Sie sind auf Seite 1von 26

Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M.

Ibrahim

Module 0

In this module:
 Question Analysis
 Planning
 How to write introductions that impress the examiner
 How to write fully developed supporting paragraphs
 How to write an effective conclusion

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Writing Task 2 of the IELTS test requires you to write at least
250 words. You will be presented with a topic and will be tested on your
ability to respond by giving and justifying an opinion, discussing the topic,
summarizing details, outlining problems, identifying possible solutions and
supporting what you write with reasons, arguments and relevant examples
from your own knowledge or experience.

IELTS Task 2 Writing

Task Response Coherence & Cohesion Vocabulary Grammar


(25%) (25%) (25%) ( 25%)

Answer the Write an essay that is clear and Use words that are both Produce complex sentences.
question being easy to understand. appropriate and precise.
asked. (coherence)

Answer all parts of Ideas are logically organized. Use a range of vocabulary. Use a range of grammatical
the question. (Cohesion) structures.

Make your Link ideas, sentences and Use topic specific words Produce error-free sentences.
position (opinion) paragraphs together. accurately.
clear and support (Cohesion)
it with relevant,
well-developed
ideas.
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

Five Step Approach

1-Question Analysis
 Question type
 Understand and analyze any question

2- Planning

 Idea generation
 Structure planning
 Vocabulary

3-Introduction

 Paraphrase the question


 State our opinion
 Outline our main ideas

4- Two Main body paragraphs

 One main idea in each paragraph


 Support your main idea
 Explain
 Give examples

5- Conclusion

 Summary of the main ideas


 State your opinion
 Prediction / Recommendation (Optional)
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Question Analysis
You must first understand the question to know exactly what the examiner is
looking for. One of the biggest mistakes students make is not answering the
question properly. If you do not answer the question fully, you can’t score
higher than a Band 5.

In order to do this, you must first identify the question type, then identify the
keywords in the question and finally identify the instructions words in order to
find out what the examiner wants you to do with the question.

What do questions normally look like?

The five most common IELTS Writing Task 2 questions are:

1. Opinion (Agree or Disagree)

In some countries an increasing number of people are suffering from


health problems as a result of eating too much fast food. It is therefore
necessary for governments to impose a higher tax on this kind of food.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

2- Advantages and Disadvantages

Question 1

In some countries young people are encouraged to work or travel for a


year between finishing high school and starting university studies.
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for young people who


decided to do this.

Question 2

Some experts believe that it is better for children to begin learning a


foreign language at primary schools rather than secondary school.

Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?

Question 3

Computers are becoming an essential part of school lessons.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages and give your own opinion

3-Problem and Solution

Global warming is one of the biggest threats humans face in the 21st
Century and sea levels are continuing to rise at alarming rates.

What problems are associated with this and what are some possible
solutions

4-Discussion (Discuss both view)

Computers are being used more and more in education. Some people say
that this is a positive trend, while others argue that it is leading to negative
consequences.

Discuss both sides of this argument and then give your own opinion.
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

5-Double Question (Two-part Question)

Most employers do job interviews before offering a position to a person.

Do you think this is the best way to do it?

What is the best method of choosing employees in your opinion?

These 3 easy steps are important to analyze the question effectively

1. The topic words


2. The micro-topic words
3. The instruction words.

1. Identify the Topic Words

Each essay will be about a general topic and we must identify this first.

Let’s look at an example question:

The internet allows us to stay connected with each other no matter


where we are. On the other hand, it also isolates us and encourages
people not to socialize.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons for your answers and include any relevant examples from
your own knowledge or experience.

The topic word here is obviously ‘The internet’.

2-Identify Micro-Topic Words


Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

These words define the question and tell you which particular part of the main
topic the question would like you to discuss and what the examiner is looking
for. They often give an opinion or qualify the statement in some way.

