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INDEX

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................2
CHAPTER I .....................................................................................................................................4
CONTAINER TERMINAL .........................................................................................................4
TYPES OF CONTAINERS .....................................................................................................4
.......................................................................................................................................................4
MAIN SERVICES OFFERED BY A CONTAINER TERMINAL ......................................6
INFRASTRUCTURE AND HANDLING EQUIPMENT OF A CONTAINER PORT
TERMINAL ..............................................................................................................................7
ACCORDING TO THE SPECIFIC CARGO, WHAT KIND OF SHIPPING MARKING
ARE YOU GOING TO USE? WHY? .......................................................................................10
EXPLAIN THE PROCESS SINCE THE CARGO IS IN THE WAREHOUSE OF THE
SELLER AND IT IS PUT ON BOARD....................................................................................11
CHAPTER II ..................................................................................................................................13
WHAT KIND OF INCOTERM WOULD YOU CHOOSE IN THIS PROCESS? WHY? ...13
WHAT KIND OF SHIPMENT PROBLEMS WILL YOU HAVE? GIVE A SHORT
DESCRIPTION. .........................................................................................................................14
DESCRIBE THE PROCESS ONCE DOWNLOADED AND MOVE TO THE
WAREHOUSE ...........................................................................................................................15
CHAPTER III ................................................................................................................................16
DIALOGUE ................................................................................................................................16
CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................................................18
WHAT DID I LEARN? .............................................................................................................18
INTRODUCTION

In the last years, for the growing globalization, the new technologies and and the reduction
of trade barriers, have made the volume of merchandise traded between countries has
increased greatly. As a result of this, container terminals have developed their infrastructure
to adapt to the great demand.
The following work includes three chapters, in the first chapter a summary of the operation
of a container terminal is developed, given its infrastructure and activities carried out there:

 loading and unloading of merchandise,


 storage terminal
 change of transport mode.

It also specifies in detail the operational equipment for handling containers:

 gantry crane
 multi-purpose cranes
 gantry storage cranes
 gantry truck
 front handling equipment
 platform trucks
 self-guided vehicles

In the second chapter, the use of incoterm that will be used for loading is developed based
on the import process that will arrive from Mexico, the product that will be imported are
wireless headphones, the shipping problems that may arise for the shipment of this cargo
from Veracruz to Callao, how the charge will be handled when it arrives at the port of Callao
and the process that will pass unloaded load until it reaches the terminal warehouse.

In the third part, a dialogue takes place in which a person who wants to import headphones
from Mexico to Peru participates and receives information from a logistics operator
specialized in the import issue to guide the importing client.

This work ends with the retrospective conclusions and what you learn to learn with your
development

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INTRODUCCION

PART 1 PART 2 PART 3

CONTAINER TERMINAL IMPORT OF A LOAD DIALOGUE

DEFINITION USE OF INCOTERM IMPORTATION


PROCESS

SERVICES OFFERED SHIPPING ISSUES


CLIENT

PROCESS OF HANDLING A
TYPES OF CONTAINERS LOAD WHEN IT COMES TO YOU NEED TO
THE PORT OF IMPORT
DESTINATION WIRELESS
SPECIALIZED CONTAINER
HANDLING EQUIPMENT
PROCESS OF HANDLING LOGISTICS
A LOAD UNLOADED TO MANAGER
PROCESS THAT PASSES THE WAREHOUSE
THE LOAD
GIVES INFORMATION ON
THE CARGO PROCESS
FROM THE SELLER'S THAT THE CUSTOMER
STORE WANTS TO IMPORT

UNTIL

ONBOARD SHIP CHARGING

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CHAPTER I
CONTAINER TERMINAL

It is a port that has specialized facilities for loading and unloading containers with different
types of goods. It is a port that specializes in the attention of ships that transport containers

TYPES OF CONTAINERS

The main containers that exist in a port for the different types of merchandise that can be
exported or imported are the following:

DRY VAN OR DRY CONTAINER

They are the standard and most used


containers on the market. They are metallic,
hermetically sealed and without refrigeration
or ventilation.
It is mainly used to transport dry loads such
as bags, boxes, heat shrink packs, machines,
furniture, among others.

