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Electronic Navigational Systems

Limitation & Sources of Errors

Method of Correction
Navigational Equipments
• GPS
• AIS
• Radar & ARPA
• ECDIS
• Echo sounder
• LRIT
9-Jun-10 3 of 100
the full name GPS Navstar
Global Positioning System
a NAVigation System
using
Time And Ranging

Constellation of ‘Earth - Orbiting’ Satellites Maintained


by the United States Government for the Purpose of
Defining Geographic Positions
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GPS positioning

 Global coverage

 Continuous

 All Weather

 High Precision
9-Jun-10 RP 5 of 100
GPS Limitations & Precautions
How many bridge systems use GPS?
GPS system ‘close to breakdown’
– Network of satellites could begin to fail as early as 2010

Dilution of Precision
– Geometric, Positional, Horizontal, Vertical & Time

MGN 379 - Use of Electronic Navigation Aids


– 4.5 GNSS – related accidents
– 4.6 Datum and Chart Accuracy

Jamming
GPS Positioning Accuracy

Horizontal Accuracy of C/A or SPS

 Before : the nominal absolute accuracy -100 m


to 95% confidence
 Now – 13 m to 95% confidence (IALA, e-NAV2 –
output – 7C submission; 29 March 2007)

SPS = Standard Positioning Service

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GPS: Errors and Limitations

 User Equivalent Range Error (UERE)


– The system error

 Satellite Geometry
– Affects precision of the positions

 Geodetic Datum Transformations


– Operator/chart related error
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Sources of GPS System-Error : UERE
 Space Element +
 Control Segment +
 User Segment +

= GPS Total System Error


is collectively expressed as

User Equivalent Range Error (UERE)

 ≤ presently 4.5 metres to 95% confidence.


[based on IALA information of April 2007]

9-Jun-10 9 of 100
Factors contributing to UERE

1. Satellite clock error


2. Orbital position error
3. Ionospheric and tropospheric refraction
4. Multipath
5. Receiver noise
6. Receiver clock offset

9-Jun-10 RP 10 of 100
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Precision of GPS Positions
Factor in Dilution of Precision (DOP)
OPTIMAL Placement of Satellites
High Precision
(Good Geometry)

LOW DOP factor

POOR Placement of Satellites


Low Precision
(Poor Geometry)

HIGH DOP factor

9-Jun-10 11 of 100
Estimate GPS Accuracy

95% Accuracy (m) = UERE × 2 x HDOP

Example:
General User UERE 95% confidence = 4.5 m

DOP displayed on GPS Receiver = 1.6

Estimated Accuracy = 4.5× 2 X 1.6 = 14.4 m

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Datum
GPS positioning refers to WGS84
datum…
...Of what datum is your Chart ??

9-Jun-10 13 of 100
Relative and Absolute Position
• Relative position:
– position relative to a fixed (charted) point

Absolute Position:
– position on the Earth
(expressed in terms of lat and long)
– requires an understanding of datums

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CAUTION! - GPS POSITIONING

Lat 15 04’ S
Long 118 05 E The GPS fix is absolute The charted
positioning, based on lat and information may
show that point to be
long
here
9-Jun-10 15 of 100
Geodetic or Horizontal datum:
– defines shape of the spheroid used to construct chart/map
– defines origin of the coordinate system (lat/long) used

Local Datums Geocentric (or


Satellite) Datums
• earlier charts and maps • Satellite navigation
used local datums requires geocentric
– Australian Geodetic
datums that cover the
Datum 1966 (AGD66) - world
applied to older charts – Examples: WGS72,
of Australia and PNG WGS84, GDA94

New charts use geocentric (WGS84) datum


9-Jun-10 RP 16 of 100
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Datum Shifts and GPS
• Know what datum you are working in
• Check chart to see if shifts are required
• Guard against applying shifts twice or in
wrong direction!
• Check GPS receiver to ensure correct datum
being applied

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Datum Transformations

•Significant error with paper and electronic charts


•Must match GPS datum to chart datum.
•Check the position datum under the title legend
•Be aware many new chart editions are changing
datum to WGS 84

position by GPS
Actual Position

9-Jun-10 18 of 100
Datum Transformations

9-Jun-10 RP 19 of 100
Curved earth’s coordinates on a flat surface..the dilemma
and process

9-Jun-10 20 of 100
Position and Horizontal Datum

• European
Datum • Japan
Datum

• WGS 72
WGS 84

• AGD66

9-Jun-10 21 of 100
The Datum Problem:


So what’s my lat and
long ?
Where am I ?

9-Jun-10 22 of 100
Electronic Chart Navigation
GPS positioning refers to WGS84 datum…
...on a chart of different datum ??

