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1 Basic Maths & Physics

a) Units of Measurement
b) Decimals (10x Significant figures / Rounding
c) Newton’s Three Laws of Motion

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Basic Maths and Physics : Unit Measurement

Table 1: Physical Quantities and Their Units

symbol SI measurement units symbol unit


dimensions

distance d meter m m
mass m kilogram kg kg
time t second s s
electric charge* Q coulomb C C
temperature T Kelvin K K
amount of substance n mole mol mol
luminous intensity I candela cd cd
acceleration a meter per second squared m/s2 m/s²
area A square meter m2 m²

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Basic Maths and Physics : Unit Measurement

capacitance C farad F C2.s²/kg.m²

concentration [C] molar M mol/m³

density D kilogram per cubic meter kg/m3 kg/m³

electric current I ampere A C/s

electric field intensity E newton per coulomb N/C kg.m/C.s²

electric resistance R ohm  kg.m2/C².s

emf  volt V kg.m2/C.s²

energy E joule J kg.m2/s²

force F newton N kg.m/s²

frequency f hertz Hz s-1

heat Q joule J kg.m²/s2²

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Basic Maths and Physics : Unit Measurement

illumination E lux (lumen per lx cd/m²


square meter)
inductance L henry H kg.m²/C²

magnetic flux  weber Wb kg.m²/C.s

potential difference V volt V kg.m²/C.s²

power P watt W kg.m²/s³

pressure p pascal (newton per Pa kg/m.s²


square meter)
velocity v meter per second m/s m/s

volume V cubic meter m3 m³

work W joule J kg.m²/s²

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Basic Maths and Physics : Electrical Unit Measurement
Parameter Symbol Measuring Unit Description
Voltage Volt V or E Unit of Electrical Potential
V=I×R
Current Ampere I or i Unit of Electrical Current
I=V÷R

Resistance Ohm R or Ω Unit of DC Resistance


R=V÷I
Conductance Siemen G or ℧ Reciprocal of Resistance
G=1÷R
Capacitance Farad C Unit of Capacitance
C=Q÷V
Charge Coulomb Q Unit of Electrical Charge
Q=C×V
Inductance Henry L or H Unit of Inductance
VL = -L(di/dt)
Power Watts W Unit of Power
P = V × I or I2 × R
Impedance Ohm Z Unit of AC Resistance
Z2 = R2 + X2
Frequency Hertz Hz Unit of Frequency
ƒ=1÷T

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Basic Maths and Physics : Unit Measurement

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Area Calculation

Area = Width x Depth

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Volume Calculation

Volume = Width x Depth


x Height

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Newton’s First Law of Motion:
 “An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an
unbalanced force. An object in motion continues in motion
with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted
upon by an unbalanced force. This law is often called
"the law of inertia".

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Newton’s Second Law of Motion:
 Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The
greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the
greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the
object).

 However, the Second Law gives us an exact relationship


between force, mass, and acceleration. It can be expressed
as a mathematical equation:

FORCE = MASS multiply ACCELERATION

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Newton’s Second Law of Motion: (Cont’s)
 This is an example of how Newton's Second Law works:

 Mike's car, which weighs 1,000 kg, is out of gas. Mike is


trying to push the car to a gas station, and he makes the
car go 0.05 m/s/s. Using Newton's Second Law, you can
compute how much force Mike is applying to the car.

 Answer = 50 Newtons

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Newton’s Third Law of Motion:
 For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action.

 This means that for every force there is a reaction force


that is equal in size, but opposite in direction. That is to say
that whenever an object pushes another object it gets
pushed back in the opposite direction equally hard.

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Newton’s Third Law of Motion: (Cont’s)
 This is an example of how a rocket works in Newton’s Third
Law.

 The rocket's action is to push down on the ground with the


force of its powerful engines, and the reaction is that the
ground pushes the rocket upwards with an equal force.

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Theorem Phythagoras

Example

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Minimum Rope Diameter based on ASME
Nominal Diameter Minimum Allowable Diameter
(Reduction is more than 6% of the
nominal diameter )
(ISO 4344)
8.00 mm 7.52 mm
10.00 mm 9.40 mm
12.00 mm 11.28 mm
14.00 mm 13.16 mm
16.00 mm 15.04 mm

1 kg = 1000 g 1 g = 1000 mg
1kg /1000g= 1 1000g/1kg= 1
1g/1000mg= 1 1000mg/1m= 1

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Acceleration and Deceleration Graph
If initial velocity(u), final velocity
(v), time taken (t) are given.
Then the acceleration is given
by formula

Where v = Final Velocity,


u = Initial velocity,
a = acceleration,
t = time taken,
s = distance traveled
The S.I unit for Acceleration is meters
per second square or m/s2.
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Malaysia Lift and Escalator Association
Malaysia Lift and Escalator Association