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ME - 312

HEAT & MASS TRANSFER


Arranged By
PROF. DR. ASAD NAEEM SHAH
anaeems@uet.edu.pk
CHAPTER 11

MASS TRANSFER
(Heat Transfer by J. P. Holman, 10th Edition)

Arranged by Prof. Dr. Asad Naeem Shah


MASS TRANSFER - INTRODUCTION
 When a system contains two or more
components whose concentrations vary from
point to point there is a natural tendency for
mass to be transferred, minimizing the
concentration differences within the system.
 Thus, the transport of one constituent from a
region of higher concentration to that of lower
concentration is called mass transfer (M.T).
 Here we are concerned with the microscopic
level of mass transfer.
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INTRODUCTION Cont.
 Mass is transferred in a direction which reduces
an existing concentration gradient.
EXAMPLES:
o Drying, evaporation, chemical reactions,
absorption, adsorption, solution and so on.
 Some day-to-day life examples include:
• Initial dissolution and subsequent uniform
spreading of a lump of sugar added to cup of
tea.

Arranged by Prof. Dr. Asad Naeem Shah


INTRODUCTION Cont.
• Initial diffusion and subsequent evaporation of
water remained into the wet clothes.
• Pleasant fragrance given by a perfume which is
imparted throughout the surrounding.
• Diffusion of smoke into the surrounding
atmosphere.
• Humidification of air in a cooling tower.
• Evaporation of petrol in the carburetor of a petrol
engine.

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FICK’S LAW OF DIFFUSION
 It is analogous to H.T by conduction or
momentum transfer in laminar flow.
 M.T by molecular diffusion may occur in a
stagnant fluid or in a fluid in laminar flow.
 Fick’s law of diffusion states that the mass flux of
a constituent per unit area is proportional to the
concentration gradient.
 Consider a system (a box) in which a thin
partition separates the two gases A and B as
shown in Fig.1. On the removal of partition
diffusion may occur:
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FICK’S LAW OF DIFFUSION Cont.
 The diffusion rate is then given
by:
𝑚𝐴 𝜕𝐶𝐴
= −𝐷 → (1)
𝐴 𝜕𝑥
Fig. 1: Diffusion of
component A into
component B.

 Above eqn. (1) is analogous to H.T by


conduction i.e.
𝑞 𝜕𝑇
𝐴 𝑥 = −𝐾 𝜕𝑥 → (2)
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FICK’S LAW OF DIFFUSION Cont.
 Moreover, eqn. (1) is also analogous to the
transport of momentum across fluid layers i.e.
momentum transfer (MM.T) in laminar flow, so
𝜕𝑢
𝜏 = −𝜇 → (3)
𝜕𝑦
Therefore,
M.T occurs due to concentration gradient
H.T occurs due to temperature gradient
MM.T occurs due to velocity gradient

Arranged by Prof. Dr. Asad Naeem Shah


FICK’S LAW OF DIFFUSION Cont.
 Eqn. (2) implies that:
𝑞 𝑑 𝜌𝑐𝑝 𝑇
𝐴 = −𝛼 𝑑𝑥 → (4)
 From Eqn. (3):
𝑑 𝜗𝜌
𝜏 = −𝑢 → (5)
𝑑𝑦
 Eqn. (1) leads to:
𝑚𝐴 𝑑 𝐶𝐴
= −𝐷 → (6)
𝐴 𝑑𝑥
where 𝜌𝑐𝑝 𝑇 = thermal concentration.
𝜗𝜌 = momentum (kinematic) concentration.
𝐶𝐴 = mass concentration.
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FICK’S LAW OF DIFFUSION Cont.
𝜗
 The ratio is called Schmidt number (Sc).
𝐷
𝛼
 The ratio is called Lewis number (Le).
𝐷
𝜗
 The ratio is called Prandtl number (Pr).
𝛼
 𝑺𝒄 governs the transport of momentum & mass,
while 𝑳𝒆 governs the transport of energy (heat) &
mass.
 A higher value of ‘Le’ indicates that rate at which
energy propagates is faster than rate of mass
transfer.
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PHYSICAL MECHANISM OF
DIFFUSION
 Consider a chamber in which two different gases A
(high conc.) & B (low conc.) at the same
temperature and pressure are initially separated by
a partition.
 If the system is a gas (or liquid) the molecules
move in random fashion.
 Higher the concentration, more molecules will
cross a given plane per unit time when the partition
wall is removed. Thus molecules escape from
higher concentration to lower concentration zone
(Fig. 1).
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PHYSICAL MECHANISM OF DIFFUSION
Cont.

