Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

GRAMMAR

UNIT
9 Passive, Causative Forms
WHAT DO YOU KNOW?
RULES
The active voice is used to say what people and things do.
They paid the bill. (focus on they)
A. Choose the correct answer.
When we want to emphasise what happens to people and things, we often use the passive voice.
1. When I saw Professor Bright, he was ...... shown 9. The ancient stones are believed to ...... moved The bill was paid. (focus on the bill)
around the university campus. to their present site in 4,000 BC.
PA S S I V E F O R M S (See Appendix for passive tenses and passive modals, page 217.)
a. being a. be
b. been b. have been Infinitive I didn’t expect them to contact me so soon. (active)
2. She is supposed ...... giving a speech on prize day. 10. Which novel did you say the film was ...... ? to be + past participle I didn’t expect to be contacted so soon. (passive)
a. that she is a. based Perfect infinitive I am pleased they have invited me to the wedding. (active)
b. to be b. based on to have been + past participle I am pleased to have been invited to the wedding. (passive)
3. That old building should ...... down. 11. At that time, the company was ...... financial
Gerund I hate people shouting at me. (active)
a. be pulled problems.
being + past participle I hate being shouted at. (passive)
b. to be pulled a. facing
b. faced Perfect gerund I recall Sue having told me the news. (active)
4. In the rush hour, the underground station was
crowded ...... passengers. 12. ...... thought to be 5,000 homeless people in having been + past participle I recall having been told the news. (passive)
a. with that city.
b. by a. There are Notes
b. It is 1. Passive forms of Future Continuous, Future Perfect Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous and Past Perfect Continuous are
5. I will always remember ...... taken to the theatre
for the first time. 13. We really must get ...... . not used in English. For these tenses, we use the active voice or find an alternative way of expressing the same meaning.
By the time it’s finished, they will have been building the stadium for almost a decade.
a. be a. posted the wedding invitations
By the time it’s finished, the stadium will have been under construction for almost a decade.
b. being b. the wedding invitations posted
2. Not all verbs take an object, therefore they cannot be used in the passive. Examples of such verbs include:
6. The meal was expertly ...... . 14. I sometimes have a neighbour ...... the children
arrive, come, die, disappear, go, happen, have, live, occur, sleep.
a. cooked from school.
a. collect 3. When using a phrasal verb or verb + preposition in the passive, don’t forget the particle (adverb / preposition).
b. cooked by someone
b. collected His grandmother brought him up. We think highly of her.
7. Entrance to the building had been ...... . ➝ He was brought up by his grandmother. ➝ She is highly thought of.
a. to Charles refused 15. I must have ...... this weekend!
4. When a verb has two objects, there are two possible passive forms. When the first object is a person, this usually becomes
b. refused to Charles a. dyed my hair
the subject of the passive. Examples of such verbs include: give, send, show, lend, pay, tell, promise, refuse, offer, award.
b. my hair dyed They awarded our company the contract. They gave Julie a salary rise.
8. Their dog was never ...... to run free in the garden.
a. allowed ➝ The contract was awarded to our company. ➝ Julie was given a salary rise. (more common)
b. let ➝ Our company was awarded the contract. ➝ A salary rise was given to Julie. (less common)
5. The verbs agree, believe, consider, expect, know, say, rumour, think and suppose can be expressed in the passive in
B. Circle the correct answer. two ways:
• passive form + full infinitive They say he is a millionaire. ➝ He is said to be a millionaire.
• It as the subject + passive + that + clause It is said that he is a millionaire.
Continuous or perfect infinitives are used with these structures to indicate tense.
I believe she is living in France. ➝ She is believed to be living in France.
6. With verbs like say, think and feel, the passive can be used with there as a subject.
There are thought to be hundreds of new species in the rainforest. (Scientists think there are ...)
1. We must get the roof mended / 2. She had her teeth cleaned / 3. In no time I’ll have you dance / There was felt to be no reason to continue the investigation. (They felt there was no reason …)
get the roof to mend soon. had cleaned her teeth. have you dancing the samba!
STYLE AND USAGE

