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CONWORLD  Subscribes to

capitalism- profit
Midterm Reviewer motive
 Intensified by
1. Globalization neoliberalism
which adheres to
Globalization operates at multiple, intersecting
no governmental
levels. It is a complex phenomenon and it is an
uneven process that affects people differently
 Free market
Sydney, Australia – a global city that derives its  Liberalism
wealth and influence from the global capital. Sydney
is a Metropolis of families of international Advantages of Disadvantages
immigrants or foreigners working in the industries globalization
that also sell their products abroad.  Multiculturalism  Linguistic
 Mutilingualism hegemony
Manfred Steger: Expansion and intensification of  Free goods of  Cultural
social relations and consciousness across world time exchange] swift homogeniztio
and world space. communication n
 Huge profits  Dependence
Expansion means the creation of new social  Easy migration to rich
networks  Global countries
cooperation  Global
For Anthropologist Arjun Appadurai, globalization inequality
occur on multiple and intersecting dimensions of  Tax injustice
integration which he called as ‘scapes’. Ethnoscape  Rascism and
refer to the global movement of people while anti-migrant
mediascape is the flow of culture . Technoscape sentiment
refers to the circulation of mechanical goods and
 Thomas Friedman  Joma sison
 Martin wolf  Noam
Globalization Internationalism
 Mustafa akyol Chomsky
 Encompasses  Processes and
 Theodore Levitt  Samir amin
processes and systems that
 Lee kuan Yew  Ha Joon
systems related pertain to
 Hilary Clinton Chang
to global social relationships
 Emmanuel  Joseph Stiglitz
relations or between
Macron  Alejandro
interactions nation-states
 Jose Manuel Lichauco
Barrozo  Pope francis
international and
 Fareed Zakaria  Rigoberta
 Menchu
 Marine Le Pen
Philosophy of

2. Globalization of World Economics
 About
liberalization and IMF regards economic globalization as historical
global integration process representing the result of human innovation
of markets and technological progress
 Inevitable and
irreversible Increased trade means investments are moving all
 Requires war on over the world at faster speed
 Spread of International Trading Systems
Ex Silk Road – international not global Developed countries are protectionists. Japan for
examples refuses to allow rice imports to protect its
Dennis Flynn and Arturo Giraldez – globalization farming sector
began when all important populated continents
began to exchange products continuously both with Beneficiary of globalization are the transnational
each other directly and indirectly wia other corporations or TNCs. Race to the bottom refers to
continents and in values sufficient to generate countries lowering their labor standards including
crucial impacts on all trading partners benefits of workers

Galleon trade was part of mercantilism – system of 3. Global Politics in Creating an International Order
global trade with multiple restrictions
Attributes of the Global System
Gold standard –fixed at gold reserves 1. Countries or states that are independent
and govern themselves
Great Depression of 1920 2. Countries interact with each other, through
Fiat economy – currencies that are not backed by 3. International organizations, like the UN,
precious metals and whose value is determined by that facilitate these interactions
their cost relative to other currencies, 1970s 4. International organizations take on lives of
their own
After 2 world wars was the Bretton Woods system-
Nation vs. State
creation of a global economic system that would
Composed of two non-interchangeable terms
ensure a longer-lasting global peace, 1944, UN.
1. Nation – an “imagined community” (Benedict
Influenced by Keynes who believed that economic
crises occur when a country does not have enough
2State – a country and its government
money. Global Keynesian government should
3Not all states are nations, and not all nations
reinvigorate markets by infusion of capital.
are states.
