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Solar

Energy
Part 1I

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET
Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET
Balance of System (BOS)
• The Balance of System components
(BOS) are comprised of the
additional equipment required for
the system to operate properly and
the structural support.
• The BOS typically contains:
– Structures for mounting the PV arrays or
modules
– Power conditioning equipment that
massages and converts the do electricity
to the proper form and magnitude
required by an alternating current (ac)
load.
– Sometimes also storage devices, such as
batteries, for storing PV generated
electricity during cloudy days and at
night.

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


List of the Power
Consumption of
Typical Household
Appliances…

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET
Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET
Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET
Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET
Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET
Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET
Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET
Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET
Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET
Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET
Peak Sun Hours (PSH)

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET
DEPTH OF DISCHARGE (DOD)

• DoD is one of the key figures to keep in mind when selecting batteries
for a solar energy system. It describes the degree to which a battery is
emptied relative to its total capacity.
• For example if you have a 100 amp hour battery and discharged it 20
amp hours or 20% of the battery, your depth of discharge will be 20%.
• Most battery degrade as they are charged and discharged, gradually
reducing their ability to store energy. This is an important number to
keep in mind, the number of total cycles will be vary based on your
depth of discharge.
• For example, a battery bank may have 10,000 cycles at 20% DoD but
only 1,000 cycles at 80% DoD.

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


List of the Power Consumption of Typical Household Appliances

Appliance Typical Watts

60W light bulb 60W

100W light bulb 100W

Tube Light 40W

Energy Saving Light 20W

Ceiling Fan 75W

25" color TV 150W

Desktop Computer 250W

Laptop Computer 100W

Fridge / Freezer 150W

Home Air Conditioner 1500W

Iron 1000W

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET
Batteries

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Battery Basics

The Terms:
• Battery
• A device that stores electrical energy (chemical energy to electrical
energy and vice-versa)
• Capacity
• Amount of electrical energy the battery will contain
• State of Charge (SOC)
• Available battery capacity
• Depth of Discharge (DOD)
• Energy taken out of the battery
• Efficiency
• Energy out/Energy in (typically 80-85%)

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Batteries: The Details

Types:
 Primary (single use)
 Secondary (recharged)
– Shallow Cycle (20% DOD)
– Deep Cycle (50-80% DOD)

Charging/Discharging:
 Unless lead-acid batteries are charged up to 100%, they will loose
capacity over time
 Batteries should be equalized on a regular basis

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Functions of a Battery

 Storage for the night


 Storage during cloudy weather
 Portable power
 Surge for starting motors

**Due to the expense and inherit inefficiencies of batteries it is


recommended that they only be used when absolutely necessary (i.e.
in remote locations or as battery backup for grid-tied applications if
power failures are common/lengthy)

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Battery Capacity

Capacity:
 Amps × Hours = Amp-hours (Ah)
100 amps for 1 hour
100 Amp-hours = 1 amp for 100 hours
20 amps for 5 hours

• Capacity changes with Discharge Rate


• The higher the discharge rate the lower the capacity and vice versa
• The higher the temperature the higher the percent of rated capacity

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Battery Safety

 Batteries are EXTREMELY DANGEROUS; handle with


care!
– Keep batteries out of living space, and vent battery
box to the outside
– Use a spill containment vessel
– Don’t mix batteries (different types or old with new)
– Always disconnect batteries, and make sure tools
have insulated handles to prevent short circuiting

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Batteries in Series and Parallel

 Series connections
– Builds voltage
 Parallel connections
– Builds amp-hour capacity

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Courtesy: Prof. Dr. Muhammad Quamruzzaman
Courtesy: Prof. Dr. Muhammad Quamruzzaman
Courtesy: Prof. Dr. Muhammad Quamruzzaman
Courtesy: Prof. Dr. Muhammad Quamruzzaman
Courtesy: Prof. Dr. Muhammad Quamruzzaman
Courtesy: Prof. Dr. Muhammad Quamruzzaman
Courtesy: Prof. Dr. Muhammad Quamruzzaman
Controllers & Inverters

