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Khamiras, a natural cardiac tonic: An overview

Article · April 2010


DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.67009 · Source: PubMed

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Review Article www.jpbsonline.org

Khamiras, a natural cardiac tonic: An overview


Sayeed Ahmad, Shabana Rehman, M. Aftab Ahmad1, Khalid M. Siddiqui2, Seemin
Shaukat, Masood Shah Khan, Kamal Y. T., Tamanna Jahangir

Department of ABSTRACT
Pharmacognosy and
The Unani system of Medicine (Unanipathy), which originated in Greece, is based on the principles proposed
Phytochemistry, Faculty
of Pharmacy, Jamia
by Galen, a Greek practitioner. Since then, many Arab and Persian scholars have contributed to the system.
Hamdard, 1Department Among them Ibn-e-Sina, an Arab philosopher and Physicist who wrote ‘Kitab-al-shifa’ are worth mentioning. This
of Ilmul Advia, Faculty system has an extensive and inspiring record in India. It was introduced in India around the tenth century A.D
of Medicine, Jamia with the spread of Islamic civilization. At present, Unanipathy has become an important part of the Indian system
Hamdard, New Delhi- of Medicine. Unani medicines have been used since ancient times, as medicines for the treatment of various
110 062, 2CCRUM, ailments. In spite of the great advances observed in modern medicine in recent decades, Unani drugs still make an
Janakpuri, New Delhi, important contribution to healthcare. The Unani system of medicine is matchless in treating chronic diseases like
India arthritis, asthma, mental, cardiac, and digestive disorders, urinary infections, and sexual diseases. The medicines
administered go well with the temperament of the patient, thus speeding up the process of recovery and also
Address for correspondence:
Dr. Sayeed Ahmad, reducing the risk of drug reaction. The Unani system of medicine recognizes the influence of the surroundings
E-mail: sahmad_jh@ and ecological conditions on the state of health of human beings. The system aims at restoring the equilibrium of
jamiahamdard.ac.in various elements and faculties of the human body. It has laid down six essential prerequisites for the prevention of
diseases and places great emphasis, on the one hand, on the maintenance of proper ecological balance, and on
the other, on keeping water, food, and air free from pollution. These essentials, known as ‘Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya’,
are air, food, and drink, bodily movement and repose, psychic movement and repose, sleep and wakefulness, and
excretion and retention. The Unani system is a secular system in temperament and is popular among the masses.
In Unani medicine, although the general preference is for single drugs, compound formulations are also used in
the treatment of various complex and chronic disorders. In the light of the present knowledge, this review is a
small effort to discuss the efficacious nature of ‘Khamira’, a semi-solid preparation, which is traditionally used for
cardiac ailments, such as, palpitations, weakness of the heart, and so on. On the basis of their constituents these
are named as, Khamira Aabresham, Khamira Gaozaban, Khamira Marwareed, and so on. Khameeras are also
Received : 22-04-10 used as general tonics for other vital organs like the liver and brain. In view of the increasing number of cardiac
Review completed : 04-05-10
diseases, a thorough evaluation of this ancient work on Khamira is of special significance. 
Accepted : 21-05-10
DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.67009
J Pharm Bioall Sci 2010;2:93-9 KEY WORDS: Cardiotonic, khameera, Unani system of medicine

U nani drugs have been an integral part of treatment therapies


of various diseases. In spite of the great advances observed
in modern medicine in recent decades, unani drugs still make
Maul-asl, as well as gaseous drugs like Bakhoor and so on.[1,2]

The word Khamira in the Unani system of medicine indicates


an important contribution to healthcare. Especially in countries fermented confection, first introduced by the Hakeem of the
like India many of the unani drugs and formulations are used in Mogul period. Khamira is a semi-solid preparation — a type of
different practices of treatment, such as, Unani, Ayurveda, and Majoon, which is prepared by adding a decoction of herbal drugs
Sidha. In this modern era people have started preferring unani or powdered drugs to a base (Qiwam) made up of sugar or sugar
drugs more because of its lower side effects, holistic approach, with honey. Other than herbal ingredients, animal and mineral
psychological dimensions, and qualitative action of weather and origin drugs are also mixed, either by making solution in aqua
seasonal requirement. Unani system of medicine is unmatched or as a micro-fine powder,[1-3] Scented drugs such as saffron and
in treating chronic diseases such as arthritis, asthma, mental, musk are mixed when the decoction gives a white fermented
cardiac, and digestive disorders, urinary infections, and sexual appearance. Drugs used for the heart are made in such a form so
diseases. Different types of formulations are used in the Unani that they are easily absorbed and can produce rapid action. These
system of medicine. For example solid preparations: Habb, Khamiras have been named on the basis of constituents used for
Qurs, Shyaf, Sanoon; semi-solid preparations: Majoon, Itrifal, the preparation like Khamira Aabresham, Khamira Gaozaban,
Jawarish, Khamira, and liquid preparations like Maul jubn, Khamira Marwareed, Khamira Sandal, and so on. Khamiras

