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# PHYSICS - VOL 1 UNIT - 1

NAME :
STANDARD : 12 SECTION :
SCHOOL :
EXAM NO :

## victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc, M.Phil, B.Ed.,

PG ASST (PHYSICS)
GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
PART - II 2 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS  Thus The ratio of permittivity of the medium to 14. Define surface charge density.
1. What is Electrostatics? the permittivity of free space is called relative  Charge per unit area is called surface charge
𝜺 𝑞
 The branch of electricity which deals with permittivity or dielectric constant. [𝜺𝒓 = ] . density. [𝜎 = ]
𝐴
𝜺𝟎
stationary charges is called electrostatics.  Its S.I unit is 𝑪 𝒎−𝟐
2. What is called triboelectric charging?  It has no unit and for air 𝜀𝑟 = 1 and for other
dielectric medium 𝜀𝑟 > 1 15. Define volume charge density.
 Charging the objects through rubbing is called  Charge per unit volume is called volume charge
triboelectric charging. 9. Give the vector form of Coulomb’s law. 𝑞
 The force on the point charge 𝒒𝟐 exerted by density. [𝜌 = ]
3. Like charges repels. Unlike charges attracts. Prove. 𝑉
 A negatively charged rubber rod is repeled by another point charge 𝒒𝟏 is  Its S.I unit is 𝑪 𝒎−𝟑
𝟏 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟐 16. Define electric field lines.
another negatively charged rubber rod. ⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝟐𝟏 = 𝒓̂𝟏𝟐
 But a negatively charged rubber rod is attracted 𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝟎 𝒓 𝟐  A set of continuous lines which are the visual
by a positively charged glass rod.  Simillarly the force on the point charge 𝒒𝟏 exerted representation of the electric field in some region
 This proves like charges repels and unlike charges by another point charge 𝒒𝟐 is of space is calle electric field lines.
attracts. 𝟏 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟐 17. Two electric field lines never intersect each other.
⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝟏𝟐 = 𝒓̂𝟐𝟏
4. State conservation of electric charges. 𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝟎 𝒓 𝟐 Why?
 The total electric charge in the universe is constant  Here, 𝒓̂𝟏𝟐 → unit vector directed from 𝒒𝟏 to 𝒒𝟐  If two lines cross at a point, then there will be two
and charge can neither be created nor be destroyed 𝒓̂𝟐𝟏 → unit vector directed from 𝒒𝟐 to 𝒒𝟏 different electric field vectors at the same point.
 In any physical process, the net change in charge 10. Distinguish between Coulomb force and  If some charge is placed at the intersection point,
will be zero. This is called conservation of charges. Gravitational force. then it has to move in two different directions at
5. State quantisation of electric charge. Coulomb force Gravitational force the same time, which is physically impossible.
 The charge ‘q’ of any object is equal to an integral It acts between two charges It acts between two masses  Hence electric field lines do not intersect.
multiple of this fundamental unit of charge ‘e’ It can be attractive or It is always attractive 18. What is called electric dipole. Give an example.
(i.e) 𝒒 = 𝒏 𝒆 repulsive  Two equal and opposite charges separated by a
 where, n  integer and 𝒆 = 𝟏. 𝟔 𝑿 𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟗 𝑪 It is always greater in It is always lesser in small distance constitute an electric dipole.
6. State Coulomb’s law in electrostatics. magnitude magnitude (e.g) CO, HCl, NH4, H2O
 According to Coulomb law, the force on the point It depends on the nature of It is independent of the 19. Define electric dipole moment. Give its unit.
charge 𝒒𝟐 exerted by another point charge 𝒒𝟏 is the medium medium  The magnitude of the electric dipole moment (𝒑)
𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟐 If charges are in motion, Gravitional force is the is equal to the product of the magnitude of one of
⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝟐𝟏 = 𝒌 𝒓̂𝟏𝟐
𝒓𝟐 another force called Lorentz same whether two masses the charges (q) and the distance (2a) between
 where, k → constant force come in to play in are at rest or in motion them. (i.e) |𝒑⃗ | = 𝒒. 𝟐𝒂
𝒓̂𝟏𝟐 → unit vector directed from 𝒒𝟏 to 𝒒𝟐 addition to Coulomb force  Its unit is C m
7. Define one coulomb (1 C) 11. Define superposition principle. 20. Define potential difference. Give its unit.
 The S.I unit of charge is coulomb (C)  According to Superposition principle, the total  The electric potential difference is defined as the
 One Coulomb is that charge which when placed in force acting on a given charge is equal to the workdone by an external force to bring unit
free space or air at a distance 1 m from an equal vector sum of forces exerted on it by all the other positive charge from one point to another point
and similar charge repels with a force of 9 X 109 N charges. against the electric field.
8. Define relative permittivity. 12. Define electric field.  Its unit is volt (V)
 From Coulomb’s law, the electrostatic force is  The electric field at a point ‘P’ at a distance ‘r’ from 21. Define electrostatic potential. Give its unit.
𝟏 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟐 𝟏 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟐 the point charge ‘q’ is the force experienced by a  The electric potential at a point is equal to the
⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝟐𝟏 = 𝒓̂𝟏𝟐 = 𝒓̂𝟏𝟐
𝟒 𝝅 𝜺 𝒓𝟐 𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝒐 𝜺𝒓 𝒓 𝟐 unit charge. Its S.I unit is N C-1 work done by an external force to bring a unit
 Here 𝜀 = 𝜺𝒐 𝜺𝒓 is called permittivity of any 13. Define linear charge density. positive charge with constant velocity from
medium  The charge per unit length is called linear charge infinity to the point in the region of the external
 𝜺𝟎 is called permittivity of free space or vacuum density. [𝜆 = ]
𝑞 electric field.
and 𝜺𝒓 is called relative permittivity. 𝑙  Its unit is volt (V)
 Its S.I unit is 𝑪 𝒎−𝟏

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
22. Obtain the relation between electric field and  A sensitive electrical instrument which is to be 35. Define dielectric breakdown.
electric potential. protected from external electrical disturnance is  When the external electric field applied to
 The work done in moving a unit charge through a kept inside this cavity. This is called electrostatic dielectric is very large, it tears the atoms apart so
distance ‘dx’ in an electric field ‘E’ is 𝑑𝑊 = − 𝐸 𝑑𝑥 shielding. (e.g) Faraday cage that the nound charges become free charges. Then
 Here negative sign indicates work done is against 28. During lightning, it is safer to sit inside bus than in an the dielectric starts to conduct electricity. This is
the electric field. open ground or under tree. Why? called dielectric breakdown.
 This work done is equal to the potential difference  The metal body of the bus provides electrostatic 36. Define dielectric strength.
and hence, shielding, where the electric field is zero.  The maximum electric field the dielectric can
𝒅𝑽  During lightning the electric discharge passes withstand before it breakdowns is called dielectric
𝑑𝑉 = − 𝐸 𝑑𝑥 (𝑜𝑟) 𝑬= −
𝒅𝒙 through the body of the bus. strength.
