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AKRAMANUJAN.

ORG

14Th OCTOBER 2019

FUNCTION 4(7)

ramanujan1933@gmail.com

MAIN ENGINE
NOTE:- i am once again repeating the request for
questions from other centres so that it helps you all in
preparing for the orals. you can send hand written scanned
sheets of questions to my e-mail given at the head. Please
treat this as urgent.

(11)In a four stroke engine cylinder head are the diameters


of exhaust and inlet valves same or different. If different why
the difference and which is bigger.

Answer:- The exhaust valve diameters are bigger than the inlet
valve diameters because the volume of the exhaust gases is
high due to the higher temperature after combustion.

(12)Using a mechanical indicator can we take the power card


of any unit in a medium speed engine. Give reasons for your
answer.

Answer:- With the mechanical indicator the power card of a


medium speed engine cannot be taken because the RPM of the
medium speed engine is high(between 700 and 1000 RPM) and
the drum return speed is low and hence the drum return speed
will not correspond with the piston speed . This drawback will
not reflect the true piston speed and hence the power card of
the medium speed engine cannot be taken

(13) Why tappet clearances are necessary in an engine.

Answer:- The clearance between the rotappet roller and the cam
ensure that the valves are positively shut when they are not in
operation. The clearance must be measured when the engine
has reached its ambient temperature during operation.

(14)In some high speed engines two concentric coil springs are
fitted in each valve instead of one. What is the reason for
this arrangement.

Answer:- The spring compression is raised to suit the speed


of the engine so that the valve closes smartly and wire drawing
is prevented. Hence two springs are used.

(15) In high speed engines aluminium alloy pistons are fitted


instead of cast iron pistons. What is the reason or advantage
of this modification.

Answer:- In high speed engines , to increase the power weight


ratio, it is necessary to reduce the mass of the moving
components. Hence the mass of the piston as well as the con-
rod are made light and hence aluminium alloy is suitable
because of its higher strength than aluminium and it is light.

(16)Why are auxiliary engines fitted in the longitudinal


direction on the ship and not in the transverse direction.
Answer:- The ship gets its directional stability because of its
symmetrical shape about the longitudinal centre line and the
angular momentum of the main engine rotating components
including the propeller. To increase the angular momentum the
auxiliary engines are also placed in the longitudinal direction so
that their angular momentum s of their rotating components
including the rotors are added to the total angular momentum
which adds to the directional stability.

(17) In some auxiliary engines balance weights are fitted to the


crank webs. Why is this arrangement necessary.

Answer:- All four stroke in-line engines with odd number of units
are not completely balanced for primary and secondary couples.
To reduce the unbalanced resultant primary and secondary
couple balance weights are fitted on the crank webs of these
engines. The maximum balance weight is about 50% of the
piston and part of the con-rod mass.

(18)What is the purpose of the expansion tank in a jacket


cooling water system. What observations are done during watch
keeping on this tank.

Answer:- The expansion tank in the jacket cooling water system


of the main engine is to provide the following needs:

it gives a steady positive head for the cooling water


pump which is a centrifugal pump and hence prevents air
lock in the system.
* It is a reserve make up feed tank when losses occur due
to leakage in the system or even by evaporation.
* The vent pipe/pipes which are led from the individual
cylinder heads ensure release of air from the system.
* In any vent /vents if the flow is intermittent it
indicates a leak of gas from either a crack in the cylinder
head or liner of the corresponding unit.

(19)What is the difference between wet sump and dry sump with
reference to auxiliary engines.

Answer:- In auxiliary engines where the bedplate forms the oil


sump, it is called wet sump. Whereas in auxiliary engines where
a separate oil sump is fitted below the bedplate , it is called
dry sump since the oil leaking into the bedplate flows into the
sump through the drain fitted in the bedplate.

(20) Explain the principle of the radial flow turbine as fitted in


an auxiliary engine.

Answer:- The construction of the radial flow exhaust gas turbine is


similar to the single stage centrifugal pump with volute casing.

In the case of the turbine the exhaust enters at the


volute end of the casing and exits the rotor from the centre

Because of its ease of fitting and convenient flow direction it is


favoured for auxiliary engines