We generally omit by + the agent when:


• the agent is unknown My car has been stolen. (we don’t say by somebody)
• the agent is obvious Paul was arrested. (obviously by the police)
• we refer to people in general Spanish is spoken widely in South America.
• the agent is not important She was advised to book her flights early.
• we don’t want to name the person responsible His father was injured in an accident.
4. Sue had somebody steal her purse / 5. He is going to have tested his eyes /
had her purse stolen while she was out is having his eyes tested this morning. We mention by + agent:
shopping. • when it is important to stress the agent The building was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.
• to introduce new information not previously mentioned We were stopped in the street by a policeman.
Score: ....... / 20 • to refer to a method or course of action with by + -ing Our house can be improved by building an extension.

72 73
UNIT 9 GRAMMAR

Passives are sometimes followed by with: PRACTICE


• when talking about materials or instruments Chilli is made with beans.
The cut is made with a scalpel. A. Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets.
• after participles such as packed, filled, crowded, The stadium was packed with supporters. was being repaired
1. We couldn’t drive up to the hotel because the access road ....................................................... (repair).
crammed, covered, surrounded, decorated The room was decorated with flowers. to be given
2. Surely everyone deserves ....................................................... (give) the same opportunities in life.
The passive is commonly used in:
being made
3. I’ll never forget ....................................................... (make) to stand in front of the whole class and recite a poem.
• formal / impersonal written English We must choose a title for the article. (spoken English)
has been achieved
4. Remarkable progress ....................................................... (achieve) in the field of genetic engineering in the last
A title must be chosen for the article. (more formal) decade.
is not approved
5. Receiving private emails ....................................................... (not approve) of in the workplace.
• formal academic writing The blood is pumped around the body by the heart.
be offended
6. The newspaper has to be careful not to print comments that their readers might .......................................................
• headlines and newspaper reports The team was defeated in the final minutes.
(offend) by.
will be succeeded
7. The company chairman ....................................................... (succeed) by his son next year.
In signs and headlines, the verb to be is often omitted. Beckham (was) saved from kidnap attempt!
In spoken English, get can sometimes replace be in the Stella got promoted to assistant manager. (= was promoted)
is / was / has been estimated (estimate) at over $60 million.
8. The cost of flood damage .......................................................
passive. be changed
9. Shouldn’t the water in the goldfish bowl ....................................................... (change) more often?
being sent
10. Jack was afraid of ....................................................... (send) to prison.
T H E C A U S AT I V E A N D R E L AT E D F O R M S won’t have been installed
11. The air conditioning units ....................................................... (not install) by the time the hotel’s first guests
The causative is used when we employ someone or arrange for someone (an agent) to do something for us. arrive next week.
was composed
12. The soundtrack for The Lion King ....................................................... (compose) by Elton John and Tim Rice.
have / get + object + past participle I will have the report typed tomorrow.
when we employ / arrange for someone to do something We are having an extension built on the house. B. Complete the leaflet using a passive form of one of the following verbs. Use each verb only once.
I got the car repaired.
I must get my eyes tested soon. make • raise • destroy • design • pull down
erect • slow down • purchase • hold • prevent
have + agent + bare infinitive I had Susan type the report.
when we mention the agent / person