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 Ahmad, et al.: Khamiras a natural cardiac tonic

usually act as a cardio-tonic, that is, a tonic for vital organs such Compound unani formulation mentioned in Bayiaz-e-Kabir,
as the brain, liver, and stomach, and is also used for various Makhazanul Murakkebat, and National formulary of unani
other ailments like palpitations, weakness of heart, weakness medicine contains — 17 constituents of plant origin, five
of principal organs, cough, cold, catarrh, including respiratory constituents of animal origin, and four constituents of mineral
and nervous disorders.[3-5] In view of the increasing number of origin [Table 1].
cardiac problems all over the world, a thorough evaluation of Khamira Aabresham Sada[4]
this ancient study on Khamira used in cardiac disorders is of
special significance. The present exhaustive review of cardio Compound Unani formulation mentioned in Bayiaz-e-Kabir
active Khamiras, collected from different ancient literatures, will containing — seven constituents of plant origin, two constituents
be useful for a large population of the world for the treatment of animal origin, and one constituent of mineral origin [Table 2].
of cardiac problems, without any significant side effects, using
natural remedies. This can also be taken as a lead by researchers
Table 1: Composition of Khamira Aabresham Hakim Arshad Wala
and medical practitioners for development of new drugs using
ancient information. The various active ingredients used in these Ingredients Quantity
Khamiras have established cardioprotective activities. Ischemic Ood Gharqi (Aquilaria agallocha) 5g
Sumbul ut teeb (Nardostachys jatamansi) 5g
heart diseases remain the leading cause of death in most developed
Post Turanj (Citrus medica) 5g
countries, as seen over the past quarter-century. Reducing the Mastagi (Pistacia lentiscus) 5g
mortality rate and prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) Qaranfal (Syzygium aromaticum) 5g
are of utmost importance. Arq gauzaban (a clear aqueous Dana Ilaichi Khurd (Elettaria cardamomum) 5g
distillate of the plant Onosma bracteatum), a unani product, Sazaj Hindi (Cinnamomum tamala) 5g
has been extensively studied as a heart tonic.[6] The Unanipathy Burada Sandal Safaid (Santalum album) 5g
Aabresham (Bombyx mori) 500 g
authoritative text ‘Bayaz-e-Kabir’ quotes a number of therapeutic Ambar (Ambra grasea) 5g
indications for arq gauzaban. However, no pharmacological Marwareed (Mytilus margaritiferus) 10 g
evaluation of the cardiovascular system has been reported prior Yaqoot (Ruby) 10 g
to Bheemachari et al., 2005.[6] Several scientists have worked on Yashab Sabz (Green jasper) 10 g
these plants and have shown in their studies that, individually, Kehruba Shamai (Pinus succinifera) 10 g
Marjan (Corallium rubrium) 10 g
these ingredients have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory Mushk (Moschus moschiferous) 5g
activities.[7] The use of traditional unani medicinal drugs for the Zafran (Crocus sativa) 5g
treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure and post MI, Warq-e-Nuqra (Silver) 5g
are widely accepted. Dietary supplementation with polyphenolic Warq-e-Tila (Gold) 5g
antioxidants to animals has been seen to be associated with Arq-e-Gaozaban (Borago officinalis) 160 ml
Arq-e-Baidmushk (Salix caprea) 160 ml
inhibition of LDL oxidation and macrophage foam cell formation, Arq-e-Gulab (Rosa damascena) 160 ml
and attenuation of atherosclerosis development.[8] Arq-e-Keora (Pandanus tectorius) Q.S
Aab-e-Seb Sheerien (Malus sylvestris) 160 ml
Khamiras Used in Cardiac Disorders Aab-e-Anar Sheerien (Punica granatum) 160 ml
Aab-e-Behi Sheerien (Cydonia oblonga) 160 ml
Aab-e-Baran (Rain Water) 2 lt.
1. Khamira Aabresham Sada Nabat Safaid 1 kg
2. Khamira Aabresham Sheerah Unnab Wala
Actions: Muqavvi-e-Aam (General Tonic); Muqavvi-e-Qalb (Cardaic
3. Khamira Aabresham Ood Mastagi Wala Tonic); Uses: Khafqan (Palpitations), Zauf-e-Aza-e-Raisa (Weakness of
4. Khamira Sandal Sada principal organs: Heart, Brain, and Liver), Malikhoolia (Melancholia),
5. Khamira Sandal Tursh Warq-e-Tila Wala Naqahat (Asthenia); Dose: 3 – 6 g
6. Khamira Gaozaban Sada
7. Khamira Gaozaban Ambari Table 2: Composition of Khamira Aabresham Sada (Bayiaz-
8. Khamira Gaozaban Ambari Jadwar Ood Saleeb wala e-Kabir)
9. Khamira Gaozaban Ambari Jawahar Wala Ingredients Quantity
10. Khamira Marwareed Aabresham (Bombyx mori) 100 g
11. Khamira Marwareed Ba Nuskha Khas Gaozaban (Borago officinalis) 4g
12. Khamira Marwareed Ba Nuskha Kalan Badranjboya (Mellisa parviflora) 4g
13. Khamira Yaqoot Gulab (Rosa damascena) 150 g
Gul-e-Gaozaban (Borago officinalis) 8g
14. Khamira Yashab Tukhm-e-Faranjmushk (Ocimum gratissimum) 8g
15. Khamira Zehar Mohra Kehruba Shamai (Pinus succinifera) 4g
16. Khamira Zamarrud Yashab Sabz (Green jasper) 4g
17. Khamira Khas Beikh-e-Marjan 4g
Arq-e-Gulab (Rosa damascena) 150 ml
Nabat Safaid 260 g
Methods of Preparation and Other Descriptions of
Actions: Muqavvi-e-Qalb (Cardaic Tonic), Muqavvi-e-Dimagh (Brain
Several Khamiras Tonic); Uses: Khafqan (Palpitations), Zauf-e-Qalb (Weakness of
Heart), Karb (Distress), Malikhoolia (Melancholia), Zauf-e-Basarat
Khamira Aabrasham Hakim Arshad Wala[4,5] (Asthenopia); Dose: 5 – 10 g 

