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Kshipra Gadey
M.Sc. Junior
Textile Science and Apparel Design
SNDT University


Marketing is defined by the American Marketing Association as "the activity, set of

institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging
offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large". The term
developed from the original meaning which referred literally to going to market with
goods for sale. From a sales process engineering perspective, marketing is "a set of
processes that are interconnected and interdependent with other functions of a business
aimed at achieving customer interest and satisfaction".

The basic principles of marketing consist of product, price, place and

promotion. Together, these four principles are known as the “4 P” (for its initials in
English) marketing, and include the integration of marketing. For a marketing
strategy to be effective, the four components must be used correctly. The challenge for
business owners and industry professionals is to determine the appropriate method for
each area, and integrate successfully.

 Product: The product you sell can be a physical item or service intangible, such as
sending food home or service cleaning. When you create your product, you need to
consider factors such as the name, packaging, different types of uses and safety when
used. It is also necessary to determine how the product appeals to a specific market
segment. The product should meet the needs of a particular group of people, such as
professionals, housewives, business owners, students or golfers.

 Price: You need to determine the price of the product. If the price is too high, you Keep
far to potential buyers. If it is too low, you may have difficulty obtaining profits. You
will also have to consider the price of the competition. Some models of common prices
include the cost price plus a profit, in which a fixed percentage of the cost of production
is added, and the price based on the value of the product, in which the price is set

according to the value consumers perceive the product. The latter kind of price is often
used in more expensive luxury items.

 Place: The concept of place refers to the distribution channels; this is where the product
will sell and how to hit the market. If you operate a business whose headquarters is
home, as sales on eBay, it is likely that the market is Internet, and you want to send
your products directly to consumers. Larger businesses, such as consumer goods
manufacturers can sell their products at a grocery wholesaler, who then distributed to
retail stores in the field.

 Promotion: Promoting the product or service involves raising awareness among

potential customers about its existence. It is likely that advertising is the most famous
form of promotion, using media such as television, radio, newspapers and magazines.
The websites are also used as an advertising medium. Promotion can serve a variety of
purposes, such as gaining market share, improve brand name or image, or bring to
market a new product. The effective promotion will create the need or desire for the
product, which, ultimately, will lead to increased sales.


The goal of fashion marketing and merchandising, for both manufacturers and retailers, is to
sell merchandise at a profit. This requires careful planning and coordination.
In ancient times, people "shopped" in open-air markets and bazaars, finding not only
necessities but also products that were unique and gave excitement to their everyday lives.
Today, we shop and buy in much the same way, but open-air markets and bazaars have
evolved into department and specialty stores, discount outlets, and huge malls that
continue to excite and entice the shopper. The difference is that fashion marketing and
fashion merchandising are now the watchwords of successful fashion businesses. In the
early twenty-first century, the customer has become the most important ingredient in
successful fashion retailing. Determining the needs and wants of the targeted customer has

become very important, and this challenge has led to the creation of specific goods and
stores for specific categories of customers.
For many years, fashion producers were concerned only with what was economical and
easy for them to produce. They would spend considerable time and money trying to
convince the consumer that what they produced was what the consumer wanted. The
fashion producer had little or no interest in the needs and wants of the consumer.
However, marketing proved so successful in the growth of consumer goods such as
automobiles, packaged foods, and health and beauty aids that it was eventually adopted by
the fashion businesses. Under the classic definition of marketing, the key task of the
organization is to determine the needs and wants of target markets and adapt the
organization to deliver the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently to the
ultimate customer.
Through the use of sophisticated marketing techniques such as focus groups, surveys, data
mining, and market segmentation along with systematic approaches such as electronic data
information (EDI), inventory tracking, and constant evaluation of advertising results for
determining consumer tastes, the industry's awareness of the importance of pleasing the
target customer has greatly increased. Every step—design, production, distribution,
promotion—is geared to consumer demand.

"Fashion marketing" includes all of the activities involved from conceiving a product to
directing the flow of goods from producer to the ultimate customer. Activities of
marketing include product development, pricing, promotion, and distribution. If a fashion
retailer or manufacturer is to make a profit, the firm must have a product that consumers
perceive as desirable, and the product must be presented to potential customers in a way
that makes them want to buy it.
The first step in a fashion marketing approach is to define the company's target customers,
those persons the company most wants to attract as customers. Fashion marketers
determine their target customer's needs and wants by examining various market segments,
identified by geographics, demographics, psychographics, and behavioral studies. Fashion
marketers also track trends in population growth and diversity. Changing patterns of
immigration bring with them new influences from different parts of the world. Products
that will meet the needs and desires of these customers are then developed or selected.
Most fashion manufacturers and retailers recognize that following a consumer-marketing
approach leads to a profitable business.

"Fashion merchandising" is defined as the buying and selling of goods for the
purpose of making a profit. Merchandising is the planning involved in marketing
the right merchandise at the right price at the right time in the right place and in
the right quantities. Commonly known as the 5Rs, merchandising is concerned with all the
activities necessary to provide customers with the merchandise they want to buy, when and
where they want to buy it, and at prices they can afford and are willing to pay. This
includes making buying plans, understanding the customer, selecting the merchandise, and
promoting and selling the goods to the consumer.

Fashion merchandising is practiced by both manufacturers and retailers. For

manufacturers, merchandising begins with estimating consumer demand in terms of styles,
sizes, colors, quantity, and price. Merchandising also involves designing the goods and
selecting the fabrics and findings, designing the packaging, pricing, advertising, and other
sales promotion activities.

For fashion retailers, merchandising also begins with forecasting the needs and wants of
their target customer. The retailer must first project sales in terms of dollars and units of
merchandise. Just as the manufacturer must anticipate the needs of the retailer, the retailer
must also anticipate the needs of the consumer by reviewing past sales, keeping up on
trends, and knowing where on the fashion cycle their customer falls. The retailer must also
know what colors, sizes, styles, and prices of merchandise that their target customers want
to purchase. After planning what and how much to buy, merchandising for the fashion
retailer includes determining resources from which to purchase, selecting from their
assortments, and purchasing the goods for sale to the consumer. Another factor of
merchandising is presenting the merchandise attractively and effectively to the consumer
and promoting the merchandise so that the target customer will want to buy it.

In the early 2000s, technology has been a major factor in helping fashion manufacturers
and retailers to successfully satisfy the needs and wants of the targeted customer, with
body scanning being just one example. Body scanning software customizes patterns for an
individual's body. This results in the kind of fit previously available only to couture
customers. As technology continues to improve and become less costly, scanning of the
entire body will become more common, resulting in the kind of fit previously available
only in expensive made-to-measure fashion products.

The development of fashion marketing and merchandising as distinct professions with their
own expertise, insights, and techniques, has made them the cornerstone of the modern
world of fashion. The use of sophisticated marketing and merchandising methods and
techniques has given rise to some of the most exciting and innovative strategies: among
them are entertainment-oriented shopping malls, themed environments, designer and

manufacturer retail flagship stores, brands, off-site retailing and e-tailing and packaging,
now viewed as the science of temptation.