have + object + bare infinitive


when something happens to a person
The chef had someone complain about the soup last night.
HISTORIC
get + agent + to + bare infinitive
when we persuade someone to do something for us
I got Susan to type the report. LONDON
have + object + verb -ing I’ll have you playing the piano in no time.
(I’ll teach you to play in a short time.)
• when somebody causes somebody / something to do Within minutes, he had us laughing at his jokes.
something
• when consequences are implied You’ll have dozens of people phoning at all hours if you
THE MONUMENT
put an ad in the paper.
was
The old city (1) ....................... almost
destroyed by fire in 1666.
completely .......................
• when someone won’t allow an action I won’t have you walking into the house in muddy boots. TOWER BRIDGE
Eleven years later, a 62-metre-high Probably the most recognisable bridge in the
Note was erected to
monument (2) ............................ was designed so
world, Tower Bridge (3) ............................
commemorate the event exactly 62 metres be raised
that its central section can (4) ............................
The word order must be preserved in order to give a causative meaning.
away from the place where the fire began. to allow ships to pass through it. Still in working
Compare: I had my hair cut. (causative: someone else cut my hair) I had cut my hair. (active verb: I cut my hair myself)
Climb the 311 steps to the top to admire order today, it is opened 900 times a year, at
S P E C I A L S T R U C T U R E S with have / get the view of the present-day city. is prevented from
which times traffic (5) ............................
have + object + verb -ing It’s nice to have the family eating together at Sunday lunch. crossing the bridge.
A joint ticket for admission to the Tower Bridge
have something happening – referring to an experience We got home and found we had water dripping from the
you did not cause to happen ceiling because a pipe had burst. Experience and The Monument can
be purchased for just £7 per adult.
(6) ............................
have + object + past participle She had her house broken into last night. (Her house was
have something happen to you – sometimes used instead broken into.)
of the passive when referring to an experience or a The house had its roof blown off in a gale. (The roof was LONDON BRIDGE
misfortune the subject had; here, the subject did not blown off the house.) The first London Bridge was built in 80 AD, though this
cause the action was pulled down by an invading Viking army in 1014.
(7) ................................
get + object + past participle It will be another hour before I can get the washing done. was made of stone. It had so
The first bridge (8) ............................
when the subject of the sentence does something himself / (intentional) many arches that the flow of the river (9) was slowed down
............................
herself intentionally or accidentally She got her trousers caught in the fence. (accidental) considerably, causing it to freeze over every winter enabling
to be held
fairs (10) ............................ on the frozen ice.