Let’s look at our example question again:

The internet allows us to stay connected with each other no matter


where we are. On the other hand, it also isolates us and encourages
people not to socialize.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons for your answers and include any relevant examples from
your own knowledge or experience.

So as you can see, we should only include things in our essay that are
relevant to the words highlighted above. If we discuss anything else, such as
how the internet helps us study, how it is dangerous for children, the history of
the internet or how the internet is used for entertainment, then you are not
being relevant.

Note: write about the micro-topic words, not the topic in general.

3-Identify Instruction Words

The next stage is looking to see what the examiner wants us to do. They
could ask us to give an opinion, or evaluate the advantages and
disadvantages or present problems and solutions.

Let’s look at our example question again:

The internet allows us to stay connected with each other no matter


where we are. On the other hand, it also isolates us and encourages
people not to socialize.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?


Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

Give reasons for your answers and include any relevant examples from
your own knowledge or experience.

We can clearly see that this is an agree or disagree question and we therefore
must follow this format or we will lose marks. We should also give reasons
and include some relevant examples.

II-Planning

1-Idea generation (brainstorming)

1. Common Topic Familiarization


2. Brainstorming (least effective)
3. Mind Mapping
4. 5 Questions Method
5. Coffee shop Method (most effective)

1-Common Topic Familiarization

This simply means knowing the 10 common topics that come up in the exam
and learning some vocabulary associated with these repeated topics. The
wider your vocabulary the easier it will be for you to think of ideas.

Here are the10 general topics


Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

 Health
 Environment
 Education
 Development
 Globalization
 Public Transport
 Criminal Justice
 Youth Crime
 Technology
 Government Spending

2-Brainstorming

Brainstorming is basically thinking of as many ideas as possible relevant to your topic. The
technique involves putting keywords in the middle of a page and then writing down as many
ideas associated with that idea as possible.

The problem of this technique: Firstly, some students spend too much time on this stage and try
to think of too many ideas. Secondly, because they are thinking very generally, their ideas are
not relevant. It then takes extra time, which you don’t have in the exam, to sort out the relevant
from the irrelevant ideas.

3-Mind Mapping
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

Mind mapping is a way to visually organize your thoughts on to paper.

Some people love this method, because it represents how their brain is working and allows them
to organize their thoughts. It is much more organized than simply brainstorming and can be done
very quickly once you have practiced a few times with different questions.

A good technique is to place the keywords in the middle and then place the micro-keywords on
the branches.

The only disadvantage to this method is that some students spend too much time creating the
perfect mind map. There are no points for creating beautiful mind maps; they are only there to
help you with ideas so do it quickly.

4- 5 Questions Method

This method uses who/what/why/where/how question words in order to generate ideas. This
works best for people who think very logically and also know a little bit about the topic already.

Let’s look at an example:

In some countries, young people are encouraged to work or travel for a year between
finishing high school and starting university studies.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for young people who decide to do this.

Why- to gain work experience, to experience life in different countries, to understand different
cultures, to make money before going to university, lazy, not mature.

Where- tourist destinations, developing countries, local business, internship in big company.
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

How- save money, permission from parents and university, apply for internship/job, travel to
inexpensive countries.

So as you can see, in a couple of minutes we have generated many ideas by asking ourselves just
three of the five questions. These ideas are much more than we need to complete the task, so
always remember to choose the ones you feel comfortable writing about after you generate your
ideas.

5- Coffee shop method

The method is simple. I ask students to imagine they are sitting with their friend or family
member in a coffee shop and they ask your opinion. In an exam there is a lot of pressure on you
and you often find it difficult to think, but if you were in a relaxing environment with a friend
you would have no problem giving your opinion.

To think of more ideas, you just imagine that your friend has the opposite feelings to you about
the topic and write their ideas down.

Let’s look at the example below:

Your friend- ‘Do you think it’s a good idea that young people take a year off between school and
university to work or travel?’

