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Power And Industrial Plant Engineering Prepared by: Engr.

Jessie Ledesma

HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANT


1. A hydro-electric power plant consumes 52,650,000 kW-hr per annum. Expected flow is 1665 m3/min and the
overall efficiency is 65 %. What is the net head?
a. 30m b. 31m c. 32m d. 34m
2. In a hydro-electric power the tail water level fixes at 480 m. the net head is 27 m and head loss is 4% of the gross
head. What is the head water elevation?
a. 500.34m b. 508.12m c. 456.34m d. 567.34
3. The available flow of water is 25 m3/sec at 30 m elevation. If a hydro-electric plant is to be installed with turbine
efficiency of 90%, what maximum power that the plant could generate?
a. 4658.5kW b. 3478.5kW c. 5628.5kW d. 4756.5kW
4. For a proposed hydro-electric plant, the tail water and the head water elevation is 160 m and 195 m, respectively. If
available flow is 10 m3/sec and head loss is 5% of water available head. What is the water power?
a. 3261.8kW b. 4254.6kW c. 5874.5 d. 2456.5kW
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5. The flow of the river is 20m /sec and produces a total brake of 6,000kW. If it is proposed to install two turbines
each has 85% efficiency, what is the available head?
a. 35m b. 37m c. 39m d. 36m
6. In a hydro-electric plant the brake power is 1800kW running at 450rpm and net head of 30m. Determine the
specific speed of the turbine.
a. 60.29rpm b. 65.29rpm c. 75.29rpm d. 71.29rpm
7. The specific speed of a turbine is 75rpm and running at 450rpm. If the head is 20m and the generator efficiency is
90%, what is the maximum power delivered by the generator.
a. 450.5kW b. 354.5kW c. 650.5kW d. 780.5kW
8. When the penstock of a hydro-electric plant is 0.5 x 0.5 m with a velocity of 5.5m/sec has a head of 20m. what is
the output of the turbine if the efficiency is 87%?
a. 845.32kW b. 789.34kW c. 654.56kW d. 234.56kW
9. A 4 x 0.5 m channel has water velocity of 5m/sec. if the head is 100m, what is the annual energy if the overall
efficiency is 70%?
a. 40,456,000kW-hr c. 60,154,920kW-hr
b. 34,456,345kW-hr d. 54,867,234kW-hr
10. A turbine with mechanical efficiency of 95 %, volumetric efficiency of 97% and total efficiency of 80%. If effective
head is 40m, find the total head.
a. 48.72m b. 40.72m c. 46.72m d. 34.72m
11. A pelton type turbine has 30 m head, friction loss of 4.5m. The coefficient of friction head loss (morse) is 0.00093
and penstock length of 80m. What is the penstock diameter?
a. 1234mm b. 3476mm c. 1686mm d. 1584m
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12. From a height of 65m water flows at the rate of 0.85 m /sec and is driving a turbine connected to 160rpm
generator. If frictional torque is 540 N-m, calculate the turbine brake power.
a. 533kW b. 677kW c. 455kW d. 488kW
13. In an 8000kW hydro-electric plant the overall efficiency is 88% and the actual power received by the customer is
110,000kW-hrs for that day. What is the secondary power which this plant could deliver during the entire day?
a. 58,960kW-hrs c. 65,960kW-hrs
b. 60,960kW-hrs d. 70,960kW-hrs
14. A francis turbine is installed with a vertical draft tube. The total head to the center of the spiral casing at the inlet is
38m and velocity of water at the inlet is 5 m/sec. the discharge is 2.1m3/sec. the hydraulic efficiency is 0.84. The
elevation at the inlet and outlet of the draft tube is 1m(water) below the center line of the spiral casing while the
tailrace (water) level is 3m from the top of the draft tube. Neglected the velocity of whirls and leakage losses. What
is the total head of the turbine in metes.
a. 34.72 b. 43.27 c. 55.20 d. 48.12
15. A hydroelectric generating plant, is supplied from a reservoir of capacity 6,000,000 m3 at a head of 170m. assume
hydraulic efficiency of 80% and electrical efficiency of 90%. The fall in the reservoir level after a load of 15MW has
been supplied for 3hrs, if the area of the reservoir is 2.5sq. km is closest to:
a. 5.39cm b. 4.32m c. 5.98cm d. 4.83
STEAM POWER PLANT
1. In a Rankuine cycle, steam enters the turbine at 2.5 MPa and condenser of 50kPa. What is the thermal efficiency
of the cycle?