 Thus the electric field is the negative gradient of 29. Define electrostatic induction.  The dielectric strength of air is 𝟑 𝑿 𝟏𝟎𝟔 𝑽 𝒎−𝟏
electric potential.  The phenomenom of charging without actual  If the applied electric field is increases beyond
23. Define equi potential surface. contact of charged body is called electrostatic this, a spark is produced in the air (i.e) it becomes
 An equipotential surface is a surface on which all induction. a conductor
the points are at the same potential. 30. Define dielectrics or insulators. 37. What is called a capacitor?
1) For a point charge the equipotential surfaces  A dielectric is a non- conducting material and has  Capacitor is a device used to store electric charge
are concentric spherical surfaces. no free electrons. The electrons in a dielectric are and electric energy.
2) For a uniform electric field, the equipotential bound within the atoms.  It consists of two conducting plates or sheets
surfaces form a set of planes normal to the (e.g) Ebonite. glass and mica separated by some distance.
electric field. 31. What are called non-polar molecules. Give  Capacitors are widely used in many electronic
24. Define electrostatic potential energy. examples. circuits and in many area of science and
 The electric potential energy of two point charges  A non-polar molecule is one in which centres of technology.
is equal to the amount of workdone to assemble positive and negative charges coincide. 38. Define capacitance of a capacitor.
the charges or workdone in bringing a charge  It has no permanent dipole moment.  The capacitance of a capacitor is defined as the
from infinite distance. (i.e) U = W = q V (e.g) H2, O2, CO2 ratio of the magnitude of charge (Q) on either of
25. Define electric flux. 32. What are called polar molecules. Give examples. the conductor plates to the potential difference
 The number of electric field lines crossing a given  A polar molecule is one in which the positive and (V) existing between the conductors. (i.e) C = Q/V
area kept normal to the electric field lines is called negative charges are separated even in the  Its unit is farad (F) or C V-1
electric flux (𝐸 ). absence of an external electric field. 39. Define energy density of a capacitor.
 Its S.I unit is 𝑵 𝒎𝟐 𝑪−𝟏 . It is a scalar quantity.  They have a permanent dipole moment.  The energy stored per unit volume of space is
26. State Gauss law. (e.g) H2O, N2O, HCl, NH4 defined as energy density and it is derived as,
Gauss law states that if a charge ‘Q’ is enclosed by 33. Define dielectric polarization. 𝑼 𝟏
𝒖𝑬 = = 𝜺𝒐 𝑬𝟐
an arbitrary closed surface, then the total electric  In the presence of external electric field, dipole 𝒗𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒎𝒆 𝟐
1 40. Define action of point or corona discharge.
flux through the closed surface is equal to times moment is induced in the dielectric along the
𝜀𝑂
direction of the field.  Smaller the radius of curvature, larger the charge
the net charge enclosed by the surface. density. Hence charges are accumulated at the
𝑸  Polarisation (𝑝) is defined as the total dipole
⃗⃗ = 𝒊𝒏𝒔𝒊𝒅𝒆
𝑬 = ∮ ⃗𝑬 . 𝒅𝑨 moment per unit volume of the dielectric. sharp points.
𝜺𝟎 34. Define electric susceptibility.  Due to this, the electric field near this sharp edge
27. Define electrostatic shielding . is very high and it ionized the surrounding air.
 For dielectrics, the polarization is directly
 By Gauss law, we conclude that the electric field proportional to the strength of the external  The positive ions are repelled and negative ions
inside the charged spherical shell is zero. are attracted towards the sharp edge.
electric field. (i.e) ⃗𝑷
⃗ = 𝝌𝒆 𝑬
⃗ 𝒆𝒙𝒕
 If a conductor has cavity, then whatever the  This reduces the total charge of the conductor
 where 𝝌𝒆 is a constant called the electric
charges at the surfaces or whatever the electrical near the sharp edge. This is called action of points
susceptibility which is defined as polarization per
diesturbances outside, the electric field inside the or corona discharge
unit electric field.
cavity is zero.
 Its unit is 𝑪𝟐 𝑵−𝟏 𝒎
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
3. Explain Electric field at a point dueto system of 5. Derive an expression for torque experienced by an
PART - III 3 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS charges (or) Superposition of electric fields. electric dipole placed in the uniform electric field.
1. Discuss the basic properties of electric charge. Superposition of electric field : Torque experienced by the dipole in electric field :
(i) Electric charge :  The electric field at an arbitrary point due to
 Like mass, the electric charge is also an system of point charges is simply equal to the
intrinsic and fundamental property of vector sum of the electric fields created by the
particles. individual point charges. This is called
 The unit of electric charge is coulomb superposition of electric fields.
(ii) Conservation of electric charge : Explanation :
 The total electric charge in the universe is  Consider a system of ‘n’ charges 𝑞1 , 𝑞2 , … , 𝑞𝑛
constant and charge can neither be created  The electric field at ‘P’ due to ‘n’ charges
nor be destroyed. 1 𝑞1
⃗⃗⃗𝐸1 =
 In any physical process, the nte change in 2 𝑟̂1𝑃
4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟1𝑃
charge will be zero. This is called conservation 1 𝑞2
⃗⃗⃗𝐸2 =
of charges 2 𝑟̂2𝑃  Let a dipole of moment ⃗⃗⃗𝒑 is placed in an uniform
4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟2𝑃
(iii) Quanisation of charge : 1 𝑞𝑛 electric field ⃗⃗⃗𝑬
 The chage ‘q’ of any object is equal to an finally, ⃗⃗⃗𝐸𝑛 = 2 𝑟̂𝑛𝑃  The force on ‘+q’ = +𝒒⃗⃗⃗𝑬
4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟𝑛𝑃
integral multiple of this fundamental unit of  The total electric field at ‘P’ due to all these ‘n’ The force on ‘-q’ = − 𝒒⃗⃗⃗𝑬
charge ‘e’ (i.e) 𝒒 = 𝒏 𝒆 charges will be,  Then the total force acts on the dipole is zero.
 where n  integer and 𝒆 = 𝟏. 𝟔 𝑿 𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟗 𝑪 ⃗⃗⃗𝐸𝑡𝑜𝑡 = ⃗⃗⃗𝐸1 + ⃗⃗⃗𝐸2 + … … + ⃗⃗⃗𝐸𝑛  But these two forces constitute a couple and the
2. Define superposition principle. Explain how dipole experience a torque which tend to rotate
𝟏 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟐 𝒒𝒏
superposition principle explans the interaction ⃗⃗⃗𝑬𝒕𝒐𝒕 = [ 𝟐 𝒓̂𝟏𝑷 + 𝟐 𝒓̂𝟐𝑷 + ⋯ + 𝟐 𝒓̂𝒏𝑷 ] the dipole along the field.
