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GL 3021 Apa yang dimaksud ……

GEOLOGI TEKNIK

….. dengan batuan ?

Imam A. Sadisun, Dr. Eng.

Deskripsi dan Klasifikasi Geologi


There is NO QUESTION that ... Material dan Massa Batuan

MISUNDERSTANDINGS
might develop over what is
called “ROCK”

The rock cycle shows that rocks change continuously over geologic time.

Beberapa jenis umum batuan beku atas dasar mineralogi dan teksturnya. Kelimpahan relatif jenis batuan sedimen.

1
Nature of ……

…..….. ROCKS.

Perubahan tekstur dan mineralogi serpih pada kenaikan derajat metamorfisme.

….. dalam kegiatan rekayasa, asumsi


umum terhadap kondisi alamiah batuan
meliputi :

™ Homogen
H (homogeneous
h )
™ Kontinu (continuous)
™ Isotropik (isotropic) ….. but …… NO!

Homogeneous Continuous Isotropic


Strength equal in
….. batuan pada kenyataannya adalah Sandstone all directions

sangat kompleks dan bervariasi, sehingga


yang umum dijumpai adalah :

™ Heterogen (heterogeneous) Heterogeneous Discontinuous Anisotropic

™ Diskontinu (discontinuous) Shale Fault


Joints
Strength varies
with directions

™ Anisotropik (anisotropic)
Low High
Sandstone

2
Rock Defects Weakness
Kondisi alamiah massa dan material batuan
Joints
Zone harus diperhatikan dalam kaitannya dengan
faults aspek mekanika dan aplikasinya dalam
joints rekayasa.
partings

cracks

fissures

bedding planes

seams/shears

0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10,000


Length (m)

.….. the main discontinuities according to size.

.….. the scale factor of rocks and the variation in strength of


.….. the scale factor of rocks. material depending on the size of the sample involved.

Minerals
….. rock as an Engineering Material
Textures Rock Material
Composition
Scale must be taken into
Rock Mass account when judging the
b h i
behaviour off rock
k as a material.
t i l
Joint Properties
Joints Jointing Pattern The departure from an ‘ideal’
Density of Joints material can occur on all scales
from very large faults to
.….. the main features constituting a rock mass microfractures.

3
…... batuan memiliki dua sifat utama yaitu

sifat FISIK dan


ISRM standards
sifat MEKANIK
gave the suggested methods
….. yang dapat
d t ditentukan
dit t k berdasarkan
b d k for both core preparation and
hasil pengujian laboratorium maupun
lapangan. testing (Brown, 1981)

The test specimens should be right circular Sample preparation …..


cylinders having a height to diameter ratio of ….. the sample preparation process usually involves drilling (drill
2.5–3.0 and a diameter preferably of not less press), cutting (diamond saw), and grinding (surface grinder).
than NX core size, approximately 54 mm. The
specimen diameter should be at least 10 times
the size of the largest grain in the rock.

….. to form perfect right-angled cylinders.

Sifat Fisik atau Dasar Hubungan antara volume -berat …..


Pengujian sifat fisik atau dasar umumnya dilakukan di Air Assumed weightless
Va
laboratorium pada contoh batuan segar atau lapuk Vv
Vw Water Ww
ringan yang tidak mengalami peretakan untuk
mendapatkan pengertian yang baik karakter alami
batuan.
Sifat fisik atau dasar meliputi : Vt Wt
™ hubungan volume–berat (berat jenis,
Vm Wm
densitas and porositas) Solid
™ kekerasan (untuk tujuan ekskavasi)
™ durabilitas dan reaktivitas (untuk
kualitas aggregat)

4
Kondisi pengujian …..
Air Air Water
Hubungan volume-berat untuk contoh material batuan
Water Air Water

Solid Solid Solid

Alamiah/total Kering (dry) Basah/Jenuh


(natural/bulk) (wet/saturated)

Densitas …..

