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CHAPTER 2 :

AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


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WHAT IS AIR CONDITIONING?

ASHRAE STANDARD definition:


 “Is the treatment of air in enclosed space to
control and to maintain temperature, heat and
pressure together.”

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PRINCIPLES OF AIR-CONDITIONING

The basic principle of air conditioning is to


remove heat and moisture from the interior of
an occupied space thereby lowering the
internal temperature in order to improve the
comfort of occupants.

The cooling cycle are based on mass


characteristic with combination of temperature,
heat and pressure via refrigerant.

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PURPOSE OF AIR CONDITIONING?

Air conditioning is the treatment of the air to:

1.Control temperature

2.Control humidity

3.Provide ventilation or air movement

4.Clean the air

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BTU AND EER
Most air conditioners have their capacity rated in British
thermal units (BTU). Generally speaking, a BTU is the amount
of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound (0.45
kg) of water 1 degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degrees Celsius).
Specifically, 1 BTU equals 1,055 joules. In heating and cooling
terms, 1 "ton" equals 12,000 BTU.

A typical window air conditioner might be rated at 10,000


BTU. For comparison, a typical 2,000-square-foot (185.8 m2)
house might have a 5-ton (60,000-BTU) air conditioning
system, implying that you might need perhaps 30 BTU per
square foot. (Keep in mind that these are rough estimates. To
size an air conditioner for your specific needs, contact an
HVAC contractor.)

The energy efficiency rating (EER) of an air conditioner is its


BTU rating over its wattage. For example, if a 10,000-BTU air
conditioner consumes 1,200 watts, its EER is 8.3 (10,000
BTU/1,200 watts). Obviously, you would like the EER to be as
high as possible, but normally a higher EER is accompanied
by a higher price.

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COMPONENT OF AC COOLING SYSTEM
Although air conditioning systems vary considerably
in size and derive their energy from many different
sources, they still have the same four basic
components which are:
i) evaporator,
ii) compressor,
iii) condenser, and
iv) expansion valve.

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BASIC COOLING CYCLE

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BASIC COOLING CYCLE
 The cooling cycle is a closed cycle of evaporation , pressure
change, condensation and flow regulation applied to liquid
refrigerant
 Liquids refrigerant absorb heat when changed from liquid to
gas
 Gases give off heat when changed from gas to liquid.
 The refrigerant comes into the compressor as a low-pressure
gas, it is compressed and then moves out of the compressor as
a high-pressure gas.
 The gas then flows to the condenser. Here the gas condenses to
a liquid, and gives off its heat to the outside air.
 The liquid then moves to the expansion valve under high
pressure. This valve restricts the flow of the fluid, and lowers its
pressure as it leaves the expansion valve.
 The low-pressure liquid then moves to the evaporator, where
heat from the inside air is absorbed and changes it from a
liquid to a gas.
 As a hot low-pressure gas, the refrigerant moves to the
compressor where the entire cycle is repeated.
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THERMOSTATS

• A thermostat is an apparatus for maintaining the


temperature of a system within a particular range by
directly or indirectly controlling the flow of heat energy into
or out of the system.
• All air conditioners have thermostats that can be manually
operated or automatically preprogrammed to work at
regulating the room temperature.

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1. EVAPORATOR
The air conditioning evaporator is a heat
exchanger that absorbs heat into the air
conditioner system. The evaporator does not
exactly absorb heat! It‟s the cooled refrigerant
fed from the bottom of the evaporator coils
absorb the heat.
The liquid refrigerant usually flows from the
bottom of the evaporator coils and boils as it
moves to the top of the evaporator coils.
The reason it’s fed from the bottom is to ensure
the liquid refrigerant boils before it leave the
evaporator coils. If a refrigerant was to fed from
the top, the liquid refrigerant would easily drop
to the bottom of the coils before it absorbs
enough heat and boil.