between multiple charges. 𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝟎 𝒓𝟏𝑷 𝒓𝟐𝑷 𝒓𝒏𝑷
4. List the properties of electric field lines.  The total torque on the dipole about the point ‘O’
Superposition principle : ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑋 (− 𝒒⃗⃗⃗𝑬) + 𝑂𝐵⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑋 (+𝒒⃗⃗⃗𝑬)
Electric field lines : ⃗⃗𝜏 = 𝑂𝐴
 According to Superposition principle, the total
 A set of continuous lines which are the visual ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
|⃗⃗𝜏| = |𝑂𝐴| |− 𝒒⃗⃗⃗𝑬| sin 𝜃 + |𝑂𝐵 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ | |𝒒⃗⃗⃗𝑬| sin 𝜃
force acting on a given charge is equal to the
vector sum of forces exerted on it by all the other representation of the electric field in some region 𝜏 = (𝑂𝐴 + 𝑂𝐵)𝑞 𝐸 sin 𝜃
charges. of space. 𝜏 = 2 𝑎 𝑞 𝐸 sin 𝜃 ∵ [𝑂𝐴 = 𝑂𝐵 = 𝑎]
Explanation : Properties of electric field lines : 𝝉 = 𝒑 𝑬 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽
 Consider a system of ‘n’ charges 𝑞1 , 𝑞2 , … , 𝑞𝑛 1) They starts from positive charge and end at  where, 2 𝑎 𝑞 = 𝑝 → dipole moment
 By Coulomb’s law, force on 𝑞1 by 𝑞2 , … , 𝑞𝑛 are negative charge or at infinity.  In vector notation, ⃗⃗𝝉 = ⃗⃗⃗𝒑 𝑿 ⃗⃗⃗𝑬
𝑞1 𝑞2 2) The electric field vector at a point in space is  The torque is maximum, when 𝜃 = 90
⃗⃗⃗𝐹12 = 𝑘 𝑟̂21
2
𝑟21 tangential to the electric field line at that point. 6. Obtain an expression electric potential at a point
𝑞 𝑞 3) The electric field lines are denser in a region due to a point charge.
⃗⃗⃗𝐹13 = 𝑘 1 2 𝑟̂31 where the electric field has larger magnitude and
2
𝑟31 Potential due to a point charge :
𝑞1 𝑞2 less dense in region where the electric field is of
finally. ⃗⃗⃗𝐹1𝑛 = 𝑘 𝑟̂𝑛1 smaller magnitude. (i.e) the number of lines
2
𝑟𝑛1
passing through a given surface area
 Then total force action on 𝑞1 due to all charges,
perpendicular to the line is proportional to the
⃗⃗⃗𝐹1𝑡𝑜𝑡 = ⃗⃗⃗𝐹12 + ⃗⃗⃗𝐹13 + … … + ⃗⃗⃗𝐹1𝑛  Consider a point charge +𝒒 at origin.
magnitude of the electric field.
𝒒 𝟏 𝒒 𝟐 𝒒 𝟏 𝒒𝟑 𝒒 𝟏 𝒒 𝒏  ‘P’ be a point at a distance ‘r’ from origin.
⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝒕𝒐𝒕
𝟏 = 𝒌[ 𝟐 𝒓̂𝟐𝟏 + 𝟐 𝒓̂𝟑𝟏 + ⋯ + 𝟐 𝒓̂𝒏𝟏 ] 4) No two electric field lines intersect each other
𝒓𝟐𝟏 𝒓𝟑𝟏 𝒓𝒏𝟏 5) The number of electric field lines that emanate  By definition, the electric field at ‘P’ is
1 𝑞
from the positive charge or end at a negative ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 = 𝑟̂
charge is directly proportional to the magnitude of 4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟 2
the charges.

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 Hence electric potential at ‘P’ is  The potential at ‘C’ due to charges 𝒒𝟏 & 𝒒𝟐 9. Explain the process of electrostatic induction.
𝑟 𝑟 1 𝑞1 1 𝑞2
1 𝑞 Electrostatic induction:
𝑉1𝐶 = & 𝑉2𝐶 =
𝑉 = − ∫ ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 . ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑟 = − ∫ 𝑟̂ . ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑟 4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟13 4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟23
4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟 2
∞ ∞  To bring third charge 𝒒𝟑 to ‘C’ , work has to be
𝑟
1 𝑞 done against the electric field due to 𝒒𝟏 & 𝒒𝟐 .
𝑉= − ∫ 2
𝑟̂ . 𝑑𝑟 𝑟̂ [∵ ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑟 = 𝑑𝑟 𝑟̂ ]  Thus work done on charge 𝒒𝟑 is,
4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟
∞ 1 𝑞1 𝑞2
𝑟 𝑊 = 𝑞3 (𝑉1𝐶 + 𝑉2𝐶 ) = 𝑞3 [ + ]
𝑞 1 4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟13 𝑟23
𝑉= − ∫ 𝑑𝑟 [∵ 𝑟̂ . 𝑟̂ = 1] 𝟏 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟑 𝒒𝟐 𝒒𝟑
4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟 2 (𝑜𝑟) 𝑼 =
∞ [ + ] − − − −(𝟐)
𝑞 1𝑟 𝑞 1 1 𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝟎 𝒓𝟏𝟑 𝒓𝟐𝟑
𝑉= − [− ] = [ − ]  Hence the the total electrostatic potential energy of
4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟 ∞ 4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟 ∞
system of three point charges is
𝟏 𝒒
𝑽= 𝟏 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟐 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟑 𝒒𝟐 𝒒𝟑
𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝟎 𝒓 𝑼 = [ + + ] − − − (𝟑)
𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝟎 𝒓𝟏𝟐 𝒓𝟏𝟑 𝒓𝟐𝟑
 If the source charge is negative (−𝑞) , then the 8. Obtain an expression for electrostatic potential  The type of charging without actual contact of
potential also negative and it is given by energy of a dipole in a uniform electric field. charged body is called electrostatic induction.
𝟏 𝒒
𝑽=− Potential energy of dipole in uniform electric field:  Let a negatively charged rubber rod is brought
𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝟎 𝒓 near to spherical conductor, the electrons in the
7. Obtain an expression for potential energy due to a conductor are repelled to farther side and hence
collection of three point charges which are positive charges are induced near the region of the
separated by finite distances. rod. So the distribution of charges are not uniform,
Potential energy of system of three charges : but the total charge is zero
 If the conducting sphere is connected to ground,
the electrons are flows to the ground, but the
positive charges will not flow to the ground,
 Let a dipole of moment ⃗⃗⃗𝒑 is placed in a uniform because they are attracted by the negative charges
electric field ⃗⃗⃗𝑬 of the rod.
 Here the dipole experience a torque, which rotate  When the grounding wire is removed from the
 Electrostatic potential energy of a system of the dipole along the field. sphere, the positive charges remain near the rod.
charges is defined as the work done to assemble  To rotate the dipole from 𝜃 to 𝜃 against this  If the charged rod is taken away, the positive
the charges torque, work has to be done by an external torque charges are distributed uniformly on the surface
 consider a point charge 𝒒𝟏 at ‘A’ (𝜏𝑒𝑥𝑡 ) and it is given by, of the sphere.