9-Jun-10 23 of 100
Receiver Errors: Multipath
 Microwave Signals reflect easily
 Error - 300 metres to several miles
 NOT CORRECTED by DGPS

9-Jun-10 24 of 100
GPS Multipath Errors

Antenna Design -
selective Right Hand Circular Polarized
Post-1994 models


Incident signal is RHCP
 Reflected signal is LHCP

9-Jun-10 25 of 100
GPS Multipath Errors

Avoid Multipathing by:


Careful antenna siting
Base Plate mounting
Elevation Angle Mask
Antenna Design
Elevation
Angle Mask

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GPS SETUP:
Info as provided by the manufacturers..
example HDOP 1…..

GPS position update has a poor HDOP value:


You may see this from time to time during normal operation. It usually
occurs when you are tracking 3, 4, or 5 satellites, and the satellites
have poor geometry relative to your position. If you are patient, the
condition will normally go back to Green Solid when you pick up
another satellite or the geometry of the existing satellites improves.
The factory default level for this indication is with an HDOP of 4 to
10. During this period, your positioning information is less than
optimal, and position accuracy may be off by as much as 10 to 30
meters.

HDOP Alarm Limit:


Sets the HDOP value which will cause the alarm to sound. The default
value is 4. The valid range is from 1.0 to 9.9. The higher your HDOP
value, the more error you will have in your position fix.

9-Jun-10 27 of 100
GPS SETUP:
Info as provided by the manufacturers..
example HDOP 2…..

Alarm For High HDOP:


This allows the receiver to create an alarm for
HDOP values which rise above a number that you
determine. This indicates that position accuracy is
becoming bad, due to poor satellite geometry
relative to your position and/or the number of
satellites currently under track. You may want to
set the alarm to Yes if position accuracy is critical
to you. Otherwise this alarm is normally set to No.

9-Jun-10 28 of 100
GPS SETUP:
Info as provided by the manufacturers..
example Elevation Angle Mask…..
Mask

Elevation Mask Control


This screen controls the elevation mask angle, or the
angle above the horizon, at which the receiver will
attempt to track a satellite. Satellites
with an elevation below this angle will be tracked but
will not be included in the position solution. You can
set the elevation limit to any value up to 90°. For
most marine applications, the default limit of 5° is
appropriate.

9-Jun-10 29 of 100
Automatic
Identification
System
LIMITATIONS OF AIS

• Not all ships may carry AIS (for instance


leisure craft, fishing boats and warships)
• The AIS might not be switched on
• Inputted manual information may be
erroneous
• Sensor information may be erroneous
• Lack of or poor training
• If overlaid - cluttering of display
Use of AIS in Navigation
1. AIS information should be handled with great care as
the quality depends on the originator. Quality of AIS
information is reduced by erroneous inputs.
2. AIS positions are derived from target’s GPS position.
This may not coincide with the radar target
3. Above AIS quality problems will also impact on port
piloting aid
4. Collision avoidance must be carried out in strict
accordance with COLREGS. No provision as yet in
COLREGS for use of AIS information. Decisions
should be taken primarily on visual and/or radar
information
5. Not all ships will be fitted with AIS
6. AIS may be turned off
7. Use of VHF to discuss action to act between
approaching ships is discouraged by the U.K. MCA.
Recommends decisions on collision avoidance should
be made strictly according to COLREGS.
AIS Display - Radar and ECDIS

6/9/2010 34
6/9/2010 35
FINALLY

• AIS is an additional navigational aid


• AIS is not the sole information system at hand
• AIS is not intended to replace any other
navigational equipment
• The Officer must always comply with the Colregs
• Be careful when matching AIS with other
information
• AIS does not mean a change in the composition of
the watch
Radar
MODES OF DISPLAY

HEAD UP UNSTABILISED

NORTH UP (STABILISED)

COURSE UP (STABILISED)
TYPES OF MOTION

RELATIVE MOTION

TRUE MOTION
TYPES OF
STABILISATION

SEA

GROUND
Head up.
up
• Heading marker is
always aligned with
000°.
• As the ship changes
course the heading
marker remains fixed,
and the radar echoes
will move on the
display.
• Ship/antenna is at the
centre. AH 9-Jun-10
Head up.
• No gyro compass
input required,
(unstabilised).
• Radar bearings will
be relative to ships
heading.
• Display can present a
problem when ship is
yawing due to echoes
constantly moving AH 9-Jun-10
North Up.
Up
• Heading marker is
aligned with true
course of ship.
• Position of the
antenna & ship is at
the centre of display.
• Course is obtained
from gyro (gyro
stabilised)