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1. EVAPORATOR
If evaporator was too feed liquid refrigerant into
air conditioner compressor; it will shorts the air
conditioner compressor life.
The air conditioner evaporator has three
important tasks:
(i) Its absorb heat
(ii) Boils all the refrigerant to vapor aka
saturated vapor
(iii) Superheat

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2. COMPRESSOR
The air conditioning compressor is known as the heart of
the air conditioner units. It’s one of the divided points
between high and low side.
The compressor has a refrigerant inlet line and refrigerant
outlet line.
The compressor inlet lines are known as:
(i) Suction pressure
(ii) Back pressure
(iii) Low side pressure
The compressor outlet lines are known as:
(i) High side pressure
(ii) Discharge pressure
(iii) Head pressure

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2. COMPRESSOR
The compressor absorbs vapor refrigerant from
the suction line and compresses that heat to high
superheat vapor.
As the refrigerant flows across the compressor, it
also removes heat of compression, motor winding
heat, mechanical friction, and other heat absorbs
in the suction line.
The air conditioner units compressor produce the
pressure different, it‟s the air conditioner
compressors that cause the refrigerant to flow in a
cycle.
The compressor is a VAPOR pump!

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3. CONDENSER
In this refrigeration cycle diagram, the air conditioner
condenser is air cooled condenser. It functions the
same way as the evaporator but it does the opposite.
The condenser units are located outdoor with the
compressor. It purposes is to reject both sensible
and latent heat of vapor absorb by the air conditioner
units.
The condenser receives high pressure and high
temperature superheats vapor from the compressor
and rejects that heat to the low temperature air. After
rejected all the vapor heat, it turns back to liquid
refrigerant.
The condenser has three important steps:
(i) Its remove sensible heat or (de-superheat)
(ii) Remove latent heat or (condense)
(iii) Remove more sensible heat or (sub-cooled)

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4. EXPANSION VALVE
All expansion device or metering device has
similar function (to some extent); it‟s responsible
for providing the correct amount of refrigerant to
the evaporator.
This is done by creating a restriction within the
thermostatic expansion valve. The restriction
causes the pressure and temperature of the
refrigerant entering the Evaporator to reduce.
The refrigeration cycle diagram above has a
thermostatic expansion valve. This expansion
device has
(i) Remote Bulb
(ii) Capillary Tube
(iii) TXV Body

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REFRIGERANTS
Refrigerant is a compound typically found
in either a fluid or gaseous state.
It readily absorbs heat from the
environment and can provide refrigeration
or air conditioning when combined with
other components such as compressors
and evaporators.
Contained within the coils of an air
conditioner, these liquid agents cool and
dehumidify indoor air.

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HOW REFRIGERANTS WORK
As refrigerant absorbs heat from indoor
air, it transitions from a low-pressure gas
to a high-pressure liquid. Air conditioning
components send the refrigerant outside
where a fan blows hot air over the coils
and exhausts it to the exterior.
The refrigerant then cools down and turns
back into a low-pressure gas. Another fan
located inside the home blows air over
the cool coils to distribute the resulting
cold air throughout the building. Then the
cycle repeats.

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TYPES & CHARACTERISTIC OF
REFRIGERANTS
The most common refrigerants used for air
conditioning over the years include:
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), including R12. This is
known to contribute to the greenhouse gas effect.
Production of new stocks ceased in 1994.
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), including R22.
Slightly less damaging to the ozone than R12, but
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has still
mandated a phase out as a result of the Clean Air Act
of 2010. R22 will phase out completely by 2020.
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), including R410A and
R134. With no chlorine in the mix, this is safer for
the environment and is now being used in place of
R22. Air conditioners that run on R410A are more
efficient, offer better air quality, increase comfort
and improve reliability.

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TYPES & CHARACTERISTIC OF
REFRIGERANTS

Refrigeration Systems Designation Classification of air


conditioning systems also involves classification of refrigeration
system.
An individual AC system uses a small, self- contained factory-
assembled refrigeration system that uses a DX-coil (Dry-
expansion or direct-expansion) to cool air.
A packaged system always has a refrigeration system that uses a
DX-coil to cool air directly.
A central system has a refrigeration system that uses chilled
water as a cooling medium to cool air indirectly.

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REFRIGERATION SYSTEM – AIR / GAS SYSTEM

• In this refrigeration diagram, the four major components split into two sections: Indoor
and Outdoor and two different pressure
• In indoor units, the AC parts number 1 Evaporator and 2 Compressor.
• In outdoor units, the AC parts number 3 Condenser and 4 Expansion valve - high
pressure 20
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM – AIR / GAS SYSTEM

• In this refrigeration diagram, the four major components split into


two sections: Indoor and Outdoor and two different pressure

• In indoor units, the AC parts number 1 Evaporator and 2


Compressor.