 Electric potential at ‘B’ due to 𝒒𝟏 is,    Thus the neutral conducting sphere becomes
1 𝑞1 positively charged without any contact.
𝑉1𝐵 = 𝑊 = ∫ 𝜏𝑒𝑥𝑡 𝑑 = ∫ 𝑝 𝐸 sin 𝜃 𝑑
4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟12 10. Derive an expression for capacitance of parallel
 
 To bring second charge 𝒒𝟐 to ‘B’, work has to be 𝑊 = 𝑝 𝐸 [− cos 𝜃] = −𝑝 𝐸 [𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 ] plate capacitor.
done against the electric field created by 𝒒𝟏 𝑊 = 𝑝 𝐸 [𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃] Capacitance of parallel plate capacitor :
 The work done on the charge 𝒒𝟐 is,  This work done is stored as electrostatic potential
1 𝑞1 𝑞2
𝑊 = 𝑞2 𝑉1𝐵 = energy of the dipole.
4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟12  Let the initial angle be 𝜃 = 90 , then
 This work done is stored as electrostatic potential 𝑈 = 𝑊 = 𝑝 𝐸 [𝑐𝑜𝑠 90 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃]
energy of system of two charges 𝒒𝟏 and 𝒒𝟐 𝑼 = − 𝒑 𝑬 𝐜𝐨𝐬  = − ⃗⃗⃗𝒑 . ⃗⃗⃗𝑬
𝟏 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟐
𝑼= − − − −(𝟏)  If 𝜃 = 180 , then potential energy is maximum
𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝟎 𝒓𝟏𝟐
 If 𝜃 = 0 , then potential energy is mimimum
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 Consider a capacitor consists of two parallel plates  The energy stored per unit volume of space is Principle of lightning conductor (Action of point) :
each of area ‘A’ separated by a distance ‘d’ defined as energy density ((𝒖𝑬 ).  Action of point is the principle behind the
 Let ‘𝝈′ be the surface charge density of the plates. 𝑼𝑬 𝟏 lightning conductor.
𝒖𝑬 = = 𝜺𝑶 𝑬𝟐  We know that smaller the radius of curvature, the
 The electric field between the plates, 𝒗𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒎𝒆 𝟐
𝝈 𝑸 12. Explain in detail how charges are distributed in a larger is the charge density.
𝑬= = − − − − − − − (1) conductor and the principle behind the lightning
𝜺𝑶 𝑨 𝜺𝑶  If the conductor has sharp end which has larger
 Since the field is uniform, the potential difference conductor. curvature (smaller radius), it has a large charge
between the plates, Distribution of charges in a conductor : accumulation.
𝑸  As a result, the electric field near this edge is very
𝑽=𝑬𝒅= [ ]𝒅 − − − − − (2) high and it ionizes the surrounding air.
𝑨 𝜺𝑶
 Then the capacitance of the capacitor,  The positive ions are repelled at the sharp edge
𝑄 𝑄 and negative ions are attracted towards the
𝐶= = sharper edge.
𝑉 𝑄
[ ]𝑑  This reduces the total charge of the conductor
𝐴 𝜀𝑂
𝜺𝑶 𝑨  Consider two conducting spheres ‘A’ and ‘B’ of near the sharp edge. This is called action of points
𝑪= − − − − − − − (𝟑) radii 𝒓𝟏 and 𝒓𝟐 . Let 𝒓𝟏 > 𝒓𝟐
𝒅 or corona discharge.
 Thus capacitance is,  Let the two spheres are connected by a thin 13. Explain the principle, construction and action of
(i) directly proportional to the Area (A) and conducting wire. lightning conductor.
(ii) inversely proportional to the separation (d)  If a charge ‘Q’ is given to either A or B, this charge Lightning conductor :
11. Derive an expression for energy stored in capacitor is redistributed in both the spheres until their  This is a device used to
Energy stored in capacitor: potential becomes same. protect tall building from
 Capacitor is a device used to store charges and  Now they are uniformly charged and attain lightning strikes;
energy. electrostatic equilibrium.  It woks on the principle of
 When a battery is connected to the capacitor,  At this stage, let the surface charge densities of acion of points or corona
electrons of total charge ‘-Q’ are transferred from A and B are 𝜎1 and 𝜎2 respectively, then discharge.
one plate to other plate. For this work is done by Charge residing on suface of A = 𝑞1 = 𝜎1 4 𝜋 𝑟12  It consists of a long thick copper rod passing from
the battery. Charge residing on suface of B = 𝑞2 = 𝜎2 4 𝜋 𝑟22 top of the building to the ground.
 This work done is strored as electrostatic energy  Then the total charge ; Q = 𝑞1 + 𝑞2  The upper end of the rod has a sharp spike or a
in capacitor.  There is no net charge inside the conductors. sharp needle. The lower end of the rod is
 To transfer ′𝑑𝑄′ for a potential difference ‘V’, the  Electrostic potential on the surface of A and B is connected to the copper plate which is buried
work done is 1 𝑞1 1 𝑞2 deep in to the ground.
𝑉𝐴 = & 𝑉𝐵 =
𝑄 𝑄 4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟1 4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟2  When a negatively charged cloud is passing above
𝑑𝑊 = 𝑉 𝑑𝑄 = 𝑑𝑄 [∵ 𝑉 = ]  Under elecrostic equilibrium. 𝑉𝐴 = 𝑉𝐵
𝐶 𝐶 the building, it induces a positive charge on the
 The total work done to charge a capacitor, 1 𝑞1 1 𝑞2 spike.
𝑄
∴ =
𝑄
𝑄 1 𝑄2 𝑄2 4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟1 4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟2  Since the charge density is large at the spike,
𝑊= ∫ 𝑑𝑄 = [ ] = 𝑞1 𝑞2 action of point takes place.
0 𝐶 𝐶 2 0 2𝐶 =
𝑟1 𝑟2  This positive charge ionizes the surrounding air
 This work done is stored as electrostatic energy of 𝜎1 4 𝜋 𝑟12 𝜎2 4 𝜋 𝑟22
= which in turn neutralizes the negative charge in
the capacitor, (i.e) 𝑟 𝑟
1 2 the cloud.
𝑸𝟐 𝟏
𝑼𝑬 = = 𝑪 𝑽𝟐 [∵ 𝑄 = 𝐶 𝑉] 𝜎1 𝑟1 = 𝜎2 𝑟2  The negative charge pushed to the spikes passes
𝟐𝑪 𝟐 through the copper rod and is safely diverted to
𝜀 𝐴 (𝑜𝑟) 𝝈 𝒓 = 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒕
 We know that, 𝑉 = 𝐸 𝑑 & 𝐶= 𝑂 the Earth.
𝑑  Thus the surface charge density is inversely
1 𝜀𝑂 𝐴 1  Thus the lighting arrester does not stop the
∴ 𝑈𝐸 = 2
(𝐸 𝑑) = 𝜀𝑂 (𝐴 𝑑) 𝐸 2 proportional to the radius of the sphere.
