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Plagiarism means “the appropriation of another
person’s ideas, processes, results, or words
without giving appropriate credit”
Plagiarism is theft of intellectual property.
Plagiarism is cheating.
Plagiarism may result in receiving a failing grade or
zero for the assignment.
Plagiarism could result in a disciplinary referral.
 Students caught plagiarizing may be denied from
participating in body/sending papers
 Students exposed as plagiarists may suffer severe
penalties, ranging from failure in the assignment or
in the course to expulsion from school/ college.

Damage students and guides reputation

Copy right violation and legal consequences

Barring from sending papers

Thesis/term Paper/Project rejections

 Intentional  Unintentional
 Copying a friend’s work
 Careless
 Buying or borrowing paraphrasing
 Poor documentation
 Cutting and pasting
blocks of text from  Quoting excessively
electronic sources  Failure to use your
without documenting own “voice”
 “borrowing "without
 Web publishing without
permissions of creators
 in-text citation
 Bibliography the page numbers information
of the material about the author
you are borrowing
He says that chemical reactors are
useless until…….(Singh 32)
the date your
the title of the
copy was
Singh, R. India and Chemical
Weapons. New Delhi: Pencraft,
2001. print. the name and
location of the
company that
published your

 APA (5TH ED, 2001)

 MLA (7TH ED.)

 CHICAGO (2003 ED)




To blend source materials in with your own,

making sure your own voice is heard.
Do I have
to cite
 Facts that are widely known,
 Information or judgments considered “common
Do NOT have to be documented
-Canadian Confederation began in the year 1867.
-John A. Macdonald was Canada’s first Prime
-William Shakespeare was born in England in the
16th Century.
Quotations are the exact words of an
author, copied directly from a source,
word for word. Quotations must be

Use quotations when:

 You want to add the power of an author’s words
to support your argument
 You want to disagree with an author’s argument
 You want to highlight particularly eloquent or
powerful phrases or passages
 You are comparing and contrasting specific
points of view
 The accuracy of quotations in research
writing is extremely important.
They must reproduce the original sources
changes must not be made in the
spelling, capitalization, or interior
 if changes are made, it must be
indicated in brackets or parentheses (rules
of ellipsis)
RULE – 1
 If a prose quotation runs no more than four
lines and requires no special emphasis, put it in
quotation marks and incorporate it into the
"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times,"
wrote Charles Dickens
RULE – 2
If a quotation ending a sentence requires a
parenthetical reference, place the sentence
period after the reference.
For Dickens "It was the best of times, it was the worst
of times" (35).
RULE – 3
If a quotation extends to more than four
lines when run into the text,
 set it off from your text by beginning a new
indenting one inch from the left margin, and
typing it double-spaced,
without adding quotation marks.
A colon Generally introduces a quotation
 If you need to quote two or more paragraphs,
indent the first line of each paragraph an
additional quarter inch.
At the conclusion of Lord of the Flies, Ralph and the other boys realize
the horror of their actions:
The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to
them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms
of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under
the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and
infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and
sob too. (186)
In Moll Flanders Defoe maintains the pseudo autobiographical
narration typical of the picaresque tradition:
My true name is so well known in the records, or registers, at
Newgate and in the Old Bailey, and there are some things of such
consequence still depending there relating to my particular conduct,
that it is not to be expected I should set my name orthe account of
my family to this work....
It is enough to tell you, that ... some of my worst comrades,
who are out of the way of doing me harm ... know me by the name
of Moll Flanders.... (32)
When the body the text bears the name of
the author , then don’t use author in

 C. James says in his work Black Hole And Space

Research, “xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx” (32)
 C. James says, “xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx” (32)
 C. James says, “xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx” (Black Hole 32)
 The view of general critics is “ xxxxxxx
xxxx” (James 32)
 The view of general critics is “ xxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx” (James, Black hole 32)
Whenever you wish to omit a word, a phrase, a
sentence, or more from a quoted passage, you
should be guided by two principles:
fairness to the author quoted and the grammatical
integrity of your writing.
A quotation should never be presented in a way
that could cause a reader to misunderstand the
sentence structure of the original source.

If you quote only a word or a phrase, it will be

obvious that you left out some of the original
For an ellipsis within a sentence, use three periods
with a space before each and a space after the last
( ... ).
In surveying various responses to plagues in the Middle
Ages, Barbara W. Tuchman writes, "Medical thinking ...
stressed air as the communicator of disease, ignoring
sanitation or visible carriers" (101-02).


Example :
In surveying various responses to plagues in the Middle
Ages, Barbara W. Tuchman writes, "Medical thinking,
trapped in the theory of astral influences, stressed air
as the communicator of disease .. ." (101-02).
Occasionally, you may decide that a quotation will be unclear
or confusing or misspelled to your reader unless you provide
supplementary information.

