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Diagrams (Practice these diagrams along with their explanation wherever required)

1. T. S of young anther
2. Pollen grain 16. Replication fork
3. Typical anatropous ovule 17. Transcription unit
4. Mature embryo sac 18. The lac operon
5. A typical dicot embryo 19. Stanley Miller's apparatus
6. A typical monocot embryo 20. Structure of an antibody molecule
7. Human male reproductive system 21. A typical biogas plant
8. Human female reproductive system 22. pBR 322
9. Sectional view of a seminiferous tubule 23. Polymerase chain reaction ( PCR)
10. Sectional view of mammary gland 24. Stirred tank bioreactor
11. Human sperm 25. Sparged stirred tank bioreactor
12. Schematic representation of 26. Population growth curves ( Logistic
spermatogenesis and exponential) with equations
13. Schematic representation of Oogenesis 27. Ecological pyramids with units
14. Representation of dihybrid cross using ( Pyramid of Number, Biomass and
punnett square Energy)
15. Nucleosome 28. Phosphorus cycle
29. Species - Area relationship with
30. Scrubber and Electrostatic precipitator
( ESP)

Chapter- 1: Reproduction in organisms

 What is life span ?

 Write the binomial name of a plant that shows unusual flowering once in 12 years.

 Define estrus cycle.

 Define parthenogenesis. Give examples.

 What are seasonal breeders? Give examples.

 What are continuous breeders? Give example.

 What are hermaphrodites? Give an example.

 Compare homogametes and heterogametes with examples.

 What is embryogenesis? Classify animals based on whether the development of the zygote takes place
outside or inside the body of the female organism.

 Describe the different phases of life span in organisms.

 Mention the asexual reproductive structures in , Chlamydomonas , Penicillium, Sponges and Hydra

 What are vegetative propagules ? Mention the vegetative propagules in

Agave , Water hyacinth, Bryophyllum , Potato, Banana and Ginger.

 Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction.

 Distinguish between external and internal fertilization with examples.

Chapter- 2 : Sexual reproduction in angiosperms

 Define Microsporogeness

 Define Megasporogenesis

 Define Autogamy

 Define Geitonogamy

 Define Xenogamy

 What is Emasculation

 What is Baging

 Define perisperm with an example.

 What is polyembryony? Give an example.

 Distinguish between true fruits and false fruits with examples.

 What are parthenocarpic fruits? Give example.

 Distinguish between geitonogamy and xenogamy

 What are out breeding devices ? Explain any two out breeding devices in plants.

 Define pollination. Describe the different types of pollination in angiosperms based on the source of
pollen and mention their significance.

 Distinguish between microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis.

Chapter – 3: Human reproduction

Define the terms:

 Spermiogenisis

 Spermiation

 Menarche

 Menopause

 Implantation of embryo

 Name the enzyme that induces ovulation in females.

 What is Graafian follicle ?

 Which cells of the testes secrete androgens ?

 What are Leydig cells ? Write their significance ?

 What is corpus luteum ? Mention its function.

 What are Sertoli cells ? Mention their function.

 Mention the hormones secreted by placenta.

 What is colostrum ? Mention its importance.

 What is placenta ? Mention any four functions of it.

 Explain foetal ejection reflex.

Chapter – 4: Reproductive health

 What is Amniocentesis

 Define Periodic abstinence

 Define Lactational amenorrhea

 Name the new oral contraceptive developed by CDRI Lucknow.

 Mention once a week oral pill.

 What is infertility ? Enlist any two possible reasons for infertility in human beings.

 Name a hormone releasing IUD.

 What is RCH ? Mention its goals.

 Write a brief note on oral pills.

 What are sexually transmitted diseases? Give examples. Mention the possible methods of
transmission and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.

 Define contraceptive. Write any four characters of an ideal contraceptive.

 Write short notes on MTP

 What is population explosion ? Mention any the causes and measures to control overpopulation.

 Suggest any four assisted reproductive techniques to overcome infertility problems in couples.

 What are assisted reproductive technologies? Write short notes on the following assisted
reproductive technologies.