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Controller Basics

Function:
 To protect batteries from being overcharged/ discharged

Additional Features:
 Maximum Power Point
Tracking
– Tracks the peak
power point of the
array (can improve
power production by
20%)!!
Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET
Additional Controller Features

 Voltage Step-down Controller: compensates for differing


voltages between array and batteries (ex. 48V array
charging 12V battery)
– By using a higher voltage array, smaller wire can be
used from the array to the batteries
 Temperature Compensation: adjusts the charging of
batteries according to ambient temperature

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Inverter Basics

Function:
 An electronic device used to convert direct current (DC)
electricity into alternating current (AC) electricity
Drawbacks:
 Efficiency penalty
 A component which can fail
 Complexity
 Cost

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Sun Tracking
and
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Sun Tracking
 As a source of renewable energy the Sun is much more
predictable than the wind.
 It comes up every morning and goes down every night.
 The intensity of the wind may be extremely variable, but it is
available 24 hours per day, while solar power is only available
during daylight hours.
 However, solar power is reliable and is available when it is
needed most - during peak demand hours.
 The insolation is subject to two temporal variations, a diurnal
(daily) cycle due to the Earth's rotation and a yearly cycle due
to the tilt of the Earth's axis.
 What is less predictable however is the affect of the weather
especially cloud conditions.

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Sun Tracking
 The amount of power a PV panel produces has a direct correlation with
the angle of incidence,  of light being absorbed on the panel.
The generated power, W
can be calculated as

W ∝ cos

Here, A represents limiting


conversion factor.
Maximum power will be generated when the sunlight hitting the PV panel is
along its normal.
No power will be generated when the sunlight is perpendicular to the normal.
There is significant power loss if the panel is not kept perpendicular to the sun
rays.
A tracking system can keep the angle of incidence within a certain margin and
would be able to maximize the power generated.
Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET
Sun Tracking
 There are two types of sun trackers:
 One-axis tracker, which follows the sun
from east to west during the day.
 Two-axis tracker, which follows the sun
from east to west during the day, and from
north to south during the seasons of the
year.
 Dual-axis tracking is done by two linear
actuator motors, which follow the sun
within a certain degree of accuracy.
 During the day, it tracks the sun east to
west. At night it turns east to position
itself for the next morning’s sun.

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Sun Tracking

Two-axis tracker, which follows the sun from east to west during the day, and
from north to south during the seasons of the year.

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Sun Tracking
 So a solar tracker is a device onto which
solar panels are fitted.
 It tracks the motion of the sun across the
sky ensuring that the maximum amount of
sunlight strikes the panels throughout the
day by keeping the panels facing
perpendicular to the direction of the
sunlight.
 A sun-tracking design can increase the
energy yield up to 40% over the year
compared to the fixed-array design.
The above chart showing the
 Although it will use up some power itself
yield benefit of the solar tracker
and there are obviously financial costs
when compared to a fixed,
associated with putting together and
ground mounted, solar array.
maintaining a solar tracker which need
to be considered.

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)

• The amount of electrical power


generated by a photovoltaic system
depends on solar irradiance (solar
energy per unit area of the solar panel’s
surface) and other conditions such as
temperature and cloud cover.
• The current and voltage at which a solar
module generates the maximum power
is known as the maximum power point.
The location of the maximum power
point is not known in advance.

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
 As the MPP changes with time during the day and throughout the
year, a suitable power harvesting action must be performed
continuously.
 Usually a DC/DC power electronic converter inserted between
the PV source and load.
 It sets the operating point of the PV array in a manner that allows
the extraction of maximum power from the array.
 Using an appropriate MPPT algorithm, the duty cycle of the
converter is adjusted continuously to track the voltage
corresponding to MPP.
 The complete model of a standalone PV system with MPPT circuit
is presented in the next slide.