2 𝑑 2 lightning, but it diverts the lightning to the ground
 Hence for smaller radius , the charge density will
 where, (𝐴 𝑑) → 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 safely
be larger and vice versa
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
14. Give the applications and disadvantage of  Due to this torque on each water molecule, the
capacitors molecules rotate very fast and produce thermal
PART - IV 5 MARK QUESTIONS & ANSWERS
Applications of capacitor: energy. 1. Explain in detail Coulomb’s law and its various aspects.
 Flash capacitors are used in digital camera to take  Thus, heat generated is used to heat the food. Coulomb’s law :
photographs
 During cardiac arrest, a device called heart
defibrillator is used to give a sudden surge of a
large amount of electrical energy to the patient’s
chest to retrieve the normal heart function. This  Consider two point charges 𝒒𝟏 and 𝒒𝟐 separated
defibrillator uses a capacitor of 175 µF charged to by a distance ′𝒓′
a high voltage of around 2000 V  According to Coulomb law, the force on the point
 Capacitors are used in the ignition system of charge 𝒒𝟐 exerted by 𝒒𝟏 is
𝒒 𝒒
automobile engines to eliminate sparking. ⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝟐𝟏 = 𝒌 𝟏 𝟐 𝒓̂𝟏𝟐
 Capacitors are used to reduce power fluctuations 𝒓𝟐
 where, k → constant
in power supplies and to increase the efficiency of
𝒓̂𝟏𝟐 → unit vector directed from 𝒒𝟏 to 𝒒𝟐
power transmission.
Important aspects :
 Coulomb law states that the electrostatic force is
 Even after the battery or power supply is
1) directly proportional to the product of the
removed, the capacitor stores charges and energy
magnitude of two point charges
for some time. It caused unwanted shock.
2) inversely proportional to the square of the
15. Define equipotential surface. Give its properties.
distance between them
Equipotential surface:
 The force always lie along the line joining the two
 An equipotential surface is a surface on which all
charges.
the points are at the same potential. 𝟏
1) For a point charge the equipotential surfaces  In S.I units, 𝒌 = = 𝟗 𝑿 𝟏𝟎𝟗 𝑵 𝒎𝟐 𝑪−𝟐
𝟒 𝝅𝜺𝟎
are concentric spherical surfaces.  Here is the permittivity of free space or vacuum
2) For a uniform electric field, the equipotential and its value is
surfaces form a set of planes normal to the 𝟏
electric field. 𝜺𝟎 = = 𝟖. 𝟖𝟓 𝑿 𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟐 𝑪𝟐 𝑵−𝟏 𝒎−𝟐
𝟒 𝝅𝒌
Properties :  The magnitude of electrostatic force between two
 The wor kdone to move a charge ‘q’ between any charges each of 1 C separated by a distance of 1 m
two points A and B is 𝑊 = 𝑞 (𝑉𝐴 − 𝑉𝐵 ). If A and B is 𝟗 𝑿 𝟏𝟎𝟗 𝑵
lie on the same equipotential surface then 𝑉𝐴 = 𝑉𝐵  The Coulomb law in vacuum and in medium are,
Hence work done is zero (𝑊 = 0) 𝟏 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟐
⃗𝑭𝟐𝟏 = 𝒓̂𝟏𝟐
 The electric field is always normal to an 𝟒 𝝅𝜺𝟎 𝒓𝟐
equipotential surface. 𝟏 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟐
& ⃗𝑭𝟐𝟏 = 𝒓̂𝟏𝟐
16. Write a note on microwave oven. 𝟒 𝝅𝜺 𝒓𝟐
Microwave oven : where, 𝜀 = 𝜀𝑜 𝜀𝑟 −→ permittivity of the medium
 It works on the principle of torque acting on an - Thus the relative permittivity of the given medium
𝜀
electric dipole. is defined as , 𝜀𝑟 = . For air or vacuum, 𝜀𝑟 = 1
𝜀𝑜
 The food we consume has water molecules which and for all other media 𝜀𝑟 > 1
are permanent electric dipoles. Oven produce
 Coulomb’s law has same structure as Newton’s law
microwaves that are oscillating electromagnetic
of gravitation. (i.e)
fields and produce torque on the water molecules. 𝑞1 𝑞2 𝑚1 𝑚2
𝐹𝐶𝑜𝑢𝑙𝑜𝑚𝑏 = 𝑘 2 & 𝐹𝑁𝑒𝑤𝑡𝑜𝑛 = 𝐺
𝑟 𝑟2
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
9 2 −2
 Here 𝑘 = 9 𝑋 10 𝑁 𝑚 𝐶 and 3. How do we determine the electric field due to a  Then the electric field due to surface of total
𝐺 = 6.626 𝑋 10−11 𝑁 𝑚2 𝑘𝑔−2 continuous charge distribution? Explain. charge Q is
Since ‘k’ is much more greater than ‘G’, the Continuos distribution of charges 𝟏 𝝈 𝒅𝑨 𝝈 𝒅𝑨
⃗⃗⃗𝑬 = ∫ 𝟐 𝒓̂ = ∫ 𝟐 𝒓̂
electrostatic force is always greater than  Consider a charged object of 𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝒐 𝒓 𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝒐 𝒓
gravitational force for smaller size objects irregularshape which is divided c) Volume charge distribution :
 Electrostatic force between two point charges into a large number of charge  If the charge ‘Q’ is uniformly distributed in a
depends on the nature of the medium in which elements ∆𝑞1 , ∆𝑞2 , ∆𝑞3 , … ∆𝑞𝑛 volume ‘V’, then charge per unit volume (i.e)
two charges are kept at rest.  The electric field at ‘P’ due to volume charge density ; 𝜌 =
𝑄

## this charged object is equal to 𝑉

 Depending upon the nature of the charges, it may
sum of all the charged  Hence, 𝑑𝑞 = 𝜌 𝑑𝑉
either be attractive or repulsive
elements. (i.e)  Then the electric field due to volume of total
 If the charges are in motion, another force called
1 ∆𝑞1 ∆𝑞2 ∆𝑞𝑛 charge Q is
Lorentz force come in to play in addition with ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 = [ 2 𝑟̂1𝑃 + 𝑟̂
2𝑃 + ⋯ + 𝑟̂𝑛𝑃 ] 𝟏  𝒅𝑽  𝒅𝑽
Coulomb force. 4 𝜋 𝜀𝑜 𝑟1𝑃 𝑟2𝑃2 2
𝑟𝑛𝑃 ⃗⃗⃗𝑬 = ∫ 𝟐 𝒓̂ = ∫ 𝟐 𝒓̂
 Electrostatic force obeys Newton’s third law. (i.e) 𝒏 𝟒 𝝅 𝜺 𝒐 𝒓 𝟒 𝝅 𝜺 𝒐 𝒓
𝟏 ∆𝒒𝒊 4. Calculate the electric field due to a dipole on its
⃗𝑭𝟐𝟏 = − ⃗𝑭𝟏𝟐 ⃗⃗⃗𝑬 = ∑ 𝟐 𝒓̂𝒊𝑷
𝟒 𝝅 𝜺 𝒐 𝒓 axial line.