OPEN TOP CONTAINER

These containers have the same measures of


the Dry Van container but unlike these, this
container has its upper part uncovered.
It is mainly used to transport merchandise that
stands out for its size characteristics such as
machinery, glass, wood, among others.

FLAT RACK CONTAINERS

It is a container that does not have side walls,


also known as folding platforms for not
having the side walls.
It is mainly used to transport heavy vehicles,
oversized machinery among others

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OPEN SIDE CONTAINER

It is a container whose main feature is that its


lateral cut has the possibility of opening.
It is mainly used to transport products that,
due to their dimensions, cannot enter
through the door of the container such as
large machinery, cables or rolls of aluminum
and steel.

REEFER CONTAINER

It is a container that has a cooling system


that allows a temperature controlled
environment.
It is mainly used to transport perishable
products, such as fruits, vegetables, meat,
etc.

TANK CONTAINER

It is a container that includes a


polyethylene tank inside.
It is mainly used for liquid liquids,
dangerous chemicals such as toxic,
corrosive, highly combustible, as well as
oils, milk, beers, wine, mineral water, etc.

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MAIN SERVICES OFFERED BY A CONTAINER TERMINAL

The main services offered by a container terminal are the following three:

Ship loading or unloading: It is a service for shipping lines,


that is, for owners who own ships. This service is for loading
containers on ships from a terminal of origin that goes to a
destination terminal and it is at the destination terminal that the
unloading of the containers arriving on the ship is carried out.

This loading and unloading are carried out with specialized


machinery that exists in the terminal, both for the maneuver of
loading and carrying out the respective stowage on the ship at a
terminal of origin, as well as for the unloading and unloading at
the destination terminal.

Temporary storage of merchandise: It is a service for the


owners of the merchandise that is in the container, which can be
imported or exported. This service consists of storing the
containers in the terminal for a short time, while the means of
transport in which the goods must be loaded arrives is in the
case of importation. In the case of export, the containers are
stored in the terminal for a short time so that the stowage is then
carried out on the ships.

The refrigerated containers are stored in a special area with the


necessary conditions to conserve their cooling system.

Change of mode of transport: ¨This service is offered to both


shipping lines and cargo owners, it is based on the change of the
mode of maritime transport to land, but it is complemented with
aspects such as: connectivity with main land routes,possibility of
transfer to barges that are destined for other ports small, trains,
etc¨ Then this service will make it easier for the merchandise to
reach its destination.

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INFRASTRUCTURE AND HANDLING EQUIPMENT OF A
CONTAINER PORT TERMINAL

Container port terminals have a basic infrastructure that allows them to change the mode of
transport within the terminal. In the terminals there are specialized machinery that allow
operations to be carried out for the port manipulations that a load passes when arriving at the
terminal and so that the containers can be loaded and stowed on the ship.

Among the types of machinery that are most used in port container terminals are the
following:
GANTRY CRANE: It is the main handling equipment used to load and unload containers
at the port terminals. It is very important because it is the only equipment that performs
operations to serve ships leaving a terminal in a country of origin and arriving at a destination
terminal.

SHIP TO SHORE GANTRY CRANE

MULTIPURPOSE CRANES: It is a handling equipment that serves different purposes, it


is used for handling various types of cargo, such as containers.

MULTIPURPOSE

CRANES

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GANTRY STORAGE CRANES: It is a handling equipment that is used to take containers
that are in the storage blocks in the terminal so that these containers can then be put on land
or on another means of transport such as: train or truck for your final destination. And vice
versa, that is to say, these cranes take the containers that arrive by train or truck to the
terminal, then place them in the container storage block and then these are stowed on the ship
to its destination.
There are two types of gantry storage cranes:

a) Rubber Tired Gantry-RTG: Container handling equipment that has its displacement
system with tire wheels.

