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ENERGY AND

7Ia CHANGES
A

There are a lot of things happening in a theme park. Almost


B | Food is a store of energy.
everything that happens involves energy in some way.
For example, your body needs energy to stay alive, and to allow
you to move around. Energy is needed to make all the rides in the
theme park work. The energy needed is stored in food and in fuels,
such as petrol.

1 Which of the rides shown in photo A needs the most energy and
which the least energy? Explain your answers.

2 a| Write down five different things that are happening in photos


A and B that need energy.
b| How is energy provided for these things to happen?

3 a| Write down five things you did yesterday that needed energy.
b| Which of these things do you think needed the most energy,
and which needed the least energy? How do you know?

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ENERGY
7Ia FROM FOOD
HOW DO OUR BODIES USE ENERGY?

Humans and other animals need energy to live. We need Nutrition Information
energy to help us to grow and repair our bodies, and to move Typical values Per bun (65 g) Per 100 g
and keep warm. Our bodies use food as a source of energy. Energy 544 kJ/130 kcal 837 kJ/200 kcal
Protein 6g 9.2 g
The unit for measuring energy is the joule (J). The amount
Carbohydrate 21 g 32.3 g
of energy needed to lift an apple from the floor onto a (of which sugar) (4 g) (6.2 g)
table is about 1 J. Most foods contain a lot more energy Fat 2.5 g 3.85 g
than this, so we usually measure the energy in foods using (of which saturates) (0 g) (0 g)

kilojoules (kJ). 1 kJ = 1000 J. Fibre 1.2 g 1.8 g


Sodium 0.2 g 0.3 g

Nutrition Information
Typical values Per hot dog Per 100 g
sausage (50 g)
Energy 628 kJ/150 kcal 1256 kJ/300 kcal
Protein 9g 18 g
Carbohydrate 0.8 g 1.6 g
(of which sugar) (0 g) (0 g)
Fat 15 g 30 g
(of which saturates) (4 g) (8 g)
Fibre 0g 0g
Sodium 0.4 g 0.8 g

A | Nutrition information labels show how much energy is stored in food.

1 Why does your body need food?

2 a| How much energy does 100 g of hot dog sausage contain?


Give your answer in kilojoules.

b| Mark eats two hot dogs (each hot dog is one sausage in a bun).
How much energy is in the food he eats?

Different people need different amounts of energy. Your body needs


energy to help it to grow. You also need energy to move around. If you
do a lot of exercise, you need more energy than if you spend most of
your time watching television.

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How energy required varies with age and activity
16000

Average energy required (kJ)


A good diet should provide only the amount
of energy that a person’s body needs. If the
diet contains more energy than the person 12000
needs, the body will store the energy in
fat and the person will gain weight. If the 8000
diet does not contain enough energy the
person will lose weight and become thinner. 4000
A good balanced diet also provides all the
nutrients that the body needs for health, 0
and includes a mixture of different foods. Age 5 Age 11 Age 18 Adult Active Very
adult active
adult

C | Different people have different daily energy needs.

3 a| Suggest why a teenager needs more energy than a


5-year-old child.
b| Why do you think a pregnant woman needs more
energy from food than a woman who is not pregnant?
4 a| Write down these people in order of the energy they
need, starting with the one who needs the least
energy: baby, fire-fighter, secretary, 11-year-old child.
b| Explain your answer to part a.
5 a| A 5 year old only eats buns. How much would he
D | Mountaineers need to take their food with them have to eat each day to get the energy he needs?
when they climb mountains. They need to take b| If he only ate sausages, how much would he have
food that will give them about 19 000 kJ per day. to eat each day?
c| Why shouldn’t you always eat only one type of food?
6 Explain the link between the amount of food someone
eats, the amount of activity they carry out and the
E amount of weight they gain.
7 Look at photo E. How will the amount of time koalas
spend asleep affect the amount of food they need to
find?
8 Scientists can measure the amount of energy stored
in different foods. How can this knowledge help
mountaineers and explorers?

