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ProfessorHaryDepartmentChristadyTechniqueHardiyatmoSilip and Environment Faculty of

Engineering - Gadjah Mada University - Yogyakarta email:

Many transportation infrastructure buildings are built on thick soft soil, so that is a problem
excessive reduction becomes important and solutions must be sought. At that location, before
infrastructure development is carried out, generally the soil improvement is done first to
short term and long term stability. Common ways of improving land
done can be in the form of demolition and replacement, pre-loading, vertical drainage, injection,
soil stabilization, soil strengthening and others. One alternative is the way to repair land
used in the construction of embankments on soft soil is vertical drainage. In
its development, at the present time, conventional vertical drainage combined with
vacuum pre-loading. Some benefits can be obtained from this method, including heap height
as preload can be reduced and the problem of instability of embankment slopes when
construction can
minimized. The successful use of this vacuum method depends on many factors, such as:
membrane system, the presence of soil lenses escaping water in the treated soil zone. This
presents state-of-the art of various matters concerning the theory and application of pre-service
vacuum when used in repairing soft soils.

Improvement A. Introduction Vertical Drain consolidation becomes faster by influence

Prefricated velocity of water seepage flow in the radial direction precast soft soil with faster
vertical drainage due to vacuum pressure. Pressure (, PVD) is one of the ways that the most
negative pore water (suction) is spread over used. Installation of PVD into the ground along
vertical drainage and sand layers in reduce the drainage path, so that the ground surface,
speed up the process accelerate consolidation. The problem is consolidation, reducing land
movement to when the heap is built high enough, lateral direction, and increase the effective
stress. so that the problem of slope stability becomes an advantage of this method, heap height
most decisive. To solve and lateral motion of the soil can be reduced, this problem, the
application of vacuum consolidation so that the problem of slope instability can be which
combined with reduced vertical drainage. On thick soft loam in and pre-loading () is seen where
relatively high heaps cannot more efficient (Chu et al., 2000; Indraratna, 2010; built without
causing disruption preloading stability (large lateral ground movements), application Mesri and
Khan, 2012). Pre-loading method vacuum () This was originally a combination of vertical
drainage with pressure proposed by Kjellman (1952). vacuum is often more economical. In
some vacuum preloading projects, cost savings in soil repairs As is the case with the use of
drainage using preloading methods conventional vertical PVD, soil improvement with with
combined vacuum consolidation this can reach 30%. vacuum with vertical drainage it also aims.

B. Vacuum Preloading Schematic drawing of a vacuum consolidation system 1)

Vacuum Consolidation System studied by Masse et al. (2001) shown inside. In this case, the
system consists of a series Picture 1 vertical and horizontal drainage, where hydraulic
connections occur through layers sand, and thick HDPE waterproof membrane about 1 mm
closes the system. Drainage horizontal 50 mm in diameter, medium drainage vertical () 34 mm
in diameter. Vertical or horizontal drainage are connected wick drain with the edge of the
perimeter and closed by membrane system. The perimeter drains filled with water or Bentonite
solution to maintain closure which is perfect from the membrane at the edges zone to be
vacuum. Vacuum pump connected to the equipment system to be throw water into the edge
channel. In condition certain, to keep the membrane system no leakage needed wall system

Figure 1.

Schematic vacuum consolidation with cover membrane on the surface (Masse et al., 2001).
Implementation of the work of the vacuum system begins by laying out a layer of sand rough,
which in addition serves as a foundation work (), also as a drain layer (sand blanket /). After
that, the platform mounted vertical drainage (PVD) followed sand bag with horizontal drainage
installation as well other complementary tools. PVD can mounted with an equilateral triangle
pattern or square. Different types of drainage vertical has been used, such as: drainage precast
vertical (, PVD), drainage pipes from vacuum pipes Menard (Prefabricated Vertical Drain
Menard vacuum transmission pipe, VIP Systems 2) Surface Drainage System Surface Surfaces
consist of a layer of sand and a collector pipe system with holes with / without horizontal
interconnected drainage. This drainage system is buried in a layer of sand. Horizontal drainage
connects the top of the vertical drainage to the main vacuum pipe. Depending on factors such as:
sand permeability, PVD distance, and traffic loads on it, the thickness of the sand layer is generally
0.50 to 80 cm. The sand layer is sometimes made thicker if at the same time it functions as a
working platform for heavy equipment that will work on it. Horizontal drainage types can be either
PVC pipes or PVD board drain .