You- ‘Yes. Many young people are not mature enough to go to university at 18 and travelling or
working will help them mature. Working for a year could also allow them to save money and
gain valuable work experience. If they go travelling, they will get to experience different
cultures.

2-Structure Planning

Task 2 essay follow this basic structure:


Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

Introduction

Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question

Sentence 2- Thesis Statement ( stating your opinion) (It is agreed…/It is


disagreed…/This essay agrees/disagrees…)

Sentence 3- Outline Sentence (This essay will discuss….)

Main Body Paragraph 1

Sentence 1- Topic Sentence ( ONE idea)

Sentence 2- Explain Topic Sentence

Sentence 3- Example

Main Body Paragraph 2

Sentence 1- Topic Sentence ( ONE idea)

Sentence 2- Explain Topic Sentence


Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

Sentence 3- Example

Conclusion

Summarize main points + restate your opinion if needed

3-Vocabulary

One of the biggest mistakes is repeating the same words especially key
words from the question.

Paraphrasing is an essential IELTS skill (There are four effective methods of


paraphrasing):

Method Number 1: Using Synonyms

For example:

My car needs petrol.

My vehicle requires fuel.

Global warming is mostly caused by emissions from internal


combustion engines.

Climate change is mainly caused by the release of fumes from motor


vehicles.
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

Method Number 2: Change the Word Order

Question: As languages such as Spanish, Chinese and English become


more widely used, there is a fear that many minority languages may die
out.

Paraphrased by changing word order: There is a fear that many minority


languages may die out, as languages such as Spanish, Chinese and
English become more widely used.

Method Number 3: Change the Form of the Word

Question: Longer life spans and improvements in the health of older


people suggest that people over the age of sixty-five can continue to live
full and active lives.

Paraphrased by changing word form: Longer life spans and improvements


in the health of older people are suggesting that people over the age of
sixty-five can continue living full and active lives.

Method Number 4: Change from Active to Passive

Example active sentence: The property developers invested 20 million


dollars in the development of the shopping center.
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

Example passive sentence: 20 million dollars was invested in the


development of shopping centers.

III-How to Write an Effective Introduction

The introduction is the first part of the essay the examiner will read and it will
give him a good first impression of what to expect in the rest of the essay.

Just like in person, first impressions last.

Common Problems
1-Talking too generally about the topic.

Most of these essays start off with ‘Nowadays……’ or ‘In modern life….’
followed by general information about the topic. In my opinion, this is the worst
start you can possibly make. Remember that you are supposed to answer the
question not write generally about the topic.

2-Not including a thesis statement ( opinion sentence)

This is the most important sentence in the essay. Not including one will lose
you marks in several different ways.

3-Not outlining what you are going to do

If you don’t include a sentence outlining what your essay will say, the
examiner doesn’t really know what you are going to write about in the rest of
your essay. This will also lose you marks.

4-Trying to write a ‘hook’ or be entertaining

Remember this is an IELTS exam, not a university essay. There are no extra
points for being interesting, in fact being boring will probably help you. This
will help you avoid ‘flowery’ language.
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

5-Using an informal style

Know your audience. You are expected to write in an academic style.

Good and Bad Examples


Question: There is a good deal of evidence that increasing car use is
contributing to global warming and having other undesirable effects on
people’s health and well-being.

To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

Good Introduction
Rising global temperatures and human health and fitness issues are often
viewed as being caused by the expanding use of automobiles. ( paraphrase)
This essay agrees that increasing use of motor vehicles is contributing to
rising global temperatures and certain health issues.( Thesis statement)
Firstly, this essay will discuss the production of greenhouse gases by vehicles
and secondly, it will discuss other toxic chemicals released by internal
combustion engines.( outline)

Bad Introduction
Nowadays, cars are a very popular way of getting around. Day by day many
more people drive cars around, but others feel that they cause global
warming. Global warming is one of the most serious issues in modern life.
They also affect people’s health and well-being which is also a serious issue.