AH 9-Jun-10
RADAR: FALSE ECHOES

Reflected,Multiple,Indirect,Second
Trace And Side Lobe Echoes

Overhead Cable Effect


Reflected Echoes

Reflected echoes are caused when the pulse of radar energy transmitted from
the scanner is reflected by part of own ship’s structure on to a target,thence
from the target back to own ship’s structure and back to the scanner.The most
common cause is the funnel which often causes a blind sector on the radar.
Reflected echoes therefore usually appear in the blind sector.
Target

Blind Sector

Reflected
Echo
Multiple Echoes
Multiple Echoes occur when a target passes close to own ship. Whilst
part of the pulse of radar energy is reflected from the target back to the
scanner, part of the pulse is again reflected by own ship back to the
target and then back to the scanner. This process may repeat several
times and shows on the radar screen as a series of echoes, all on the
same bearing, with equal spacing between them.The echo closest to
own ship is the true echo from the target. Echoes become
progressively weaker with distance from the centre of the screen.
Own Ship

Target
Indirect Echoes

Indirect echoes occur when the pulse of radar energy is


reflected from a target,to some external source, usually on
the shore when entering port or when in an estuary or river,
back to the target and then back to the scanner.
On the radar screen it appears that another target exists,on
the same bearing but at a greater range than the true target.
Indirect echoes should not cause problems in clear weather
but could give rise to concern in reduced visibility.
SHORE
TARGET

Building

OWN SHIP
Indirect Echo

Target
Second Trace Returns
• Second trace returns occur when the first pulse
leaves the scanner and travels towards a distant
target (usually a distant coastline).
• Before this pulse is reflected and arrives back at
the scanner a second pulse has been transmitted.
Shortly after transmission of the second pulse the
first pulse arrives back at the scanner. The radar
“thinks” that this is the second pulse returning and
paints the appropriate echo on the screen
First pulse

Second pulse

Second Trace Return


Side Lobe Echoes
• When a target passes close to own ship it
may enter the side lobes of radar energy
which “leak” from the scanner on each side
of the narrow horizontal beam. Energy from
the side lobes is reflected from the target to
the scanner extending the displayed echo in
the form of an arc and, if very close to own
ship, into a ring about the centre spot.
Side lobes
Overhead Cable Effect
• When a pulse of radar energy strikes an
overhead cable at right angles an echo
appears on the screen on the heading line.
This echo will appear to approach own ship
until the cable passes out of the vertical
beam width of the scanner. The presence of
overhead cables should be noted in the
passage plan.
Overhead Cable

Vertical Beam Width


Overhead Cable Effect

Overhead Cable
Cause of Blind & Shadow
Sectors
• A BLIND SECTOR is caused by an obstruction,such as the
funnel,totally blocking the pulse of radar energy transmitted by the
scanner.Objects in the blind sector will not be displayed on the radar
screen.
• A SHADOW SECTOR is caused by an obstruction partially blocking
the pulse of radar energy transmitted by the scanner. Targets entering
the shadow sector will decrease in strength until finally disappearing
totally when they enter the blind sector.

• Reflected Ehoes:- Usually appear in the blind sector;- caused when the
pulse transmitted from the scanner is reflected by the funnel onto a
target thence back to the funnel and returned to the scanner.
Radar Mast forward of funnel
Shadow Sectors

Blind Sector
Shadow
Sectors
Blind
Sector
BLIND SECTOR
Obstructions caused by masts and funnel
Blind/Shadow Sectors Caused By Mast & Funnel
Determining Blind & Shadow
Sectors
• Select a small.isolated target such as a buoy.
• Whilst carefully monitoring the relative bearing of the target,swing the
ship through 360 degrees.
• Note the bearings as the target begins to fade, disappears
completely,begins to reappear and reappears completely.
• Draw a plan view of own ship and insert the blind and shadow sectors
- display same by the radar.

• Blind/shadow sectors may also be determined when heavy sea clutter


is present. The sectors appear as areas of diminished clutter(shadow
sectors) and blank areas within the clutter (blind sectors).
ECDIS
ECDIS

ERRORS OF
DISPLAYED DATA
POTENTIAL ERRORS CAN BE
DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS:

ERRORS IN THE ECDIS DATA AND


DISPLAY

ERRORS INTRODUCED BY SENSOR


INPUTS SUCH AS INACCURATE EPFS FIX

ERRORS DUE TO DIFFERENT


REFERENCE SYSTEMS ON THE CHART
AND GPS OFFSETS NOT APPLIED
CORRECTLY
ERRORS IN THE ECDIS
DATA AND DISPLAY

INACCURATE HYDROGRAPHIC DATA

POOR RESOLUTION OF THE DISPLAY

NAVIGATIONAL MARKS ALTERED


OR RE-POSITIONED
ERRORS INTRODUCED BY
SENSOR INPUTS

POTENTIAL ERRORS IN EPFS


(GPS OR LORAN’C’)

INCORRECT SUPERIMPOSITION OF
RADAR
ERRORS DUE TO INCORRECT
DATUMS AND OFFSET VALUES

IS THE EPFS AND CHART ON


THE SAME GEODETIC DATUM?