2. Define electric field. Explain its various aspects. 𝒊=𝟏 𝒊𝑷
Electric field due to dipole on its axial line :
Electric field :  For continuous distribution of charge, we have
 The electric field at the point ‘P’ at a distance ‘r’ ∆𝑞 → 0 (= 𝑑𝑞). Hence
from the point charge ‘q’ is the force experienced 𝟏 𝒅𝒒
⃗⃗⃗𝑬 = ∫ 𝟐 𝒓̂ − − − − − − − (𝟏)
by a unit charge and is given by 𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝒐 𝒓
⃗⃗⃗𝑭 𝟏 𝒒
⃗⃗⃗𝑬 = = 𝒓̂
𝒒𝒐 𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝒐 𝒓 𝟐  Consider a dipole AB along X - axis. Its diplole
Important aspects : moment be 𝒑 = 𝟐𝒒𝒂 and its direction be along
 If ‘q’ is positive, the electric field points away and − 𝒒 to + 𝒒 .
if ‘q’ is negative the electric field points towards  Let ‘C’ be the point at a distance ‘r’ from the mid
the source charge. point ‘O’ on its axial line.
 Electric field at C due to +𝒒
𝟏 𝒒
⃗+=
𝑬 ̂
𝒑
 The force experienced by the test charge 𝒒𝒐 placed 𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝒐 (𝒓 − 𝒂)𝟐
a) Linear charge distribution :  Electric field at C due to −𝒒
in electric field ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 is , ⃗⃗⃗𝑭 = 𝒒𝒐 ⃗⃗⃗𝑬 𝟏 𝒒
 The electric field is independent of test charge 𝒒𝒐  If the charge ‘Q’ is uniformly distributed along ⃗𝑬− = − ̂
𝒑
the wire of length ‘L’, then charge per unit 𝟒 𝝅 𝜺 𝒐 (𝒓 + 𝒂)𝟐
and it depends only on souce charge 𝒒
length (i.e) linear charge density ; 𝜆 =
𝑄  Since +𝒒 is located closer to pont ‘C’ than −𝒒 ,
 Electric field is a vector quantity. So it has unique 𝐿 ⃗𝑬+ > ⃗𝑬−
direction and magnitude at every point.  Hence, 𝑑𝑞 = 𝜆 𝑑𝑙
 Since electric field is inversely proportional to the  By superposition principle, the total electric field
 Then the electric field due to line of total
distance, as distance increases the field decreases. at ‘C’ due to dipole is,
charge Q is
 The test charge is made sufficiently small such 𝟏 𝝀 𝒅𝒍 𝝀 𝒅𝒍 𝐸⃗𝑡𝑜𝑡 = 𝐸⃗+ + 𝐸⃗−
⃗⃗⃗𝑬 = ∫ ̂
𝒓 = ∫ ̂
𝒓 1 𝑞 1 𝑞
that it will not modify the electric field of the 𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝒐 𝒓𝟐 𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝒐 𝒓 𝟐 𝐸⃗𝑡𝑜𝑡 = 𝑝̂ − 𝑝̂
source charge. 4 𝜋 𝜀 (𝑟 − 𝑎) 2 4 𝜋 𝜀 (𝑟 + 𝑎)2
b) Surface charge distribution : 𝑜 𝑜
 For continuous and finite size charge 1 1 1
 If the charge ‘Q’ is uniformly distributed on 𝐸⃗𝑡𝑜𝑡 = 𝑞 [ − ] 𝑝̂
distributions, integration techniques must bt used the surface of area ‘A’, then charge per unit 4 𝜋 𝜀𝑜 (𝑟 − 𝑎) 2 (𝑟 + 𝑎)2
2
(𝑟 + 𝑎) − (𝑟 − 𝑎) 2
 There are two kinds of electric field. They are 𝑄 1
area (i.e) surface charge density ; 𝜎 = 𝐸⃗𝑡𝑜𝑡 = 𝑞 [ ] 𝑝̂
(1) Uniform or constant field 𝐴 4 𝜋 𝜀𝑜 (𝑟 − 𝑎)2 (𝑟 + 𝑎)2
(2) Non uniform field  Hence, 𝑑𝑞 = 𝜎 𝑑𝐴
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
2 2 2 2
1 𝑟 +𝑎 + 2𝑟𝑎− 𝑟 −𝑎 + 2𝑟𝑎  But the horizontal components | 𝑬 ⃗ + | 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽 and  Apply cosine law in  BOP
𝐸⃗𝑡𝑜𝑡 = 𝑞 [ ] 𝑝̂ r12 = r 2 + a2 − 2 r a cos θ
4 𝜋 𝜀𝑜 〈(𝑟 − 𝑎)(𝑟 + 𝑎)〉2 ⃗
| 𝑬− | 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽 are equal and in same direction (−𝒑 ̂)
1 4𝑟𝑎 a2 2 a
𝐸⃗𝑡𝑜𝑡 = 𝑞 [ 2 ] 𝑝̂ will added up to give total electric field. Hence r12 = r 2 [1 + 2 − cos θ]
4 𝜋 𝜀𝑜 〈𝑟 − 𝑎 2 〉2 𝐸⃗𝑡𝑜𝑡 = | 𝐸⃗+ | 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 (−𝑝̂ ) + | 𝐸⃗− | 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 (−𝑝̂ ) r r
 Here the direction of total electric field is the 𝑎2
(𝑜𝑟) 𝐸⃗𝑡𝑜𝑡 = − 2 | 𝐸⃗+ | 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 𝑝̂  If 𝑎 ≪ 𝑟 then neglecting 2
𝑟
dipole moment ⃗⃗⃗𝒑. 1 𝑞 2a
 If 𝑟 ≫ 𝑎 , then neglecting 𝑎2 . We get 𝐸⃗𝑡𝑜𝑡 = − 2 [ ] cos 𝜃 𝑝̂ 2 2
r1 = r [1 − cos θ]
1 4𝑟𝑎 1 4𝑎 4 𝜋 𝜀𝑜 (𝑟 2 + 𝑎2 ) r
1
𝐸⃗𝑡𝑜𝑡 = 𝑞 [ 4 ] 𝑝̂ = 𝑞 [ 3 ] 𝑝̂ 1 2𝑞 𝑎 2d
4 𝜋 𝜀𝑜 𝑟 4 𝜋 𝜀𝑜 𝑟 𝐸⃗𝑡𝑜𝑡 = − [ ] 1 𝑝̂ r1 = r [1 − cos θ]
2

𝟏 𝟐 ⃗⃗⃗𝒑 4 𝜋 𝜀𝑜 (𝑟 2 + 𝑎2 ) (𝑟 2 r
+ 𝑎 2 )2
⃗𝑬𝒕𝒐𝒕 = [ 𝑞 2𝑎 𝑝̂ = ⃗⃗⃗𝑝 ] 1 2𝑞𝑎 −
1
𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝒐 𝒓 𝟑 𝐸⃗𝑡𝑜𝑡 = − 1 1 2a 2
3 𝑝̂ = [1 − cos θ]
5. Calculate the electric field due to a dipole on its 4 𝜋 𝜀𝑜 (𝑟 2 r1 r r
+ 𝑎 2 )2
equatorial line. 1 𝑝 𝑝̂ 1 ⃗⃗⃗𝑝 1 1 a
𝐸⃗𝑡𝑜𝑡 = − = [1 + cos θ] – − − − (2)
Electric field due to dipole on its equatorial line : 3 = − 3 r1 r r
4 𝜋 𝜀𝑜 (𝑟 2 4 𝜋 𝜀𝑜 (𝑟 2 + 𝑎 2 )2
+ 𝑎 2 )2
 Apply cosine law in  AOP
 If 𝑟 ≫ 𝑎 then neglecting 𝑎2 r22 = r 2 + a2 + 2 r a cos (180 − θ)
𝟏 ⃗⃗⃗𝒑
⃗𝑬𝒕𝒐𝒕 = − [ 𝑞 2𝑎 𝑝̂ = 𝑝 𝑝̂ = ⃗⃗⃗𝑝 ] a2 2 a
𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝒐 𝒓 𝟑 r22 = r 2 [1 + 2 + cos θ]
r r
6. Derive an expression for electro static potential 𝑎2
due to electric dipole. 