 IVF – ET

 AI

Chapter – 5: Principles of inheritance and variation

 What is test cross ? Mention its significance.

 Distinguish between incomplete dominance and co- dominance with an example.

 What is point mutation ? Give an example.

 What is pedigree analysis? Mention its significance.

 Distinguish between aneuploidy and polyploidy.

 Write any three reasons for selection of pea plants by Mendel for his hybridization experiments ?

 List any three reasons for unrecognition of Mendel’s work until 1990.

 What are the advantages of selecting Drosophila as an experimental material in genetics ?

 State and explain the law of segregation by taking inheritance of one gene.

 Explain dihybrid cross with a schematic representation using Punnett square.

 Define incomplete dominance. Explain incomplete dominance in Snap dragon.

 What are mendelian disorders ? Give examples.

 Write short notes on the following Mendelian disorders.

a) Haemophilia b) Sickle cell anaemia c) PKU

 What are chromosomal disorders ? Give examples.

 Write short notes on any two chromosomal disorders.

a) Down's syndrome b) Kinefelter’s syndrome c) Turner’s syndrome

Chapter – 6: Molecular Basis Of Inheritance

 Define Replication

 Define Transcription

 Define Translation

 Name the linkage between nitrogenous base and pentose sugar to form nucleoside ?

 What is the linkage between pentose sugar and phosphate to form nucleotide ?

 What you mean by euchromatin ?

 What is heterochromatin ?
 Why is DNA replication called semiconservative ?

 Why prokaryotic genes are called polycistronic ?

 Eukaryotic genes are split genes. Give reason.

 AUG acts has dual function. Justify this statement.

 Which is the largest human gene ?

 Why genetic code is said to be degenerate ?

 Genetic code is unambiguous. Give reason.

 List the nitrogenous bases in DNA.

 List the nitrogenous bases in RNA.

 Distinguish between euchromatin and heterochromatin.

 Mention the essential criteria for a molecule to be acts as a genetic material.

 DNA is considered as a better genetic material than RNA ? Justify the statement with two reasons.

 Describe post transcriptional events in eukaryotes.

 Describe the structure of double helical structure of DNA with a labeled diagram.

 Define nucleosome and explain its structure with a neat labeled diagram. Add a note on how DNA
helix is packaged and stabilized inside the nucleus?

 What is Griffith transforming principle ? Explain Griffith transforming experiments on Streptococcus

pneumonia, while searching for the genetic material. How did Avery, MacLeod and Mac Carty proved
biochemical nature of transforming principle ?

 Define replication. Describe semi conservative mode of DNA replication with a diagram.

 What is genetic code ? Enumerate the salient features of genetic code.

 Explain with a schematic diagram , how does lac operon ensures the switching on and switching off of
genes in lactobacillus during lactose metabolism.

 Mention any five salient features of HGP.

 Mention any five goals of HGP.

 What is DNA finger printing? Mention the steps and any two applications of DNA finger printing
Chapter- 7: Evolution

Define the following:

 Saltation

 Adaptive radiation

 Gene pool

 Gene flow

 Genetic drift

 Fonder effect

 State Hardy – Weinberg principle.

 What is the name of the fish that is caught in south Africa in 1938, thought to be extinct?

 Write a brief note on Big bang theory.

 Describe the theory of panspermia.

 What are homologous organs ? Give one example each from plants and animals.

 What are analogous organs ? Give examples.

 Distinguish homologous and analogous organs.

 Mention two groups of animals showing adaptive radiation.

 Darwin finches of Galapagos islands, represent one of the best examples for adaptive radiation.

 Describe Stanley millers experiment with the help of spark discharge apparatus designed by him.
Write conclusion drawn from the experiment.

 Describe the five factors that upset Hardy – Weinberg equilibrium.

Chapter- 8: Human health and diseases

 Define allergy.

 Define metastasis.

 What are allergens?

 Name the specific type of antibodies produced against allergic reactions in the body.

 Name the widely used diagnostic tools for AIDS.

 Name the diagnostic tool that confirms typhoid.