A B
𝐶𝐴 B
A B

Fig. 1
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PHYSICAL MECHANISM OF DIFFUSION
Cont.
 Clearly, mass diffusion is in the direction of
decreasing concentration as shown in Fig. 2.
 Apparently, both the species are transported by
diffusion and gradually mix with each other.

Fig. 2 Arranged by Prof. Dr. Asad Naeem Shah


PHYSICAL MECHANISM OF DIFFUSION
Cont.
 Actually, the concentration of species A decreases,
while the concentration of B increases with ‘x’ (Fig. 1).
There is net transfer of A to the right and of B to the
left.
 After some time, however, equilibrium conditions
prevail and thus mass diffusion is ceased.
 It is important to note that mass transfer is actually due
to the collisions of two unlike molecules i.e. A & B
rather than like molecules.
 Hence, diffusion process is occurring in two ways at
the same time i.e. gas A is diffusing into gas B, while
the gas B is diffusing into A.
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DIFFUSION IN GASES
 Gilliland (Ref. 4, P. 603) has proposed a semi-empirical
equation for the diffusion coefficient in gases:

→ (1)

where
o D is in square centimeters per second, T is in degrees
Kelvin, p is the total system pressure in pascals.
o 𝑉𝐴 and 𝑉𝐵 are the molecular volumes of constituents A
and B as calculated from the atomic volumes in Table 1.
o 𝑀𝐴 and 𝑀𝐵 are the molecular weights of constituents A
and B.

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DIFFUSION IN GASES Cont.
Table 1: Atomic Volumes

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DIFFUSION IN GASES Cont.
 Eqn. (1) offers a convenient expression for
calculating the diffusion coefficient (D) for
various compounds and mixtures,
 Above eqn. (1), however, should not be
used as a substitute for experimental
values of the diffusion coefficient when
they are available for a particular system.

Arranged by Prof. Dr. Asad Naeem Shah


STEADY STATE EQUIMOLAL
COUNTER DIFFUSION
 Fick’s law may be expressed in terms of partial
pressures by making use of the ideal-gas equation of
state, as:
𝜌 = 𝑃 𝑅𝑇 → 1 &
𝑅
𝑅 = 0 𝑀 → (2)
where 𝑅 & 𝑀 are gas constant and molecular weight (for a
particular gas say A), respectively.
𝐽
𝑅0 = 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑎𝑙 𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 = 8314
𝑘𝑔. 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒. 𝐾
By eqns. (1) & (2)
𝑃𝐴 𝑀𝐴
𝐶𝐴 = → (3)
𝑅0 𝑇
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STEADY STATE EQUIMOLAL COUNTER
DIFFUSION Cont.
 Consequently, Fick’s law of diffusion for component A
into component B can be expressed by considering the
isothermal diffusion:
𝑚𝐴 𝑀𝐴 𝑑𝑃𝐴
= −𝐷𝐴𝐵 → 4
𝐴 𝑅0 𝑇 𝑑𝑥
 Similarly, diffusion of component B into component A is:
𝑚𝐵 𝑀𝐵 𝑑𝑃𝐵
= −𝐷𝐵𝐴 → 5
𝐴 𝑅0 𝑇 𝑑𝑥
 If 𝑁𝐴 & 𝑁𝐵 represent the steady-state molal diffusion
rates of components A and B respectively (Fig. 1), each
molecule of A is replaced by a molecule of B, and vice
versa (i.e. there is a state of equi-molal counter
diffusion).
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STEADY STATE EQUIMOLAL COUNTER
DIFFUSION Cont.
 Thus molal diffusion rates are
given by eqns. (4) & (5):