If 𝑎 ≪ 𝑟 then neglecting 2
𝑟
Electrostatic potential due to dipole : 2 2
2a
r2 = r [1 + cos θ]
r
1
2a 2
r2 = r [1 + cos θ]
r
1

1 1 2a 2
= [1 + cos θ]
 Consider a dipole AB along X - axis. Its diplole r2 r r
moment be 𝒑 = 𝟐𝒒𝒂 and its direction be along 1 1 a
− 𝒒 to + 𝒒 . = [1 + cos θ] – − − − (3)
r2 r r
 Let ‘C’ be the point at a distance ‘r’ from the mid  Consider a dipole AB along X - axis. Its diplole  Put equation (2) and (3) in (1)
point ‘O’ on its equatorial plane. moment be 𝒑 = 𝟐𝒒𝒂 and its direction be along 1 1 𝑎 1 𝑎
 Electric field at C due to +𝒒 (along BC) 𝑉 = 𝑞 { [1 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃] − [1 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃]}
− 𝒒 to + 𝒒 4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 𝑟 𝑟 𝑟
𝟏 𝒒  Let ‘P’ be the point at a distance ‘r’ from the mid 1 𝑞 𝑎 𝑎
| 𝑬⃗ +| =
𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝒐 (𝒓 + 𝒂𝟐 )
𝟐
point ‘O’ 𝑉 = [1 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 − 1 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃]
4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 𝑟 𝑟
 Electric field at C due to −𝒒 (along CA)  Let ∠𝑃𝑂𝐴 = 𝜃, 𝐵𝑃 = 𝑟1 and 𝐴𝑃 = 𝑟2 1 𝑞 2𝑎 1 2𝑞𝑎
𝟏 𝒒  Electric potential at P due to +𝒒 𝑉 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃
| ⃗𝑬− | = 4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 𝑟 4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 2
𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝒐 (𝒓𝟐 + 𝒂𝟐 ) 1 q 𝟏 𝒑
V1 = 𝑽 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽 [𝑝 = 2𝑞𝑎]
 Here | ⃗𝑬+ | = | ⃗𝑬− | 4 πε0 r1 𝟒𝝅𝝐𝟎 𝒓𝟐
 Resolve 𝑬 ⃗ + and 𝑬 ⃗ − in to two components.  Electric potential at P due to −𝒒 𝟏 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝒑 . 𝒓̂
1 q (𝒐𝒓) 𝑽 = [𝑝 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 = ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑝 . 𝑟̂ ]
 Here the perpendicular components | ⃗𝑬+ | 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝜽 V2 = − 𝟒𝝅𝝐𝟎 𝒓𝟐
⃗ − | 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝜽 are equal and opposite will cancel 4 πε0 r2  Here 𝑟̂ is the unit vector along OP
and | 𝑬
 Then total potential at ‘P’ due to dipole is
each other 1 1 1
V = V1 + 𝑉2 = q [ − ] − − − (1)
4 πε0 r1 r2
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
case -1 : If  = 0° ; 𝑐𝑜𝑠  = 1 then,  By Gauss law,  The electric flux through the curved surface,
𝟏 𝒑 𝑄𝑖𝑛 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = ∫ 𝐸 𝑑𝐴 cos 90 = 0
𝑽 = Φ𝐸 = Φ𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑣𝑒 = ∫ ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 . 𝑑𝐴
𝟒𝝅𝜺𝟎 𝒓𝟐 𝜀𝑜
Case -2 : If  = 180° ; 𝑐𝑜𝑠 = −1 then, 𝜆𝐿  The total electric flux through through the
𝐸 (2 𝜋 𝑟 𝐿) = Gaussian surface,
𝟏 𝒑 𝜀𝑜
𝑽 =− 𝝀 Φ𝐸 = Φ𝑃 + 𝚽𝑷 + Φ𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑣𝑒
𝟒𝝅𝜺𝟎 𝒓𝟐 𝑬 =
Case -3 : If  = 90°; 𝑐𝑜𝑠 = 0 then, 𝟐 𝝅 𝜺𝒐 𝒓 𝚽𝑬 = ∫ 𝐸 𝑑𝐴 + ∫ 𝐸 𝑑𝐴 + 0 = 2 𝐸 ∫ 𝑑𝐴
𝑽 = 𝟎  In Vector notation,
7. Obtain an expression for electric field due to an 𝝀 𝚽𝑬 = 𝟐 𝑬 𝑨
⃗⃗⃗
𝑬 = 𝒓̂  By Gauss law,
infinitely long charged wire. 𝟐 𝝅 𝜺𝒐 𝒓 𝑄𝑖𝑛
Electric field due to infinitely long charged wire :  Here ̂𝒓 → unit vector perpendicular to the curved Φ𝐸 =
𝜀𝑜
surface outwards.
𝜎𝐴
 If 𝜆 > 0 , then ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 points perpendicular outward 2EA=
𝜀𝑜
(𝑟̂ ) from the wire and if 𝜆 < 0 , then ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 points 𝝈
perpendicular inward (− 𝑟̂ ) 𝐄 =
𝟐 𝜺𝒐
8. Obtain an expression for electric field due to an  In vector notation,
charged infinite plane sheet. 𝝈
⃗⃗⃗ =
𝑬 𝒏
̂
Electric field due to charged infinite plane sheet : 𝟐 𝜺𝒐
 Here ̂𝒏 → unit vector perpendicular to the plane
sheet outwards.