 Define immunity. Mention its types.

 What is auto immunity? Give an example.

 Mention any four symptoms of allergy.

 What is tumor? Mention the types of tumors.

 Distinguish between benign tumors and malignant tumors.

 How does a cancer cell differ from a normal cell?

 What are interferons? Mention their significance.

 Mention the pathogen, mode of transmission and symptoms of the following diseases

Typhoid , Pneumonia, Amoebiasis(amoebic dysentery), Ring worm , Common cold , Ascariasis ,

Filariasis or elephantiasis, Malaria

 What is innate immunity? Describe with examples the types of defense barriers of innate immunity.

 Distinguish between innate and acquired immunity.

 Explain the stages in the life cycle of malarial parasite.

 Explain the mechanism of transmission of AIDS.

 Explain any five effects and measures would be taken for prevention and control of drug or alcohol
abuse among adolescence.

 Name of the plant from which the following drugs are obtained.

 Opioids

 Cannabinoids

 Coca alkaloids

Chapter – 9: Strategies for enhancement in food production

Define the following terms with reference to tissue culture.

 Tissue culture

 Totipotency

 Explant

 Micropropagation

 Soma clones

 Somatic hybrids
 Somatic hybridization

 What is Hisardale?

 What is germplasm collection?

 Distinguish between inbreeding and out breeding.

 Mention any two advantages and disadvantages of inbreeding.

 What is inbreeding depression? How to overcome inbreeding depression?

 Define poultry. What are the important components of a successful poultry farm management?

 What is bee – keeping or apiculture? Mention its economic importance.

 Mention the important components and points to be taken care for a successful bee keeping.

 What is biofortification ? Mention the objectives of biofortification with suitable examples.

 What are single cell proteins? Mention the sources and advantages of using microbes as single cell

 What is plant breeding? Describe the different steps in the development of a new hybrid plant variety.

 Describe with suitable examples any five applications of tissue culture.

 Write brief note the following controlled breeding techniques in animals. a) AI b) MOET

Chapter- 10 : microbes in human welfare

Define the following:

 Mycorrhiza

 Bacterial flocs

 Organic farming

 Name the bacterium, which is responsible for large holes in Swiss cheese.

 Give any two examples for bioactive molecules.

 Name the sources and medical application of the following bioactive molecules.

1. Cyclosporine - A 2. Statins

 What is BOD? Mention its significance

 What is biocontrol? Describe the role of microbes as biocontrol agents citing suitable examples.

 What are Bioferilizers. Name the sources of biofertilizers with an examples for each.

 Describe the role of microbes in household products.

 Give a brief account the role of microbes in the production of industrial products.

 Describe the role of microbes as a) Biocontrol agents b) Biofertilisers

Chapter – 11: Biotechnology And Its Principles

 Define Microinjection

 What is Biolistics or gene gun method

 What is plasmid ?

 Define gel electrophoresis. Explain how DNA fragments are separated and visualized using this
technique ?

 Describe the features required for a cloning vector to facilitate cloning.

 Describe the methods available for introduction of alien DNA in to host cell in genetic engineering.

 What is downstream processing ? Mention the various steps of downstream processing at

biosynthetic phase in genetic engineering.

 What is polymerase chain reaction ? Explain the various steps in PCR with a diagrammatic

Chapter – 12: Biotechnology and its applications

 Name the organism from which Bt genes are isolated?

 Write the scientific name of the nematode that infects the roots of tobacco plants.

 What are genetically modified organisms? Give examples.

 What are transgenic animals? Give examples.

 Define Biopiracy . Write short note biopiracy taking an example basmati rice

 Write short notes on Bt toxins/ Bt genes/ cry proteins

 What is RNA interference? Explain how tobacco plants were made resistant to reduce losses due to
nematode infection?

 Explain with an illustration how human insulin in synthesized through genetic engineering.

 Mention any five advantages of genetically modified plants.

 What is Bt cotton? Explain how cotton plant is made resistant to wide variety of insect pests through
genetic engineering?