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Table 3: Composition of Khamira Aabresham Sada (NFUM) Table 5: Composition of Khamira Aabrasham Ood Mastagi Wala
Ingredients Quantity Ingredients Quantity
Aabresham (Bombyx mori) 150 g Ood (Aquilaria agallocha) 2g
Gul-e-Gaozaban (Borago officinalis) 10 g Mastagi (Pistacia lentiscus) 2g
Badranjboya (Mellisa parviflora) 10 g Mushk (Moschus moschiferous) 2g
Tukhm-e-Raihan (Ocimum sanctum) 10 g Yaqoot (Ruby) 4g
Barg-e-Raihan (Ocimum sanctum) 10 g Yashab Sabz (Green jasper) 4g
Sandal safaid (Santalum album) 10 g Kehruba Shamai (Pinus succinifera) 4g
Gul-e-Nilofer (Nymphaea alba) 10 g Marjan (Corallium rubrium) 4g
Daroonaj Aqrabi (Doronicum hookeri) 5g Aabresham (Bombyx mori) 340 g
Arq-e-Gulab (Rosa damascena) 600 ml Ambar (Ambra grasea) 8g
Warq-e-Nuqra (Silver) Q.S. Marwareed (Mytilus margaritiferus) 8g
Nabat Safaid 1 kg
Barg-e-Badranjboya (Mellisa parviflora) 70 g
Aab (Water) 1Lt
Barg-e-Faranjmushk (Ocimum gratissimum) 70 g
Actions, uses, and dose are same as mentioned earlier Arq-e-Gulab (Rosa damascena) Q.S
Nabat Safaid 1.2 kg
Table 4: Composition of Khamira Aabresham Sheera Unnab Wala Actions: Muqavvi-e-Aaza-e-Raisa (Tonic for Heart, Liver, and Stomach);
Ingredients Quantity Uses: Khafqan (Palpitations), Zauf-e-Aza-e-Raisa (Weakness of principal
organs: Heart, Brain, and Liver), Malikhoolia (Melancholia), Miraq
Aabresham (Bombyx mori) 150 g (Psychoneurosis); Dose: 5 – 7 g
Seb Sheerien (Malus sylvestris) 30 g
Seb Tursh (Malus sylvestris) 30 g
Anar Tursh (Punica granatum) 30 g Makhazanul Murakkebat, NFUM and Qarabadeen-e-Azam
Angoor Sheeirn (Vitis vinifera) 30 g containing only two constituents of plant origin [Table 6]. 
Behi (Cydonia oblonga) 30 g
Unnab (Zizyphus vulgaris) 30 g Khamira Sandal Tursh Warq-e-Tila Wala[4,5]
Gaozaban (Borago officinalis) 30 g
Sandal safaid (Santalum album) 30 g
Zafran (Crocus sativa) 2g
Compound Unani formulation mentioned in Bayiaz-e-Kabir
Ambar (Ambra grasea) 2g and Makhazanul Murakkebat containing — eight constituents
Mushk (Moschus moschiferous) 2g of plant origin, one constituent of animal origin, and three
Arq-e-Gulab (Rosa damascena) 150 ml constituents of mineral origin [Table 7]. 
Arq-e-Baidmushk (Salix caprea) 150 ml
Aab-e-Tarbooz (Citrullus vulgaris) 30 ml Khamira Gaozaban Sada[9,10]
Nabat Safaid 150 g
Actions: Muqavvi-e-Qalb (Cardaic Tonic), Muqavvi-e-Dimagh (Brain Compound Unani formulation mentioned in NFUM and
Tonic), Muqavvi-e-Maida (Stomach Tonic), Muqavvi-e-Aam (General Qarabadeen-e-Sarkari containing — nine constituents of plant
Tonic), Mulattif (Demulcent); Uses: Khafqan (Palpitations), Zauf-e-Hafiza origin and one constituent of animal origin [Table 8].
(Weakness of memory power), Zauf-e-Maida (Weakness of Stomach), Sil
wa Diq (Phthisis and T.B.), Sual Khushk (Dry Cough); Dose: 5 – 10 g Khamira Gaozaban Ambari[4,5]