74 75
UNIT 9 GRAMMAR
C. Rewrite the following active sentences using passive verb forms where possible. Some sentences
CANNOT be made passive. EXAM PRACTICE
1. They are going to pull down the tower blocks. A. KEY WORD TRANSFORMATIONS Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first
The tower blocks are going to be pulled down.
...................................................................................................................................................................................... sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and six words,
including the word given.
2. The car disappeared around a corner.
_____ 1. I asked Joe to use the dictionary to find out what the word meant. HAD
......................................................................................................................................................................................
had Joe look the word
I ................................................................................................................................................... up in the dictionary.
3. Critics have seriously underrated the new Jim Carrey movie.
The new Jim Carrey movie has been seriously underrated (by critics). 2. We hope they will do the renovations earlier than expected. COMPLETED
......................................................................................................................................................................................
will be / are completed ahead of
We hope the renovations ............................................................................................................................ schedule.
4. They think a new vaccine could prevent AIDS.
3. Nobody felt the board members needed to know about the problem. REASON
A new vaccine is thought to be able to prevent AIDS. / It is thought that a new vaccine could prevent AIDS.
......................................................................................................................................................................................
to be no reason to tell / inform
There was felt ............................................................................................. the board members about the problem.
5. We’ll need to alter the costume so that it fits him.
The costume will need to be altered so that it fits him. 4. A wedding planner might make all the plans for their wedding. ORGANISED
......................................................................................................................................................................................
of having their wedding organised by
They are thinking ......................................................................................................................... a wedding planner.
6. We will provide all tour participants with a detailed itinerary free of charge.
All tour participants will be provided with a detailed itinerary free of charge. 5. The police had been watching the suspect closely. OBSERVATION
......................................................................................................................................................................................
had been under close observation
The suspect .......................................................................................................................................... by the police.
7. The hikers arrived at the foot of the mountain just before sunset.
_____
......................................................................................................................................................................................
6. Perhaps Joe intended booking a hotel room online. PLANNING
have been planning to book
Joe might ................................................................................................................................... a hotel room online.
8. We were furious that they made us wait in the airport lounge all night.
We were furious that we were made / at being made to wait in the airport lounge all night. 7. There’s no way I can get through this work before five o’clock. DONE
......................................................................................................................................................................................
never get this work done
I will .............................................................................................................................................. before five o’clock.
9. Doctors generally prescribe antibiotics for chest infections.
Antibiotics are generally prescribed for chest infections. 8. The new sports centre is to have something for everyone. GOING
......................................................................................................................................................................................
is going to have something
Everyone .................................................................................................................. to do at the new sports centre.
10. The studio was planning a sequel but they never made it because of budget issues.
A sequel was being planned (by the studio) but it was never made because of budget issues.
...................................................................................................................................................................................... B. OPEN CLOZE Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word
in each gap.
D. Complete the sentences using the correct phrase below.
NEW CAMERA CAN SEE THROUGH WALLS – AND MAY SAVE LIVES
had us doing • had it coming • had it stolen • had anyone tell • get a firm to do has
A camera that can see through clothes, skin and even walls without X-rays (1) .............................. been developed in what
get it all done • have them going • have somebody send being
is (2) .............................. called one of the first great technological breakthroughs of the 21st century. The “terahertz”
1. get a firm to do
We’ll never manage to move this furniture ourselves. We’d better .................................................... it for us. to
camera, still in prototype form, is under rapid development by scientists in Oxfordshire. It is likely (3) ..............................
2. had it coming
The flood water was so deep we .................................................... in through the window.
from
have many applications, ranging (4) .............................. medical scanning to identifying concealed weapons on airline
3. get it all done
Look at this pile of ironing! How am I going to .................................................... ? not
passengers. Unlike with X-rays, patients are (5) .............................. exposed to potentially harmful radiation.
4. have them going
I make my children have breakfast every day. I won’t .................................................... to school on an empty stomach.
Instead
(6) .............................. by
, the camera detects a form of energy waves which are naturally emitted (7) .............................. all
5. had anyone tell
I’ve never .................................................... me I’m talented before. It was such a nice compliment.
these / such waves has been recognised for a long time, but the technology needed
objects. The existence of (8) ..............................
had us doing
6. The judo teacher .................................................... throws and kicks from the very first session.
far
to capture them on camera has so (9) .............................. been too complex and expensive. Now a team of scientists has
had it stolen
7. Did you hear about Carl’s car stereo? He .................................................... last night.
in
succeeded in building a prototype (10) .............................. just three months. The first image which was captured by the
have somebody send
8. If you leave us your address, I’ll .................................................... you our brochure.
device revealed the outline of a human hand, clearly visible despite being hidden under a thick book. If such a device
E. Rewrite the sentences using the words given. Then mark each one I (informal) or F (formal). could
(11) .............................. be mass produced, there could be one in every doctor’s surgery, offering a completely safe new
I 1. They won’t let you into the club without a jacket. enter earlier
window into the human body. Disease or tissue damage could be detected at a much (12) .............................. stage,
......
F
...... allowed / permitted to enter the club without a jacket.
No one is ................................................................................................................................................................ .
however
increasing the chances of successful treatment. The technology will be controversial, (13) .............................. , as the
without
camera could reveal body shape beneath clothing (14) .............................. the subject’s permission, or even knowledge.
I 2. It’s best not to leave gardenias in direct sunlight. should
......
being
Civil liberties groups will, therefore, probably object to its (15) .............................. used on the grounds that it invades the
F
...... should not be left in direct sunlight
Gardenias ............................................................................................................................................................... .
individual’s privacy.
F 3. There are said to be rare birds in that forest. are
......
I
...... say there are rare birds in that forest
They ....................................................................................................................................................................... .
I 4. Lots of people think the design is old-fashioned. felt
......
F
...... is felt that the design is old-fashioned
It ............................................................................................................................................................................. .
F 5.
...... I was angered by the council’s decision. made
I
...... council’s decision made me angry
The ......................................................................................................................................................................... .
I 6.
...... Don’t give him any details of the project. not
F
...... not to be given any details of the project
He is ....................................................................................................................................................................... .
F 7. Why wasn’t Annie chosen for the team? get
......
I
...... didn’t Annie get chosen for the team
Why ....................................................................................................................................................................... ?
I 8. Use a small brush to clean the machinery. with
......
F
...... The machinery should be / is / can be cleaned with a small brush
....................................................................................................................................................... .
76 77