• In outdoor units, the AC parts number 3 Condenser and 4


Expansion valve - high pressure

• When hot air flows over the cold, low-pressure evaporator coils,
the refrigerantinside absorbs heat as it changes from a liquid to
a gaseous state. To keep cooling efficiently, the air
conditioner has to convert the refrigerant gas back to a liquid
again.

21
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM – CHILLED WATER

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WATER CHILLER
Chilled water air conditioning systems are commonly
used in applications that need large cooling capacity
such as hypermarket, industrial process, commercial air
conditioning such as offices and factories.
This system makes use of water as its secondary
refrigerant. Chiller is used to remove heat from the
water which is then circulated through other
components to absorb heat from the space.
Water is non-corrosive, has specific heat value, fluid,
non-toxic and is cheap. This makes it an excellent
choice compared to other secondary refrigerants such
as sodium chloride brines, propylene glycols, ethylene,
methanol or glycerin.

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WATER CHILLER
The chiller is the section of the system where an
exchange of heat occurred between the water that goes
to the building and the evaporator. The water leaves the
chilled water evaporator at ~ 7°C. This chilled-water is
then circulated through the entire building by the use of
a pump.

The water cooled the space and pick up the heat and
returns to the chiller at ~13°C. The water temperature
has been heated up by 6°C after cooling the space. This
process is then repeated.

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WATER CHILLER

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COOLING TOWER
In most chiller applications, a water-cooled condenser uses
a cooling tower to reduce the temperature of the
condenser. Cooling towers are heat removal devices used
to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere.
In this case, the water loop system is separated from the
chilled water that goes to the building. The water that has
been cooled by the evaporated water at the cooling tower
will enter the condenser at 29°C. It picks up the heat from
the condenser and leaves at 35°C, an increase of 10°F or
6°C.
The water is then send to the cooling tower by the use of a
pump to be cooled by evaporation of the water in the
cooling tower. The cooled water temperature now drops to
29°C and enters the condenser again. This process is
repeated.
Water is constantly added to the cooling tower by the use
of water piping to replace those that has been evaporated
into the air.
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COOLING TOWER

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COMPONENTS OF COOLING
TOWER1. Fan Motor
2. Sprinkler Pipes:
Closely-spaced holes allowing thorough distribution of
water in a rotating spray covering the entire surface of
the filler.
3. Housing Panel and Water Basin:
The round design permits maximum air intake regardless
of wind direction. The housing panels and water basin
are built of fiberglass reinforced plastic ensuring rust-
free, long-term performance even under the most severe
environmental conditions. A large-capacity, durable
water basin constructed from rust-proof fiberglass.
Reinforced plastic guarantees low maintenance and long-
term operation.
4. Inlet/OutletPipes:
A large diameter outlet pipe draws a constant supply of
cooled water from the basin to serve the facility.
5. PVC Filler:
PVC filler creates a surface area that allows for maximum
dispersion of water creating a superior cooling effect.

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AIR HANDLING UNIT
The air handling unit is an integrated piece of
equipment consisting of fans, heating and cooling
coils, air-control dampers, filters and silencers.
The purpose of this equipment is to collect and mix
outdoor air with that returning from the building
space.
The air mixture is then cooled, after which it is
discharged into the building space through a duct
system

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COMPONENTS IN AHU

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Cooling
Tower

Chiller
Pump

Air Handling
Pump Unit (AHU)

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3.2 AIR DUCT

Grilles for return air

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Ducts are used in HVAC system to transport
air from AHU to each outlet in the
conditioned spaces. These needed airflows
include, for example, supply air, return air,
and exhaust air.
Air is distributed in a building by means of
connected individual duct sections that
make up the duct system.
The configuration of a duct system is often
like a tree with branches connected to the
terminal units and a fan located at the root.

Round ductwork:
i. provides maximum air capacity.
ii. Stiffer than rectangular
iii. Much quieter during operation
iv. Lower installation costs
v. easier to insulate and can be sealed more easily.