RUBBER TIRED GANTRY-RTG

b) Rail Mounted Gantry-RMG: Container handling equipment that has its track system with
wheels for rails

RAIL MOUNTED GANTRY-RMG

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GANTRY TRUCK: It is handling equipment used to mobilize and unload containers that
have been previously grounded by other larger equipment, to take them to another location,
but inside the terminal.
It is one of the handling equipment that travels the most throughout the container terminal, it
has the capacity to transport a maximum of 2 20 'containers or one of 40'

GANTRY
TRUCK

FRONT HANDLING EQUIPMENT: Handling equipment used to stack containers; that


is to say, to place containers one on top of another perfectly aligned and to realize the due
movement of this container by the terminal.
There are two types of frontal handling equipment:

Reach Stacker: It's a type of stacking crane. Front lift Truck: It is a type of front loader.

REACH STACKER FRONT LIFT TRUCK

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TRUCKS WITH PLATFORM: They are trucks that are used for the transport of
containers, these are faster than the equipment of frontal manipulation because they can
arrive to transport with several platforms that allow to transport several containers and are
versatile.

TRUCKS WITH PLATFORM

SELF-GUIDED VEHICLES: These are vehicles that are used to move containers inside
the terminal autonomously. They are like a type of robot trained to move only that is to say
autonomously.

SELF-GUIDED VEHICLES

ACCORDING TO THE SPECIFIC CARGO, WHAT KIND OF SHIPPING


MARKING ARE YOU GOING TO USE? WHY?

The specific charge will be wireless headphones, for this type of product the following
shipping marks will be used:
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HANDLE WITH CARE
It will be used because the product that is packed
has to be handled carefully to prevent the
product from being damaged with possible
breakage.

THIS SIDE UP
It will be used because this symbol will allow
the ideal position of the packaging and will
remain in that position during shipment.

MOISTURE SENSITIVE
It will be used because the merchandise needs to
be kept in a dry place and that is sensitive to
moisture because the product could be damaged.

EXPLAIN THE PROCESS SINCE THE CARGO IS IN THE WAREHOUSE OF THE


SELLER AND IT IS PUT ON BOARD

Due to the volume of the cargo, the consolidation of the merchandise is necessarily carried
out; for which it is transported from the manufacturer's warehouse to a temporary warehouse
where the consolidation will be out together with goods of the same category; from there the
full container is transported to the port of origin where it is put on board through a crane. As
according to the negotiated incoterm is the FOB, it is the shipper who is responsible for this
operation.

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1 GROUND TRANSPORTATION OF MERCHANDISE TO THE TEMPORARY DEPOSIT

SELLER'S LOCAL

2 CONSOLIDATED CARGO IN A CONTAINER IN THE TEMPORARY WAREHOUSE

3 GROUND TRANSPORTATION OF THE CONSOLIDATED CONTAINER FROM THE


TEMPORARY WAREHOUSE TO THE PORT.

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4 IN THE PORT THE STOWAGE OF THE CONTAINER IS CARRIED OUT
SO THAT IT IS ON BOARD THE SHIP.

SOURCE:
NEFAB. nefab.com/globalassets/spain/pdf/guias/gu-01-rotulado-de-embalajes.pdf
EMBALAJES Y TRADING. https://blog.cajaeco.com/los-simbolos-iso-para-embalajes/
LIEBHERR. https://www.liebherr.com/external/products/products-
assets/276772/Bildprospekt%20Hafenumschlag.pdf
CRANE AND MACHINERY. https://www.gruasyaparejos.com/grua-portico-para-
contenedores/puerto-de-contenedores/

CHAPTER II

WHAT KIND OF INCOTERM WOULD YOU CHOOSE IN THIS PROCESS?


WHY?