I can …
■ recall that our bodies need energy, which we get from food
Koalas live in Australia, and feed on ■ explain why different people need different amounts of
eucalyptus leaves. The leaves do not energy from food
provide much energy, so koalas sleep ■ recall that the units for measuring energy are joules (J) or
for around 20 hours every day. kilojoules (kJ). 1 kJ = 1000 J.

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FAIR COMPARISONS
7Ia AND RATIOS
HOW CAN YOU COMPARE THE ENERGY STORED IN DIFFERENT FOODS?
You can compare the
amount of energy stored in
different foods by burning
them. Photo B shows the
kind of apparatus you need.
The energy released by the
burning food heats the water
in the boiling tube. The
higher the temperature of
the water, the more energy
the food released when it
was burnt.

A | Different foods contain different amounts of energy.

Method
A| Find the mass of a piece of food. E| When the food has finished
burning, record the temperature
B| Carefully put the food on a pin of the water again.
(which has its other end in a
piece of cork). F| Let the food cool down, then
carefully push what is left off the
C| Put 10 cm3 of water into a boiling pin and find its mass. If there is no
tube. Record its temperature. food left on the pin, write down 0 g
D| Light the food using a Bunsen for its mass.
burner, and hold the burning G| Repeat steps A to F for other foods.
food under the boiling tube.
Make sure the flame is touching
the boiling tube.
Wear eye protection.
Do not eat any of the foods.
Do not use nuts.
B

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WORKING
SCIENTIFICALLY
Table C shows the results of an investigation. The Comparing results
student has used the masses of food at the beginning
and end to work out the mass of each food burnt, Table C shows that burning the cheese produced
and has also calculated the change in temperature. the greatest change in water temperature.
However, it is not a fair test because different
masses of each food were burnt.
C Food used Mass of food Temperature
burnt (g) rise (°C) Burning 4 g of
We can make a fair comparison
cheese made of the results by working out the
bread 2.0 4.0 the temperature temperature rise for each gram (g)
of the water rise
cheese 4.0 16.0 by 16 °C. What of food burnt. We do this by dividing
cornflakes 4.0 14.0 would be the the temperature difference by the
temperature rise if mass of food. Table D shows the
crackers 1.0 4.5 only 1 g of cheese
had been burnt? results of this calculation.

D Food used Temperature rise per


gram of food (°C/g)
1 a| Look at tables C and D. Write down the foods in
order of the temperature rise, starting with the bread 2.0
lowest (bread). cheese 4.0
b| Now write down the foods in order of the cornflakes 3.5
temperature rise per gram of food.
crackers 4.5
c| Which list is the best comparison of the amounts
of energy stored in the different foods? Explain
your answer.
2 The student also tested diet crispbreads in
the investigation. The temperature rise
Ratios per gram was 1.0 °C. What is the ratio of the
Ratios can help us to compare the energy stored by temperature rise caused by the crispbreads
compared with:
different foods. The investigation shows that 1 g of
bread raises the temperature of the water by 2 °C, a| the bread b| the cheese?
and 1 g of cheese raises it by 4 °C. We can write these
3 A student says ‘I would get the same
numbers as a ratio like this:
energy from eating 50 g of bread or 25 g
of cheese.’ Is the student correct? Explain
temperature temperature your answer.
It is easier to understand
rise for 1 g rise for 1 g the ratio if one number
4 Pears store 175 kJ of energy per 100 g of
bread (°C) cheese (°C) is a 1. Simplify the ratio
fruit, and bananas store 350 kJ per 100 g.
by dividing both sides
2 : 4 by the smallest number Calculate the ratio of the energy stored in
needed to make one the two kinds of fruit.
1 : 2
side become 1.

I can …
So we can write the ratio as 1:2. This shows that
cheese raises the temperature of the water by twice ■ make a fair comparison of results
as many degrees as bread. ■ calculate ratios.

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