Shaw admitted, "Nothing can extinguish my interest in

Shakespear" (sic).
 use sic immediately after the word or phrase in parenthesis
Shaw admitted, "Nothing can extinguish my interest in
Shakespear (Italics Mine)
 researchers own emphasis
 add at the end – italics mine / emphasis added
MLA -(7th, 2016)
APA (6th, 2006)
IEEE (Institute of electrical and
electronics engineers- webpage)
CHICAGO (16th, 2010)
HARVARD (17th, 2017)
Journal In-house style sheet
and different edition
Max, 1982, 32
PAPER - 1 Max Plowman, An Introduction to the Study of 1
Blake (London: Gollancz, 1982), 32.

PAPER - 2 Plowman, Max. An Introduction to the Study of -2
Blake. London : Gollancz, 1982. 32. print

Max , 1982, 32
PAPER – 3 / No
Plowman, Max. An Introduction to the Study of DIRECTIONS
Blake. London : Gollancz, 1982. 32. print
Borrowing ideas

- a short restatement
in your own words of
the main points in a
passage, an article, or a
- Used when borrowing
information from various sources
ranging from the length of one
paragraph to an article or even a
…Paraphrase? …Quote? …Summarize?

1. The author’s words 1. Everything the 1. Not all the author’s

will be difficult for author writes is words are necessary
your reader to important e.g. If the author gives
understand examples or
that you don’t need to
put in your text

2. Your guide wants to 2. The quotation will 2. If paraphrasing or

know if you understand not make your text too quoting will make your
the author correctly long text too long

3. You haven’t used

many quotations
Paraphrasing means putting information from a
source into your own words. A paraphrase is
generally the same length or slightly shorter than
the original source. For this example, let’s try
paraphrasing the following section.

To paraphrase is to say the same thing in another way,

using your own words.
 length – same / or 2/3 of the original
 data and information should not be excluded
 examples shown in original – same
 Change grammatical structures.
1. Change from a Clause to a Phrase (or vice
2. Change from Quoted Speech to Indirect Speech
(or vice versa)
3. Change from Active Voice to Passive Voice (or
vice versa)
4. Change to Synonyms
5. Change Word Forms
6. divide the longer sentences into shorter ones,
7. join shorter ones with sentence connectors,
or make other grammatical changes.

NO changes in ideas and argumentative pattern

Change word form or part of speech

 "American news  When American journalists

coverage is frequently cover events, they often
biased in favor of display a Western bias.
Western views.“
Use synonyms of phrases and words
"Job interviews put many Many applicants feel
people on edge.“ nervous about job
Use synonyms of "relationship words"

"Budget shortfalls at the state University tuition fees have

level have resulted in higher increased because of the
tuition costs at universities." state's financial problems.
You can even use paraphrasing as a tool for explaining to
yourself the main ideas of a difficult passage
 Rewrite the parts that you have understood, and
 Pinpoint the ones that you did not fully understand.
 Try to bubble ideas that you don’t understand
 Then relate those bubbles with ideas you understand
 It’s easier to understand long texts in smaller groups
of sentences of your own.

Therefore, paraphrasing can be a learning tool as

Just 10 years ago, people in charge of hiring would
have placed resumes of people with visible tattoos
and body piercings in the discard pile. Today, that
policy has changed. A significant percentage of
younger generation employees have tattoos or other
body marks. (USA Today, April 2006 ,10pp)
Ten years ago, most job search authorities would
have said that tattoos would have eliminated you
from possible contention for a position. Times have
changed. More than one-third of the younger
generation now sport tattoos.

This is direct plagiarism. The text in red has been

taken directly from the article.
When taking notes, copy all original passages in quotation marks.

Paraphrase by really putting ideas into your own words.

go beyond changing a few words. paraphrasing unique ideas and facts requires citation.

Check your paraphrase against the original

Did you unintentionally copy?

Use graphic organizers to restructure your facts and ideas.

Use your own voice to put a new twist on old information.

When in doubt, cite!

STEP 1: Read the selection carefully several times until you
understand it fully.
STEP 2: Look up any words you do not understand; find
synonyms for them.
STEP 3: Write a brief outline, including:
a. The main idea (topic and controlling idea)
b. The main supporting points
c. Primary and secondary supporting details
d. data/ statistics + examples
STEP 4: Write the paraphrase. Use your own words and do
not omit any essential ideas.
 Original:
When Maracaña soccer stadium [in Rio de Janerio, Brazil] was
opened to the public in 1950, and Brazil lost the World Cup to the
Uruguayan team, the Brazilians were so disheartened that one
had the impression that the country itself had died. And people
did die of sadness. Mere threats of defeat in a championship
match can cause heart attacks and the despair of the public is so
great that many beat their heads against the cement posts. Such
is the Brazilian’s passion for soccer.