 What is gene therapy? Name the deficiency disease on which gene therapy was first employed? Add a
note on how gene therapy was used to correct ADA gene deficiency in a child?

 Describe any five applications of transgenic animals in medicine.

Chapter- 13: Organisms and populations

Define the terms:

 Diapause

 Natality

 Mortality

 Immigration

 Emigration

 State Allen’s rule.

 Define competition.

 What is Interference competition

 Define Competitive release

 State Gause’s competitive exclusion principle.

 What are eurythermal animals?

 What are stenothermal animals?

 Distinguish euryhaline and stenohaline animals.

 The organisms if unable to migrate might avoid the stress by escaping in time. Justify the statement
with suitable examples.

 Define commensalism. Give examples.

 Write a short note on sexual deceit in Mediterranean orchid ‘Ophrys’.

 Define predation. Mention any two significances of predation in an ecosystem. Give two examples for
defensive adaptation in plants and animals preys against their predators?

 Write short notes on Brood parasitism

Chapter- 14: Ecosystem

Define the terms:

 Food web

 Sere

 Pioneer species

 Climax community
 Hydrarch succession

 Xerarch succession

 Nutrient cycling

 The pyramid of biomass in sea is generally inverted. Give reason

 What is primary succession?

 What is secondary succession?

 Primary succession is very slow. Give reason.

 Secondary succession is faster than primary succession. Give reason.

 Mention the four functions of an ecosystem.

 Define productivity and mention its types.

 What is ecological succession? Mention the types based on habitat.

 Distinguish between primary and secondary ecological succession.

 Distinguish between carbon and phosphorus cycle.

 Distinguish between Standing state and Standing crop.

 Diagrammatic representation of types of ecological pyramids with units

 What is biogeochemical cycle? Mention the types of biogeochemical with an example for each.

 Define decomposition and Describe the process and products of decomposition.

 Define phosphorus cycle. Explain with a schematic representation.

Chapter- 15: Biodiversity and its conservation

Define the terms:

 Biodiversity

 Endemism

 Genetic diversity

 Species diversity

 Ecological diversity

 Bioprospecting

 India is said to have greater ecological diversity than Norway. Justify.

 Why western Ghats is considered as biodiversity hot spot?

 Name the “ evil quartets” of biodiversity losses in a given habitat.

 Give any two example for species extinctions due to overexploitation.

 Name animals of recent extinction as per IUCN red list.

 What is co – extinctions ? Give examples.

 What are sacred grooves. Give examples.

 What are biodiversity hot spots? Name the biodiversity hotspots in India.

 Define the two factors for declaring a hot spot.

 What is alien species invasions? Describe with suitable examples.

 What is loss of biodiversity? Describe “The evil quartet” the causes of biodiversity loss in a
geographical region.

 Explain in situ and ex situ conservation as a strategy for conservation of biodiversity with suitable

Chapter- 16 : Environmental issues

Define the terms:

 Algal bloom

 Biomagnification

 Eutrophication

 Ecosan

 e – wastes

 Ozone hole

 Snow blindness

 Reforestation

 Mention any four effects of air pollutants.

 What are catalytic converters? Describe their significance in controlling air pollution.

 What is compressed natural gas (CNG)? Mention its advantages.

 What is algal bloom mention its effects.

 Define BOD and mention its effects on aquatic organisms.

 What are solid wastes? Mention their types.

 Distinguish between deforestation and reforestation.

 Define noise. Mention the causes, effects and prevention of noise pollution.

 Write a short note on a case study of controlling vehicular pollution in Delhi. Mention measures taken
by Delhi government to reduce vehicular pollution.

 What is biomagnification ? Mention the effects of DDT magnification in fish eating birds.

 What is eutrophication? Mention the causes and effects of eutrophication.

 What are greenhouse gases? Name them.

 What is global warming? Mention its effects and control measures.

 What is ozone hole. Mention its effects.

 Describe any five effects of water pollution.

 Write short notes on case study of people’s participation in the conservation of forest taking the
following examples:

a) Bishnoi community b) Chipko movement c) Joint forest management (JFM)