Steam Properties: At 2.5 MPa, hg = 2803.1 kJ/kg, Sg = 6.2575 kJ/kg-K and at 50 kPa, Sf = 1.0910 kJ/kg-K, Sfg =
3
6.5029 kJ/kg –K, hf = 340.49 kJ/kg, hfg = 2305.4 kJ/kg, vf = 0.0010300 m /kg.
a. 25.55% c. 30.12%
b. 28.87% d. 31.79%
2. A superheat steam Rankine cycle has turbine inlet conditions of 17.5 MPa and 5300C expands in a turbine to
0.007 MPa. The turbine and pump polyropic efficiencies are 0.9 and 0.7 respectively. Pressure losses between
pump and turbine inlet are 1.5 MPa. What should be the pump work in kJ/kg?

3. Steam enters the superheater a\of a boiler at a pressure of 25 bar and dryness of 0.98 and leaves at the same
0
pressure at a temperature of 370 C. Calculate the heat energy supplied per kg of steam supplied in the
superheater.
Steam Properties: at 25 bar and 3700C at 25 bar
h = 3171.8 kJ/kg hf = 962.11kJ/kg hfg = 1841.0 kJ/kg
a. 405.51 kJ/kg c. 154.15 kJ/kg
b. 504.15 kJ/kg d. 245.25 kJ/kg
Power And Industrial Plant Engineering Prepared by: Engr. Jessie Ledesma
4. A back pressure steam turbine of 100,000 kW serves as a prime mover in a cogeneration system. The boiler
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admits the return water at a temperature of 66 C and produces the steam at 6.5 MPa and 455 C. Steam then
enters a back pressure turbine and expands to the pressure of the process, which is 0.52 MPa. Assuming a boiler
efficiency of 80% and neglecting the effect of pumping and the pressure drops at various location, what is the
incremental heat rate for electric? The following enthalpies have been found: turbine entrance = 3306.8 kJ/kg,
exit = 2700.8 kJ/kg; boiler entrance = 276.23 kJ/kg,
exit =3306.8 kJ/kg
a. 22,504.23 kJ/kg c. 12,435.72 kJ/kg
b. 52.244.32 kJ/kg d. 32,234.82 kJ/kg
5. Steam expands adiabatically in a turbine from 2000 kPa, 4000C to 400 kPa, 2500C. What is the effectiveness of
the process in percent assuming an atmospheric temperature of 150C . Neglect changes in kinetic and potential
energy.
Steam properties:
0
At 2000 kPa and 400 C At 400 kPa and 2500C
h = 3247.6 kJ/kg h = 2964.2 kJ/kg
S = 7.1271 kJ/kg.K S = 7.3789 kJ/kg.K
a. 79.62% c. 82.45%
b. 84.52% d. 74.57%
6. In an open feedeater heater for a steam power plant, saturated steam at 7 bar is mixed with subcooled liquid at 7
bar and 250C. Just enough steam is supplied to ensure that the mixed steam leaving the heater will be saturated
liquid at 7 bar when heater efficiency is 90%. Calculate the mass flow rate of subcooled liquid if steam flow rate is
0.865 kg. per second.
Steam properties:
At 7 bar, saturated vapor At 7 bar, saturated liquid
hg = 2763.5 kJ/kg hf = 697.22 kJ/kg
0
At 7 bar, and 25 C:
Hf = 105.5 kJ/kg
a. 2.725 c. 2.286
b. 3.356 d. 3.948
0
7. A steam plant operates with an initial pressure of 1.70 MPa and 370 C temperature and eshaust to a heating
system at 0.17 MPa. The condensate from the heating system is returned to the boiler at 65.50C and the heating
system utilizes from its intended purpose 90% of the energy transferred from the steam it receives. The turbine
efficiency is 70%. If the boiler efficiency is 80%, what is the cogeneration efficiency of the system in percent.
Neglect pumpwork.
Steam properties:
0
At 1.7 MPa, and 370 C At 1.7 Mpa
h = 3787.1 kJ/kg hf = 483.20 kJ/kg
S = 7.1081 kJ/kg hfg = 2216.0 kJ/kg
0
At 65 C Sf = 1.4752 kJ/kg
hf = 274.14 kJ/kg Sfg = 5.7062 kJ/kg.K
a. 78 c. 91.24
b. 102.1 d. 69
0
8. In a cogeneration plant, steam enters the turbine at 4 MPa and 400 C. One fourth of the steam is extracted from
the turbine at 600 kPa pressure for process heating. The remaining steam continues to expand to 10 Kpa. The
extracted steam is then condensed and mixed with feedwater at constant pressure and the mixture is pumped to
the boiler pressure of 4 MPa. The mass flow rate of the steam through the boiler is 30 kg/s. disregarding any
pressure drops and the heat losses in the piping, and assuming the turbine and pump to the isentropic, how much
process heat is required in kW?