For the process of importing headphones from Mexico, the FOB incoterm will be used,
because the delivery of the consolidated container of the product will be delivered on board
the ship in the port of Veracruz and, as an importer, I will be responsible for contracting the
main and safe transport. This incoterm will be used because it is cheaper and because the
price in that term includes few costs. The responsibilities of each direct operator for the
purchase and sale are the following:

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RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EXPORTER OF MEXICO

1) Packing for the boxes in which the hearing aids will be included, this process will be
carried out at the exporter's facilities.
2) Hire transportation so that the merchandise is taken to the temporary warehouse.
3) Cargo agent contract that can consolidate the merchandise with others in a container.
4) Hire a customs agent to carry out customs export documentation procedures.
5) Payment of port manipulations that the cargo will pass in the terminal.
6) Loading and stowage on the vessel hired by the importer.
RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE PERUVIAN IMPORTER
1) Main transport contract, therefore, freight payment.
2) Insurance contract.
3) Download to the destination port.
4) Payment of manipulations that the load will pass at the destination terminal.
5) Cargo agent contract.
6) Payment of taxes on the importation of merchandise.
7) Approved and shipping costs
8) Payment of the warehouse for the days that the load was in the temporary deposit.
9) Payment of the surplus in case the load exceeds the days allowed in the temporary
deposit.
10) Internal transportation, transportation payment of the temporary deposit charge to
the importer's facilities.

WHAT KIND OF SHIPMENT PROBLEMS WILL YOU HAVE? GIVE A SHORT


DESCRIPTION.

One of the problems of sending the cargo would be that, as an importer, request prior
recognition of the merchandise and the merchandise is in poor condition or is not complete,
then, as an importer, it would eliminate the DAM and send the merchandise again.

Another problem would be for the exporter to send more merchandise and since it is not
declared, the Customs Authority proceeds to confiscate the undeclared merchandise, but
there is also the possibility that, as an importer, it may declare said merchandise and pay
taxes.
Another problem that could occur would be that the ship due to unforeseen situations is
damaged and, therefore, the container is destroyed.

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WHEN THE CARGO REACHES THE DESTINATION PORT, HOW IS IT
HANDLED?
To download the containers, the following steps are performed:
1) The TRUCK TERMINAL is located on the pier, under the Shore to sea.
2) The crane operator places the SPREADER on the container and secures it.
3) The crane operator lifts the container from its on-board position and places it on the
container chassis of the TERMINAL TRUCK or on the dock.
4) The crane operator places the container on the dock.
5) Dockers unhook the spreader from the container.
6) The cardholder verifies the seal and proceed with the corresponding instructions
depending on the container.

DESCRIBE THE PROCESS ONCE DOWNLOADED AND MOVE TO THE


WAREHOUSE

Once the cargo is unloaded, the container is placed at the disposal of a temporary storage and
transport is carried out to it.
1) The TERMINAL TRUCK is filled and directed to the tempotal deposit.
2) The weighing of the container is carried out in the balance area of the temporary
deposit.
3) The conditions in which the container is found are observed and recorded.
4) It is placed in the storage area and instructions for downloading are expected.

SOURCE:
INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER OF COMERCE. https://iccwbo.org/resources-for-
business/incoterms-rules/incoterms-rules-2010/

EMBALAJES Y TRADING. https://blog.cajaeco.com/los-simbolos-iso-para-embalajes/


CRANE AND MACHINERY. https://www.gruasyaparejos.com/grua-portico-para-
contenedores/puerto-de-contenedores/

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CHAPTER III
DIALOGUE
CONTEXT
The topic we are going to present is “Container terminal” and to present the content we have
created a dialogue between an importer (Brizeth), who does not know about an import and
an agent of an international freight agency (Fernando). The merchandise chosen is wireless
headphones, in the dialogue we will be detailed the process of the import from the moment
it is transported to the warehouse where the cargo will be consolidated until the ship arrives
at the port of destination.
Import: Hello?
L.O: Hi Fernando speaking, from the logistics agency; im calling you to inform that we have
received your invoice about the headphones and i have sent you the quotation for the transport
and customs clearance service of the hearing aids you want to import from Mexico.
Import: Okay Fernando, I will check the email and call you back.
L.O: Ok, I´ll wait for your call
Import: Speak to you soon.
L.O: Goodbye.