As you can see the bad example talks about the topic very generally, copies
words and phrases from the question and doesn’t include a thesis statement
or outline statement.

Structure of a Good Introduction


An IELTS writing task 2 opinion essay should have three sentences and these
three sentences should be:
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

1. Paraphrase question
2. Thesis statement
3. Outline statement

1-Paraphrase Question
Paraphrasing means stating the question again, but with different words so
that it has the same meaning. We do this by using synonyms and flipping the
order of the sentences around.

Question: There is a good deal of evidence that increasing car use is


contributing to global warming and having other undesirable effects on
people’s health and well-being.

Paraphrase: Rising global temperatures and human health and fitness issues
are often viewed as being caused by the expanding use of automobiles.

The synonyms :

Increasing- expanding

Car use- use of automobiles

Global warming- rising global temperatures

People’s health and well-being- human health and fitness

As you can see, I then switched the order of the sentence around.

I have therefore demonstrated to the examiner that I can paraphrase and


have a wide range of vocabulary. These are two of the things that the
examiner is specifically looking for and you will gain marks for including them.

2-Thesis Statement
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

This is the most important sentence in your essay. This is your main idea and
it is how you feel about the whole issue in one sentence. It tells the examiner
that you have understood the question and will lead to a clear and coherent
essay.

Let’s look at the thesis sentence from the previous example:

Thesis statement: This essay agrees that increasing use of motor vehicles is
contributing to rising global temperatures and certain health issues.

It is always just one sentence long so you will have to practice summing up
your opinion in one sentence. It should also address the micro-keywords and
not the topic in general.

You should start your thesis statement with:

This essay totally agrees that…. or this essay totally disagrees that…..
(Opinion essays)

The main cause(s) of this issue is/are…. (Causes and solutions)

The main problem(s) of this issue is/are…( Problem and solutions)

The principal advantage(s) is /are (xxxxx) and the main disadvantage is


(xxxxxx). (Advantage and disadvantages).

Advantages and disadvantages: this essay will first discuss the (main
advantage(s)) followed by an analysis of the (main disadvantage(s)).

Problem and Solution: This essay will analyze the principal/main problem(s)
and offer solutions to this issue.

For a discussion (of two points of view) essay you should state both points
of view clearly.

Some people argue that …. while others believe that…..


Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

3-Outline Statement
Now that you have paraphrased the question and told the examiner what you
think in your thesis sentence, you are now going to tell the examiner what you
will discuss in the main body paragraphs. In other words, you will outline what
the examiner will read in the rest of the essay. This should be one sentence
only.

Example:

Question: There is a good deal of evidence that increasing car use is


contributing to global warming and having other undesirable effects on
people’s health and well-being.

Outline statement: Firstly, this essay will discuss the production of


greenhouse gases by vehicles and secondly, it will discuss other toxic
chemicals released by internal combustion engines.

You just look at your main body paragraphs and wrote about what they
contain. You should have only one main idea per paragraph. In this essay, I
have only two main body paragraphs, so I only need to say two things in the
outline statement.

Main body paragraph 1- production of greenhouse gases by cars.

Main body paragraph 2- toxic chemical produced by car engines.

IV-How to Write a Good Supporting Paragraph


Most IELTS task 2 essays follow the same basic four paragraph structure:

1. Introduction
2. Supporting Paragraph 1
3. Supporting Paragraph 2
4. Conclusion

These paragraphs take up most of your essay and are therefore where most
marks are won and lost. Write two good supporting paragraphs and you are
most of the way to getting a good final mark.
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

1-What do the examiners want?

Good and Bad Examples

Look at the following examples and think about what the examiner wants.
Which one is a good essay and which one is not?

Question- Some parents think that childcare centres provide the best
services for children of pre-school age. Other working parents think that
family members such as grandparents will be better carers for their kids.

Discuss both views and give your opinion.