Khamira Aabresham Sada[9,10] Compound Unani formulation mentioned in Bayiaz-e-Kabir


and Makhazanul Murakkebat containing — 13 constituents
Compound Unani formulation mentioned in NFUM and of plant origin, two constituents of animal origin, and two
Qarabadeen-e-Sarkari containing — eight constituents of plant constituents of mineral origin [Table 9].
origin, one constituent of animal origin, and one constituent of
Khamira Gaozaban Ambari Jadwar Ood Saleeb Wala[4]
mineral origin [Table 3].
Khamira Aabresham Sheerah Unnab Wala[4,5] Compound Unani formulation mentioned in Bayiaz-e-
Kabir containing — 15 constituents of plant origin, two
Compound Unani formulation mentioned in Bayiaz-e-Kabir constituents of animal origin, and two constituents of mineral
and Makhazanul Murakkebat containing — 12 constituents of origin [Table 10].
plant origin and three constituents of animal origin [Table 4].
Khamira Gaozaban Ambari Jawahar Wala[9,10]
Khamira Aabresham Ood Mastagi Wala [4,5]

Compound Unani formulation mentioned in NFUM and


Compound Unani formulation mentioned in Bayaz-e-Kabir Qarabadeen-e-Sarkari containing — seven constituents of plant
and Makhazanul Murakkebat containing — six constituents origin, three constituents of animal origin, and four constituents
of plant origin, five constituents of animal origin, and two of mineral origin [Table 11].
constituents of mineral origin [Table 5].
Khamira Marwareed[4]
Khamira Sandal Sada[4,5,9-11]
Compound Unani formulation mentioned in Bayaz-e-
Compound Unani formulation mentioned in Bayiaz-e-Kabir, Kabir containing — 11 constituents of plant origin, three

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Table 6: Composition of Khamira Sandal Sada Table 9: Composition of Khamira Gaozaban Ambari
Ingredients Quantity Ingredients Quantity
Burada Sandal Safaid (Santalum album) 75 g Gaozaban (Borago officinalis) 30 g
Arq-e-Gulab (Rosa damascena) 500 ml Gul-e-Gaozaban (Borago officinalis) 10 g
Nabat Safaid 1 kg Kishneez Khushk (Coriandrum sativum) 10 g
Aabresham (Bombyx mori) 10 g
Actions: Muqavvi-e-Qalb (Cardiac Tonic), Musakkin (Soothing),
Mubarrid (Frigorific); Uses: Khafqan (Palpitations), Zauf-e-Qalb Behman Surkh (Salvia haematodes) 10 g
(Weakness of heart), Atash-e-Mufrit (Polydipsia); Dose: 5 – 10 g Behman Safaid (Centaurea behen) 10 g
Sandal Safaid (Santalum album) 10 g
Badranjboya (Mellisa parviflora) 10 g
Table 7: Composition of Khamira Sandal Tursh Warq-e-Tila Wala Tukhm-e-Balango (Lallemantia royleana) 10 g
Tukhm-e-Faranjmushk (Ocimum gratissimum) 10 g
Ingredients Quantity
Ustukhuddus (Lavendula stoechas) 10 g
Burada Sandal Safaid (Santalum album) 90 g Toodari Safaid (Cheiranthus cheiri) 10 g
Kishneez Khushk (Coriandrum sativum) 15 g Toodari Surkh (Mathiola incana) 10 g
Tabasheer Safaid (Bambusa arundinacea) 30 g Amber (Ambra grasea) 2g
Marwareed (Mytilus margaritiferus) 4g Arq-e-Keora (Pandanus tectorius) 10 ml
Yashab Sabz (Green jasper) 4g Warq-e-Nuqra (Silver) 6g
Zafran (Crocus sativa) 4g Warq-e-Tila (Gold) 6g
Kafoor (Cinnamomum camphora) 2g Nabat Safaid 1 kg
Arq-e-Gulab (Rosa damascena) 500 ml
Arq-e-Baidmushk (Salix caprea) 500 ml Actions: Muqavvi-e-Qalb (Cardiac Tonic), Muqavvi-e-Dimagh (Brain
Warq-e-Nuqra (Silver) 2g Tonic); Uses: Zauf-e-Qalb (Weakness of heart), Zauf-e-Dimagh (Weakness
Warq-e-Tila (Gold) 2g of Brain), Zauf-e-Hafiza (Weakness of memory power); Dose: 5 g
Sirka Angoori 30 ml
Qand 1 kg
Table 10: Composition of Khamira Gaozaban Ambari Jadwar
Actions: Muqavvi-e-Qalb (Cardiac Tonic), Musakkin (Soothing), Mubarrid Ood Saleeb Wala
(Frigorific), Mane Qai (Antiemetic); Uses: Khafqan (Palpitations), Zauf-e-
Qalb (Weakness of heart), Qai (Vomiting); Dose: 7 g Ingredients Quantity
Gaozaban (Borago officinalis) 30 g
Gul-e-Gaozaban (Borago officinalis) 10 g
Table 8: Composition of Khamira Gaozaban Sada Kishneez Khushk (Coriandrum sativum) 10 g
Ingredients Quantity Aabresham (Bombyx mori) 10 g
Behman Surkh (Salvia haematodes) 10 g
Gaozaban (Borago officinalis) 50 g
Behman Safaid (Centaurea behen) 10 g
Gul-e-Gaozaban (Borago officinalis) 30 g
Sandal Safaid (Santalum album) 10 g
Kishneez Khushk (Coriandrum sativum) 10 g
Badranjboya (Mellisa parviflora) 10 g
Aabresham (Bombyx mori) 10 g Tukhm-e-Balango (Lallemantia royleana) 10 g
Behman Surkh (Salvia haematodes) 10 g Tukhm-e-Faranjmushk (Ocimum gratissimum) 10 g
Behman Safaid (Centaurea behen) 10 g Ustukhuddus (Lavendula stoechas) 10 g
Sandal Safaid (Santalum album) 10 g Toodari Safaid (Cheiranthus cheiri) 10 g
Badranjboya (Mellisa parviflora) 10 g Toodari Surkh (Mathiola incana) 10 g
Tukhm-e-Balango (Lallemantia royleana) 10 g Amber (Ambra grasea) 2g
Tukhm-e-Raihan (Ocimum sanctum) 10 g Jadwar (Delphinium denudatum) 10 g
Nabat Safaid 1.5 kg Ood Saleeb (Paeonia emodi) 10 g
Arq-e-Keora (Pandanus tectorius) 10 ml
Actions: Muqavvi-e-Aam (General Tonic); Uses: Khafqan (Palpitations), Warq-e-Nuqra (Silver) 6g
Zauf-e-Qalb (Weakness of heart), Zauf-e-Dimagh (Weakness of Brain),
Warq-e-Tila (Gold) 6g
Zauf-e-Basarat (Asthenopia), Malikhoolia (Melancholia); Dose: 10 g
Nabat Safaid 1 kg
Actions: Muqavvi-e-Aaza-e-Raisa (Tonic for heart, liver, and stomach);
constituents of animal origin, and one constituent of mineral Uses: Zauf-e-Aza-e-Raisa (Weakness of principal organs: heart, brain,
origin [Table 12].  and liver), Zuf-e-Aam (General Weakness), Raasha (Tremors); Dose: 5 g

