioning working points and depths at right’angles
to a face or in sinkings.
4.4 Bull Set - A tool, set on a shaft, used in the granite industry for
dressing off unwanted material.
4.5 Bush Hammer-A tool having from 4 to 10 thin blades of steel
ground to an edge and bolted together on the handle.
4.6 Chisel -A steel tool having a plain shaft with a cutting edge varying
from 10 to 35 mm wide, used for drafting or chiselling.
4.7 Chop Axe-A heavy axe used for chopping off the rough surface of
stone before dressing.
4.8 Circular Saw-A machine with a power-driven revolving steel disc
to the rim of which abrasive elements are attached.
4.9 Claw Chisel -A tool, usually from 35 to 50 mm wide, used in ,
conjunction with a mallet in making drafts over a stone surface, the teeth
being formed to prevent the stone plucking or lifting in holes.
4.10 Claw Tool-A tool made of steel and similar to a steel chisel but
with a clawed ( toothed ) removable cutting edge which fits into a slot at
the base of handle.

6
IS : 1805 - 1973

4.11 Club Hammer- A tool made of durable wood and used by the
mason as a hammer when working with certain steel chisels, gouges, and
the like.
4.12 Cock’s Comb- A thin gauge steel. plate with a serrated edge
( resembling.the shape of a cock’s comb), used for scribing around a zinc
templet on stone and also for combing a very fine surface to moulded
stone work.
4.15 Drafting Chisel-A wood-handled tool used in conjunction with
a dummy for working drafts.
4.14 Dummy- A mallet with a head made of zinc or lead for use with
wooden handled chisels.
4.15 Fillet Chisel-A chisel varying from 3 to 12 mm in width used for
working details and enrichments.
4.16 Fillet Rasp (Riffler Rasp) -A steel file with serrated edges for
working off a stone to fine limits.
4.17 Fillet Saw - A small saw vvith an adjustable handle for sawing
down neat to a line, fillets and similar details.
4.18 Gouges-Tools of various sizes and curves for use in working
mouldings to their required shapes.
4.19 Jamper - A hand tool used for sinking holes in stone.
4.20 Lewising Chisels -Tools from 18 to 30 mm wide, formed specially
for cutting mortices for the insertion of lewises for lifting stone.
4.21 Mallet - See4.11.
4.22 Mason’s Hammer-A double faced hammer used for the roughest
work, such as in shaping the&ones as they come from the quarry, knocking
of projections, etc.
4.23 Pick- A tool made of hard tempered steel tapered to a point at
one or both ends and fitted with a wooden handle about O-5 m long.
4.24 Pitching Tool- A tool similar to a large chisel but with a blunt
edge in place of a sharp edge.
4.23 Point Chisel- A steel chisel drawn to a point and used for taking
off the rough stone to make an approxirnately plane surface.
4.26 Punch Chisel- A steel chisel drawn nearly to a point and used for ,*,:
.,”
shaping the rough stone before tooling.
4.27 Quarryman’s Axe-A double-balded steel axe, approximately 6 kg
in weight, used for scabbling rough blockstone to square dimensions.

7
IS : 1805 - 1973

4.28 Scabbling or Scappling Hammer-A hammer that has one end


pick-pointed; it is used for roughly dressing granite or hard stone.
4.29 Soft Stone Chisel-A chisel from 35 to 50 mm wide with a shank
which passes into a wooden handle; used with a mallet for dressing soft
stone to a comparatively smooth surface.
4.30 Spalling Hammer-A hammer with a concave end, forming two
cutting edges; used for removing superfluous stone.
4.31 Splitter-A hammer-headed tool 8 to 10 cm wide with a cutting
edge approximately 1’5 mm thick.
4.32 Templet-A pattern of wood or metal cut to a required profile
and used to outline a shape for cutting and to gauge the profile as the
work proceeds.
4.33 Tracer-A large chisel used for tracking a shallow groove along a
series of plug-holes to assist in the splitting of a mass of rock.
4.34 Trammel and Scriber-A tool used for scribing parallel lines.
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