Fashion marketing and merchandising present a unique problem because of the ever-
changing nature of fashion and the difficulty of predicting consumer demand. The fashion
world is famous for its fast-moving, do-or-die success or failure rate. With a need to
respond quickly to consumer purchasing, sophisticated processes are required for quick
decision making that will support the fashion marketers and merchandisers in satisfying the


1. Definitions of Merchandising:
Merchandise is a broader concept than a product. It include various features with which a
product is offered at the store. Merchandising is the process and function of designing and
delivering the product to ensure customers satisfaction and meet the objective of profit
making to the organization. There are different opinions and definitions on merchandising.
AMA – American Marketing Association has defined merchandising as “Planning involved
in marketing right merchandise, at right place at right time in the right quantities at the right
price”. E.g. – Amazon(dot)com, promises to deliver around 1 crore products within 24
hours and payment after delivery.
Quicker(dot)com promises to sell anytime for a right price quickly. Similarly Big Bazar
Easy day, ‘More’ etc. Make ‘attractive’ offer of wide variety of the product that are
categorised and displayed in their store. They are offered with attractive price and other
benefits that all can be summarized as merchandising.
Merchandising can be defined as “Planning, Buying, Assorting, Promoting Placing, Setting
and Replenishing the Goods”. Goods bought must be sold or replenished the unsold stock
will be a burden on finance. So planning need to be made what kind of product is to be
brought and how it should be priced, promoted and placed so that customer is attracted
towards the product.

Grace Kunz has defined it as the planning developing and presenting of product lines for
identified target markets with regard to pricing, assorting, styling and timing. Identify the

customers, understand their need, buy those goods, categorise and place them in a style that
appeals to visiting customer.
It is said a customer makes his final decision of buying or going for alternative when he
visits the shop. If the “offer” at the counter pleases he may decide to buy, that is what is
merchandising such ‘offer’ is a bundle of expectations that a customer expects to be
delivered to him.
It is basically product itself that should be of customers liking. Along with this display of
product, it price, discount, service and other features are taken as ‘offer’ that must appeal
and attract a customer.
What you buy must be sold the offer or the package i.e., product, price, place and promotion
must appeal the visitor, to ensure sale.
Merchandising is planning and control of merchandise inventory of the retail form in a
manner which balances between expectation of target customer and strategy of the firm.

Merchandising has two broad objectives:

1. Buy and store the inventory or product that is expected or needed by the people.
2. Achieve the objective of the business i.e., Growth, profit etc., that is possible when
inventory is sold. It means store or buy that product that be sold is the basic philosophy of
merchandising, which benefits both the customer and also the businessmen. That is
customer is pleased as he gets product of his desire and retailer gets profit as merchandise is

Types of Merchandise:

Merchandise can be broadly classified under following heads:

1. Staple:
These are necessaries of life that are used everyday. E.g. – Food, Clothing, Stationery,
Cosmetics, toiletries etc.
They have regular and stable demand. Fluctuation in demand supply and price is minimum.

2. Fashion:
Consumption of these goods is dependent on current fashion. Demand lasts until its fashion.
Depending on nature of goods, fashion may be for seasons or years. Retailer has to stocks
the product until the fashion lasts. If the stock remains unsold as goods become out of

fashion, has he has to adopt marketing strategy like discount, ‘buy one get one offer’ to
clear stock.

3. Fads:
Goods that are in demand for a very short period of time. It can be said as fashion which
lasts for a very short period of time. It is risky to store such goods in bulk quantity as there
is no guarantee regarding duration of demand.

4. Seasonal:
Goods that are demand in particular seasons. Based on weather features, we can classify
seasons as Monsoon, Summer, Winter accordingly specific products like, Umbrella,
Sweaters, Cool Goggles, soft drinks, Ice creams etc., are demanded accordingly the product
is to be stored. Similarly season of festivals, marriage have its own demand for sweets,
Jewellery, Clothing, etc.

Merchandise Management:

Merchandise management is planning and controlling of retailers inventories and

investment in that. It ensures optimum investment and ensure adequate ROI keeping in
objectives of organisation. David Gilbert has defined it as, Planning and implementation of
the acquisition, handling and monitoring of merchandise categories for an identified retail
Merchandise management is concerned with:
(1) Merchandise planning what to buy.
(2) Acquisition – from whom to buy – source of supply
(3) Handling – Placing merchandise in store.
(4) Monitoring the stock levels and inventory and merchandise movement.
Merchandise management is necessary to:
i. Identify segment of customer to be served and category of product to be served to them
ii. Studying the demand, taste fashion that has impact on stock levels.
Based on that study make adequate planning as to what to buy and how to promote its sale.
Ensuring optimum investment in each category of product without allowing for either-
(1) Shortage of stock that will harm sales and reduce, returns.

(2) Excess of stock that may force a firm to undertake acts like discount, bargain sale that
will have impact on profitability.
Merchandise being basic element of current asset a large amount of investment is tied up in
that. It has to be ensured that such investment is not wasted (unsold stock) blocked (No
adequate turn over) and it must ensure adequate ROI i.e., Return an Investment.

Principles of Merchandising:

Merchandising is delivery of right product at right place and right time to the targeted
customer. Successful operation of merchandising is dependent on following principles.

1. Offer What Customer Wants:

Retailer must offer in his store what the customer wants or desires. He must select the
segment of customer to whom he has to serve (like rich, middle class, Youngsters, kids,
ladies) assemble the goods that they expect, assort and Offer them at a price, style and
content etc., that is liked by them.

2. Prepare Merchandise Plan:

Merchandiser has to finalise the merchandise plan. Such plan must be based on demands
and specialty of each store and department. Micro details like types of products, brands,
price category etc., have to be planned.
Such planning must be based on past records, consider the likely changes in fashion,
consumption habits. Merchandise has to consult store manager in finalising merchandise
plan. He has also to analyse financial implication of investment on merchandise to meet the
profit targets.

3. Selection of Sources of Supply:

It is said goods well bought are half sold. Merchandiser has to select vendors or suppliers
who meet his requirements in terms price, quality, delivery and reliability. He has to search
the list of suppliers available locally or at regional or international level depending on his
need and select the supplies who meets his demands. Merchandiser has to negotiate with the
vendor the terms of buying price, terms of delivery, payment base.

4. Consistency and Change:

There should be consistency in merchandise assortment. Regular customers are habituated
to particular lifestyle, products, price etc. Retailers should be capable of offering regularly
as to what his customer’s desire. Along with this he has to introduce an element of novelty,
bringing the gradual change in product, style of operation etc. to match the changing trend
and demand of his customers.

5. Present Right Assortment:

Retailers has to present right assortments of merchandise, i.e., types of product, brand, price
range, and other features that the regular customers expects. Products must be presented
category wise offering convenience and comfort to the customer in selection of product.

