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PREFACE

The investigatory project on Chemistry for the year 2019-20 on


the topic “Study of Effect of acids and bases on the Tensile
strength of fibres ” .

Submitted by Soumen Mishra ,Class- XII , D.A.V


Public School ,Sector -6 C.D.A, Cuttack, for the fulfilment
of terms and conditions laid down by C.B.S.E for the
Chemistry Practical Examination AISSCE for the year
2019-20

SUPERVISOR:
SUJATA SAHU
Department of Chemistry,
D.A.V PUBLIC School,
C.D.A,Cuttack.
BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that this project entitled “Study of Effects of
Acid and Bases on Tensile Strength of Fibres” submitted by
Soumen Mishra of Class XII is in accordance with the topic
allocated to him .This project is submitted for the fulfilment of
the terms and conditions laid down by CBSE for All India Senior
Secondary Certificate Examination (AISSCE) for Chemistry
Practical examination 2019-20.

It embodies original work done by him under the


supervision and guidance of D.A.V. Public School, C.D.A
,Sector-6 Cuttack-14

Signature of Student Signature of Teacher


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am greatly honoured being given such an opportunity by
my Principal Madam Mrs . Namita Mohanty to prepare this
project .
I am indeed privileged for all the guidance and support she
provided me

I would like to thank my chemistry teacher Dr. Sujata sahu


for providing me all the valuable information regarding the topic
and enhancing my knowledge without whose guidance this
project would have been incomplete .

Soumen Mishra
D.A.V Public School
CDA, Cuttack
DECLARATION
I , Soumen Mishra of class XII-C, DAV Public
school , Sector-6 , C.D.A , Cuttack do hereby
solemenly declare that this project entitled “Study of
Effect of Acids and Bases on the Tensile strength of
Fibres” submitted for the fulfilment of the terms and
conditions laid down by C.B.S.E for all India Senior
Secondary Certificate Examination (AISSCE)2020 .It
embodies the original work done by me under the
supervision and guidelines of my chemistry teacher
Dr.Sujata Sahu ( Msc. M,Phil B.ED) Department of
Chemistry

Soumen Mishra
D.A.V Public School
CDA ,Cuttack
CONTENT
SL NO: TOPIC PAGE NO:
1 Aim of the 6
experiment
2 Materials 7
Required
3 Theory 8
4 Experiment-1 9
(Procedure)
5 Experiment-2 10
(procedure)
6 Discussion 11
7 Observation 12-13
8 Conclusion 14
9 Precaution 15
10 Bibliography 16
AIM OF THE
EXPERIMENT
“TO STUDY THE EFFECT
OF ACID
AND BASES ON THE
TENSILE STRENGTH OF
FIBRES
REQUIREMENTS

 Apparatus Required
 Hook
 Weight Hanger
 Weights
 Material Required
 Wool Fibre
 Cotton fibres
 Nylon fibres
 Dilute solution of HCL and NaOH
THEORY
 Depending upon the sources ,various
types of fibres can be classified into
following three main categories :

1. Animal Fibres(e.g. wool and cotton)


2. Vegetable Fibres(e.g. cotton and
linen)
3. Synthetic Fibres(e.g. nylon and
polyester)

 Besides the chemical composition and


properties , most important property of these
fibres is the tensile strength .
Tensile strength means the extent to which a
fibre can be stretched without breaking and
it is measured in terms of minimum weight
required to break the fibre.
EXPERIMENT-1
(PROCEDURE)
1. Equal lengths of cotton fibre, nylon fibre and
woollen fibre are cut from the given sample of
nearly same diameter .
2. One of the cotton fibre is tied to a hook which
was fixed in a vertical plane .
3. A weight hanger is tied to the other hand , the
threads get straight.
4. The weight is to put to the hanger and the
thread is observed to be stretched .
5. Then , the weights are gradually increased on
the hanger until the breaking point and the
minimum weight needed for breaking the cotton
fibre is noted .
6. The above experiments are repeated tying nylon
and woollen fibres to the hook separately .
7. Observations are noted
EXPERIMENT- 2
(PROCEDURE):
1. Equal lengths of wool , cotton and nylon threads are
cut from the given sample of nearly same diameter .
2. The tensile strength is determined as explained in
experiment-1.
3. The woollen thread is soaked is dilute NaOH for 5
minutes. It is taken out from the solution and was
washed only with water and dried either by keeping it in
sun or in an oven maintained at the temperature of
about 400 Celsius .Its tensile is determined.
4. Now another piece of woollen thread of same size and
diameter is taken and soaked in dilute solution of HCL
for 5 minutes . It is taken out , washed and dried . Its
tensile strength is determined .
5. The above procedure is repeated for the samples of
cotton and nylon fibre.
DISCUSSION

 Experimentally acids should weaken or completely dissipate the


tensile strength pf fibres (nylon , cotton),bases should just die at a
deep colour.
 Since peptide bonds are more easily hydrolysed by bases than
acids therefore wool and silk are affected by bases and not by
acids . This is because wool and silk threads break up into
fragments and ultimately dissolve in alkali .Alkali decreases the
tensile strength of animal fibres (wool, silk).
 Vegetable fibres on the other hand consists of long
polysaccharide chain in which various glucose units are joined
by ether linkage . Since ethers are hydrolysed by acids and not by
ether linkage .Since ethers are hydrolysed by acids and not by
bases therefore vegetable fibres are affected by acids and not by
bases .Acids decreases the tensile strength of vegetable fibres in
contrast synthetic fibres practically remain unaffected by acids or
bases .
OBSERVATIONS
(Observation-1)
SL No. Type of Fibre Minimum Weight
Required
1 Cotton 75g
2 Nylon 375g
3 Wool 750g
(OBSERVATION-2)
SL NO TYPE OF WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT
FIBRE REQUIRED REQUIRE REQUIRED
TO BREAK TO BREAK TO BREAK
YHE FIBRE FIBRE
UNTREATEN AFTER AFTER
FIBRE( IN SOAKING SOAKING
GRAMS) IN IN DILUTE
DILUTE ACID( IN
ALKALI( GRAMS)
IN
GRAMS)
1. COTTON 75g 75g 50g
2. NYLON 375g 375g 375g
3. WOOL 700g 700g 750g
CONCLUSION:
 The tensile strength of woollen fibres decrease in soaking in
alkali but practically remains unaffected when soaked in
acid
 The tensile strength of cotton fibres decreases on soaking in
acids but practically remains unaffected on soaking in
alkali.
 The tensile strength of nylon fibres practically remains
unaffected on soaking either in acids or alkali.
PRECAUTIONS :
 Overuse of chemicals must be avoided.
 The weight should not be added in small amounts very slowly .
 The weight should not be loaded before notifying them.
 The fibre should not be dipped for a long time in the acids or in
the alkali
 Thread must be of identical diameters .
 Same length of threads should always be taken
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
 Comprehensive Chemistry
 Practical Chemistry
 Foundation Science
 Internet
 Polymer science
 Wikipedia

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