Khamira Marwareed[9,12]
Khamira Marwareed Ba Nuskha Kalan[4]
Compound Unani formulation mentioned in NFUM and Ilaj-
ul-Amraz containing — four constituents of plant origin, two Compound Unani formulation mentioned in Bayiaz-e-Kabir
constituents of animal origin [Table 13]. containing — seven constituents of plant origin, one constituent of
animal origin, and three constituents of mineral origin [Table 15].
Khamira Marwareed Ba Nuskha Khas[4]
Khamira Yaqoot[4,5]
Compound Unani formulation mentioned in Bayiaz-e-Kabir
containing — six constituents of plant origin, one constituent Compound Unani formulation mentioned in Bayiaz-e-Kabir
of animal origin, and three constituents of mineral origin and Makhazanul Murakkebat containing — seven constituents
[Table 14]. of plant origin, one constituent of animal origin, and three

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Ahmad, et al.: Khamiras a natural cardiac tonic 

Table 11: Composition of Khamira Gaozaban Ambari Table 14: Composition of Khamira Marwareed Ba Nuskha Khas
Jawahar Wala Ingredients Quantity
Ingredients Quantity Tabasheer Safaid (Bambusa arundinacea) 3.5 g
Gaozaban (Borago officinalis) 15 g Marwareed (Mytilus margaritiferus) 4.5 g
Gul-e-Gaozaban (Borago officinalis) 10 g Yashab (Green jasper) 3.5 g
Kehruba Shamai (Pinus succinifera) 3.5 g
Kishneez Khushk (Coriandrum sativum) 10 g
Sandal Safaid (Santalum album) 3.5 g
Aabresham (Bombyx mori) 10 g
Zehar Mohra 3.5 g
Behman Safaid (Centaurea behen) 10 g
Warq-e-Nuqra (Silver) 3.5 g
Sandal Safaid (Santalum album) 10 g Sharbat-e-Seb (Malus sylvestris) 60 ml
Tukhm-e-Balango (Lallemantia royleana) 10 g Sharbat-e-Anar (Punica granatum) 60 ml
Tukhm-e-Raihan (Ocimum sanctum) 10 g Sharbat-e-Behi (Cydonia oblonga) 60 ml
Warq-e-Nuqra (Silver) 5g Qand Safaid 150 g
Amber (Ambra grasea) 2g
Actions: Muqavvi-e-Aam (General Tonic); Uses: Zauf-e-Qalb (Weakness
Marwareed (Mytilus margaritiferus) 5g
of heart), Zauf-e-Aasab (Neurasthenia), Khafqan (Palpitations), Zauf-e-
Yaqoot (Ruby) 5g
Dimagh (Weakness of brain), Atash-e-Mufrit (Polydipsia); Dose: 3 g
Zammarrud 5g
Zehar Mohra 5g
Table 15: Composition of Khamira Marwareed Ba Nuskha Kalan
Actions: Muqavvi-e-Aam (General Tonic); Uses: Zauf-e-Qalb Ingredients Quantity
(Weakness of heart), Zauf-e-Dimagh (Weakness of Brain), Khafqan
(Palpitations), Malikhoolia (Melancholia), Karb (Distress), Zauf-e-Aasab Marwareed (Mytilus margaritiferus) 10 g
(Neurasthenia), Nazla muzmin (Chronic Catarrh); Dose: 3 – 5 g Tabasheer Safaid (Bambusa arundinacea) 6g
Yashab (Green jasper) 6g
Kehruba Shamai (Pinus succinifera) 6g
Table 12: Composition of Khamira Marwareed (Bayiaz-e- Sandal Safaid (Santalum album) 6g
Kabir) Rubb-e-Seb (Malus sylvestris) 50 ml
Ingredients Quantity Rubb -e-Anar (Punica granatum) 50 ml
Rubb -e-Behi (Cydonia oblonga) 50 ml
Marwareed (Mytilus margaritiferus) 10 g Arq-e-Keora (Pandanus tectorius) Q.S
Barg-e-Badranjboya (Mellisa parviflora) 20 g Warq-e-Nuqra (Silver) 6g
Behman Surkh (Salvia haematodes) 10 g Warq-e-Tila (Gold) 1.5 g
Behman Safaid (Centaurea behen) 10 g Qand Safaid 200 g
Tukhm-e-Badranjboya (Mellisa parviflora) 10 g
Tukhm-e-Khurfa (Portulacca oleracea) 100 g
Toodari Safaid (Cheiranthus cheiri) 10 g
Toodari Surkh (Mathiola incana) 10 g
Qarabadeen-e-Sarkari containing — one constituent of plant
Arq-e-Gulab (Rosa damascena) 1 Lt origin, one constituent of animal origin, and two constituents
Arq-e-Baidmushk (Salix caprea) 1 Lt of mineral origin [Table 17]. 
Zafran (Crocus sativa) 10 g
Ambar (Ambra grasea) 10 g Khamira Zehar Mohra[9,13]
Mushk (Moschus moschiferous) 10 g