….. berat per satuan


volume batuan.
W
γ =
V
• Densitas alami (bulk/natural)
• Densitas jenuh (saturated)
• Densitas kering (dry)

γ n = (1−θ)γ m +θγw

Dry density for various rock types

Hubungan antara densitas Porosity …..


dan kecepatan gelombang
seismik untuk batuan
….. is given as the
sedimen (Gardner et al.,
1974) : volume of pore space
divided by the total
volume of sample.

Vv
θ=
γ n = 1.741v p0.25 Vt
….. porosity of some
….. density changes with depth be low the sea floor in the Gulf of Mexico. The density in typical rocks showing
the figure is calculated from the core porosity data (Ostermeier et al. 2001). effects of age and depth.

5
Hardness …..
….. the Shore
Scleroscope measures
the rebound of a small
rounded diamond
hammer which falls from
a fixed height and
rebounds freely from the
surface of rock
specimen. Several
Persamaan umum hubungan
antara porositas dan kedalaman : reading are taken next to
each other. The average
θ = ae −bZ rebound height, can than
be correlated with the
hardness and/or
….. rock porosity decreases as the burial depth increases in the central compressive strength.
deepwater Gulf of Mexico (plotted from the core test data presented by Ostermeier et al. 2001).

Hardness ….. Hardness …..


….. The Schmidt Hammer was originally
developed for non-destructive testing of
concrete. Four types of hammer are available ….. Relationship
with varying impact energy. The rebound of between Schmidt
spring-loaded hammer mass after impact on the
rock surface can be read directly from the hardness and
instrument (Schmidt number) and correlate to uniaxial compressive
hardness. strength of rock.
rock

Hardness ….. Durability …..


….. skala kererasan relatif batuan.
Kekerasan Simbol Deskripsi ….. Durability measure the changes in rock properties due to
processes of chemical and mechanical breakdown (e.g.
Sama dengan OH-4 dan OH-5 dan hanya dapat diambil dengan
Sangat Lunak RH-0 pemboran kering. Contohnya beberapa jenis tuf dan batulempung.
exfoliation, hydration, solution, oxidation, abrasion, etc.).
Dapat digores dengan kuku dan diambil dengan palu geolog serta Auto counter with
Lunak RH-1 cepat dibor dengan mata bor widya, misalnya beberapa jenis Speed Adjustment
batupasir, batulanau dan serpih. Counter Plate Motor Drive
Dapat digores dengan pisau dan cukup baik dibor degnan mata bor Testing Drum Rubber Belt
Agak Lunak RH-2 widya, contohnya batupasir yang tersemen baik dan batugamping.
Water Trough
Sukar digores dengan pisau, sukar diambil dengan palu geologi
tetapi ujung contoh batu masih mudah dipecahkan dengan palu.
Agak Keras RH-3 Batu masih dapat dibor dengan mata bor widya tetapi kadang-
kadang memerlukan matabor intan, contohnya basalt.
Ujung contoh batu sukar dipecah dengan palu, tak dapat digores
Keras RH-4 dengan pisau dan pemboran memerlukan mata bor intan, contohnya
kuarsit.

Kemajuan pemboran dengan mata bor intan sangat lambat,


Sangat Keras RH-5 contohnya rijang, batuan terslifikasi. Rock Lumps

6
Swelling ….. Sifat Indeks
….. The swelling strain index is a measure of the axial Sifat indeks batuan meliputi :
swelling strain developed when radially confined ™ tekanan uniaksial
undisturbed rock specimen is immersed in water.
™ index beban titik (point load)
™ kecepatan gelombang sonik

Uji indeks dimaksudkan


untuk memperoleh
informasi dasar mengenai
sifat batuan dalam
kaitannya dengan usaha
melakukan klasifikasi

An axial compressive force is applied to an unconfined specimen until failure occurs.

Compressive loads P are applied through hardened


conical points to diametrically opposite sides of a
core specimen until failure occurs.

Platen

Rock Sample
Rigid
g Frame
Pressure Gauge
with Max. Indicator
Steel Rule
Hydraulic Piston
Hand Pump
Release Valve

Peralatan uji kekuatan beban titik (point load). Hubungan antara indeks kuat beban titik Is dan kuat tekan uniaksial Uc.

Kecepatan gelombang primer (kompresi) pada berbagai jenis batuan.