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RESEARCH

METHOD FOR
SOCIAL SCIENCES
By:
Mohd Jamil b. Muhamad Amin
Visual Culture & Liberals Studies
Faculty 0f Art & Design
UiTM
RESEARCH METHODS
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FOR THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
 Beginning an academic research
 Think of possible area for research
 Preparing a research proposal
DISSERTATION and THESIS
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Merriam – Webster online dictionary (http://www.m-w.com)

 explain that “dissertation” was coined in1651, and defined as:


an extended usually written treatment of a subject: specifically one submitted for
a doctorate.
 It goes on to explain that “thesis” is a dissertation embodying results of original
research and especially substantiating a specific view: especially one written by
a candidate of an academic degree.
Guide to a Successful Thesis and Dissertation-A Handbook for Student and
Faculty,3rdedition, revised and expanded version by James E.Mauch and Jack
W.Birch 1993 on page 3 quoting Stuart,1979,
 “The master’s thesis must demonstrate……”
 It is clear here that DISSERTATION is for the PhD level and THESIS for the
Master level.

The Star, Dec. 2003 – Adam C.I.Eng, Hua Qiao, University, Fujian, China
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https://www.enago.com/academy/thesis-vs-dissertation/
WHAT IS RESEARCH?
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 ‘Research is a systematic enquiry which is reported in a form that allows the


research methods and the outcomes to be accessible to others.’

 Generally research means ‘finding out’.

 DEFINITION OF RESEARCH
 Research provides the needed information that guides researchers to make
decisions to successfully deal with problems. The information provided could
be the result of a careful analysis of data gathered firsthand or of data that
already available (in the company, industry, archives, etc.).
 Data can be quantitative (as generally gathered through structured questions
in interviews, or from a responses to open-ended questions a questionnaire,
or through observation, or from already available information gathered from
various sources.
WHAT IS A PERSONAL RESEARCH?
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 Research is a word used to mean many kinds of things. Generally, it is


used simply to mean ‘finding out’ something. The research that we have
carried out would help us to make an informed judgment that means we
can decide by taking into account all the evidence. Personal research
would assists us to decide what information is needed, how it can be
collected, what factors are relevant and how the information can be
used.
WHAT IS PROFESSIONAL RESEARCH?
 Professional research has much in common with the personal kind of
research. It is carried out in a broader and more public context and so is
expected to conform to standards that are understood and recognized by
others in the professional field. Professional research is characterized by
being vigorous and systematic, pursued through the use of appropriate
research methods and invariably culminates in a report of some kind,
which also need to conform to accepted standards.
CONCEPTUALIZING A TOPIC AREA TO
RESEARCH
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 There are several criteria to be considered before embarking on a


topic area to research:
 a) The topic chosen should be of some interest to the researcher to render the
 research a rewarding experience instead of one that is mundane or boring.
 b) It’s of utmost importance that the area researched adds to the existing field of
 knowledge and stirs the interest of other researchers in the fields.
 c) The proposed study should be conducted and completed within the resources
 available in term of duration, energy and finance. In the other words, the
 researcher should fully understand the constraints and be able to work within
 them.
 d) The proposed study should be beneficial to the field of knowledge or society
 and be conducted according to a set code of ethics.
WHAT IS A RESEARCH PROPOSAL?
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 A proposal is a summary of an intended work to be expanded and presented at a


later date. It is a research either for an academic thesis or for a consultancy work.

USES OF A PROPOSAL
A research proposal is a structured written plan for a study or investigation.
It communicates the intention of a researcher and spells out how the researcher
plans to achieve his/her purpose of the study, its significance and etc……
 A proposal is taken as a control mechanism so that the research work does
not go beyond the stated boundary.
 A proposal is to guide the researcher on what, when, where and how in relation to
his/her research.
 Knowledge in developing a proposal could enhance writing a working paper or
dissertation.
RESEARCH TITLE
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 Identify Issues
There must be an issue or issues that student perceives as bordering society that need further
research. No research could be administrated if there is no issues.
 The title should be clear and unambiguous.
 As a guide, 12 - 19 words in the title should be sufficient in defining the objective of the study.
 Three (3) important aspects of a study, namely the VARIABLES, the SETTING and the
SUBJECTS of the study, should always be incorporated into the title.
 Title
Once an issue or issues has been identified, she/he should now begin to design a suitable title
for his/her research. The title should be seen as one that invites enquiry.