Steam properties:
At 4MPa and 4000C: At 600 kPa
h = 3213.6 kJ/kg hf = 670.56 kJ/kg Sf = 1.9312 kJ/kgK
S = 6.7690 kJ/kg-K hfg = 2086.3 kJ/kg Sfg = 4.8288 kJ/kgK
a. 15,646.8 c. 3,578.5
b. 2,468.2 d. 1,026.9
0
9. A 23.5 kg of steam per second at 5 MPa and 400 C is produced by a steam generator. The feedwater enters the
economizer at 1450C and leaves at 2050C. the steam leaves the boiler drum with a quality of 98%. The unit
consumes 2.75 kg of coal per second as received having a heating value of 25,102 kJ/kg. What would be the
over-all efficiency of the unit in percent?
Steam properties:
At 5 MPa and 4000C: At 2050C
h = 3195.7 kJ/kg hf = 875.05 kJ/kg
At 5 MPa: At 1450C:
hf = 1154.23 kJ/kg hf = 610.63 kJ/kg
hfg = 1640.1 kJ/kg
a. 65 c. 88
b. 95 d. 78
10. A coal-fired power plant has a turbine-generator rated at 1000 MW gross. The plant required about 9 % of this
power for its internal operations. It uses 9800 tons of coal per day. The coal has a heating value of 6,388.9
kCal/kg, and the steam generator efficiency is 86%. What is the net station efficiency of the plant in percent?
a. 33.07% c. 36.74%
b. 40.01% d. 30.12%
Power And Industrial Plant Engineering Prepared by: Engr. Jessie Ledesma
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11. Stream enters the turbine of a cogeneration plant at 7.0 MPa and 500 C. steam at a flow rate of 7.6 kg/s is
extracted from the turbine at 600 kPa pressure for process heating. The remaining steam continues to expand to
10 kPa. The recovered condensates are pumped back to the boiler. The mass flow rate of steam that enters the
turbine is 30 kg/s. calculate the cogeneration efficiency in percent.
Steam properties:
0
At 7 MPa and 500 C At 600 kPa At 10 kPa
h= 3410.3 kJ/kg hf = 670.56 kJ/kg hf = 191.83 kJ/kg
s = 6.7975 kJ/kg hfg = 2086.3 kJ/kg hfg = 2392.8 kJ/kg
Sf = 1.9312 kJ/kg.K Sf = 0.6493 kJ/kg.K
Sfg = 4.8228 kJ/kg.K Sfg = 7.5009 kJ/kg.K
12. A 60 MW turbine generator running at 3600 rpm receives steam at 4.0 MPa and 4500C with a back pressure of 10
kPa. Engine efficiency is 78% and the combined mechanical and electrical efficiency is 95%. What would be the
exhaust enthalpy of the steam in kJ/kg?
a. 28,124.20 kJ/kg c. 20,432.10 kJ/kg
b. 2,400.12 kJ/kg d. 30,101.15 kJ/kg
13. Steam enters a throttling calorimeter at a pressure of 1.03 MPa. The calorimeter downstream pressure and
temperature are respectively 0.100 Mpa and 1250C. What is the percentage moisture of the supply steam?
Properties of the Steam:
Pa (MPa) hfg (kJ/kg) hg (kJ/kg0
1.03 2010.7 2779.25
0
Note: At 0.100 MPa and 125 C, h = 2726.6 kJ/kg
a. 2.62 c. 3.15
b. 5.21 d. 1.98
14. A drum containing steam with 2.5 m diameter is 7.5 m long. Of the total volume, 1/3 contains saturated steam at
800 kPa and the other 2/3 contains saturated water. If this tank should explode, how much water would
evaporate? Consider the process to be of constant enthalpy.
a. 2,948.11 kg c. 2, 651.24 kg
b. 2,424.62 kg d. 2,123.76 kg
15. A Batangas based industrial company operates a steam-power plant with reheat and regeneration. The steam
enters a turbine at 300 bar and 900 K and expands to 1 bar. Steam leaves the first stage at 30 bar and part of it
entering a closed heater while the rest reheated to 800K. both section of the turbine have adiabatic efficiency of
93%. A condensate pump exist between the main condenser and the heater. Another pump lies between the
heater and condensate outlet line from the heater (condensed extracted steam). Compute for the extracted
fraction of the total mass flow to the heater.
a. 0.234 c. 0.765
b. 0.543 d. 0.485
16. In a Rankine cycle, saturated liquid water at 1 bar is compressed isentropically to 150 bar. First, by heating in a
boiler and then by superheating at constant pressure of 150 bar, the water substance is superheating at constant
pressure of 150 bar, the water substance is brought to 750 K. after adiabatic reversible expansion in a turbine to 1
bar. It is then cooled in a condenser to a saturated liquid. How much work is generated in the turbine?