Bretton Woods created the IBRD which later became 4But nations facilitates the formation of states
WB and the IMF Attributes of a state
1. It exercises authority over a specific
Neolib and its discontents – while doing global population (citizens)
Keynesianism, OAPEC or Organization of Arab 2. It governs a specific territory
Petroleum Exporting Countries or OPEC imposed an 3. It has a structure of government that crafts
embargo on oil in response to the US resupplying various rules that people (society) will
arms to Israel, 1970s. Bretton Woods crashed and follow
ended as a result 4. Has sovereignty over its territory
Concept of Sovereignty
Keynesia Orthodoxy was being challenged by • Treaty of Westphalia
Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman – govt pouring – a set of agreements signed in 1648
mones resulted to inflation, distorting the market. to end the Thirty Years’ War
Emergence of neoliberalism, 1980s and codified the between the major continental
WTO in 1955 to continue tariff reduction of powers of Europe
government called GATT. This was called as the – treaty signers exercise complete
Washington Consensus control over their domestic affairs
and swear not to meddle in each
WC dominated until 2000 and advocated for minimal others’ affairs
government spending to reduce debt, privatization Napoleon Bonaparte
of govt controlled services like water, power, and • Believed in spreading the principles of the
communication and reduce tariffs esp in developing French Revolution – liberty, equality and
countries fraternity – to the rest of Europe via
Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815)
Some industries died but the neoliberalists just
• Napoleonic Code – implemented to forbade
called ito shock therapy. Unfortunately they never
birth privileges, encouraged freedom or
recovered. Ex was Russia.
religion and promoted meritocracy to the Capitalist class (owners of
shock of the monarchies production) and Proletariat class
• Was defeated in the Battle of Waterloo in (workers for the capitalists)
1815 • The Socialist International (SI)
• This restored the “Westphalian System” via • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or USSR
“Concert of Europe” – alliance of “great • Communist International (Comintern)
powers” • Communist Information Bureau
Internationalism (Cominform)
- refers to a system of heightened between various
sovereign states.
- the desire for greater cooperation and unity among 4. United Nations
states and people.
Broad Categories Global Governance - refers to the various
liberal internationalism intersecting processes that create this order
• Immanuel Kant (18th century) International Organizations -refer to international
– States, like citizens, must give up intergovernmental organizations or groups that are
some freedom and establish a primarily
form of global government made up of member-states.
• Jeremy Bernham (18th century) - ex. UN (World Bank, IMF, etc.), European
– coined the word “international” in Union, ASEAN, NAFTA
1870) - Though International NGO’s are also
– advocated the creation of referred as IOs (ex. Greenpeace, PETA)
international law that would - Not just a union of various state interests
govern inter-state relations - Has, in recent years, took on lives of their
• Giuseppe Mazzini (19th century) own
– a nationalist internationalist; Power of IOs
believes that free, unified nation- • IOs have the power of classification
states should be the basis of global • IOs have the power to fix meanings
cooperation • IOs have the power to diffuse norms
• Woodrow Wilson (20th US President) UN was created in 1945 to avert war
– saw nationalism as a prerequisite
to internationalism
– “self-determination” – the belief
that the world’s nations had a right
to a free, and sovereign
– advocated for the creation of
League of Nations that will become
a venue for conciliation and
arbitration to prevent war
– For such efforts, Wilson was
awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in
socialist internationalism
• Karl Marx (German socialist philosopher)
– True form of internationalism
should reject nationalism
– Nationalism prevented the
unification of world’s workers; Challenges of UN
placed premium on economic • There’s a limit placed upon its various
inequality organs and programs by the need to
– The world is not divided into respect state sovereignty.
countries but into classes:
• There are issues of security and military According to Steger
intervention. • Globalization – “the expansion and
5Permanent Memebrs – USA, UK, USSR, CHINA and intensification of social relations and
France consciousness across world-time and world-
• Globalism – “widespread belief among
5. World of Regions powerful people that the global integration
• regions” of economic markets is beneficial for
– a group of countries located in the everyone since it spreads freedom and
same geographically specified democracy across the world”
area; Religion Globalism
– an amalgamation of two regions • Ascetics; Less • Aim to seal
or a combination of more than two concerned with trade deals,
regions organized to regulate and wealth (along raise the profits
“oversee flows and policy choices” with higher of private
– “regionalization” social status, enterprise,
• regional concentration of top-of-the-line improve gov’t.