 ANALYSIS ON THE APPLICATION OF FINE ART ELEMENTS IN SELECTED


IMPORTED AND LOCAL COMICS IN MALAYSIA.
 Variable: Analysis on the application

 Setting: Fine Art elements

 Subject: Selected imported and local comics in Malaysia


Examples of the Research Proposal Titles
from the Previous Students
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 ANALYSIS ON THE APPLICATION OF FINE ART ELEMENTS IN SELECTED


IMPORTED AND LOCAL COMICS IN MALAYSIA.
Mohd Yazid bin Kamal Baharin, October 2005 (AD228)
 ORNAMENTAL DESIGN IN INTERACTIVE WEBSITES IN MALAYSIA.
Norfarhawa bt Khairi, April 2006 (AD 221)
THE AESTHETIC VALUE OF THE CALLIGRAPHY ART IN THE SULTAN
SALLAHUDDIN ABDUL AZIZ SHAH MOSQUE SHAH ALAM
Mardiah binti Ab Aziz, June 2016 (AD228)
A UNIQUENESS OF KELARAI MOTIFS OF THE ORANG ASLI TEMIAR TRIBE
HOUSES IN PERAK
Juriana Binti Halim, April 2019 ( AD228)
THE FORM OF THE MINANGKABAU HEADRESS AMONGS THE REMBAU
COMMUNITY IN NEGERI SEMBILAN
 Muhammad Aqmar Dini bin Omar, June 2019 (AD228)
Examples of Research Proposal Titles
from the Previous Students
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 A COMPARISON STUDY ON OFFSET LITHOGRAPHY AND DIGITAL PRINTING


AT ULTIMATE SDN. BHD.
Ahmad Fazrin bin Zakaria, June 2012 (AD230)
 CASE STUDY: ANALYZING WASTE REDUCTION OF PAPER IN PRINTING
INDUSTRY AR ARIF CORPORATION SDN. BHD.
Rossa Dini Fatin Akmar bt Rosile, June 2012 (AD230)
 THE ANALYSIS STUDY OF DIGITAL PRINTING PROCESS ON SYNTHETIC
MATERIAL AR GREEN ARTS MEDIA.
Nurul Ain Bt. Mohd Ilias, June 2012 (AD230)
 AIDIJUMA’S BAWAL EVOLVED BY A PUBLIC FIGURE AS THE NEW
TRENSETTER FOR MUSLIMAH.
Sharifah Maryam bte Syed Azman, June 2012 (AD226)
Examples of Research Proposal Titles
from the Previous Students
12

 A COMPARISON STUDY ON OFFSET LITHOGRAPHY AND DIGITAL PRINTING


AT ULTIMATE SDN. BHD.
Ahmad Fazrin bin Zakaria, June 2012 (AD230)
 CASE STUDY: ANALYZING WASTE REDUCTION OF PAPER IN PRINTING
INDUSTRY AR ARIF CORPORATION SDN. BHD.
Rossa Dini Fatin Akmar bt Rosile, June 2012 (AD230)
 THE ANALYSIS STUDY OF DIGITAL PRINTING PROCESS ON SYNTHETIC
MATERIAL AR GREEN ARTS MEDIA.
Nurul Ain Bt. Mohd Ilias, June 2012 (AD230)
 AIDIJUMA’S BAWAL EVOLVED BY A PUBLIC FIGURE AS THE NEW
TRENSETTER FOR MUSLIMAH.
Sharifah Maryam bte Syed Azman, June 2012 (AD226)
INTRODUCTION
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 A general introduction to what a research is all about:- It’s not just a description
of contents of each section. It will be the first major section the reader encounters.