Sample 1– Many parents in full-time employment prefer to leave their children


with grandparents when they are at work because they feel their child will be
safer with someone from within the family circle(Topic Sentence). In other
words, they do not trust a stranger to look after their child and feel confident
that no harm will come to the child whilst being looked after by a grandmother
or grandfather( Explanation/illustration). For example, a 2013 study from
Cambridge University showed that 62% of working mothers prefer a member
of the immediate family to provide care when they are at work.( Example)

Sample 2– Grandparents are the best people to look after children for very
obvious reasons. Grandparents really love their grandchildren and would
never harm them. Also, the children really love their grandparents and feel
comfortable with them. Finally, grandparents have lots of experience taking
care of children because they are old and looked after children for many years
themselves.

Can you tell which one is better?

Sample 1 has one main argument- parents prefer grandparents because they
trust them. They have stated this very clearly in the first sentence and then
explained why this is, in the second sentence. They have also used a very
specific example to support their idea. This is exactly what the examiner
wants.
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

Sample 2 has many different arguments and most of them are very general.
They have not been extended with explanations and lack examples. This is
exactly what the examiner does not want.

2-How to Write a Topic Sentence

The very first sentence in your supporting paragraph should be the topic
sentence. Each paragraph should have one main idea only and the topic
sentence tells the reader what this idea is. This makes your paragraph and
the whole essay clearer and easier to read. You will gain marks for coherence
in the IELTS writing test if you do this. Think of them as signposts that direct
the reader to where you want to go.

We think of topic sentences in an argument (agree or disagree) essay by


thinking of ideas why we support one side or the other.

Let’s look at another question:

Most high-level positions in companies are filled by men even though


the workforce in many developed countries is more than 50 percent
female. Companies should be required to allocate a certain percentage
of these positions to women.

Do you agree or disagree?

So we have to think of reasons for and against allocating a certain percentage


of positions in the workforce to women.

For:

 Fairness
 Equality
 Prevent discrimination
 Women outperform men in many jobs
 Women outperform men in many schools and university subjects

Against:
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

 Should be based on merit not gender


 A few jobs, like construction, are better suited to males

I support the ‘for’ category so I am going to pick two of those reasons and
write topic sentences for them. You should always pick the ideas you know
most about, or in other words, can explain and support with examples.

Topic Sentence 1: Women should be allocated a certain percentage of roles


because to not do so, discriminates against them because of their gender.

Topic Sentence 2: Females should be given a bigger share of jobs because


women currently outperform males in most university subjects.

3-Explaining Our Ideas

You should assume that the reader has no knowledge of this subject at all and
you need to explain what you mean in order for them to understand.

There are certain phrases we can use to explain our ideas such as:

 That is to say…. (linking)


 In other words… (linking)
 This is because… (giving reasons)
 The reason is…. (giving reasons)
 As a result…. (describing result)
 As a consequence…. (describing result)
 Therefore…. (describing result)

Example 1– Women should be allocated a certain percentage of roles,


because to not do so discriminates against them because of their gender (
Topic sentence). As a result, women will be denied jobs, not because of their
intellect or skill, but simply because of their sex. ( illustration)
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

Example 2– Females should be given a bigger share of jobs because women


currently outperform males in most university subjects. ( Topic Sentence) That
is to say those young women are just as qualified as men, if not more, and
should therefore be given at least an equal share in the job market.

Note: Explanations should relate specifically to the question. They should not
generally explain what the idea is; they should explain how the idea answers
the question.

Make sure you read the question again before you write a topic sentence or
explanation.

4-Supporting Examples

The last part of a good supporting paragraph is a relevant example. Examples


give your points more authority and make your argument stronger.

The two main problems here are not being able to think of examples and
examples not being specific enough.

In the IELTS test, if you can’t think of a good example, make one up.

Two good ways to make up examples are using newspaper articles or


university research.

Women should be allocated a certain percentage of roles, because to


not do so discriminates against them because of their gender. As a
result, women will be denied jobs, not because of their intellect or skill,
but simply because of their sex.

