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Course on Design of Steel Structures

Professor Damodar Maity


Department of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Lecture 06
Module 2
Design of Ordinary Black Bolts

In this lecture the design procedure of bolts will be discussed. Bolt may be two types which
are commonly used, one is ordinary black bolt and another is high strength friction grip bolt.
Now at first I will discuss about the design procedure of ordinary black bolt.

(Refer Slide Time: 0:41)

As we know that the design procedure of bearing type of bolt and friction type bolt are given
in clause 10.3 and clause 10.4 of IS: 800-2007 respectively. So while we will see the design
procedure I would suggest the participants to follow the codal provisions and open the clause
10.3 while designing the ordinary black bolt. When we are going to design the ordinary black
bolt, we will see the two type of joints will come across openly, one is lap joint where the two
plates are overlapped together at a certain length and another is butt joint where two plates
are in same plane and joint with some cover may be single cover or may be double cover. So
these two types of joints will be covered in this lecture.
(Refer Slide Time: 1:54)

Now for designing of ordinary black bolt we will see that what are the failure criteria and
from that failure criteria what are the strength like it may fail due to shear. We know that
black bolt may fail at shear plane when two plates are connected through bolt/bolts. So while
we will go for design of that bolt first we have to find out what is the strength of the bolt in
shear then we will go for bearing strength of bolt and so on. Bolt connection may fail also
due to bearing of bolt or due to tension in the bolt or due to tension in plate or due the
combined shear and tension. So we have to design the connection against the lowest strength
of bolt/plate. In case of plate failure in tension, we have to find the net strength of the plate
which is reduced due to the presence of hole. So that also we will check and we will see
which one is the least strength, which will be the bolt strength. So we will try to find out the
bolt strength for different failure criteria as discussed above.
(Refer Slide Time: 3:54)

Next let us come to design of ordinary black bolt.

(Refer Slide Time: 4:03)

Now as per clause 10.3 of IS 800: 2007, nominal capacity of bolt is given by

f ub
Vnsb = ( nn Anb + ns Asb ) blj blg bpkg
3

Where, Vnsb = nominal capacity of bolts in shear


fub = ultimate tensile strength of bolts
nn = no. of shear planes with threads intercepting the plane
ns = no. of shear planes without threads intercepting the plane
βlj = reduction factor which allows for overloading of end bolts that occur in long
connections
βlg = reduction factor for large grip lengths
βpkg = reduction factor for packing plates thicker than 6mm
Anb = net tensile area of bolt to be considered at the root of the threads = 0.78×π×d2/4
Asb = nominal plain shank area of the bolt
So for different type of bolts the ultimate tensile strength of bolt will be different that we can
find out from the code

(Refer Slide Time: 5:34)

Now if you see the above picture, where entire bolt grip is shown, you can identify nn and ns,
means the shear plane with threads and without threads intercepting the plate.

(Refer Slide Time: 7:54)

So now I am going to discuss about the design of ordinary black bolts, this is given in clause
10.3 of IS: 800. Now as I discussed earlier that the design of ordinary black bolts has to be
designed under shear, tension, bearing of bolt and tension of the plate. So we will go through
one by one and we will see what are the codal provisions made and accordingly we will try to
find out the design strength of the bolt under shear, under bearing and under tension.

(Refer Slide Time: 9:08)

So using the above formula given in clause 10.3, we can find the nominal shear capacity of
bolt (Vnsb) where fub is the ultimate tensile strength of bolt which depends on the material
property of the bolt. So what type of material property we are going to use depending on that
we can find out the value of fub.

(Refer Slide Time: 10:44)


As we discussed earlier about the number of shearing plane with and without threads, here
from the above figure we can found the shear planes as ns= 2 and nn=1. Now we have to find
out the Anb and Ans. Ans is the cross sectional area of the plane shank of the bolt and Anb is the
cross sectional area of the threaded portion of the bolt. Now we know the cross sectional area
of the shank portion will be πd2/4, where d is the nominal diameter of the bolt but when we
are going to calculate the net area of the threaded portion we will reduce to a certain extent
which is suggested by the code as 0.78 times the cross sectional area of the shank area, that
means this will be reduced to 0.78× πd2/4.

(Refer Slide Time: 12:59)

Now we will discuss about the reduction factors which will be used to determine the nominal
shear capacity of bolt. βlj is the reduction factor which allows for overloading of end bolts
that occur in long connections. If a connection is quite long, then there will be a factor which
we have to multiply with the capacity whatever is coming this factor is called βlj. Similarly,
βlg is the reduction factor due to large grip length, if the grip length is large that means plate
thickness is high or several plates are given then grip length increases, say suppose I am
increasing the number of plates and joining with a bolt. So if grip length is more then we
have to multiply a factor which is called reduction factor for large grip lengths. Now βpkg is
the reduction factor for packing plates. Suppose we have a butt joint where two plates have
different thickness and we have to join with certain number of bolts. So for this case we may
have to provide packing plates. These packing plates when we are going to consider we are
using a reduction factor for packing plates however if this packing plate is thicker than 6 mm
then we have to multiply a reduction factor of beta βpkg.

Now the design shear force, Vdsb = Vnsb gmb where gmb is the partial safety factor, this gmb is
given in IS code in table 5, in table 5 you will get a different type of partial factor for bolted
connection, for welded connection and for different cases the value of partial safety factor of

the bolt or rivet bolt or welded according to the material it has been given. Now this gmb we
consider here as for bolt we use 1.25, right.