 A statement of facts, theories, personal concerns and actual conditions in life,


which has lead researcher to believe that there is a research problem worth
studying.

 A statement of well-known facts, conditions, and ideas, which may not need
documentation (footnoting).
INTRODUCTION
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 Title: A STUDY OF FORM ON THE SELANGOR MALAY TELEPUK TEXTILE

 Introduction should have points of:-

 a) A brief description of what is Telepuk textile.

 b) The Telepuk form as the Selangor Malay textile.

 c) A brief description of what this study will be focusing on.


 d) The purposes and importance of the Telepuk textile as the Selangor Malay
 textile art.
 e) The important and benefits of this study must be conducted.
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
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 The research objective should be stated clearly and related


specifically to the variables identified in the study.
 It clarifies the nature and direction of the study and prevent the
researcher from digressing from or going beyond the focus of
the study.
 The researcher must design their research objective start with
a verb………….’
 To study…..
 To identifies….
 To determine…..etc…
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
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 An accurately-worded problem statement will


become the guideline for the researcher to focus
on issues being studied.
 In academic research, the problem statement will
become the backbone of the study.
 The researcher has to convince the readers that the
topic chosen consists of one important problem
and the solutions to it will contribute to the
development of that particular body of
knowledge.
PROBLEM DEFINITION
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 After interviews and the literature review, the researcher is in a position to


narrow down the problem from its original broad base and define more
clearly the issues of concern. It is critical that the focus for further
research, or in other words, the problem, be identified and defined. No
amount of good research can find solutions to the situation, if the critical
issue or the problem is not clearly pinpointed.

 A problem does not necessarily mean that something is seriously wrong with
the current situation which needs to be rectified immediately.

 A problem could simply indicate an interest in an issue where finding the


right answers might help to improve an existing situation.

 Thus, it is useful to define a problem as any situation where a gap exists


between the actual and the desired ideal states. Basically researchers
usually define their problems for investigation from this perspective.
PROBLEM DEFINITION
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EXAMPLES OF WELL-DEFINED PROBLEMS

1. To what extent has the new advertising campaign been successful in creating the high
quality, customer-centered corporate image that it was intended to produce?

2. Has the new advertising message resulted in better sale?

3. How do price and quality rate on consumers’ evaluation of products?

4. Does better automation lead to a greater asset investment per dollar of output?
PROBLEM DEFINITION
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 For instance we would ideally like to see zero defects, low inventory of unsold
goods, good GP, high share quotation in the stock market and so on. These
‘problems’ could very well become the research.

 In either case, one should know what exactly the issue is for which one seeks
answers. It is very important that symptoms of problems are not defined as the
real problem.

 Address the problem more accurately by talking to the employees and


reviewing the literature. One way of determining the problem rather than the
symptom is by asking questions, gathers sufficient information through
interviews and literature research.

 Problem definition or problem statement is a clear, precise statement of the


question or issue that is to be investigated with the goal of finding an answer
or solution.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
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 It is not possible to do research without having a problem, which needs to be


solved or question to be answered.

 Research is concerned with seeking solutions to problems or answers to


questions.

 The problem or question constitutes the research topics. Identifying topic


that is worthy of enquiring, then formulating a meaningful questions that can
be answered are probably the most difficult parts of the research activity.

 Being clear about what is research problems and questions is absolutely essential,
if not a great deal of time and energy can be wasted collecting information, which
cannot be used.
DELIMITATION
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Refers to the scope of the study that the researcher should

confine himself / herself. This is necessary to prevent the

researcher from going astray. The researcher needs to tell

readers that their research is confine to the issues / title /

objectives of the research


DELIMITATION
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 Refers to the scope of study that the researcher should confine


himself / herself. This is necessary to prevent the researcher from
going astray. For example, if the title of the research is,