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DIFFUSERS
It normally used as the air outlets to create the high
velocity supply air stream. Most often, the air outlets and
Rectangular inlets are placed in the ceiling. Supply diffusers in the
diffuser ceiling are fed by fan coil units in the ceiling void or by air
handling units in a remote plant room.
The fan coil or AHU take in return air from the ceiling void
and mix this with fresh air and cool, or heat it, as required
to achieve the room design conditions. This arrangement
is known as 'conventional room air distribution.
Diffusers range from simple perforated plates and grilles
to the more complex and efficient coned air distributors.
Rounded
The design and selection must achieve the appropriate
diffuser amount of air distribution and throw for the given
situation.

Linear
slot
diffuser BFB 40603 BUILDING SERVICES II 35
Basic components…

FILTER

Filter are applied at the point of air entry


into a ventilation system.
The purpose is to remove suspended
particles, contaminants and odours.
There are 4 classification for filters:
i. Dry
ii. Viscous
iii. Electrostatic
iv. Activated carbon

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Types of filter:

Dry filter – produced from


paper, fine woven fabric, foamed Viscous filter – comprise
plastic or glass fibers. rows of corrugated metal
sheets with surface coated in
a non-flammable, non toxic
odourless oil.

Electrostatic filter – very Activated Carbon filter –


expensive, extremely efficient of location in cooker hood.
removing fine particles, pollens, Very absorbent and special
smoke. Contain power pack, ionizer design for use in greasy and
and rows of opposingly charged odours atmosphere.
plates.

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FIRE DAMPERS
-The Building Regulations require multi-
occupancy (flats), commercial and
industrial use buildings to be
compartmented to contain the spread of
fire.
-Wherever ductwork penetrates
compartment walls, floors or ceilings it
must incorporate provision for automatic
closure in the event of fire.

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CLASSIFICATION OF
AIR CONDITIONING
SYSTEMS

(i) Individual Room Air Conditioning


System

(ii) Package Air conditioning System

(iii) Central Air Conditioning System

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INDIVIDUAL ROOM AIR
CONDITIONING SYSTEM
• A single, self-contained, packaged room air
conditioner
• Fixed at a window or through an opening of a
wall.
• Window air conditioning unit or through-the-
Window Unit
wall unit.
• Operating (on/off), temperature settings could
be controlled by the occupant.
• Supply fan, cooling coil, air filter, compressor,
condenser, restrictor, temperature control
device.
• Units of cooling capacity usually in kW or
Btu/hr.

Split Unit

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1. WINDOW UNIT

The indoor side of the same unit.


The outside of a typical, older Small units such as this require
single-room through-the-wall periodic maintenance for optimal
air conditioning unit. performance and life.

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WINDOW UNITS

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PROS AND CONS OF WINDOW UNIT

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Low and affordable The window is
cost blocked by the
window unit.
Easy to install
Dripping water to
Doesn’t take up the outside
floor space (pedestrians on a
city street /
creating rust on a
metal roof)

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2. SPLIT UNIT

Common indoor unit : wall mounted type


(other types: ceiling mounted and floor mounted)

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Components of Split Unit 47
PROS AND CONS OF SPLIT UNIT
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Can install AC More expensive
everywhere in the room
compare to window
Does not require large unit
holes in the wall/
window or ductwork Installation
Quieter
normally need to be
done by a
Compressor unit can be professional.
located a long way from
the unit Inside – quiet but
Easy to maintain and noisy at outside
keep clean (compressor)

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UNITARY PACKAGE AIR
CONDITIONING SYSTEM
• Single, self-contained package units or split
systems.
• Fan, filter, DX-coil, compressor, condenser, and
other accessories.
• Split ac system: Indoor unit with fan, filter, and
DX-coils and the outdoor condensing unit
• It is a central system in nature with central duct
and heat rejection system.
• A supply air duct with diffuser and DX-coil for
cooling
• The packaged air conditioners are divided into
two types: ones with water cooled condenser
and the ones with air cooled condensers.