6. CRM:
Sale to a customer is not a once day affair or a single transaction. A customer who visits a
store must repeatedly visit the store. Retailer has to develop relationship with the

This is possible when:

i. Retailer understands need of each particulars customer. Pay personal attention to visiting
ii. Attend any problems faced by customer through after sale service.
iii. Offer courteous service and make shopping a pleasing experience.
This is called CRM that is necessary to attract and retain customers.

7. Customer Delight:
A successful retailer not just satisfies visiting customer by offering the product he wants, he
surprises him with much more. Retailer should ensure customers delight through new
products, offers, discounts, installment, returns and other facility something that is unique,
which may please and delight a customer and make him to loyal be organisation.
Functions (Task) of Merchandising:

The task of merchandising is to select the merchandise to be sold by the organisation. Buy
it and ensure its replenishment, by adopting different sales or price strategies. The main
function of merchandising is buying which may be centralized or decentralised.
In case of centralized buying, merchandise required for all the stores is purchased by Head
office. In case decentralized buying each individual stores will buy its merchandise on its

own subject to approval by Head office. Organisations like Specialty Stores, Discount
houses Mail order business will practice centralized system.
A Department store will have decentralized system. Factors like bulk purchase, discount
facility, economy in transportation warehousing facilities determine the purchase policy.
Merchandiser plays an important role in the success of any retail organization. It is he who
selects the goods to be sold. If his selection is right, retail outlets will not have difficulty in
selling the goods. Firm may have team of merchandisers, either a merchandiser for each
store or for each line of product depending on size and resources of organisation.

Merchandiser and merchandise departments have following functions:

1. Planning:
Merchandiser has to prepare purchase budget. Purchase of merchandise is based on
estimated sales, objectives of organisation and expected returns. Merchandise plan is
prepared for the entire organization i.e., store wise, department and also product wise. Plan
also determines new products to be added and old products to be deleted based on prospects
of sales.

2. Directing:
Firm may have specialized buyers who are expert in finding suppliers and negotiate with
them. Merchandise department gives guidelines and directions to buying department
regarding quantity and budget of purchase. They may also direct the terms of purchase. As
per the broad guidelines and directions, buyers make timely purchase of merchandise to
match the needs of organisation.

3. Co-Ordinating:
Merchandiser undertakes balancing, timing and synchronizing the activities of buying and
selling. He takes periodic stock report from each stores, monitors stock level, and
determines purchases to be made. He also co-ordinates buying efforts of different buyers of
the organisation.

4. Controlling:
He controls entire operations of merchandising i.e., (a) buying (b) issue of merchandise to
stores, (c) visual display (d) pricing of sale, (e) sales promotion activities. He periodically
takes stock reports determine financial implication of investment on merchandise.

Ascertains return on investment store wise, category wise and product wise to determine
which product contributing to the profits of the organisation.
Cost cutting measures are adopted to increase profitable lines. Sections and products that
have no future may be eliminated. He controls the entire functioning to ensure that
merchandising operations are profitable.

The task of merchandising is broadly classified into:

(a) Planners:
A planner acts as link between stores and buyer. He prepares merchandise plan and gives
direction to purchase issue to stores. Whenever there is demand. He undertakes stock
taking and determines merchandise stock levels based on objectives and profitability.
(b) Buyers:
A buyers acts as link between vendors (suppliers of merchandise) and the organisation. He
functions under supervision and control of merchandise manager. Following are his roles
and responsibilities.

Function of Buyers:
A merchandise buyer performs following activities:
1. Planning and selecting the merchandise as per the orders and direction of the
2. Ordering and procuring the merchandise on behalf of entire organisation.
3. Selection of vendors, development and management of vendors list.
4. Negotiation with vendors like price, discount, delivery and other terms relating to
merchandise buying.
5. Monitoring the inventory levels at stores and delivering the merchandise.
6. Ensure that the stores have adequate stock levels.
7. Inform the merchandise manager regarding new trends, fashions, technology in the area
of merchandise.

A merchandise buyer is described as:

1. Change Agent:
As he influences buying habits and behaviour of customers. Customer will buy the
products that are bought by in buyer. He brings in novelty by introducing new products, in
the stores and there by brings in change in consumption habits of customers.
2. Gatekeeper:

He procures goods from suppliers and delivers them to stores for sale, which are
ultimately sold the customers.


Introduction of Merchandiser/Merchandising | Objects of Merchandising

| Qualities of Merchandiser | Function of Merchandisers

Merchandise means goods bought and sold; and trading of goods. Merchandising is an
activity of selling and promoting the goods.

Merchandiser is a person who interacts with the buyer and seller, and also puts efforts into
proper relation between buying offices/ buying agents/ agency and seller/ exporter in
terms of executing an order.

A garment export unit generally has many departments like stores, cutting, production,
packing, checking etc. Merchandising department is the star of the department among all
the working departments in the Export concern, because Merchandising is the only
department having maximum control over the departments and total responsible for Profit
and loss of the company.

The job of a merchandiser is to co ordinate with the entire department in the office as well
as the customers. Merchandiser meets the buyers and collects the details of their
requirements etc., to develop the relationship with the customer.

Objects of Merchandising
Merchandising denotes all the planned activities to execute and dispatch the merchandise
on time, taking into consideration of the 4 Rs to replenish the customer.

Right Quantity: To dispatch right quantity of product what buyer ordered.

Right Quality: It should be with right quality as accepted both parties.
Right Cost: Everybody wants more from what they are paid.
Right Time: No one wants to wait idle even in a Restaurant. Keeping delivery schedule is

Qualities of Merchandiser
Planning Capability: Merchandiser should be capable of planning, based on the
planning the order is to be followed. If the planning is not done properly it will directly
affect the delivery time of the order.
Decision making: For a Merchandiser, decision making power is most important. He
should think about the decision to be taken and to act in a right way.

Communication Skill: The communication is very much important to promote the

business activity. The merchandiser should remember that communication must be lurid
and should having face to face conversation with the buyer.

Loyalty: Loyalty is an essential character of human beings. Especially for the business
people like merchandiser it is a must.

Knowledge about the field: Merchandiser should have adequate knowledge about the
garments, Computer knowledge, and technical knowledge to communicate with different
people in the business is a must.

Co-ordinate & Co-operate: Merchandiser is the person who is actually co-ordinate with
the number of departments. To Co-ordinate with different people in the industry he
should be co- operative.

Monitoring ability: Merchandiser should monitor to expedite the orders.

Other qualities: Education, Experience, Situational Management, Ability to Evaluate,

Dedication, Knowledge of expediting procedures.