“Cigarette addiction among youths in urban areas”,

 Here the researcher is necessarily delimiting his/her research to


three elements explicitly referred to in the title. These elements
are cigarette and not other drugs. The researcher needs to clarify
that his/her research is confined towards youths only and not
children, adults or old people. Finally the researcher needs to
confine his work to urban areas and not rural areas.
DELIMITATION
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 Refers to certain constraints that the researcher is facing


throughout the project. These constraints should only affect the
research work but not the individual and should not be too
personal in nature. For example, a researcher title is,

“Children of single mothers and their performance in schools”,

 May find some difficulties in getting information truly and sincerely


from single mothers due to the privacy of respondents to under study.
LIMITATIONS OF RESEARCH
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 It is however, concerned with the collection and analysis of data


that allows you to arrive at conclusions which are valid – based
on evidence that has been collected during the research.

 It is acceptable to put forward recommendations for future


practice on the basis of the evidence presented and
conclusions reached, but such recommendations or speculations
are not part of the research!
LIMITATIONS OF RESEARCH
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 Thoroughness of method and reliability of outcomes are two of the most


important characteristics of research. If world knowledge can be compared to a wall,
it has almost invariably been built with small but very soundly made and reliable
bricks. Very few research projects result in earth-shattering outcomes such as the
discovering of the DNA.

 Research is concerned with ‘what is’ and ‘what might be’ it cannot determine ‘what
ought to be’. ‘What is’ includes both description and explanation.

 Research is not concerned with the expression of your own beliefs, opinions
and views, although if you are carrying out a survey of some kind of study of
students, attitude to religion, it may be concerned with the opinions and views of
others.
RESEARCH QUESTION
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RESEARCH QUESTIONS

 Need to be meaningful
 Feasible in terms of the time and resources available for the researcher.
 Within the abilities and experience of the researcher.

Example;
 A research project carried out by the student during one or two semester is very
different to that a research carried out by a team of researchers in five years.

 Feasibility and practicability when formulating research questions. A modest or


even mundane research project which has been thoroughly carried out and
reported is better than a large and complex one which, although it may seem more
exciting prospect, I difficult to carry and is likely to be end up with more questions
that it started with.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
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 Example:
 At the simplest level, such a question might be:
‘How high is the Kuala Lumpur Twin Tower?’
Height is a measurable variable and therefore the questions implies that the
answer would be quantification of measure which would be in feet, meters or
any units of measurement provided it is specified.

 Example:
 A more complex question might be:
‘To what extent is the frequency of library visits by the final year Art and
Design students related to their performances in the final examination?’
Clearly, number of factors would need to be taken into account in a question like
this but essentially the expected answer would be statistically factor to support
whether or not using the library could be considered to have any effects on
examination performance.
HYPOTHESES
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Refer to some intelligent guesses that the researcher has

associated with his/her research. These hypotheses will be

tested by the researcher in his/her effort to reach some

findings for his/ her work.


HUNCH / HYPOTHESES
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 Do you have some hunch or hypotheses -something that has long been a
question in your mind, or some idea that won’t go away, or something you wish to
prove? Try to state precisely what you are trying to get at.

 Are you facing up to your personal preferences and values I the way you wish to
organize and evaluate?

 Given some hunch or hypotheses, what method would be the best lend itself to its
examination, e.g.; how are you going to test and resolve it?
THE CONTENTS OF A PROPOSAL
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A good proposal should contain:


1. Title
2. Introduction
3. Research Objectives
4. Statement of Problem
 4.1 Delimitation

 4.2 Limitation

 4.3 Research Question

 4.4 Hypotheses
RANGE / AREA / SCOPE
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Consider the range/area/focus of your intention – it is almost certain that you will be
attempting to do too much – is your scope too large, too unfocused? If it is, the
following might be the reason:

 Your ideas are not clear

 There are too many ideas mixed together

 The ideas depend upon too rich a mixture of multi-disciplinary approaches: a


single discipline is simpler to control in method and language

 There may be poor relationship between your aim and method

 Insufficient consideration of the method to be used.