Zehar Mohra 20 g Compound Unani formulation mentioned in NFUM and
Gul-e-Gaozaban (Borago officinalis) 100 g
Qand Safaid 2 kg Qarabadeen-e-Azam-o-Akmal containing — five constituents of
plant origin and two constituents of mineral origin [Table 18].
Actions: Muqavvi-e-Aam (General Tonic); Uses: Zauf-e-Qalb (Weakness
of heart), Zauf-e-Dimagh (Weakness of brain), Khafqan (Palpitations), Khameera Zamarrud[5] 
Zauf-e-Aam (General weakness); Dose: 3 g
Compound Unani formulation mentioned in Makhazanul
Table 13: Composition of Khamira Marwareed (NFUM)
Murakkebat containing — six constituents of plant origin and
Ingredients Quantity four constituents of mineral origin, and two constituents of
Marwareed (Mytilus margaritiferus) 25 g animal origin [Table 19].
Tabasheer (Bambusa arundinacea) 25 g
Sandal Safaid (Santalum album) 25 g Khamira Khas[5]
Ambar (Ambra grasea) 10 g
Arq-e-Gulab (Rosa damascena) 1 Lt
Arq-e-Baidmushk (Salix caprea) 1 Lt Compound Unani formulation mentioned in Makhazanul
Qand Safaid 1.2 kg Murakkebat containing — one constituent of plant origin
[Table 20].
Actions: Muqavvi-e-Aam (General Tonic); Uses: Zauf-e-Qalb (Weakness
of heart), Zauf-e-Aasab (Neurasthenia), Khafqan (Palpitations), Zauf-e-
Dimagh (Weakness of brain), Atash-e-Mufrit (Polydipsia); Dose: 3 g
Results and Discussion

Various studies have been carried out thus far, to investigate


constituents of mineral origin [Table 16].
the protective potential of Khamira in different ailments.[14]
Khamira Yashab[9,10] Khamira Abresham Uood Mastagiwala (KAUM) was studied
for the activity of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione reductase
Compound Unani formulation mentioned in NFUM and (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase

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 Ahmad, et al.: Khamiras a natural cardiac tonic

Table 16: Composition of Khamira Yaqoot Table 19: Composition of Khamira Zamarrud
Ingredients Quantity Ingredients Quantity
Yaqoot Rummani 30 g Zamarrud 24 g
Lajward Maghsool 9g Lajward Maghsool 3g
Zehar Mohra Khatai 9g Behman Safaid (Centaurea behen) 3g
Amber Ash-hab (Ambra grasea) 5g Aabresham (Bombyx mori) 3g
Gulab (Rosa damascena) 500 g Gaozaban (Borago officinalis) 3g
Aab-e-Seb Sheerien (Malus sylvestris) 500 ml Warq-e-Tila (Gold) 4g
Aab-e-Amrood (Psidium guajava) 500 ml Warq-e-Nuqra (Silver) 4g
Aab-e-Behi (Cydonia oblonga) 500 ml Amber ash-hab (Ambra grasea) 4g
Arq-e-Sandal (Santalum album) 250 ml Gulab (Rosa damascena) 35 g
Arq-e-Gaozaban (Borago officinalis) 250 ml Baidmushk (Salix caprea) 35 g
Arq-e-Baidmushk (Salix caprea) 500 ml Aab-e-Anar Sheerien (Punica granatum) 35 ml
Qand Safaid 2 kg Sharbat-e-Seb (Malus sylvestris) 100 ml
Actions: Muqavvi-e-Aam (General Tonic), Muqavvi-e-Qalb (Cardiotonic); Nabat sufaid 500 g
Uses: Zauf-e-Qalb (Weakness of heart), Khafqan (Palpitations), Shehed Khalis 70 ml
Malikhooliya (Melencholia); Dose: 3 – 5 g
Actions: Muqavvi-e-Qalb (Cardiotonic); Uses: Zauf-e-Qalb (Weakness of
heart), Khafqan (Palpitations); Dose: 3 – 4 g
Table 17: Composition of Khamira Yashab
Ingredients Quantity Table 20: Composition of Khamira Khas
Yashab Sabz (Green jasper) 25 g Ingredients Quantity
Sadaf-e-Sadiq 25 g Khas Hindi (Andropogan muricatus) 60 g
Tabasheer (Bambusa arundinacea) 25 g Arq-e-Khas 1 Lt.
Zehar Mohra Khatai 25g Qand Safaid (Sugar) 500 g
Qand Safaid 1 kg Itr-e-Khas Q.S.
Actions: Musakkin (Sedative / Soothing), Qabiz (Constipation), Habis Actions: Muqavvi-e-Qalb (Cardiotonic); Uses: (Khafqan) Palpitations;
(Astringent); Uses: Khafqan (Palpitations), Is-hal (Diarrhea), Sailan ur Dose: 5 – 7 g
Rehem (Leucorrhea); Dose: 5 – 10 g