Function of Merchandisers

 Developing new samples, execute sample orders

 Costing
 Programming
 Raw materials / Accessories arrangement
 Production scheduling (or) route card drafting

 Approval of various Process, Pattern and size set
 Pre production follow up
 Meet Inspection Agencies
 Production controlling
 Identifying shortages and make arrangement for the shortages
 Following quality assurance procedures, quality control procedures
 Monitoring the in-house, sub-contractors and junior activities
 Buyer communication
 Communication with sub-contractors, processing units & other 3rd parties
 Proper reporting
 Highlighting to the management
 Record maintenance
 Developing samples
 Placement of orders to suppliers
 Taking measures for consistent production
 Taking preventive action to maintain the targeted performance in all areas of activities
 Attending meeting with superiors and furnishing the required details about

Purchase order (PO) is received from the buyer which includes:

1. PO no/date
2. Buyer/Consignee
3. Garment no
4. Measurement
5. The description of the garment
6. L/C date
7. Last date within which shipment to be reach the destination.
8. Sign and seal
9. Order validity date
After receiving PO from the buyer merchandiser issues PO for the fabric unit, buttons,
thread, dyeing unit, printing, embroidery and other raw materials. These raw materials’
are checked and color, quality and size approved by the merchandiser.



Garments merchandisers use various types of terms and definition in their merchandising
life. So, Terminology is very important for an apparel merchandiser. Garments
terminology not only use merchandisers but also frequently asked in job interview,
comprehensive viva and admission tests. In this article I have given most useful and
frequently used garments merchandising terms.
Most Useful Garments Merchandising Terminology:

 Airway Bill: Airway Bill is an export document. It carries agreement between exporter
and air carrier which is obtained from the airline used to ship the goods. It’s a receipt of
goods received given by airlines. It covers transport of cargo from airport to airport.
 Allowance: Additional measurement which added with body measurement in case of
garments making. For example, if the actual body measurement is 80cm, then it’s
counted as 84cm during pattern making. Here allowance is 4cm.
 Applique: Additional fabric added in the face side of the garments for increasing the
beauty of the dress which is called applique. This is a popular way of decorating fabrics.
The appliqué “look” is very popular with sports and school designs. The process can be
used to add “tackle twill” letters, numbers and designs to garments.
 AQL: AQL is related to the quality of products. In textile and apparel industry
Acceptance Quality Level is shortly denoted by AQL. AQL is designed as the maximum
average defective items in a lot. It is expressed in a percentage number of average
defective items
 Back to back L/C: Back to Back L/C is issued on the strength of master L/C. If the raw
materials are imported from a foreign country and the produced goods by using those raw
materials are again exported to that country, then the L/C opened for that business is
called back to back L/C.
 Basic Block: The pattern which is made is accordance with the area of different parts of
the human body and their flexes and folds without allowance and style.

 Bill of Lading: It is a document which provides the terms of the contract between the
exporter and the logistic company to move fright between stated points at a specified
charge. With the help of this document on receipt from the exporter that the importer
takes possession of the goods from the carrying vessel at the port of destination.
 Buying Office: It is an independent or store owned office which is located at a market
center and buys for one chain or for many stores. Buying office is also known as
buying house. Buying house is the working as a bridge between buyer and supplier.
 C&F: C&F means “Cost and Freight”. It is a pricing system. If the actual cost of
goods and transportation costs are mentioned in the bill, then the system is called C &
F price system.
 CIF: CIF means “Cost, Insurance and Freight”. It is also a pricing system. If the actual
price of goods, transportation cost and insurance cost are mentioned in the invoice,
then this system is termed as CIF price system.
 CIFC Order: At this type of order, the seller includes the cost of insurance, freight and
commission for local buying house.
 CM: The full meaning of CM is Cost of Making. CM is related to the commercial
parts of garments merchandising. That cost may include with trimmings, Cutting,
making, trimmings cost, cost of making time etc.
 CMP Order: In such type of order the buyer fixes the rate of CMT with the factory. So
the seller does not add the price of fabric with his costing, but at L/C buyer gives all
money to the factory. The factory collects only CMT money from the bank. Balance
money return to the fabric supplier.
 CMT: It is an abbreviation the amplification of which stands as Cut make Trim. In
this case, garments manufacturer quotes the buyer a proposed price which covers
making cost, trimmings and accessories cost of a garment. Here, all the other required
materials sent by the buyer to the manufacturer.
 Color Bleeding: Color bleeding occurs when clothing manufacturers rely on
ineffective dying techniques or cheap dyes. Pigment dye come out from one place to
another and is stuck place near by suck characteristics is called color bleeding.
 Compliance: Compliance means conformity of certain standard. The main aim of
compliance is to ensuring the all labor rights and facilities according to the Buyer
code of conduct.
 Counter sample: The manufacturers produce several numbers of samples following
the approved sample which is known as counter samples. They facility the bulk
production or hung on production floor.
 CPM: CPM stands for Cost per Minute. CPM can help to find out per hour, shift, day
and week cost of garments.

 Customer: Importer is known as customer or end buyer. Sometimes they place order
directly to the foreign company or by their satellite office or by the buying house.
Customer or end buyer may be whole seller or retailer.
 Dummy: It is an exact replicated mode of human body shape which is stays erected on
a stand. It is often used in checking the fitting of an apparel.
 Exporter: Exporters are those who sell or export the product to the buyer of foreign
country are called exporter.

 F.C.L: It is abbreviated with Full Container Load. This is the good sign of both buyer
and manufacturer. Normally this part handle commercial department in a garments.
 FOA: The seller delivers the goods to the air carrier at the air port of departure. The
buyer bears the risk from that moment and payees the air transport cost. In this case,
seller bears the cost of materials and making, does not include air freight.
 FOB: FOB abbreviated with “Free On Board”, which is a pricing system. If the actual
price of goods is mentioned in the invoice without any transportation cost and
insurance cost, then this system is called FOB price-system or costing system.
 Fully Fashioned Garments Industry: The industry which is manufactured knitted
garments by using yarn as main materials instead of fabric is called it. Here, the main
products are Sweater, Pullover and Cardigan etc.
 Grading: Grading means the stepwise increase or decrease of a master pattern piece to
create large or small size. The process of making a sample size pattern larger or
smaller to make up a complete size range. Grading alters the overall size of a design
but not its general shape and appearance.
 Grain line: It is the line, which is marked on the patterns of a garment and the line
indicates the warp yarn, as a result, when the pattern is placed in the marking paper
then the Grain line follow the warp yarn of fabric.
 Gross Margin: Gross margin is related to calculation of manufacturing cost. Gross
margin is a company's total sales revenue minus its cost of goods sold (COGS),
divided by total sales revenue, expressed as a percentage.The difference in dollars
between net sales and the net costs of merchandise during a given period.
 Importers: Importers are those who buy or import the product from foreign or overseas
country in large quantities are called importers.
 Interfacing: The extra layer of cloth which is used in between the part of an apparel
and facing to increase shape durability and strength of the apparel.