Example 1- For example, lots of women fail to get jobs solely on the basis of
their gender.

Example 2– For example, many business women in Asia find it difficult to get
jobs as CEOs, despite having the same qualifications as men.
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

Example 3– For example, in 2014 it was reported in The Times that only 9 of
Singapore’s top 100 companies have female CEOs, despite making up 50%
of the total workforce.

The first example is very general and is not a satisfactory example.

Example 2 is much better but again ‘business women in Asia’ is very general
and does not really support our argument because of this.

Example 3 is a very good example because it used an actual newspaper to


report specific statistics (9%), from a specific place (Singapore) at a specific
time (2014).

V-How to Write Effective Conclusions

The conclusion is the easiest paragraph to write because in many ways you
are just using ideas you have already mentioned in your introduction and main
body paragraphs.

IELTS Conclusion Quick Tips


1. Never write any new ideas in your conclusion. A conclusion should
always simply restate the ideas you have in the rest of the essay. New
ideas should be in the main body and not in the conclusion.
2. Make sure you answer the question in the conclusion. The
conclusion should state what you think about the question and make it
clear how you feel about the issue.
3. Vary your language. Just because you are restating the ideas you have
in the rest of your essay, doesn’t mean you use the same language.
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

Instead you show the examiner you have a wide vocabulary


by paraphrasing.
4. Don’t try to include everything. You are not required to go into detail,
you have already done that in your main body paragraphs. Instead you
will just summarize your main points.
5. Always write one. It is very difficult to get a good score in task 2 if you
haven’t finished your essay with a conclusion. Even if you are running
out of time, make sure you write one.
6. Two sentences are enough.

Linking Phrases
First you should start with a linking phrase, but some are better than others .
Here are some examples:

 Finally
 In a nutshell
 In general
 In conclusion,
 To conclude,

Finally isn’t really suitable because it indicates that you are making a final
point and therefore a new idea. Finally belongs in the main body of your
essay, not the conclusion.

In a nutshell is too informal and we should never use it in IELTS conclusions.

In general tells the reader you are going to talk generally about a topic. This is
not what we are going to do in our conclusion and we should therefore not use
it.

In conclusion and to conclude are the only two linking phrases you should use
to start your conclusion. They tell the reader exactly what the paragraph is
about and they are formal.

How to Write a Good Conclusion


There are two elements to a good conclusion:
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

1. Restating the main points of your essay


2. Varying your vocabulary by paraphrasing

Question: Practical skills such as money management should be taught in


high school.
Do you agree or disagree? Give your opinion and real life examples.

Introduction
It is argued that students should be taught real life skills, such as how to look
after money. This essay agrees that they should be part of the curriculum. The
essay will first discuss how everyday competencies benefit people later in life
and then talk about the dangers of not being taught how to manage money at
an early age.

Conclusion
In conclusion, this essay supports the idea that teenagers ought to be taught
functional subjects like financial planning because it helps them in adulthood
and a lack of education related to these topics can have serious
consequences.

Here are the paraphrases:

This essay supports- This essay agrees

should- ought to

students- teenagers

functional subjects- real life skills

look after money- financial planning


Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary for IELTS Asmaa M. Ibrahim

later in life- adulthood

dangers- serious consequences

Adding a Prediction or Recommendation to Our Conclusion (optional)


We can also add a prediction (what we think will happen) or a
recommendation (what we think should happen) to our conclusion.

In conclusion, this essay supports the idea that teenagers ought to be


taught functional subjects like financial planning because it helps them
in adulthood and a lack of education related to these topics can have
serious consequences. It is recommended that governments make this a
compulsory part of the education system.

In conclusion, this essay acknowledges that technological progress


does jeopardize the planet, but cutting-edge discoveries can actually
halt and even heal this destruction. It is predicted that climate change
will be successfully tackled with such inventions.