TEN MINUTES LATER


L.O: Logistics agency, how can I help you?
Import: Hi Fernando, I'm Brizeth; I have checked the email and I agree with the price quoted
to me for the headphones. I want to start importing as quickly as possible.
L.O: Sure miss. Brizeth, it is a pleasure take you charge; Do you have any questions about
the import?
Import: Yes, I don't know what FOB means; It is a term that appears in the invoice that my
provider sent me.
L.O: It is the term that determines the condition of the negotiation; FOB means that it is the
supplier who will be responsible for your merchandise until it is inside the ship at the port of
origin.
Import: And how my merchandise is transported to the ship?
L.O: In this case the merchandise will be transported to consolidation terminal, where by the
volume of its cargo it will share space with other merchandise to fill a container.
Import: So, my merchandise will not go directly to the port?

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L.O: No, the container is first filled into a warehouse of consolidation and then transported
to the container terminal port.
Import: Once arrived at the port, how does this enter the ship?
L.O: The port facility has specialized equipment for loading and unloading containers, for
that maneuver there is a ship-to-shore gantry crane that will be able to load the container to
the ship.
Import: I understand, and what should I expect now?
L.O: We take care of the entire procedure, i will return your call to inform you of the status
of your merchandise in a few days.
Import: Ok, I'll wait for your call, thanks for your help.
L.O: Ok, have a nice day.

5 DAYS LATER
Import: Hello?
L.O: Hi miss. Brizeth , i call you to communicate your cargo is put on board the ship at the
port of origin, the transit time from the port of Veracruz is approximately 35 days; The ship
will sarpate in 5 days.
Import: Okay Fernando, thanks for the service.
L.O: Ok miss.Brizeth, I will send a copy of the bill of lading to your mail; see you later.

40 DAYS LATER

Import: This is Brizeth speaking.


L.O: Hi miss. Brizeth, the ship has already arrived at the port of Callao.
Import: Excellent news, what is going on?
L.O: When the merchandise arrives at the port of destination, the stowage is first carried out
at the port facility so that the containers are unloaded from the ship, because then they will
go to the temporary warehouse.
Import: I understand, but what do you mean by temporary deposit?
L.O: The temporary deposit is a local authorized by customs where the goods are temporarily
deposited until it completes all its processes with customs.
Import: OK, and then?

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L.O: We will proceed to customsize.
Import: What is that?
L.O: Consists of the payment of taxes to the SUNAT and the declaration of the imported
merchandise.
Import: How is that done?
L.O: Through a document called DUA and with the following documents: INVOICE,
PACKING LIST, BILL OF LADING; the specifications of the merchandise are declared and
taxes are paid so that your merchandise can be released.
Import: Understood, I will be waiting for your call.
L.O: Goodbye.

CONCLUSIONS

The goods that enter the country that come from abroad must undergo a regime in this case
is the Import Regime for Consumption (Article 49 of the General Customs Law) and,
therefore, they must pay customs duties so that the merchandise can have the lift and can be
nationalized.
The incoterms are international terms that will allow the buyer and seller what their
responsibilities are, which will depend on the incoterm that both use for the commercial
exchange.
When merchandise from abroad is nationalized, that is, when it is imported, tariff duties are
paid and for export there are benefits that boost exports, such as DRAWBACK.
It is important that the declaration of the merchandise be made because it is a document that
will allow the customs to assign a control channel when the corresponding customs duties
are paid and the corresponding clearance and release is made so that the foreign merchandise
is nationalized and placed disposition to the beneficiary.

WHAT DID I LEARN?

Through this work we briefly learned the process of importing a product that is transported
in a container, we identify the documents that participate in this procedure and what are the
handling conditions that the containers require.

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