 Interlining: A layer of fabric which is used between two layer of fabric to give the
particular area desired shape, durability and to enhance the strength of that particular
position which is called interlining. e.g. collar, cuff.
 Invoice: It is a very important document in readymade garment business which is sent
with the goods to the buyer. The invoice includes products descriptions, prices, number
of cartons, number of products in every cartoon etc. Every item is prohibited without
commercial invoice.
 L.C.L: L.C.L stands for Less Container Load. When small amount of order execution
then less container load for export or import from manufacturer.
 L/C: L/C means letter for credit. L/C is an important document on export, import
business. It is also one of the most used words in garment merchandising sector. L/C
is a document issued by a financial institution, or a similar party, assuring payment to
a seller of goods and/or services provided certain documents have been presented to
the bank.
 Lab-dip: A lab dip is a swatch of fabric test dyed to hit a color standard. It is a process
by which buyer’s supplied swatch is matched with the varying dyes percentage in the
laboratory with or without help of spectrophotometer. Lab dip plays an important role
in shade matching & this is an important task before bulk production.
 Lay: Cloth is laid on in more than one layer in accordance with the length and spread
as marker by the marker as preparatory to cutting cloth and cloth.

 Line Balancing: Line balancing is a plan of balancing the production schedule as per
the time and action calendar. It levels the workload across all processes in a cell or
value stream to remove bottlenecks and excess capacity. Line balancing is also applied
in garments sewing floor for smooth order execution.
 Marker: Marker is a thin paper which contains all the necessary pattern pieces for all
sizes for a particular style of garments. It is made just before cutting and its main
purpose is to minimize the wastages. Marker width is equal to fabric width and
obviously it should not be greater than the width of the fabric.
 Needle Gause: In some sewing machines more than one needle is used. The gap side
long between the two middle.
 Pantone: Pantone is an universal shade color shade card. It gets used in all industries
for DTM (dye to match). There are 6 digit numbers for each color. Pantone depends
upon TP (take-pad) and TC (take-card).
 Partial Shipment: If the production is only half done and buyer gave permission to
ship the first half goods then ship the first half goods and then remaining this shipment
is known as partial shipment. It is also known as prance shipment.

 Pattern: A pattern is the actual copy of different parts of a garment that is made by
cutting board paper after sketching on it. Pattern is also use as guide of a marker
 PPM: PPM abbreviated is pre-production meeting. This meeting is held just before
going to the bulk production. In this meeting buyer or his agent, merchandiser, sample
manager, all remain present. They decide on how to and when to start the production.
If the decision Okayed, the sample is ready to go for final production.

 Pressing: Pressing is a finishing process done by a cloth to heat and pressure with or
without steam to remove creases and to impart a flat appearance to the cloth or
garments. There are various types of pressing which are applied in garments.

 Seam Allowance: The margin kept for stitching the garment is known as seam
allowance. Seam allowances can range from 1⁄4 inch (6.4 mm) wide to as much as
several inches.

 SMV: SMV stands for the Standard Minute Value. It takes a worker to complete a
specific operation or produce a specific garment. SMV is important topic in garments
sewing floor. Standard Minute Value is related with garments time study.

 Subcontract Order: It is indirect order, the order is received by another factory and
when it is not possible for that factory to complete the production within the period of
time, in that case they share the order with other factory by giving subcontract. The
subcontract factory only gets the CM charge by local money from the order taker.

 TNA: TNA is a proper collaboration of Time and Action. In a Textile industry, to

execute an export order, need to regular evaluation of production activates with the
help of times. This regular evaluation is called Critical Path Method or Time and action
plan. It is also known as issuing plan or production schedule or time and action plan.

 Trimmings: Whatever except for the base cloth are used in an apparel are called
trimmings such as button, lining, interlining and thread etc.

 Vendor: Vendor is very common word in Readymade Garments. In a normal word we

know that vendor is a seller, resource, manufacturer or supplier.

 Fixture (or back-wall etc)

 A fixture is a location in a store - for example a back wall or gondola. To
merchandise a back-wall refers to how the space will be filled with products,
props, branding and signage. The merchandising of a fixture is done via a
planogram - and software exists out there (just like ShopShape) to help store
teams merchandise their back according to clear, visual instructions.

 Planogram
 A planogram details how the merchandising and layout of a store is planned out.
The planogram forms as a schematic or diagram for merchandising teams to
follow and is generally included as part of a wider brief - or Visual
Merchandising directive.

 PoS
 PoS, lengthened to Point of Sale, refers to a checkout area where customers make
purchases. This is generally the end of a customer's in-store journey. A great deal
of emphasis is placed by Visual Merchandisers here on making 'up-sells' -
utilizing techniques to help encourage an impulse buy.

 Up-Sell
 An up-sell refers to a product purchased at the end of a customer journey -
usually at the Point of Sale. Many Visual Merchandisers make use of effective
signage and consumer psychology techniques to assist in driving more up-sells.

 Signage
 Taking the form of graphics, icons, photos and text, signage is the visual
communicator in a store. Signage covers directions to Point of Sale areas,
changing rooms, special offers and are carefully crafted around directing the
customer journey to achieve maximum efficiency - as well as return on

 Focal Point
 A focal point is a hotspot that acts as the centrepiece of a merchandising design in
combination with styled mannequins or displays, props or signage. These focal
points tend to be placed in key sightlines, for example entrances to store
departments and are mostly evident in window displays.

 Sightline
 A sightline refers to an unobstructed view a customer's eyes has between their
position and the positioning of a display. Placing displays in key sightlines - for
instance after walking inside a department store - is crucial in Visual
Merchandising in order to draw shoppers to follow certain pathways and to
maximize sales turnover of a store.

 Product Story
 A product story is a merchandising technique that aims to place a product within a
certain context or theme. The idea behind a product story gives a customer more
reason to imagine themselves purchasing and wearing (or using) a product.
Generally props and all sorts of signage and mannequins are used to create a
product story.

 Mannequin
 Mannequins are intended to show off a product in a more kinetic, human context.
They can range from being simple, upright store mannequins to custom-built ones
designed around a specific purpose - for example a sports retailer may utilize
mannequins that look as if they are poised to run, whereas a high-end fashion

boutique may instead make use of mannequins in elegant poses to dress their
clothes in.

 Visual Merchandising Directive

 A Visual Merchandising - or VM - directive is a brief that covers how a whole
store, or new collection, is merchandised. Each retailer has their own preferred
method of delivering a VM directive to their stores. When it comes to larger
retailers who have multiple stores of different sizes, it's important to ensure that
the directive is relevant to the actual store - ensuring it has the correct fixtures and
products available.

 Cluster
 A store cluster refers to a group of stores that have been 'clustered' into types
based on defining characteristics - for most retailers, this tends to be by size.
Stores can also be clustered based on performance but when it comes to Visual
Merchandising, grouping them based on size and availability of fixtures is most
common (known as 'store grades')

 Props
 Props fall under any non-saleable objects in store that are used to convey a certain
theme, style or ambience. They are used to heighten the aesthetic of a store and are
commonly placed in Visual Merchandising displays - like storefront windows and
store back-walls. Consider things like photo frames, artwork, and almost any
object put to good creative use.