3) How to isolate the leakage area of the vacuum area in the vacuum system is very influential
in the application of vacuum pressure and efficiency of the entire system. The way that is often
done, namely by using PVC membranes (2-3 layers) to cover all areas that are handled tightly.
In China, it has been developed using only one layer of membrane for an area of 100,000 m2
(Dam et al., 2006). To prevent damage to the membrane, the geotextile is first laid on the
ground before the surface is covered by the membrane. For complete closure, the edge of the
membrane is locked with a trench excavation which is 0.50 m lower than the ground water level
and filled with a water-resistant solution (bentonite polyacrolyte solution, clay mixed solution, or
clay soil excavation in place). In practice, many methods are used to make the vacuum area
into a completely closed system. If near the surface of the soil there is a layer of soil escaped
water (granular soil), a common method used so that the vacuum system is a closed zone is to
build a cut-off wall. For 4) Vacuum Pumping Systems, Vacuum pumps are usually used that
have high efficiency. This pump is equipped with a drain pump which is useful for removing
water mixed with air flowing through the pipe and piping system drain (). In China, Gambar
vacuum pumps are generally replaced1 with 48 mm (7.5 kW) diamater Jet Pumps, with 3HA -9
centrifugal water pumps. This tool is capable of producing vacuum pressures up to 90 kPa. In
the Menard system, the vacuum system consists of a specially designed vacuum pump that can
suck air and water (Dam et al., 2006)

C. Mec is Vacuum Preloading the process described by CUR (1996),

as shown in vacuum preloadi explained before . vacuum, medium pressure Figure 2 Figure 2a
when working vacuum pressure. When Figure takes place in a vacuum consolidation process ,
negative pore pressure is followed by an increase in the effective stress, while the total stress
remains constant
Pictures of air pressure, before and during the vacuum consolidation process (CUR, 1996).

In geotechnical analysis, atmospheric pressure is often ignored or assumed to be zero in its voltage
calculation. However, in the theory of vacuum consolidation, atmospheric pressure needs to be
considered. When vacuum pressure is applied, the vertical stress remains the same, but the pore
pressure decreases. The amount of effective voltage increase is equal to the suction pressure of the
vacuum pump multiplied by the efficiency value. Generally, the efficiency of vacuum pumps ranges
from 70 - 80% of atmospheric pressure (Chu el al, 2008).

When combined with the loading capacity of the preloading pile above it, the pore water pressure
that arises is the excess pore pressure due to pile load plus negative pore water pressure due to
suction pressure from the pump

vacuum). Thus the pore water pressure that arises becomes smaller than the pore water pressure
due to the burden of the pile itself.
CONVENTIONAL CONVENTION AND VACUUM CONSolidation process, described in

(Indraratna et al., 2005c).

Figure 3 shows the relationship between stress, Figure 3a excess pore pressure, and effective stress
in conventional consolidation (ie using PVD and embankment only), is showing the same thing, but
in Gmartart33 plus PVD, vacuum pressure with heap height is added reduced.

Differences in conventional consolidation processes Image consolidation3. vacuum (Indraratna

et al; 2005c). Comparison between vacuum methods combined with heap and PVD, with
conventional (ie heap with PVD only) is as prelo ding following (Indraratna at al., 2005): 1.
Effective pressure when working vacuum pressure increases gradually isotropic followed by
movement lateral inward (towards the pile). The effect of this risk on ground shear failure can be
minimized (even on heaps tall one). Inward movement from the ground under this heap must be
monitored in order to avoid stress excessive pull. So, the method this also reduces risk of failure
of slope stability. vacuum preloading 2. High vacuum energy can spread to the depth of the soil
through the PVD system. Vacuum suction spread beyond the drain ends and limits from the
PVD zone. 3. The pile volume can be reduced to achieve the same degree of consolidation. So,
when compared to conventional, preloading reduce the cost of landfill transportation v ccum
preloading get to the pile location. 4. Because the heap height can be reduced (so the pressure
to the ground decreases), then the maximum excess pore pressure arising will be smaller than
with). conventional (see preloading 5. With vacuum pressure applied, Figure 3b condition of
land unsaturation in the area interface () between ground and drain can be compensated. 6.
With a vacuum interface, pressure consolidation bridle acting on the soil element it consists of 2
parts: (a) pressure vacuum and (b) lateral earth pressure. The principle of analytic models for
from vacuum systems E. THE VACUUM CONSOLIDATION THEORY indicated in (Indraratna,
2009). Also shown in this picture is the zone soiling (Figure 4 ) and the influence of prisoners
wells (smear zone). General Settlement in showing the influence of excess well
resance 50 pore pressures, decreases, and degrees of consolidation are translated using the
Laplace transformation equation.

Pemasangan transformasi laplace

Figure 4. Schematic of a membrane system in 1 unit
vertical drainage (Indraratna, 2009).
Adopt the theory of one-dimensional consolidation
from Terzaghi, Mohamedelhassan and Shang
(2002) develop a theory of consolidation
vaccum. The combined mechanism of consolidation
the vacuum and load are evenly distributed from the pile
(), is considered a superposition of
conditions on.
Figure 5a averages on combinations
Degree of consolidation
pressure Figure 5b and 5c
vacuum and load
expressed by the equation: preloading
= 1− ∑ (1)
= (2)
Tvc = combined time factor of vacuum and preloading load
C = the coefficient of vacuum and consolidation of the combined load of preloading

(c) The load is evenly distributed

(a) = (b) + (c)

Assumption of loading used

in the Analysis Analysis5. (Mohamedelhassan vacuum and Shang, preloading 2002).
When vacuum pressure is applied in the field through PVD, vacuum pressure decreases with
increasing depth, therefore its efficiency decreases (Indraratna et al., 2004). In addition, the
development of vacuum suction in PVD depends on the length and type of PVD (core and filter

Indraratna et al. (2005a) propose a radial consolidation equation based on laboratory test results
related to the pattern of vacuum pressure distribution, such as that shown in G. mbar 6. From this
it was concluded that the efficiency of PVD depends
at large and vacuum pressure distribution. In
take into account vacuum pressure loss,
then the pressure is considered to be shaped
trapezoid along PVD. With assumption
trapezoidal vacuum pressure distribution,
ratio of excess pore pressure average (u = /
) from the radial drainage cylinder R with
pay attention to vacuum pressure can
expressed by equation:
Vacuum pressure distribution in the vertical direction

The picture is assumed to be shaped. trapezoid (Indraratna et al., 2005a).