• Outline:
A. Brazil lost the World Cup in 1950.
1. Entire country was sad.
2. Some people died.
B. Possible defeat causes strong reaction.
1. Some experience heart attacks.
2. Some beat their heads.
C. Brazilians are very emotional about soccer.
• Outline:
A. Brazil lost the World Cup in 1950.
1. Entire country was sad.
2. Some people died.
B. Possible defeat causes strong reaction.
1. Some experience heart attacks.
2. Some beat their heads.
C. Brazilians are very emotional about soccer.

 Paraphrase:
In 1950, Brazil lost the World Cup in soccer to Uruguay in Rio
de Janerio. The entire country was overcome by sadness;
some people even died from it. Brazilians react very strongly
to potential defeat in championship soccer games. Some
people have heart attacks, and others beat their heads
against cement posts. Brazilians are very emotional about
A Summary:
 Is a general restatement of the main idea of a
 Is the most general of the three techniques.
 Requires that you clearly understand the original
passage so you do not distort its meaning.
 Uses your own original wording and sentence
structure—otherwise, it’s plagiarism.
 Is much shorter (1/2 or ¼) in length than the
 Requires a parenthetical citation—otherwise, it’s
 A parenthetical citation consists of the author’s last
name and the page number(s) of the borrowed material
in parentheses. For example: (Smith 12).
 Involvesputting the main idea(s) into your own
words, including only the main points

 Summaries must also be attributed to the source

 Summaries are significantly shorter than the

original and give a broad overview of the source
Keep only the Do not include
important information supporting details in
and main ideas your summary.

Argument (HOW Supporting detail

REACHED Sample detail .
CONCLUSION) Data, example
 Locate the topic.
 The topic is a word or phrase that says
what the text is about.
 Try to be as specific as possible about the
 What is the purpose of the text.
 Does it tell a story (narrate)? Inform?
Persuade or raise readers' awareness of an
 Look for the thesis (what the author is
saying about the topic).
 Look first in the introduction, then in the
conclusion; writers often write explicit
thesis statements.
 Write the thesis in your own words (and
make sure it matches your sense of the
author's purpose).
 Look for the major divisions of the text.
In your own words, summarize each
division in one sentence.
 (That may mean summarizing each
paragraph, but often several paragraphs
go together).
 Make a list of all major points.
 Work with the sentences you have created
to produce a summary.
 Be ruthless: a good summary is SUCCINCT
(you may leave some information out -- as
long as it is ‘extraneous’)
 Make sure you reveal the relationships
between the ideas. Are there
contrasts or comparisons
between some of the ideas?
This article quotes John A. Challenger, a chief
executive officer for an outsourcing firm, on his
views about tattoos and other body art. He
believes that times have changed and that
companies will have to become more accepting
of body art if they want to hire young people.
However, he recommends that job seekers find
out about a future employer’s acceptance of
body art when interviewing for a position. (USA
Today, April 2006, page 10)
 Summaries are short restatements of a work's
main points.
 When writing a summary, be sure to record
the work's major ideas.
 Summaries condense a text's main ideas into
a few concise sentences.
 A summarized work is always much shorter
than the original. (1/2 OR ¼)
 DELETE – supporting ideas (loose ideas)
- examples , data, statistics
 To paraphrase means to express someone
else's ideas in your own language.
 To summarize means to distill only the
most essential points of someone else's

 Thinkabout how much of the DETAIL from

your source is relevant. If all your reader
needs to know is the ‘bare bones’, then
Paraphrasing is re-writing Summarizing, on the other hand,
another writer’s words or is putting down the main ideas of
ideas in your own words someone else’s work in your own
without altering the words.

A summary is always shorter

The paraphrase is about than the original since the idea is
the same length as the to include only the main points of
original since the purpose the original work and to leave out
is to rephrase without the irrelevant. A summary is
leaving out anything, and usually about one-third the size of
not to shorten. the original.
Original Passage:
Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a
result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably
only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly
quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of
exact transcribing of source material while taking notes.
Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 4647.
A Legitimate Paraphrase: An Acceptable Summary:

In research papers students often Students should take just a few

quote excessively, failing to notes in direct quotation from
keep quoted material down to a
desirable level. Since the sources to help minimize the
problem usually originates amount of quoted material in a
during note taking, it is essential research paper (Lester 4647).
to minimize the material
recorded verbatim (Lester
4647). A Plagiarized Version:
Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes,
resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably
only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted
material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied
while taking notes.