IS THE ANTENNA FOR THE


EPFS OFFSET FROM THE
CENTRE OF THE VESSEL?
SUMMARY

BE AWARE OF, AND ALLOW FOR,


ALL POTENTIAL ERRORS

CHECK CONTINUOUSLY
ECDIS

DISPLAY AND FUNCTION


OF OTHER NAVIGATIONAL
EQUIPMENT
ECDIS CAN BE INTERFACED WITH
OTHER NAVIGATIONAL EQUIPMENT

RADAR AND ARPA

AUTOMATIC TRACK CONTROL

AIS
THE FOLLOWING MAY OCCUR:

RADAR PICTURE AND CHART MISMATCHING DUE


TO AN ERROR IN THE PRIMARY FIXING SYSTEM

DISPLACEMENT OF INDIVIDUAL OBJECTS

MISMATCHING OF VECTORS
(GROUND TRACK OR WATER TRACK)
AUTOMATIC TRACK CONTROL

THE DISPLAYED SHIP SYMBOL WILL BE KEPT


TO THE PLANNED TRACK

THE SHIP SYMBOL MAY NOT BE THE


CORRECT POSITION OF OWN SHIP

THIS MAY LEAD TO AN


EMBARASSING SITUATION!!
SUMMARY
RADAR SUPERIMPOSITION AND
AUTOMATIC TRACK CONTROL IS VERY
USEFUL - HOWEVER - IT IS IMPORTANT
THAT THE MARINER IS AWARE OF THE
CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS OF THESE
PARTICULAR FEATURES SO AS TO AVOID
ANY RISKS.
Echo Sounder

ERRORS
ERRORS
• CROSS NOISE
• MULTIPLE ECHOES
• SECOND TRACE ECHOES
• DOUBLE ECHOES
CROSS NOISE
Second Trace Returns
MULTIPLE ECHOES
DOUBLE ECHOES
EFFECTS
• PROFILE DISTORTION
• INCORRECT STYLUS SPEED
• SALINITY
• TEMPERATURE
• PRESSURE
• ANGLE OF INCIDENCE
Profile Distortion
Angle of Incidence
Draught and Height of Tide
Phased Scale
Long-Range
Identification and
Tracking of Ships
Background
• IMO Maritime Safety Committe, May 2006, adopted:

• When is it needed?
By December 31, 2008. This is the date most flag states
are requiring compliance, even though some of the
practicalities of operating LRIT ashore are still being
worked out.
• - Regulation V/19-1 on LRIT

- Performance Standards and Functional


Requirements for the Long-Range Identification and
Tracking of Ships

- Arrangements for the Timely Establishment of the Long-


Range Identification and Tracking System.
The LRIT system – ships involved

• Ships in international voyages

- Passenger ships
- Cargo ships over 300 t
- Mobile plattforms

• Ships with AIS and only sailing in A1


areas does not need to transmit LRIT-
data.
The LRIT system – information
to transmit
• Identity

• Position

• Date and time


The LRIT system – update
interval
• Default value 6 hourly

• Update interval remotely selectable

• Minimum interval 15 min

• May be switched off by the master under


certain conditions
The LRIT system – communication
technique
• In practice – satellite communication and
in most cases probably existing GMDSS
equipment.
(old equipment may not allways meet the
requirements)
The LRIT system – main
components
• CSP – Communication Service Provider
ASP – Application Service Provider

• DC – Data Center National


Regional
Co-operative
International

• IDE – International Data Exchange


The LRIT Data Center
• Each Contracting Goverment should
chose a data Center to which all the ships
flying its flag should send their LRIT
information.

• The data Center should be connected to


the International Data Exchange

• The CG should request LRIT data via its


chosen Data Center
Access to LRIT information
• A Flag state has allways the right to access the
information for ships in its own register

• A Port state has the right to access when a ship


has declared its intention to go to a port in that
state - but not if the ship is in the the territorial
waters of another state

• A Coastal state has the right to access for ships


within 1000 Nm from its coast - but not if the ship
is in the the territorial waters of another state
Access to LRIT information
• The access rigths belongs to the state -
”Contracting Government to IMO” and
for its Competent Authorities. Other use
is not allowed.

SAR organisations can have access


whenever needed
Any Question