IDENTIFY THE FIELD / BODY OF
KNOWLEDGE / DISCIPLINE
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This will occur as a result of several influences coming together:

 Your development of hunch or hypotheses into


theme/issue/argument within an increasingly limited range , and with
a related and clearly outlined working method.

 Your study of related material around the area, both in order to


identify literature in the field and to help you focus your own ideas.
You may find that some disciplines lend themselves more readily to
certain type of question than others.
IDENTIFY THE FIELD / BODY OF
KNOWLEDGE / DISCIPLINE
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 Your discussions with your supervisor initially concerning


what is possible, probable, or unlikely, given his/her
knowledge of your capacities.

 Your discussions with your dissertation/theses supervisor


in unifying your ideas, aims, topic, research methods,
reading and working methods.
STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE
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The researcher would be explaining the reason(s)

 WHY the needs to carry out the research and in

 WHAT way it is considered important

 WHO will benefit from the research should be clearly stated. Therefore the
researcher is convinced that the study is of important to establish certain facts and
that the research will benefit the society. Findings from the research should be
seen benefiting more of the society rather than individual, that is the researcher.
METHODOLOGY / PROCEDURE
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Methodology in the actual work where the researcher will apply to complete his/her
research work. The methodology should states what, when, where, how and with
whom, from the beginning to the end, in the order in which they occur. Thus it should
states clearly, concisely and in proper order in

 WHICH things must be done

 WHAT he/she will do in conducting the study and writing the thesis.

The researcher to states his/her research, procedure, sampling, method, data


collection and instruments necessary foe his/her fieldwork.
DIFFERENT RESEARCH
METHODOLOGIES
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1.Practical Research
2.Experimental Research
3.Action Research
4.Phenomenological Research
5. Descriptive Research
 Survey
 Correlational Research
 Causal-Comparative Research
 Case Study
 Developmental Studies ( Longitudinal & Cross-Section)
6. Historical Research
METHOD OF COLLECTING DATA
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 Information needed to complete a research.


 Information is acquired from respondents especially in a
survey research,
correlational research, etc.
 In historical information is acquired from past records from
archives, artifacts, museum, official documents etc.
 In experimental research, information is acquired from
observations and laboratory experimentations.
 Collected information to be analyzed, interpreted to reach
the findings and conclusions.
REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH
AND THE LITERATURE
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 The researcher has to investigated previous research works closely


related to his/her research topic.

 The researcher has to study how previous researchers administered


their research so that

 The researcher can therefore demonstrate why his/her topic needs


to be studied, either to add something new to the earlier research or
to do it all over again.

 Research and literature items should be reviewed briefly.


CHAPTER OUTLINE
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A proposal should closed with anticipated chapter outline such as,

Chapter 1: Plan of the study


 Introduction
 Statement of Problem
 Statement of Significant
 Methodology/Procedure

Chapter 2: Review of related research and the literature

Chapter 3: Analysis of questionnaire data

Chapter 4: Summary, findings, conclusions, and recommendations


BIBLIOGRAPHY
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Bibliography includes texts and all other sources such as:


 journals,

 magazines,

 tabloids,

 unpublished research works,

 seminar/project papers and even from

 newspapers

Bibliography is the final section of the dissertation and is located after


appendices and to have bibliographies at the end of each chapter is
unnecessary.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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 There are several systems in writing bibliography and each has it strengths and
weaknesses.
 To be consistent is most important when using the system being selected, to use
only one system throughout his/her dissertation.
 And here the system described is generally known as the “Harvard System” (Brian
Allison, 1997)
It is necessary to have minimal reference information for bibliographical
compilation . The primary information consists of:
1. The name of the author
2. The year of publication
3. The title of the publication
4. The place of publication
5. The name of the publisher.
THE CONTENTS OF A PROPOSAL
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A good proposal should contain:


1. Title
2. Tables of content
3. Introduction
4. Research Objectives
5. Statement of Problem
 5.1: Delimitation

 5.2: Limitation

 5.3: Hypotheses

6. Statement of Significance
7. Research Methodology
8. Review of Related Research and Literature
9. Chapter Outline
10. Bibliography