a. 967.9 kJ/kg c. 796.9 kJ/kg
b. 976.9 kJ/kg d. 769.9 kJ/kg
17. A reheat steam has 13,850 kPa throttle pressure at the turbine inlet and a 2800 kPa reheat pressure, the throttle
0
and reheat temperature pf the steam is 540 C, condenser pressure is 3.4 kPa, engine efficiency of high pressure
and low pressure is 75%. Find the cycle thermal efficiency.
a. 34.46% c. 36.66 %
b. 35.56% d. 37.76%
18. A simple steam engine plant has boiler feedwater at 95.60C. steam is supplied to the engine at 7.03 kg/cm2, 97%
dry. Atmospheric exhaust. Steam rate 9.3 kg per lhp-hr, em =87%. Generator of 91.5% efficiency is directly
connected to the engine. Determine the Rankine efficiency.
a. 9.88% c. 11.63%
b. 12.47% d. 10.55%
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19. A 75 W turbine generator has a steam of 12.7 kg/kW-hr. Steam at 12.3 kg/cm gauge 55.6 C superheat. Exhaust
50.8 mm Hg abs. Find the combined thermal efficiency of a simple vapor cycle incorporating this unit.
a. 9.67% c. 11.64%
b. 12.15% d. 10.25%
20. A thermal power plant generates 4000 kW and 400 kW for auxiliaries. Determine the net thermal efficiency if the
heat generated by fuel is 15000 kW.
a. 24% c. 28%
b. 26% d. 30%
21. A steam generating plant has 20 MW turbo-generators. Steam us supplied at 1.7 Mpa and 3200C. exhaust us at
0.006 Mpa. Daily average load factor is 80%. The steam generating units operate at 70% efficiency when using
bunker fuel hving a heating value of 31,150 kJ/kg and an average steam rate of 5 kg steam per kW-hr. calculate
the Mtons of fuel required per 24 hours.
a. 514.894 Mtons c. 414.849 Mtons
b. 5278.496 Mtons d. 428.496 Mtons
GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT
1. Mass flow rate of ground water in a geothermal power plant is 1,500,000 kg/hr and the quality after throttling is
30%. Determine the brake power of the turbine if is the change of enthalpy of steam at inlet and outlet is 7000
kJ/kg.
a. 68.5MW b. 87.5MW c. 64.5MW d. 89.5MW
Power And Industrial Plant Engineering Prepared by: Engr. Jessie Ledesma
2. Ground water of geothermal power plant has an enthalpy of 700kJ.kg, at turbine inlet is 2,750 kJ/kg and enthalpy
of hot water in flash tank is 500 kJ/kg. What is the mass of steam flow entering the turbine if mass flow of ground
water is 45kg/sec?
a. 3.27kg/s b. 2.27kg/s c. 4.27kg/s d. 9.27kg/s
3. The enthalpy entering the turbine of a geothermal power plant is 2750 kJ/kg and the mass rate is 1kg/sec. the
turbine brake power is 1000 kW, condenser outlet has enthalpy of 210 kJ/kg. if temperature rise of cooling water in
condenser is 8OC, what is the mass of cooling water required?
a. 44 kg/s b. 45kg/s c. 46kg/s d. 47kg/s
4. In a 12 MW geothermal power plant, the mass flow of steam entering the turbine is 26kg/s. the quality after
throttling is 25% and the enthalpy of ground water is 750 kJ/kg. determine the overall efficiency of the plant.
a. 7.4% b. 9.6% c. 5.4% d. 15.4%
5. A 16,000 kW geothermal plant has a generator efficiency and turbine efficiency of 90% and 80%, respectively. If
the quality after throttling is 20% and each well discharges 200,000 kg.hr, determine the number of wells required
to produce if the change of enthalpy at the entrance and exit of turbine is 500kJ/kg.
a. 4 wells b. 5 wells c. 6 wells d. 8 wells
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6. A liquid dominated geothermal plant with a single flash separator receives water at 204 C. the separator pressure
is 1.04 Mpa. A direct contact condenser operates at 0.034Mpa. the turbine has a polythropic efficiency of 0.75. For
a cycle output of 50MW, what is the mass flow rate of well water in kg.s?
@ 204OC @ 1.04Mpa @ 0.034Mpa
hf = 870.51kJ/kg hf = 770.38 hfg = 2009.2 hf = 301.40 hfg = 2328.8
hg = 2779.6 sg = 6.5729 sf = 0.9793 sfg = 6.7463
a. 2871 b. 2100 c. 1860 d. 2444