economic flows education etc.) collections,
• “regionalism” • Religious protect the
– political processes characterized evangelization elites from
by economic cooperation and (i.e. concerned heavily taxed by
coordination among countries with spreading the state
reasons in forming associations holy ideas); • Globalist wishes
• For military defense ( ex. NATO was formed globalist to spread goods
during the Cold War against Soviet Union’s identities are and services
threats) seen as inferior • Aspires to be a
• To pool resources ( ex. OPEC (1960) and narrow SHREWD
regulates the production and sale of oil) because they BUSINESSPERSO
• To protect their independence from the are earthly N
pressures of superpower politics (ex. Non- categories Values politics and
Aligned Movement in 1961) • Aspires to be a power as both means
Economic crisis compels countries to come together SAINT and ends to open further
(ex. ASEAN during 1990 financial crisis • Detest politics economies of the world
Non State Regionalism and quest for
• “new regionalism” power
• Rely on the power of individuals, NGOs, and
associations Religion for Religion Against
• Their forms and goals vary; specialized Globalism GLobalism
causes • Non- • Religious
• Some organizations partner with fundamentalist fundamentalism
governments to initiate social change Islam & dislike’s
• Most are poorly financed compared to stae Christianity see globalization’s
counterparts globalization materialism
Contemporary Challenges to Regionalism less as an despite using
• Resurgence of militant nationalism and obstacle and the modern
populism more as an means of
• Financial crisis opportunity to communication
• Sovereignty versus regional stability expand their and
• Differing visions of what regionalism should reach all over organization
be for the world associated with
• Religion does globalization
not stop or slow • Some Muslims
6. Globalization of Religion
down view are not just by producers, they are also consumed by
globalization; “globalization” audiences.
not a as a Trojan
“repressive Horse hiding Cyber Ghettos
force” but a supporters of
“pro-active Western values  The democratic potential of social media
force” and secularism was most evident in 2011 during the wave
uprisings known as the Arab Spring.
 Without access to traditional broadcast
media like TV, activists opposing
authoritarian regimes in Tunisia, Egypt and
7. Globalization of Media
Libya used Twitter to organize and to
Globalization relies on media as its main conduit for
disseminate information
the spread of global culture and ideas.
 In the early 2000s, commentators began
Types of media
referring to the emergence of “splinternet”
• Print media
and “cyberbalkanization”
• Broadcast media
 Vladimir Putin hired armies of social media
• Digital media
trolls to manipu thlate public opinion
through intimidation and spreading of fake
 Vladimir Putin’s imitators used his strategy of
• Correlation
online trolling and disinformation to clamp
• Sensationalization
down on dissent and delegitimize critical
• Entertainment
• Transmission
 Critics of the increasingly dictatorial regime
• Mobilization
of Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan
are threatened by online mobs of pro-
government trolls who hacks accounts and
Marshall Mcluhan
threaten violence. Some of their responses
- media theorist
includes sexual violence against women.
- “Once declared that the medium is a
This lesson showed that different media have
diverse effects on globalization processes. At one
- His message was an attempt to draw
point, it seemed that global television was creating a
attention to how media, as form of
global monoculture. Now, it seems more likely that
technology, reshape societies
social media will splinter cultures and ideas into
- Different media simultaneously extend and
bubbles of people who do not interact. Our society
amputate human senses. The new media
can never be prepared for the rapid changes in the
may expand the reach of communication
systems of communication. Every technological
but they also dull the users communication
change, after all, creates multiple unintended
New media are neither inherently good nor
McLuhan declared that television was turning the
world into a “global village”
Commentators, therefore, believed that media
globalization coupled with American hegemony Good luck. Hope this helps.
would create a form of cultural imperialism
Media/ Culturalism Theory - In 1976, media critic
Herbert Schiller argued that not only was world
being Americanized, but the process also led to the
spread of “American”capitalist values like
consumerism. Proponents of the idea of cultural
imperialism ignored the fact that media messages