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# STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN

## COURSE CODE: 0401-418

CHAPTER

12
Bolted Connections
TEXT BOOK, STRUCTURAL STEE DESIGN, JACK McCormack

## Zaid A. Al-Sadoon, Ph.D., P.Eng.

Simple Connections

 Types
 Bolted Shear Connections
 Spacing and Edge Distance Requirements
 High Strength Bolts
 Bearing Type Connections
 Slip-Critical Connections
 High Strength Bolts in Tension
 Prying Action
 Combined Shear and Tension
 Welded Connections
 Welding Length and Size Requirements
Types of Simple Connections
Bolt Types & Materials
FAILURE OF BOLTED JOINTS
(a) Failure by single shearing of (d) Shear failure of plate behind
bolt. bolt.
(b) Tension failure of plate. (e) Double shear failure of a butt
(c) Crushing failure of plate. joint
FAILURE OF BOLTED JOINTS
FAILURE OF BOLTED JOINTS
Bearing failure at bolt location
Bearing failure at bolt location
SPACING AND EDGE DISTANCES OF BOLTS

## Pitch (p) is the center-to-center distance of bolts in a direction parallel to

the axis of the member.
Gage (g) is the center-to-center distance of bolt lines perpendicular to the
axis of the member.
The edge distance is the distance from the center of a bolt to the adjacent
edge of a member.
The distance between bolts is the shortest distance between fasteners on
the same or different gage lines.
SPACING AND EDGE DISTANCES OF BOLTS
Shear Strength of Bolts
(LRFD) Shearing strength of bolts

φ = 0.75

## Fnv = nominal shear from Table J3.2, ksi (MPa)

Shear Strength of Bolts
Bearing Strength Around the Holes
(LRFD) Bearing Strength  Rn  0.75 Rn

## If deformation, at service load, around bolt holes is A design consideration

(that is, if we want deformations to be 0.25 in ), then
R  1.2 L t F  2.4 d t F (AISC Eq. J3-6a)
n c u u

## If deformation, at service load, around bolt holes is NOT a design

consideration (that is, if deformations  0.25 in are acceptable), then
Rn  1.5 Lc t Fu  3.0 d t Fu (AISC Eq. J3-6b)
For bolts used in connections with long-slotted holes, the slots being
perpendicular to the forces,
(AISC Eq. J3-6c)
Rn  1.0 Lc t Fu  2.0 d t Fu

where
Fu = specified minimum tensile strength of the connected material, ksi (MPa)
d = nominal bolt diameter, in. (mm)
lc = clear distance, in the direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and
the edge of the adjacent hole or edge of the material, in. (mm)
t = thickness of connected material, in. (mm)
Bearing Strength Around the Holes
Bearing Strength Around the Holes
Example 12.1
Determine the design strength c Pn for the bearing-type
connection shown. The steel is A36, Fy = 36 ksi and Fu =
58 ksi, the bolts are are 7/8-in A325, the holes are standard
sizes, and the threads are excluded from the shear plane.
Assume that deformations at bolt holes are a design
consideration.
Example 12.1
Example 12.1
Example 12.2
How many 3/4-in A325 bolts in standard-size holes with threads
excluded from the shear plane are required for the bearing-type
connection shown ? Use and assume edge distances to be 2 in
and the distance center-to-center of holes to be 3 in. Assume that
deformation at bolt holes is a design consideration. Pu = 345 k
Example 12.2
SLIP-CRITICAL CONNECTIONs
Rn   Du h f Tb ns