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UNITARY PACKAGE AIR
CONDITIONING SYSTEM
The window and split air conditioners are usually used for
the small air conditioning capacities while central air
conditioning systems are used for big cooling loads. The
packaged air conditioners are used for the cooling
capacities in between these two extremes.
Suitable for cooling more than two rooms or a larger space.
These units are used commonly in places like restaurants,
telephone exchanges, homes, small halls, etc
There are two possible arrangements with the package
unit.
 all the components include compressor, condenser (which
can be air cooled or water cooled), expansion valve and
evaporator are housed in a single box. The cooled air is
thrown by the high capacity blower, and it flows through
the ducts laid through various rooms.
 Compressor and condenser are housed in one casing. The
compressed gas passes through individual units, comprised
of the expansion valve and cooling coil, located in various
rooms.

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1. PACKAGED AIR CONDITIONERS WITH
WATER COOLED CONDENSER
Condenser is cooled by the water.
The condenser is shell and tube
type, with refrigerant flowing along
the tube side and the cooling water
flowing along the shell side.
The water has to be supplied
continuously in these systems to
maintain functioning of the air
conditioning system.
The shell and tube type of
condenser is compact in shape and
it is enclosed in a single casing
along with the compressor,
expansion valve, and the air
handling unit including the cooling
coil or the evaporator.

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1. PACKAGED AIR CONDITIONERS WITH
WATER COOLED CONDENSER
Compressor is located at the
bottom along with the
condenser. Above these
components the evaporator or
the cooling coil is located.
The air handling unit comprising
of the centrifugal blower and the
air filter is located above the
cooling coil.
The centrifugal blower has the
capacity to handle large volume
of air required for cooling a
number of rooms. The duct
comes out that extends to the
various rooms that are to be
cooled.

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2. PACKAGED AIR CONDITIONERS WITH
AIR COOLED CONDENSER

Condenser of the refrigeration system is cooled by the


atmospheric air.
An outdoor unit that comprises of the important
components like the compressor, condenser and in
some cases the expansion valve.
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2. PACKAGED AIR CONDITIONERS WITH
AIR COOLED CONDENSER
The outdoor unit can be kept on the
terrace or any other open place where
the free flow of the atmospheric air is
available.
The fan located inside this unit sucks
the outside air and blows it over the
condenser coil cooling it in the process.
The condenser coil is made up of
several turns of the copper tubing and
it is finned externally.

• The cooling unit comprising of the expansion


valve, evaporator, the air handling blower and the
filter are located on the floor or hanged to the
ceiling. The ducts coming from the cooling unit
are connected to the various rooms that are to be
cooled.
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CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONERS

Is an air conditioning system which uses ducts to distribute


cooled and/or dehumidified air to typically more than one
room, or uses pipes to distribute chilled water to heat
exchangers.

A central air conditioning system for a building where


smoking is prohibited, air can be re-circulated.

For a factory where toxic chemicals and dangerous fumes


are present, air mixed with chemicals or fumes cannot be
re-circulated.

In places such as labs and factories, a constant supply of


heated or cooled fresh air must be provided.

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CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONERS

Air is cooled by coils filled with chilled water.


Large area with many zones of conditioned space.
Water specific heat capacity is much larger than air
Complicated and expensive equipment => Not for
small and medium project. Normally for shopping
complex, hotels, high rise building, big factory and
etc.
Consist air system, water system, cooling plant,
control system.

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CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONERS
In the central air conditioning systems there is a
plant room where large compressor, condenser,
thermostatic expansion valve and the
evaporator are kept in the large plant room.
They perform all the functions as usual similar
to a typical refrigeration system. However, all
these parts are larger in size and have higher
capacities.
The compressor is of open reciprocating type
with multiple cylinders and is cooled by the
water just like the automobile engine. The
compressor and the condenser are of shell and
tube type. While in the small air conditioning
system capillary is used as the expansion valve,
in the central air conditioning systems
thermostatic expansion valve is used.

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CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONERS
In the central air conditioning systems there is a
plant room where large compressor, condenser,
thermostatic expansion valve and the
evaporator are kept in the large plant room.
They perform all the functions as usual similar
to a typical refrigeration system. However, all
these parts are larger in size and have higher
capacities.
The compressor is of open reciprocating type
with multiple cylinders and is cooled by the
water just like the automobile engine. The
compressor and the condenser are of shell and
tube type. While in the small air conditioning
system capillary is used as the expansion valve,
in the central air conditioning systems
thermostatic expansion valve is used.