(Refer Slide Time: 16:03)

Now let us come to the reduction factor how do we calculate βlj which is the reduction factor
due to long joint. So long joint means if the length of joint become more than 15 times of
nominal diameter of the bolt is consider as long joint and the reduction factor βlj can be
calculated as follows:
lj
bl j = 1.075 – , 0.75 £ blj £ 1.0
( 200d )

Where, lj is length of the joint

(Refer Slide Time: 17:21)

Next we will calculate the value of βlg which is reduction factor due to large grip length
which is consider if the grip length, lg is more than 5d, where d is the nominal diameter of the

8d
bolt. So when lg > 5d than lg 
(3  lg )

Another reduction factor is for packing plates that is βpkg which can be calculate as follows
If thickness of packing plates tpkg > 6mm, then

 pkg  1 – 0.0125t pkg

(Refer Slide Time: 18:59)

We have seen first is that bolt in shear now for bearing as I told that bolt may fail due to
shearing effect and due to bearing effect and bolt may fail due to tension also the joint may
fail due to tension of the plate tension failure of the plate that has also have to be consider.

Now the nominal bearing strength of bolt (Vnpb) can be calculated from the following formula:

Vnpb = 2.5kb dt fu

Where,

Vnpb = nominal bearing strength of bolt


fu = ultimate tensile stress of plate
d = nominal diameter of bolt
t = summation of thickness of connected plates experiencing bearing stress in same
direction
Remember, earlier we have calculated the ultimate tensile stress ultimate stress of bolt in
earlier formula but here it is ultimate tensile strength of plate because it is bearing on plate.
Now another factor is a constant Kb which can be calculated as follows:
e p
kb = smaller of , - 0.25, fub f u ,1
3d 0 3d 0

Where, fub = ultimate tensile stress of bolts


d0 = diameter of bolt hole
p = pitch of fastener along bearing direction
e = edge distance
Now we can find out the design shear force as

Vdpb = Vnpb gmb

Where gmb is the partial safety factor of bolt and this value is 1.25 which we can find out
from table 5 of IS: 800-2007.

(Refer Slide Time: 22:15)

Now considering the failure of bolt due to tension we can calculate the nominal capacity of
bolt in tension as follows:

gmb
Tnb = 0.9 fub Anb < f yb Asb
gm 0

Where, Tnb = nominal capacity of a bolt in tension


fub = ultimate tensile stress of bolts
An = net tensile stress area
Asb = shank area of bolt
fyb = yield stress of bolt
γm0 = partial safety factor = 1.1 (table 5 of IS: 800)
γm1 = partial safety factor = 1.25 (table 5 of IS: 800)

Now the design tensile force, Tdb = Tnb gmb and we know γmb is basically 1.25.

So what we have seen that the strength of bolt due to shearing, due to bearing and due to
tension we have calculated.

Now another aspect is that the joint may fail due to tensile failure of the plate. So if plate fails
then the joint is going to fail. So the tension capacity of the plate also has to be calculated
while calculating the bolt strength of the joint. So we will calculate now the tension capacity
of plate. The tension capacity of plate is given by

0.9 f u An
Tnd =
gm1

Where, Tnd = tension capacity of plate

fu = ultimate tensile stress of plate

An = net effective area of plate

γml = partial safety factor = 1.25

The net effective area of plate is calculated from the following formula:

An = ( b - nd 0 ) t

Where, b = width of plate


n = number of holes along width perpendicular to the direction of load
d0 = hole diameter = nominal diameter of bolt + clearance of the hole
t = thickness of plate

(Refer Slide Time: 27:00) 28:29


Now another failure may come which is 5th one that is bolt with combined shear and tension.
Sometimes bolt are exerted to combined shear and tension. So when we are calculating
individually the shear strength and tensile strength of the bolt we have to also calculate that if
both the shear and tension acts then what will be the combined strength of the bolt and that is
found from this interaction formula that it has to fulfill these criteria and it has to be less than
1.0.

2 2
æV ö
÷ æTe ö
ç ÷ + ç ÷ ÷
ç
ç ÷ ç
÷ ç ÷ £ 1.0
÷
èVsd ø èTnd ø

Where, V = applied shear force


Vsd = design shear capacity
Te = externally applied tension
Tnd = design tension capacity
Here V should be less than Vsd and Te should be less than Tnd but also this check has to be
conducted and the summation of these two will be less than 1.

(Refer Slide Time: 28:33)


Now whatever we have discussed we will go through one example and we will try to
understand that how to calculate the bolt strength.

Example: Calculate the shear strength of 16 mm diameter bolt of grade 4.6. The bolt is under
triple shear as shown in the figure below.

Solution:

fub
Vdsb   nn Anb  ns Asb  lj lg pkg
3mb

nn = no. of shear planes with threads intercepting the plane =1

ns = no. of shear planes without threads intercepting the plane =2

Nominal diameter of bolt, d =16 mm


Diameter of hole, d 0  18mm (Ref. Table 19)

For grade 4.6 bolts; f ub  400MPa

For Fe 410 grade of steel; f u  410 MPa

Partial safety factor for bolt,  mb  1.25

For 16 mm diameter bolt;


Net shear area of bolt at threads is, Anb  0.78   d 2  157 mm 2
4


And Ans   d 2  201 mm 2
4

fub 400
Thus, Vdsb = ( nn Anb + ns Asb ) = ( 1´ 157 + 2´ 201) =103´ 103 N
3gmb 3 ´ 1.25
Therefore, the design shear strength, Vdsb = 103 kN

(Refer Slide Time: 31:05)

So this is a small example we have shown where only shear strength has been calculated due
to multiple shear that means we have tried to understand here that what will be the value of
nn, how we will calculate the value of nn and ns and what will be the Anb and Ans and
accordingly what will be the Vdsb the design shear strength due to shear in the bolt.

So due to multiple shear in this case the triple shear the example has been worked out and has
been shown I hope you have understood this example, thank you very much.