= 1 + () - - () (3)

= In + In (s) - 0.75 + (2−) 1 - (⁄) (4)

ko = vacuum pressure at the top of the drain

1 = ratio between vacuum at the top and bottom of the drain
p = excess initial pore press
L = depth
uo drain equivalent length
kw = drainage discharge capacity
h = horizontal soil permeability coefficient in
k zone undisturbed ground
T s = horizontal permeability coefficient
in the undisturbed zone ()
Zh = smear zone time factor
= depth
N = equivalent drain length
= d / dw
D = equivalent diameter of ground cylinder

F. PVD Design With Vacuum reloading

Procedure for determining drain distance (PVD) which was proposed by Rujikiatkamjorn and
Indraratna (2008) are as follows: 1) Determine soil profile and properties its nature and then
determine the depth U 2) PVD and the desired consolidation time. Assume a degree of
consolidation (t) which needed for embankment loads only. 3) For applications p Press the design
vacuum, chr specify average vacuum pressure (o), the load is divided ratasurchrancanganrgefill
(pressure p,), and divided load pressure, flattened stack ( level ). Then specify the consolidation
required from equation: 4). = (∆ ∆) (5) CL t v Figure 7 From the vertical coefficient consolidation
data (), use consolidation time () and PVD length (), specify * by using or ∑ equation: 5) ∗ = () -
(6) Determine the PVD size and calculate the diameter equivalent: (7) 6) = (T) of the equation:
Define h '(8) Calculate, just for pile load (without 7) = vacuum): = - (9a) ∗ Or, if with vacuum
pressure and load heap: = - ∗, (9b)
Figure 7. Relationship between Tv and u * (Rujikiatkomjorn and Indraratna, 2007 .

Equation (10) (Rujikiatkomjom and Indraratn, 2007).

Figure 8 zone permeability
8) Determine the diameter
disturbed. Calculate using
or use the equation:
= −1 () (10)

9) Calculate n by using the equation:

= () (11)
with,), + 0.03714, (12a)
= 0.3938 - (9.505 10
= 0.4203 + (1,456 10) - 0.5233, (12b)
10) Calculate the zone of influence of drain, D = dw
11) Choose the pattern for the location of drainage installation
vertical (PVD) and determine the distance,
with equation:
S = D / 1.05 (arrangement of equilateral triangles) or
= / 1.13 (rectilinear arrangement).

The following is an example of how to design

vacuum pre-loading with reference
Rujikiatkomjorn and Indraratna methods (2007).
Heaps are built on soft soil with
h = 2.45 m / year, v = 1 m / year, h / s = 4.5,
d to 2 U t 2
C = w = 3. Desired = 90%, length of PVD,
= 25 m, = 35 mm. Design burden
maximum (maximum design discharge)
L dw = 60 kPa,
kPa, pressure due to pile load
vacuum pressure o = -60 kPa. Count
PVD distance for 12 months and 18 months.
When greater vacuum pressure is used,
which is 90 kPa for 12 months, what is the distance of PVD-
his. In the calculation, the resistance of the well is ignored.
The settlement is done as follows:
For consolidation time = 12 months = 1 year
(single drainage or upward drainage only
with length t drainage t =, at
the trajectory
where = the thickness of the clay layer
calculated, that is equal to H H
with length
vertical drainage (). The time factor for PVD
Equation 5): 25 , = ∆ = ×, =, Calculate * using or u, obtained * = 0.91. + ∆ u + Figure 7 Pe
equation (6) h = 2.45 m / year, From w, to = 1 year, and = 35 mm = 0.035 m: 2 Equations (8) C t
= d 2.45 × 1 = 2000 0.035 For cases with vacuum pressure and loads heap, then use Equation
(9b): 8 = = - 8 × 2000 = 7245 From, ∗,, or by using obtained:, for = 3, h / s = 4.5, Figure 8 s k k
Equation (10) = - 1 () = (4,5 - 1) (3) = 3.85

1G ... To achieve the same reduction velocity, vacuum pressure can reduce the required heap height.
So, a vacuum system can reduce the heap height.

2. The lateral movement of the soil under the embankment can be controlled by PVD combined with
vacuum pressure.

3. The effectiveness of a vacuum system depends on:

(a) Perfection of surface closure with a membrane cover

(b) Perfect closure at the edge of the membrane with the soil surface Soil conditions and depth
(c) ground water level.
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