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Components of Central Air Conditioning Systems

1. Air-system
• Condition, transport, distribute conditioned air and
control indoor environment
• Air handling unit, fan coil units, VAV boxes,
supply/return duct, space diffusion device.

2. Water system.
• Chilled water, hot water and condenser water system.
• Chilled water circulates: central plant to the air handling
unit or fan coil unit
• Condenser water circulates from central plant to the
radiator or cooling tower.

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Components of Central Air Conditioning Systems

3. Central Plant
• Refrigeration system – Package chiller to cool the
chilled water
• Boiler system- Boiler, accessories (hot water or steam
as heat source)
• Electric heating coils

4. Central Plant
• Refrigeration system – Package chiller to cool the
chilled water
• Boiler system- Boiler, accessories (hot water or
steam as heat source)
• Electric heating coils

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Components of Central Air Conditioning Systems

5. Control System
• Direct digital control‟ as the control system
• Digital signals compatible with microprocessor
• Electronic sensors send signals to microprocessor
operated and control modules.
• The module analyzes from digital and analogue input
signals.
• The module performs calculation from digital and
analogue input signals
• Output from the control modules actuates dampers,
valves and relays.
• Centrally monitored and controlled by a microprocessor
based DDC system.
• DDC controllers communicate with central operating
system through interfacing modules.
• Fire signal was sent through interfacing modules and
stop the air-conditioning system.

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CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONERS
There are two types of central air
conditioning systems:
Direct Expansion (DX) type of central air
conditioning plants
Chilled Water type of the central air
conditioning plants.

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1. DIRECT EXPANSION (DX) TYPE OF
CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING PLANT
In the DX types of air central conditioning
plants the air used for cooling space is
directly chilled by the refrigerant in the
cooling coil of the air handling unit. Since
the air is cooled directly by the refrigerant
the cooling efficiency of the DX plants is
higher.
However, it is not always feasible to carry
the refrigerant piping to the large
distances hence, DX type of central air
conditioning system is usually used for
cooling the small buildings or the rooms
on the single floor.

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1. DIRECT EXPANSION (DX) TYPE OF
CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING PLANT
There are three main compartments of the DX type of
central conditioning systems

The Plant Room


The Air Handling Unit Room
Air Conditioned Room

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2. CHILLED WATER CENTRAL AIR
CONDITIONING PLANTS
The chilled water types of central air conditioning plant is suitable to be
installed in the place where whole large office buildings, shopping mall,
airport, hotel, etc, comprising of several floors are to be air conditioned.
In chilled water plants, the ordinary water or brine solution is chilled to very
low temperatures of about 6 to 8 degree Celsius by the refrigeration plant.
This chilled water is pumped to various floors of the building and its
different parts.
Benefits of chilled water central air conditioning plant include:
 Air is cooled by coils filled with chilled water a non-toxic material thus
reduce the usage of gas refrigerant.
 reduced hazard by not having refrigerant piped all over the building.
 reduced environmental impact
 cost effective
 improve building aesthetic where no equipment should be visible
 minimize noise
 energy efficient

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2. CHILLED WATER CENTRAL AIR
CONDITIONING PLANTS
The chilled water types of central air conditioning plants are
installed in the place where whole large buildings, shopping mall,
airport, hotel, etc, comprising of several floors are to be air
conditioned.
In chilled water plants, the ordinary water or brine solution is
chilled to very low temperatures of about 6 to 8 degree Celsius by
the refrigeration plant. This chilled water is pumped to various
floors of the building and its different parts.
Main compartments include:
Central Air Conditioning Plant Room
Air Handling Unit Rooms
Air Conditioned Rooms
Cooling Tower

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Types of A/C
Centralize A/C…

Central air conditioning benefits:

1. When the air handling unit turns on, room air is drawn in from
various parts of the house through return-air ducts. This air is
pulled through a filter where airborne particles such as dust
and lint are removed. Sophisticated filters may remove
microscopic pollutants as well. The filtered air is routed to air
supply ductwork that carries it back to rooms. Whenever the air
conditioner is running, this process repeats continually.
2. Because the central air conditioning's condenser unit is located
outside the home, it typically offers a lower level of noise
indoors than window or through-the-wall air conditioning
units, for example.
3. Unlike air conditioning units, which are plugged into an
electrical outlet, a central air conditioning system is typically
automated by computer technology. The computer technology
used to automate central air conditioning systems helps to
conserve energy. Central air conditioning systems are
practically invisible, they are convenient to operate and unlike
most wall units, they are whisper quiet.