𝑚𝐴 𝐴 𝑑𝑃𝐴
𝑁𝐴 = = −𝐷𝐴𝐵 &
𝑀𝐴 𝑅0 𝑇 𝑑𝑥
𝑚𝐵 𝐴 𝑑𝑃𝐵
𝑁𝐵 = = −𝐷𝐵𝐴
𝑀𝐵 𝑅0 𝑇 𝑑𝑥
 The total pressure of the
system remains constant at Fig.1
steady state, so that
𝑃 = 𝑃𝐴 + 𝑃𝐵
𝑑𝑃𝐴 𝑑𝑃𝐵
− = → (6)
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
Arranged by Prof. Dr. Asad Naeem Shah
STEADY STATE EQUIMOLAL COUNTER
DIFFUSION Cont.
 As each molecule of A is replacing a molecule of B, so
𝑁𝐴 = −𝑁𝐵
𝐴 𝑑𝑃𝐴 𝐴 𝑑𝑃𝐴
−𝐷𝐴𝐵 = 𝐷𝐵𝐴 −
𝑅0 𝑇 𝑑𝑥 𝑅0 𝑇 𝑑𝑥
𝐷𝐴𝐵 = 𝐷𝐵𝐴 = 𝐷 → (𝟖)
 The calculation of D may be made with Gilliland’ s
semi-empirical equation discussed earlier.
 Moreover, eqn. (4) may be integrated to obtain the
mass flux of component A corresponding to the
nomenclature of Fig.1 as:
𝑚𝐴 𝑀𝐴 (𝑃𝐴2 −𝑃𝐴1 )
= −𝐷 → (9)
𝐴 𝑅0 𝑇 ∆𝑥
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DIFFUSION OF WATER
VAPOURS THROUGH AIR
 Isothermal evaporation of water from a surface
and the subsequent diffusion through a stagnant
air layer is shown in Fig.1.

Fig.1: Diffusion of water vapor into air.


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DIFFUSION OF WATER VAPOURS
THROUGH AIR Cont.

 The process is based on the following


assumptions:
a) The system is isothermal and the total pressure
remains constant as well.
b) The system is in steady state.
c) There is no turbulence by the air.
d) Both the air and water vapor behave as ideal
gases (perfect gases).
e) The concentration follows: 𝐶𝑤1 > 𝐶𝑤2 & 𝐶𝑎2 > 𝐶𝑎1
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DIFFUSION OF WATER VAPOURS
THROUGH AIR Cont.
 Since at S.S, upward diffusion of water through air =
downward diffusion of air, therefore:
The concentration at any ‘x’ position = constant.
 But at the surface of the water there can be no net mass
movement of air downward. Consequently, there must
be a bulk mass movement upward with a velocity just
large enough to balance the diffusion of air downward.
 This bulk mass movement then produces an additional
mass flux of water vapor upward.
 The diffusion of air downward is given by:

𝐷𝐴𝑀𝑎 𝑑𝑃𝑎
𝑚𝑎 = − → (1)
𝑅0 𝑇 𝑑𝑥
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DIFFUSION OF WATER VAPOURS
THROUGH AIR Cont.
 This must be balanced by the upward bulk mass transfer
of air so that
𝑃𝑎 𝑀𝑎
𝑚𝑎 = −𝜌𝑎 𝐴𝑣 = − 𝐴𝑣 → (2)
𝑅0 𝑇
 Comparison of eqns. (1) & (2) leads to bulk mass velocity:
𝐷 𝑑𝑃𝑎
𝑣= → (3)
𝑃𝑎 𝑑𝑥
 The mass diffusion of water vapor upward is:
𝐷𝐴𝑀𝑤 𝑑𝑃𝑤
𝑚𝑤 = − → (4)
𝑅0 𝑇 𝑑𝑥
The bulk transport of water vapors carried upward is:
𝑃𝑤 𝑀𝑤
𝑚𝑤 = 𝜌𝑤 𝐴𝑣 = 𝐴𝑣 → (5)
𝑅0 𝑇
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DIFFUSION OF WATER VAPOURS
THROUGH AIR Cont.
 The total mass transport is the sum of those given in
Equations (4) & (5):
𝐷𝐴𝑀𝑤 𝑑𝑃𝑤 𝑃𝑤 𝑀𝑤
𝑚𝑤,𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = − + 𝐴𝑣
𝑅0 𝑇 𝑑𝑥 𝑅0 𝑇
 Making the use of eqn. (3) in above equation:
𝐷𝐴𝑀𝑤 𝑑𝑃𝑤 𝑃𝑤 𝑀𝑤 𝐷 𝑑𝑃𝑎
𝑚𝑤,𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = − + 𝐴
𝑅0 𝑇 𝑑𝑥 𝑅0 𝑇 𝑃𝑎 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑃𝑤 𝑑𝑃𝑎
 As 𝑃 = 𝑃𝑤 + 𝑃𝑎 − =
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝐷𝐴𝑀𝑤 𝑃 𝑑𝑃𝑤
𝑚𝑤,𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 =− → (6)
𝑅0 𝑇 𝑃 − 𝑃𝑤 𝑑𝑥
Above relation is called Stefan’s law for diffusion, and it
may be integrated to give: Arranged by Prof. Dr. Asad Naeem Shah
DIFFUSION OF WATER VAPOURS
THROUGH AIR Cont.
𝐷𝐴𝑃𝑀𝑤 𝑃 − 𝑃𝑤2
𝑚𝑤,𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = ln → (7)
𝑅0 𝑇 𝑥2 − 𝑥1 𝑃 − 𝑃𝑤1

𝐷𝐴𝑃𝑀𝑤 𝑃𝑎2
𝑚𝑤,𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = ln → (8)
𝑅0 𝑇 𝑥2 − 𝑥1 𝑃𝑎1

Now, Introducing the concept of log mean partial pressure


𝑃𝑎2 −𝑃𝑎1 𝑃−𝑃𝑤2 − 𝑃−𝑃𝑤1
of air (LMPA) i.e. 𝐿𝑀𝑃𝐴 = 𝑃𝑎2 = 𝑃𝑎2 in
𝑙𝑛 𝑙𝑛
𝑃𝑎1 𝑃𝑎1
eqn. (8):
𝐷𝐴𝑃𝑀𝑤 𝑃𝑤1 − 𝑃𝑤2
𝑚𝑤,𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = → (9)
𝑅0 𝑇 𝑥2 − 𝑥1 𝐿𝑀𝑃𝐴
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DIFFUSION IN LIQUIDS AND
SOLIDS
 Fick’s law of diffusion is also used for problems involving
liquid and solid diffusion, however, the main difficulty is
to determine the value of the diffusion coefficient for a
particular liquid or solid.
 Unfortunately, only approximate theories are available
for predicting the diffusion coefficients in these systems.
 Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot (Ref. 9, P. 603) discuss the
calculation of diffusion in liquids, and Jost gives a
discussion of the various theories that have been
employed to predict values of the diffusion coefficient.
 Diffusion in solids is complex, however, Fick’s law is
often used for such systems along with an
experimentally determined diffusion coefficient.
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DIFFUSION IN LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS
Cont.
 The numerical value of the diffusion coefficient
for liquids and solids is much smaller than for
gases because of the following factors:
o Larger molecular force fields
o The increased number of collisions, and
o The consequent reduction in the freedom of
movement of the molecules.