Khamira Abresham Hakim Arshad Wala (KAHAW) is an effective


Table 18: Composition of Khamira Zehar Mohra and potent cardiac tonic with well-known antioxidant properties.
Ingredients Quantity The cognitive impairment was developed by giving a single
Zehar Mohra 20 g intracerebroventricular injection of 1.5 mg/kg body weight of
Tabasheer (Bambusa arundinacea) 20 g streptozotocin (STZ) bilaterally. An increased latency and path
Gaozaban (Borago officinalis) 20 g length was observed in cognition in the STZ group as compared
Gul-e-Surkh (Rosa damascena) 20 g to the control group and these were restored significantly in the
Warq-e-Nuqra (Silver) 10 g
Raughan-e-Sandal (Santalum album) 10 ml
STZ group pretreated with KAHAW (700 mg/kg body weight for 15
Sharbat-e-Anar Sheerien (Punica granatum) 300 ml days). The activity of the antioxidant enzymes, namely, glutathione
reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and
Actions: Muqavvi-e-Qalb (Cardiotonic); Uses: Zauf-e-Qalb (Weakness of
Heart); Dose: 5 – 10 g
superoxide dismutase had decreased in the STZ group as compared
to the control group and pretreatment of the STZ group with
KAHAW had protected their activities significantly. Moreover,
(GPx), catalase (CAT), and the content of glutathione (GSH) the significantly depleted content of reduced glutathione and
and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), in the significantly elevated level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances
middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) of rats, after 15 days of (TBARS) in STZ group were protected significantly with KAHAW.
treatment (200 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.), orally) with Khamira The study concludes that the therapeutic intervention of KAHAW
Abresham Uood Mastagiwala. The activity of GPx, GST, GR, may be used to prevent or to decrease the deterioration of cognitive
catalase, and the content of GSH had decreased significantly function and neurobehavioral activities, often associated with the
in the MCAO group as compared to the sham. The rats of the generation of a free radical.[16,17]
MCAO + KAUM groups had shown significant protection of
the activity of the above-mentioned antioxidant enzymes and An attempt has been made to evaluate the effect of various
content of glutathione when compared to the MCAO group. samples of Khamira Abresham Hakim Arshadwala on
The significantly elevated level of TBARS in the MCAO myocardial necrosis in rats. The parameters include serum
group was depleted significantly by the pretreatment of the free fatty acids, cardiac glycogen, serum GOT, GPT, LDH,
animals with KAUM in the MCAO group. The neurobehavioral Cholesterol, Sodium, and Potassium. Khamira at a dose
assessment has also strengthened the above biochemical data, of 1 g/kg body wt. has shown a significant protective effect
thereby indicating that the therapeutic intervention of KAUM, against isoproterenol-induced myocardial cell damage.[18,19]
which is a potent cardiac and melancholic tonic, can be used Khamira Abresham Hakim Arshad Wala (KAHAW) at a dose
to prevent or reduce the deterioration caused by free radicals, of 800 mg/kg/day has significantly reversed a majority of
thereby preventing subsequent pathological and biochemical hemodynamic and antioxidant derangements. The protective
changes, which occur during cerebral ischemia.[14,15] role of KAHAW on ISO-induced myocardial necrosis has been

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Ahmad, et al.: Khamiras a natural cardiac tonic 

further confirmed by histopathological and ultrastructural Acknowledgment


examination.[16,17] KAHAW also protects against cognitive
impairment induced by giving a single intracerebroventricular The authors are thankful to Central Council for Research in Unani
injection of 1.5 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin (STZ) Medicine (CCRUM), Delhi, for financial support and Prof. M. S. Y.
bilaterally. KAHAW may be used to prevent or to decrease Khan for his guidance.
the deterioration of cognitive function and neurobehavioral
activities, often associated with the generation of free radicals.[15] References