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UNDERFLOOR AIR CONDITIONING
SYSTEM
An underfloor air conditioning system was
introduced in this building. Compared with
conventional ceiling diffuser system, not only
promotes exhaust heat removal with higher
efficiency but also increase the use of natural
energy.
The air column of the underfloor air-conditioning
system can be controlled in either manual or
automatic mode. In manual mode, occupants can
directly control the air-conditioning to meet their
personal requirements.
Automatic mode is selected by the building
operator during cool-down operations.
Furthermore, automatic mode is selected over
manual mode when the room temperature is
abnormally high or low.

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UNDERFLOOR AIR CONDITIONING
SYSTEM

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PROBLEMS IN AIR CONDITIONING DESIGN

the inside condenser fins might be clogged also because


it caught the debris from the dirty air filter.
the filter may gets clogged, the condenser fins on the
inside part of the furnace cannot "breath" which causes it
to freeze up.
air handler making noise.
water pools next to the air conditioner.
air duct are noisy.

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MAINTENANCE
Clean the air filters at least once each season. A
dirty air filter reduces airflow and, in some
cases, this could cause damage to the room air
conditioner.
Keep the condenser clean and free of leaves
and other debris.
Clean condensate drain holes or tubes that
become blocked.
If the unit's performance seems to have
deteriorated, have it serviced. A small loss of
refrigerant can cause a significant drop in
efficiency. It is important to have leaks fixed
and that the refrigerant be recycled when
service is performed. Otherwise, if it is released
into the atmosphere, it damages the ozone
layer and acts as a greenhouse gas.
Clean air conditioner air filters regularly.

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BASIC AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM SELECTION

The Size of the room


The Plan and Orientation of the room
Different room plans and orientations require
differing cooling capacity even with the same
room size. For example, rooms facing east and
west, require higher cooling than rooms facing
north and south.• The Purpose of the room
Rooms with differing purposes will
exude different heat loads. The higher
the heat load, the higher cooling
capacity is needed. A room's heat load
is influenced by many factors. How
much heat is insulated also depends
on the kinds of material used for the
walls and ceilings.
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BASIC AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM SELECTION

The Location of the indoor and outdoor unit and


surrounding environment and external climate
Higher cooling capacity is required when the indoor
and outdoor units are located in places with
excessive heat exposure.
Occupants in the room
The number of people as well as their activities in
the room affect the heat load of the room.
Client’s budget, investment policy and expected
quality of service

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ADVANCE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM SELECTION

The designer should consider various system options and


recommend one or several that will be likely to perform as
desired. Some of the selection criteria include:
Performance requirements – on comfort, noise, control
options, flexibility and meeting requirements of local
regulations/codes
Capacity requirements – range of capacity, multiple units,
zoning, etc.
Spatial requirement – plant room space, space for ducting
and piping (vertical shafts),space for terminal equipment
Costs – initial cost, operating cost and maintenance cost
Energy consumption – for both economic and environment
reasons
System qualities – e.g. aesthetics, life, reliability and
maintainability

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WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES AND FEATURES TO
CONSIDER WHEN BUYING AN AIR-CONDITIONER?

Cooling capacity
For 1 hp, coolling capacity ranges between 8,500 Btu/hr and
10,000 Btu/hr in different brands. The higher the Btu/hr,
the higher the cooling capacity.
Electricity Consumption
For 1 hp, EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) ranges between 8 and
12 in various brands. The higher the EER, the higher the
efficiency.
Airflow
For 1 hp, airflow varies from 210 cfm to 300 cfm. Higher
airflow provides faster cooling as well as better air
circulation.
Built-in or external starter
Built-in starters are maintenance free and more accurate.

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