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THE MASS-TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT
A mass-transfer coefficient is defined in a similar manner
as that used for defining the heat-transfer coefficient, so:
→ (1)

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→ (2)
THE MASS-TRANSFER COEFFICIENT Cont.
 Comparison of eqn. (1) for the water-vaporization and
eqn. (7) from previous topic i.e. “Diffusion of water
vapors through air” leads to:
𝐷𝐴𝑃𝑀𝑤 𝑃 − 𝑃𝑤2
𝐾𝐴 𝐶𝑤1 − 𝐶𝑤2 = ln → (3)
𝑅0 𝑇 𝑥2 − 𝑥1 𝑃 − 𝑃𝑤1
𝑃𝐴 𝑀𝐴
 As mass concentration of any species A is 𝐶𝐴 = , so
𝑅0 𝑇
in case of water:
𝑀𝑤
𝐶𝑤1 − 𝐶𝑤2 = 𝑃𝑤1 − 𝑃𝑤2 → (4)
𝑅0 𝑇
 Putting eqn. (4) into eqn. (3):
𝐷𝑃 𝑃 − 𝑃𝑤2
𝐾= ln → (5)
𝑥2 − 𝑥1 𝑃𝑤1 − 𝑃𝑤2 𝑃 − 𝑃𝑤1
Arranged by Prof. Dr. Asad Naeem Shah
THE MASS-TRANSFER COEFFICIENT Cont.

 It has already been established that the


phenomenological laws governing heat, mass, and
momentum transfer are similar.
 From the principles of convection (Chapter 5) it has
been established that the energy and momentum
equations of a laminar boundary layer are similar i.e,

→ (6)

→ (7)

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THE MASS-TRANSFER COEFFICIENT Cont.

 Thus an equation can be derived for the concentration


(mass transfer) of a particular component in the laminar
boundary layer on a flat plate i.e.,

𝜕𝐶𝐴 𝜕𝐶𝐴 𝜕 2 𝐶𝐴
𝑢 +𝜗 = 𝐷 2 → (8)
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕 𝑦

 It is clear from eqns. (6) & (8) that the velocity and
concentration profiles will have the same shape when
𝜗
𝜗 = 𝐷, thus 𝑆𝑐 = is important in problems where both
𝐷
convection and mass transfer are important.
Arranged by Prof. Dr. Asad Naeem Shah
THE MASS-TRANSFER COEFFICIENT Cont.

 For convection heat-transfer problems, the functional


dependence of the heat-transfer coefficient for flow over
a flat plate is given by:
𝑕𝑥
𝑁𝑢𝑥 = = 𝑓 𝑅𝑒𝑥 , 𝑃𝑟
𝑘
 Similarly in convection mass-transfer problems, the
functional relation is given by:
𝐾𝑥
= 𝑓 𝑅𝑒𝑥 , 𝑆𝑐
𝐷
 Also from eqns. (7) & (8), the temperature and
concentration profiles will be similar when 𝛼 = 𝐷, so
𝛼 𝑆𝑐
= = 𝐿𝑒
𝐷 𝑃𝑟

Arranged by Prof. Dr. Asad Naeem Shah


THE MASS-TRANSFER COEFFICIENT Cont.

 The similarities between the governing equations for


heat, mass, and momentum transfer suggest that
empirical correlations for the M.T coefficient (K) would be
similar to those for the H.T coefficient (h).
 Gilliland [4] presented the following equation for the
vaporization of liquids into air inside circular columns
where the liquid wets the surface and the air is forced
through the column:

→ (9)

 The grouping of terms 𝐾𝑥 𝐷 or 𝐾𝑑 𝐷 is called the Sherwood


number (Sh).
Arranged by Prof. Dr. Asad Naeem Shah
THE MASS-TRANSFER COEFFICIENT Cont.

 It is imperative to note the similarity between equation


(9) and the Dittus-Boelter equation i.e.,

 Thus equation (9) is valid for the cases when:

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HOME ASSIGNMENT

Examples: 11.1, 11.2 & 11.5


+
Related Problems

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THANKS
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