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)

PV I1 MPPT Load
Source Io
DC/DC
+ +
G Converter
Vin Z Vo
T –

ΔD Gate
MPPT PWM Pulses
Controller Modulator

Vst

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Theory Behind a Few Algorithms

You may use many algorithms to perform MPPT. Some of


the important factors to consider when choosing a
technique to perform MPPT are:
i. Sensors used
ii. Ability of an algorithm to detect multiple maxima
iii. Costs and
iv. Convergence speed

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Sensors Used
For a large-scale application, the number of sensors you use can affect its
complexity and accuracy. Often, for more precise MPPT, you may need to
use more sensors. The number and type of sensors required depend largely
on your MPPT technique.

Ability of an Algorithm to Detect Multiple Local Maxima


It is common for the irradiance levels at different points on a solar panel’s
surface to vary. This leads to multiple local maxima in one system. The
efficiency and complexity of an algorithm determine if the true maximum
power point or a local maximum power point is calculated. In the latter
case, the maximum electrical power is not extracted from the solar panel.

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Costs
The number of sensors as well as the type of hardware you use to monitor
and control the electrical tracking system affect the cost of implementing it.
The type of algorithm you use largely determines the resources required to
set up this application.

Convergence Speed
For a high-performance MPPT system, the time taken to converge to the
required operating voltage or current should be low. Depending on how fast
you need to do this and your tracking system requirements, the system has to
accordingly maintain the load at the maximum power point.

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Perturb and Observe Algorithm
In one method, the controller adjusts the voltage by a small amount
from the array and measures power; if the power increases, further
adjustments in that direction are tried until power no longer
increases. This is called the perturb and observe method and is most
common, although this method can result in oscillations of power
output. It is referred to as a hill climbing method, because it depends
on the rise of the curve of power against voltage below the
maximum power point, and the fall above that point. Perturb and
observe is the most commonly used MPPT method due to its ease of
implementation. Perturb and observe method may result in top-level
efficiency, provided that a proper predictive and adaptive hill
climbing strategy is adopted.

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET
Incremental Conductance Algorithm

Incremental conductance considers the fact that the slope of the power-voltage
curve is zero at the maximum power point, positive at the left of the MPP, and
negative at the right of the MPP. The MPP is found by comparing the instantaneous
conductance (I/V) to the incremental conductance (ΔI/ΔV). Once you have the MPP,
the system maintains this power point unless a change in V or I occurs (caused by
an external event). If this happens, the algorithm will find the new MPP.

In the incremental conductance method, the controller measures incremental


changes in array current and voltage to predict the effect of a voltage change. This
method requires more computation in the controller, but can track changing
conditions more rapidly than the perturb and observe method (P&O). Like the P&O
algorithm, it may also produce oscillations in power output.

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET
Current Sweep Algorithm
The current sweep method uses a sweep waveform for the PV array
current such that the I-V characteristic of the PV array is obtained and
updated at fixed time intervals. The maximum power point voltage
can then be computed from the characteristic curve at the same
intervals.

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Comparison of Methods
Both perturb and observe, and incremental conductance, are examples of "hill
climbing" methods that can find the local maximum of the power curve for the
operating condition of the array, and so provide a true maximum power point. The
perturb and observe method can produce oscillations of power output around the
maximum power point even under steady state illumination. The incremental
conductance method has the advantage over the perturb and observe method that
it can determine the maximum power point without oscillating around this value. It
can perform maximum power point tracking under rapidly varying irradiation
conditions with higher accuracy than the perturb and observe method. However,
the incremental conductance method can produce oscillations and can perform
erratically under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. The computational time
is increased due to slowing down of the sampling frequency resulting from the
higher complexity of the algorithm compared to the P&O method.

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


MPPT Placement

•Traditionally MPPT is connected for an entire array as a whole.


•In such systems the same current, dictated by the inverter, flows
through all panels in the string.
•Because different panels have different IV curves and different
MPPs (due to manufacturing tolerance, partial shading etc.) this
architecture means some panels will be performing below their
MPP, resulting in the loss of energy.
•Some companies are now placing peak power point converters into
individual panels, allowing each to operate at peak efficiency despite
uneven shading, soiling or electrical mismatch.

Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET


Prepared by Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury, EEE, CUET