 Ambience
 Ambience revolves around creating an atmosphere in your store that is most likely
to drive sales. Like any atmosphere, it's highly dependent on a customer's senses -
so there's lots of ways store ambience can be manipulated and managed. Touch,
sight, smell, and hearing all play a huge part in how a customer perceives their
shopping experience and in-store music has long been studied as an important
psychological factor in making buying decisions.


New Concepts & Trends in Merchandising

 Convincing people to visit and buy from your store requires staying on top of
merchandising concept and trends. The latest ideas in merchandising are all about
educating and informing your customers about the products you sell once you know
what they want. By staying on top of new concepts and trends, it’s easier to change the
way you present your products to get the attention of buyers.

 Going Digital : Merchandising your wares is no longer limited to a brick-and-mortar

store. To draw shoppers to your store, find ways to use the Internet to give
customers information about the products you sell. For instance, offering
downloadable circulars and coupons on your website helps customers, since they do
much of their planning online before heading to a store to buy, according to market
and business analysts IRI. This also helps customers stay within their budget, an
ongoing concern for many shoppers. Offering information on your website about
seasonal products, special displays, and price reductions is another way to
merchandise your goods online.

 Visual Trends : A new concept in merchandising involves the use of depth deception
to add perspective in store windows and showrooms. For instance, according to the
Association for Retail Environments, one such use of depth deception includes
erecting a wall with cubbyholes that contain LCD panels on which you show digital
images of your products. This allows the store to change the content anytime it
wants, especially when it offers special sales or wants to focus on a certain type of
merchandise for a day or two or at different times of the day, according to who
shops at what time.

 Data Collection : Collecting data about your customers is not a new idea, but the use
of mannequins with cameras behinds their eyes is definitely a new concept. The
cameras rely on facial recognition technology to gather data about the people who
stop to view your window display, says the Association for Retail Environments.
The information helps you determine how long people look at the display as well as
their gender, race and age. Another trend for gathering data about your customers
involves using social networking sites to ask customers what they want to see in
your store. Posting messages to find out what’s important to them helps you gather
merchandising data you can use instantly to make your displays and products more

 Mobile : The trend for using mobile technology merchandising grew from just 3
percent of total ecommerce purchases in 2010 to 11 percent in 2012, according to
Business Insider. The latest mobile trends include setting up digital catalogues to
showcase products and offering coupons to encourage people to stop and make a
purchase in your physical store.


 Visual Merchandising plays an important role to bring shoppers inside the store and
make them a purchase clothes. In this article author has showcased an overview of
visual merchandising and built a relation in between visual merchandising and
 Visual display is the silent salesman.
 Visual merchandising is also coined as the Art of Retailing. Related o the world of
apparel and fashion visual merchandising has great impact and utmost relation in
 There is a saying -“Give the customer a reason to buy”.
 Visual merchandising can be simply defined as the physical presentation of
products. It is the coordination of all physical elements of a business to project the
right image. Visual merchandising has increased tremendously in importance with
the growth of self-service retailing. The purpose of such visual merchandising is to
attract, engage, and motivate the customer towards making a purchase.

1. The purpose of visual merchandising

 To make merchandising desirable

 To make merchandise easy to locate in the store
 To introduce and explain new products
 To promote store image
 To cajole customers into the store
 To show merchandise assortment

2. Visual merchandising helps in

 Educating the customers about the product/service in an effective and creative

 Establishing a creative medium to present merchandise in 3D environment,
thereby enabling long lasting impact and recall value.
 Setting the company apart in an exclusive position
 Establishing linkage between fashion, product design and marketing by keeping
the product in prime focus
 Combining the creative, technical and operational aspects of a product and the
 Drawing attention of the customer to enable him to take purchase decision within
shortest possible time, and thus augmenting the selling process.

3. Visual Merchandising Placement Process:

Where the products are located and how retailers arrange it around the store can be
placed based on shoppers’ buying behavior. For their easy access and reach, the
ultimate visual merchandising is liable. A proper visual merchandising can affect on
consumer decision to make a buy from prompt to multiple.

 Prime Locations
 Eye level and hand level arrangement
 Customer Entrance
 Window Displays
 Store Layout
 Customer Space
 Store Interior
 Store Decorations

 Props

4. Components of Visual Merchandising

 Merchandise the focal point

 Right choice of colors is vital
 Display themes to appropriately support the product
 Display should complement the retailers other strategies
 Cleanliness
 Change the display settings in frequent intervals

5. Tips to visual merchandising:

 Basically visual merchandising is key element by that a company boosts up

their profit margin. So what is visual merchandising? It is a possible or best way
to attract customer to purchase a product that a retailer offer. Here are some tips
to help you to success in visual merchandising.
 Whether: One of the most effective visual merchandising is by coming up with
a theme that incorporate with the seasons. So if it is currently winter or holiday,
then try to come up with some holiday and colorful theme for window display.
If it is summer then it should be such kind of beach or related with the summer.
 Signs: You can make different signs around the stores that help to make
customer attention. This is certainly helps to boost-up your sell, especially when
you called a discount on the specific products.
 Windows displays: It is very important for the retailing, regardless whatever
products you want to offer. This is the first place where a customer gives their
concentration at a glance. You should give utmost importance to it.
 Lighting: Coming up with good lighting to the window display is very essential for
success of your visual merchandising. The lighting helps your products displayed
color & season wise on your window. It is recommended that you give emphasis on
those products that have good profit margin.

6. Visual elements that compose the retail environment:

Elements play an important role to get overall effect to the retail environment. Four
visual elements that compose the retail environment are shown in the following



The focus of Visual Merchandising is on the presentation of goods in retailers. Visual

Merchandising empasizes visual elements because they capture attention of
consumers. Pegler (2006) describes Visual Merchandising as the presentation of
merchandise at its best; color coordinated, accessorized, and self-explanatory. An
inviting atmosphere brings people into the store and also keeps them there longer.
Morgan (2008) suggests that the visual merchandising is a vital part of any retail
operation. It steers shopping stoppers in their tracks as they admire a window display
them through the store towards the season’ s key buys. An effective visual
merchandising can improve a store’ s brand image and dramatically increase sales.
Store image and shopping environment is a significant determinant to spend time in
the store and to spend more money than planned. On the other hand, retail store

elements such as color, lighting, signage and visual merchandising have an immediate
effect on the buying decision making process. Morrison (2002) explains “one of the
key challenges for retailers is to constantly add value to their brand. He recommends
new and innovative elements to their existing retail marketing mix. Elements that
excite the senses of shoppers such as flat screen videos, graphics, music and lighting
help to create a unique atmosphere and shopping experience”.


