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This article is about the Republic of India. For other uses, see India (disambiguation).

Republic of India

Bhārat Gaṇarājya


State emblem

Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)

"Truth Alone Triumphs"[1]

Anthem: "Jana Gana Mana" [2][3]

"Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People"[4][2]

National song
"Vande Mataram" (Sanskrit)
"I Bow to Thee, Mother"[a][1][2]
Area controlled by India shown in dark green;
regions claimed but not controlled shown in light green

Capital New Delhi

28°36′50″N 77°12′30″E

Largest city

18°58′30″N 72°49′33″E

Official lang Hindi

uages English[b][7]
State level and
regional langu
Eighth Schedule[8][show]

National None[9][10][11]

79.8% Hinduism

14.2% Islam

2.3% Christianity

1.7% Sikhism

0.7% Buddhism
0.4% Jainism

0.23% Unaffiliated

0.65% others[12]
See Religion in India

Demonym(s) Indian

Membership UN, WTO, BRICS, SAARC, SCO, G8+5, G20, C

ommonwealth of Nations

Government Federal parliamentary constitutional republic

• President Ram Nath Kovind

• Vice President Venkaiah Naidu
• Prime Minister Narendra Modi
• Chief Justice Sharad Arvind Bobde
• Speaker of the Om Birla
Lok Sabha

Legislature Parliament

• Upper house Rajya Sabha

• Lower house Lok Sabha

from the United Kingdom

• Dominion 15 August 1947

• Republic 26 January 1950

• Total 3,287,263[6] km2 (1,269,219 sq mi)[c] (7th)
• Water (%) 9.6

• 2018 estimate 1,352,642,280[13][14] (2nd)

• 2011 census 1,210,854,977[15][16] (2nd)

• Density 404.3/km2 (1,047.1/sq mi) (31st)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate

• Total $11.326 trillion[17] (3rd)

• Per capita $8,378[17] (119th)

GDP (nomina 2019 estimate

• Total $2.936 trillion[17] (5th)

• Per capita $2,172[17] (142nd)

Gini (2013) 33.9[18]

medium · 79th

HDI (2018) 0.647[19]

medium · 129th

Currency Indian rupee (U+20B9 ₹ ) (INR)

Time zone UTC+05:30 (IST)

DST is not observed

Date format


Driving side left

Calling code +91

ISO 3166 IN

Internet TLD .in (others)

India (Hindi: Bhārat), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[20] is a country
in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the
most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian
Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders
with Pakistan to the west;[e] China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to
the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and
Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.
Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000 years ago.
Their long occupation, initially in varying forms of isolation as hunter-gatherers, has made the
region highly diverse, second only to Africa in human genetic diversity.[22] Settled life emerged on the
subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river basin 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into
the Indus Valley Civilisation of the third millennium BCE.[23] By 1200 BCE, an archaic form of Sanskrit,
an Indo-European language, had diffused into India from the northwest, unfolding as the language of
the Rigveda, and recording the dawning of Hinduism in India.[24] The Dravidian languages of India
were supplanted in the northern regions.[25] By 400 BCE, stratification and exclusion by caste had
emerged within Hinduism,[26] and Buddhism and Jainism had arisen, proclaiming social
orders unlinked to heredity.[27] Early political consolidations gave rise to the loose-
knit Maurya and Gupta Empires based in the Ganges Basin.[28] Their collective era was suffused with
wide-ranging creativity,[29] but also marked by the declining status of women, [30] and the incorporation
of untouchability into an organised system of belief.[f][31] In so