Khamira Marwareed (KM) showed a significant increase in 1. Rehman HZ. Dawa Sazi. Delhi: Nomani Press; 1985. p. 130-1.
2. Khan  AS. Misbahul Advia. Delhi: Ajaz Publishing House; 2000. p.
the relative organ (spleen and thymus) weight. Cellularity
134-5.
of the spleen and bone marrow also increased significantly. 3. Rehman HZ. Kitabul Murakkebat. Aligarh: Litho Colour Prints; 1991.
Groups receiving KM for 10 and 15 days showed an increase p. 65.
in hemoglobin, red blood cells (RBCs), and total white blood 4. Uddin  MK. Bayaz-e-Kabir. Vol. 2. Delhi: Dafter-ul-Masehi; 1967. p.
55-67.
cells (WBCs). The humoral immune response, evaluated by 5. Khan GJ. Makhazanul Murakkebat. Delhi: Ajaz Publication House;
the plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay after challenging the mice 1995. p. 104-10.
with goat RBCs, was better in all the treated groups, when 6. Bheemachari J, Ashok K, Suresh DK, Gupta VRM, Narsimhachar J.
compared to controls. The maximum hemagglutination titer Effect of Arq Gauzaban a Unanipathy product on the isolated frog
heart. Acta Pharma Turc 2005;47:159-64.
was obtained in mice treated with KM for 15 days. Ovalbumin- 7. Hussain SJ, Jahan M, Asif M. Effect of khamira abresham hakim
specific serum IgG levels in the treated mice also increased, arshad wala on cardiac metabolism in experimental myocardial
suggesting an immunopotentiating effect of the preparation. necrosis. Hamdard Med 1989;32:50-8.
Administration of KM resulted in elevated levels of IgG2a and 8. Khan MB, Hoda MN, Yousuf S, Ishrat T, Ahmad M, Ahmad AS, et
al. Prevention of cognitive impairments and neurodegeneration
IgG2b. A comparison of anti-ovalbumin IgE and IgG was also by khamira abresham hakim arshad wala. J Ethnopharmacol
conducted; anti-ovalbumin IgE decreased, with a concomitant 2006;108:68-73.
increase in anti-ovalbumin IgG. Administration of KM for 10 or 9. National Formulary of Unani Medicine (NFUM). Part I, New Delhi:
Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine; 2006. p. 108-13.
15 days elicited an increase in the delayed-type hypersensitivity
10. Qarabadeen-e-Sarkari. Part II, Hyderabad: Indian Medicine Dept.
(DTH) response. Taken together, the results suggested an Govt. of Andhra Pradesh; 1967. p. 58-62.
immunostimulatory effect for KM through a mechanism, 11. Khan MA. Qarabadeen-e-Azam. Kanpur: Nizami Press; 1302H. p. 66.
leading to a Th1-dominant immune state.[20] 12. Khan MS. Ilaj-ul-Amraz (Persian). Delhi: Barqi Press; 1921. p. 125.
13. Khan MA. Qarabadeen-e-Azam-o-Akmal. Delhi: Siidiqui Press;
1315H. p. 107.
Although, a lot of study has been carried out so far with respect 14. Yousuf S, Salim S, Ahmad M, Ahmed AS, Ansari MA, Islam F.
to Unani drugs and other natural plant products, unfortunately, Protective effect of khamira abresham uood mastagiwala against free
due to lack of literature and research in this field, no mechanism radical induced damage in focal cerebral ischemia. J Ethnopharmacol
2005;99:179-84.
of action related to the cardio-protective nature of these 15. Sun J, Tan BK, Huang SH, Whiteman M, Zhu YZ. Effects of natural
‘Khamiras: natural cardiotonics’ is known. products on ischemic heart diseases and cardiovascular system.
Acta Pharmacol Sin 2002;23:1142-51.
Our laboratory has planned to study this virgin area of research, 16. Khan MB, Hoda MN, Yousuf S, Ishrat T, Ahmad M, Ahmad AS, et al.
Prevention of cognitive impairments and neurodegeneration
we would like to search for pathways that are targeted by these by Khamira Abresham Hakim Arshad Wala.  J Ethnopharmacol
cardio-protectors and further research will be carried out to 2006;108:68-73.
check their effect at molecular and genetic levels. 17. Jameel S, Pillai KK, Hussain SZ, Imran M. Influence of ‘Khamira
Abresham Hakim Arshadwala’ on adriamycin induced toxicity in rats.
Indian Drugs 1992;29:686-90. 
Conclusion 18. Thippeswamy BS, Thakker SP, Tubachi S, Kalyani GA, Netra MK,
Patil U, et al. Cardioprotective Effect of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. on
isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rat. Am J Pharmacol
In view of the increasing number of cardiac diseases a thorough Toxicol 2009;4:29-37.
evaluation of this ancient work on Khamira is of special 19. Goyal S, Siddiqui MK, Siddiqui KM, Arora S, Mittal R, Joshi S, et al.
significance. The above article gives information about Khamiras, Cardioprotective effect of ‘Khamira Abresham Hakim Arshad Wala’
which can be used in cardiac and associated diseases. The article a Unani formulation in isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in
rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2010;62:61-74. 
gives information about different Khamiras used in the Unani 20. Khan F, Ali S, Ganie BA, Rubab I. Immunopotentiating effect of
system of medicine and their composition, which will be helpful Khamira Marwarid, an herbo-mineral preparation. Methods Find Exp
for Unani scholars and researchers, to gather information about Clin Pharmacol 2009;31:513-22. 
the Khamiras mentioned in Unani Medicine. Carrying out such
attempts will be helpful in exploring the scope of Unani medicine Source of Support: Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine
(CCRUM), Delhi,, Conflict of Interest: None declared.
and it will lead to better healthcare professionals.

J Pharm Bioall Sci April-June 2010 Vol 2 Issue 2 99 

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