In today’s competitive retail environment, fashion retailers struggle in order to

increase their sales and to carry their brands to the wider masses. The best way to
achieve this purpose is to consider the significance of visual merchandising. The
exterior of the buildings and their both exterior and interior designs can help to be
recognized of the fashion brand. Store image and shopping environment is a
significant determinant to spend time in the store and to spend more money than
planned. On the other hand, retail store elements such as color, lighting or signage
have an immediate effect on the buying decision making process. Store environment
has a great impact on consumers. Today, consumers desire a comfortable shopping
environment. An inviting atmosphere brings people into the store and also keeps them
there longer. Ries (2010) asserts that aesthetics within the retail environment not only
affect shopper comfort level but can influence employee morale and productivity. The
importance of store or shopping environment as a tool for market differentiation is
accepted by many retailers. Shopping environment means the physical surroundings
of a store. There are many elements of store environment such as music, lighting,
layout, directional signage and human elements. Lam (2001: 190) suggests; “Store
environment can also be divided into external environment and internal
environment(that is, exterior and interior of a store. The effects of store environmental
elements could be complex. While many of these elements influence shoppers’
behavior through their effects on shoppers’ emotion, cognition and physiological
state, some of these elements could elicit more direct response from shoppers with
very little impact on their thinking, feeling or body comfort”.


Visual Merchandising is commonly accepted as a merchandising technique that uses
the visual elements effectively. Visual element refers to lighting, colors and signage.
In short, they are the visual communications in the designing of an environment. The
key elements of visual merchandising are the elements of window display at the same
time. First of all, I will explore the importance of windows display, and then other
basic elements.


“The display window is accepted as the most important part of the store design
because it is the first meeting place the customer has with a brand and it gives
passerby a quick impression of the store. A passerby can hold an opinion about the
type of merchandise sold inside. The layout of the display windows should not take
focus away from the clothes and it should suggest a feeling”(H&M Official Website,
2010). Morgan (2008: 11) states that with the advent of new technology in the 1840s
that allowed the production of large panes of glass, department stores were perhaps
responsible for taking the art of window display to a higher level, using their large
windows as stages, some of them as theatrical as a Broadway show. Window displays
are crucial whether a store is situated in a mall or in a busy street. They are mix of art,
fashion, design and marketing. They must compel customers to enter a store by
defining a brand’s image. Today, retailers are recognizing the importance of window
display as the first point of contact between the store and the customer. Window
displays play an important part in visual merchandising and some of the objectives of
window displays, is to create:

1. Impact

2. Image

3. Theme

4. Composition


 Keep it simple.
 Don’t try to put in everything at once, focus on one product or theme.

 Keep it clean.
 Change displays frequently to keep the fresh look.
 Bright lighting is crucial, both during day and at night.
 Use lights to highlight individual items or signs.
 Use repetition of shapes and colors to attract attention.
 Cluster items in groups of three or five, odd numbers are most pleasing to look at.
 Vary height and depth of items to carry the eye throughout the display
 Use motion to catch the customer’s eye.
 Use light, bright colors.
 If you have more than one window, balance the display between them to give the
entire storefront a coordinated look.
 Continue the theme of the window display with other displays inside the store.
 Each individual has socio cultural influence on their thought process as we tend to
overdo the basic concept. Do not clutter the window as it loses its appeal and would
hardly attract any passer by.

Today, there is a growing trend intended provocative storefronts and interiors and
architects have begun to create in such a manner. Their purpose is to create a special
aura to draw in customers and also attract media attention. Store design and its display
windows are the most important communication channels for fashion stores.


Color is accepted as the biggest motivation for shopping. Pegler (2006: 7) suggests
that people buy color before they buy, size, fit, or price. Colors says something about
the kind of merchandise and merchandiser. Pegler (2006: 8) suggests:“color
psychology is very important in visual merchandising. Colors can immediately
create a mood. Most of us have colors that tend to cheer us up when we are feeling
down and colors that calm us. Each of us also has colors that can make us physically
feel hotter or cooler. As an instance, orange, green and purple are the colors used in
the windows display of a brand in below picture”. Orange: is described as a friendly,
sociable color; agreeable, overt, glowing, and incandescent. It is exciting, vibrant,
and filled with anticipation. Purple: This traditionally regal color has become a
favorite with children. In some shades it is a happy, youthful color, while, in its
deepest and richest form, it is a color of taste, distinction, and discretion. It is a high-
fashion color that has to be sold. Green: An alive, cool, and growing color. It is
springtime and summer- lowns, bushes, vegetables, trees, and forest- the perfect

accent to almost any setting, especially if it is alive and growing (Pegler, 2006: 9).
Colors are considered as one of the effective way to capture customer’s attention.
This realizes with the effective and knowledgeable use of colors. As the most
powerful and effective tool of the Visual Merchandising, colors pulls more customer
into the store. In this context, a retailer has to focus on the right choice of color.

The theme of display and its harmony with color is, of course, significant at this
point. As an instance, a Christmas display contain colors such as red, green, gold and


Lighting is another elements of visual merchandising. The choice of the right

lighting in fashion stores should be well considered. There are numerous products
that offer many choices for shopping environment. Lighting deals with create an
ambiance and make environments visually pleasing. The right utilization of light is
highly important for shopping environments.

“Lighting has an influence on the mood and hence the behavior of humans in retail
environments. Lighting has an influence on how spaces are perceived. It can arouse
positive or negative feelings in the perception of that space. Lighting in retail
environments encourage people to stay longer in that retail environment and increase
the sales numbers”. Lighting is an integral part of design. It contributes greatly to the
look of a space. There are many types of lighting that affect the perception of any
space. In retailing, to create a special ambiance by using special lighting techniques
should be one of the main tasks of visual merchandisers and designers. The
objectives of lighting are explained as:

 To attract the customers’ attention

 To create an appropriate mood for the merchandise
 To contribute to a positive visual image of the merchandise
 To allow careful inspection of the merchandise


Signage is not a new concept and is used for promotional purposes by merchants.
Initially, the purpose was to provide basic information. Today, it is considered as an
integral part of the retail environment because it plays a growing role in creating the
unique image and atmosphere. Businesses operates in a highly competitive

environment. They must communicate with customers quickly and effectively by
introducing themselves and their products or services. “For most businesses, the most
costeffective and efficient form of advertising to potential customers is on-premise
signage” according to James and Susan Claus (2001). They explain that signage is a
business’s basic link to customers. The purpose is to promote impulse “stop and
shop,” to create awareness for the product or service for future reference, and to
influence purchasing decisions once the customer has stopped. Today, technology
allows us to use from digital signage. Digital Signage is one of the important tools in
store design. Digital signage is a form of electronic display. Customers can show
information, advertising and other messages concerning the brand. The aim is to
convey a message or information to customers and digital signage displays are most
usually controlled by basic personal computers. Signage in shopping environment has
a great importance to enhance the customer’s shopping experience and is accepted as
an integral part of a building’s design. Designers know the importance of using
signage inside and outside of a building. The choice of materials used in the signage
and their styles is important details. Timlen (2009) states that a graphics designer,
who understands the implementation of architectural lettering, can put together the
right fonts, font sizes, font spacing, and coloration mixtures, to ensure that a sign not
only tells the story that it needs to tell, but also does so with style and elegance. The
objective of Signage are explained as:

1. To assist customer in their flow across the store.

2. To lead the customers in newer sections opened in the store if any

3. Through Color and contrast, add to the visual ambience of the store


Shop interior is a significant part of merchandising because designing a modern

retail store can affect the profit and image of the brands. Designing a shop interior is
the art of planning because it is a creative process. It is the art of drawing, composing
and selecting colors, materials, furnishings and accessories to enrich the design of a
store interior. The main purpose is to create an attractive shopping environment and
to enhance the presentation of merchandise. To create a distinctive image should be
the main task of a designer because such an image will create a brand recognition
which will be immediately perceived by the consumers. Today’s competitive retail
environment, fashion retailers struggle in order to increase their sales and to carry

their brands to the wider masses. The best way to achieve this purpose is to consider
the architectural and interior design. The exterior of the buildings and their interior
designs can help to be recognized of the fashion brand. As a customer response to
these new building, we, sometimes, see pictures of long queue down the street the
night before these buildings opened. There are many brand loyalists who sleep
overnight on the street and their purpose is to be the first to see the new designs.
Store image and shopping environment is a significant determinant to spend time in
the store and to spend more money than planned. On the other hand, retail store
elements such as color, lighting and visual merchandising have an immediate effect
on the buying decision making process.


These creative window displays will stop anyone in front of the store. This is a mix
of art, fashion, design and marketing Creative windows displays quickly grab our
attention and compel us to enter store. These displays also have the important duty of
helping define a brand’s image.

It is obvious that technology is becoming more important in visual merchandising.

The customer has to be surprised by the window designs over and over again. The
use of these technologies is accepted as an alternative to create surprising effects and
products. We also understand that store design, its display windows and other visual
elements are the most important communication tools for fashion stores and all


The Visual Merchandising uses visual communication by putting the product or

brand at the point of sale by making it as a title character. Visual Merchandising
Designers are responsible for visual communication within a store. Their objective is
to make evident the characteristics of a product in order to favour the selection
process of the customer. They achieve this through the organisation of display
systems in the store. The visual merchandiser is in charge of the display systems.
They changes them according to seasons, promotional campaigns or special events.
Without communicating, it won’t be completed to sell a product. This refers to have
a image of any brand. Right image is very important for brands. There are many
businesses that neglected the visual communication. Visual merchandising is

accepted as the art of presentation. It puts the merchandiser in focus and informs the
customers. It also creates a desire to the products or brands. The findings of this
study can be summarized as: 1. Visual merchandising starts with the store design to
reflect the products in the store and window display. The purpose is to create a
warm, friendly, and approachable atmosphere for customers. 2. To predict future
merchandising trends is important. 3. Majority of customers respond to the lighting
more positively. Visual merchandisers should select appropriate lighting system that
creates satisfaction of psychological needs of customers. 4. Sophisticated Visual
Merchandising requires convenient lighting combined with display themes. 5. Most
people give buying or shopping decision by looking at the shop’s ambience and
visual display. 6. Store window displays is the most important tool to draw people
into the store, because they are a great way to highlight certain types of merchandise.
10. Graphics and Signage are cost-effective and efficient tools for delivering a
message or inform the customer about the products available in the department store.


Of all the elements incorporated within visual merchandising, window displays are
often the most direct in attracting potential new customers.
They are usually the first point of visual contact a consumer has with a store and the
starting step of the retail experience.
Eye-catching and appealing window displays can easily be the difference between a
consumer coming into the store to view more or walking by.
Retailers need an effective window display in order to drive traffic into their stores.
It's a unique form of advertising which defines a store and gives the consumer an
idea of what the brand is all about.
They are an effective form of merchandising and often creative and different types of
window displays create talking points amongst consumers and other retailers.
There are many different types of window displays and the one used will often
depend on the store. Each brand will have a different focus and approach which will
reflect in the style of display they use. The variety and importance of window
displays are demonstrated by Mulberry and Thorntons: with Mulberry focusing on
heritage and luxury, displaying very few
products, in contrast to Thorntons, who are at the higher end of high street retail,
and utilise their window displays to cross-sell products before visitors even enter the
The main types of window display include:
closed, semi closed, open, elevated, corner, island and shadow box.

In Topshop's latest window display they worked with Blacks VM to create engaging
The ‘Neon Summer’ installation takes its inspiration from summer and features neon
lighting words, mannequins in festival themed clothing and white plinths lit up with
neon lighting tubes.
The open back window displays give glimpses further into the store.

Mulberry also created engaging visuals in their latest window display.They took
their inspiration from the AW17 Ready-to-wear collection in which checks make a
feature. They created a grid structure which added depth to the display and sat
against a deep green closed display.

Island window displays are usually found in large department and flagship stores,
where retailers have a huge space to fill but also want to create a sense of focus on
the latest products or promotions.
River Island launched their new flagship with a central island window display that
was tiered to elevate each mannequin above the next. Flanked either side by a full
height window display, the island display captures attention because of the clean
natured design - in contrast to the range of product colours in the background.

Semi-closed windows are created in an attempt to mix the structure that closed
window provide, and the inviting feel that open windows create.
This type of window display usually consists of a partial screen or graphic display,
that covers the majority - but not the whole - of the window.
Apple, who are famous for their open plan stores, do this particularly well. They
frame their latest products with coloured backgrounds or interactive elements, that sit
back far enough from the (usually) all glass front allowing passersby to see in-store.

Put simply, these are window displays created on the corner of stores, however,
retailers have continued to innovate in their approach to corner window displays.
Traditionally a tricky area to merchandise from an interior perspective, by freeing up
this space for a corner window display, retailers can create continuity in awareness
as people walk around the outside of the store.

Elevated window displays are commonly used in jewellery and cosmetic
applications, particularly for higher value items where the shopper is likely to only
make a single purchase.
This type of elevated display is used to raise featured products enough to catch the
eye, usually combined with a graphic display or method of displaying the item itself
to raise awareness even further.
Particularly useful for smaller items, elevated window displays ensure products are
in the ‘sweet-spot’ of shopper awareness, with lighting below and further messaging
higher in the display.

Shadowbox displays feature heavily in the windows of stores that specialise in
smaller items such as jewellery and accessories.
They draw the attention of the consumer to the delicate products which would often
be lost in a larger scale window display.
Louis Vuitton geometric-inspired shadow box displays feature jewellery collections
set against 20’s inspired backdrops with rich colours and concealed lighting.

With strategic planning and innovative designs, window displays can effectively
create brand awareness.