 If 𝜎 > 0 , then ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 points perpendicular outward
(𝑛̂) from the plane sheet and if 𝜎 < 0 , then ⃗⃗⃗𝐸
points perpendicular inward (− 𝑛̂)
 Consider an infinitely long straight wire of 9. Obtain an expression for electric field due to an
uniform linear charge density ‘’ uniformly charged spherical shell.
 Let ‘P’ be a point at a distance ‘r’ from the wire. Let Electric field due to charged spherical shell :
‘E’ be the electric field at ‘P’  Consider an uniformly charged spherical shell of
 Consider a cylindrical Gaussian surface of length radius ‘R’ and charge ‘Q’
‘L’ and radius ‘r’ 1) At a point outside the shell (𝒓 > 𝑹) :
 The electric flux through the top surface,
Φ𝑡𝑜𝑝 = ∫ ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 . ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝐴 = ∫ 𝐸 𝑑𝐴 cos 90 = 0  Consider an infinite plane sheet of uniform surface
charge density ‘𝜎’
 The electric flux through the bottom surface,
 Let ‘P’ be a point at a distance ‘r’ from the sheet.
Φ𝑏𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚 = ∫ ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 . ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝐴 = ∫ 𝐸 𝑑𝐴 cos 90 = 0 Let ‘E’ be the electric field at ‘P’
 The electric flux through the curved surface,  Here the direction of electric field is
perpendicularly outward from the sheet.
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = ∫ 𝐸 𝑑𝐴 cos 0 = 𝐸 ∫ 𝑑𝐴
Φ𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑣𝑒 = ∫ ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 . 𝑑𝐴  Consider a cylindrical Gaussian surface of length
Φ𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑣𝑒 = 𝐸 2 𝜋 𝑟 𝐿 ‘2r’ and area of cross section ‘A’
 Then the total electric flux through the Gaussian  The electric flux through plane surface ‘P’
surface, ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = ∫ 𝐸 𝑑𝐴 cos 0 = ∫ 𝐸 𝑑𝐴
Φ𝑃 = ∫ ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 . 𝑑𝐴  Let P be the point outside the shell at a distance ‘r’
Φ𝐸 = Φ𝑡𝑜𝑝 + Φ𝑏𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚 + Φ𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑣𝑒
 The electric flux through plane surface ‘P’ from its centre.
𝚽𝑬 = 𝑬 (𝟐 𝝅 𝒓 𝑳)  Here electric field points radially outwards if Q >0
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = ∫ 𝐸 𝑑𝐴 cos 0 = ∫ 𝐸 𝑑𝐴
𝚽𝑷 = ∫ ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 . 𝑑𝐴 and radially inward if Q < 0.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 Consider a spherical Gaussian surface of radius ‘r’  Thus the electric field due to the uniform charged  The total electric flux is independent of the
which encloses the total charge ‘Q’ spherical shell is zero at all points inside the shell. location of charges inside the closed surface and
 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ are along radially outwards, we 10. Obtain Gauss law from Coulomb’s law.
Since 𝐸⃗ and 𝑑𝐴 shape on the closed surface.
have 𝜃 = 0 Gauss law from Coulomb’s law :  Gauss law is another form of Coulomb law and
 The electric flux through the Gaussian surface, also applicable to charges in motion.
11. Discuss the various properties of conductors in
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = ∮ 𝐸 𝑑𝐴 𝑐𝑜𝑠 0
Φ𝐸 = ∮ 𝐸⃗ . 𝑑𝐴 electrostatic equilibrium.
Conductors in electrostatic equilibrium :
𝚽𝑬 = 𝑬 ∮ 𝒅𝑨 = 𝑬 (𝟒 𝝅 𝒓𝟐 )
 An electrical conductor has a large number of
 By Gauss law, mobile charges which are free to move in the
𝑄𝑖𝑛 material.
Φ𝐸 =
𝜀𝑜  The resultant motion is zero and it implies that the
2
𝑄 conductor is in electrostatic equilibrium.
𝐸 (4 𝜋 𝑟 ) =  Thus at electrostatic equilibrium, there is no net
𝜀𝑜
𝟏 𝑸  Consider a charged particle of charge ‘+q’ current in the conductor.
𝑬 =  A conductor at electrostatic equilibrium has the
𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝒐 𝒓 𝟐  Draw a Gaussian spherical surface of radius ‘r’
 In vector notation, around this charge. following properties.
𝟏 𝑸  Due to symmentry, the electric field ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 at all the Property - 1 : The electric field is zero everywhere
⃗⃗⃗
𝑬 = 𝒓̂ inside the conductor. This is tre regardless of
𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝒐 𝒓 𝟐 points on the spherical surface have same
 Here ̂𝒓 → unit vector acting radiallyh outward magnitude and radially outward in direction. whether the conductor is solid or hollow.
from the spherical surface.  If a test charge ‘𝑞𝑜 ’ is placed on the Gaussian  The electric field is not zero inside the metal, then
2) At a point on the surface of the shell (𝒓 = 𝑹): surface, by Coulomb law the force acting it is, there will be a force on the mobile charge carriers
1 𝑄 𝑞𝑜 due to this electric field.
 If the point lies on the surface of the charged shell, |⃗⃗⃗𝐹 | =
then = 𝑹 . Then the electric field, 4 𝜋 𝜀𝑜 𝑟 2  As a result, there will be a net motion of the
𝟏 𝑸  By definition, the electric field, mobile charges, which contradicts the conductors
⃗⃗⃗
𝑬 = 𝒓̂ being in electrostatic equilibrium.
𝟒 𝝅 𝜺 𝒐 𝑹𝟐 |⃗⃗⃗𝐹 | 1 𝑄
3) At a point inside the shell (𝒓 < 𝑹) ∶ |⃗⃗⃗𝐸 | = = − − − −(1)  Thus the electric field is zero every where inside
𝑞𝑜 4 𝜋 𝜀𝑜 𝑟 2 the conductor.
 Since the area element 𝑑𝐴 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ is along the electric Property - 2 : Theer is no net charge inside the
field 𝐸⃗ , we have 𝜃 = 0. Hence the electric flux conductors. The charges must reside only on the
through the Gaussian surface is, surface of the conductors.
Φ𝐸 = ∮ 𝐸⃗ . 𝑑𝐴 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = ∮ 𝐸 𝑑𝐴 cos 0° = 𝐸 ∮ 𝑑𝐴  Form Gauss’s law, this implies that there is no net
charge inside the conductor. Even if some charge
 Here ∮ 𝑑𝐴 = 4 𝜋 𝑟 2 → area of Gaussian sphere is introduced inside the conductor, it immediately
 Let ‘P’ be the point inside the charged shell at a  Put in equation (1) reaches the surface of the conductor.
distance ‘r’ from its centre. 1 𝑄 2 Property - 3 : The electric field outside the
Φ𝐸 = 𝑋4𝜋𝑟
 Consider the spherical Gaussian surface of radius 4 𝜋 𝜀𝑜 𝑟 2 conductor is perpendicular to the surface of the
𝑸 𝝈
‘r’
∴ 𝚽𝑬 = conductor and has a magnitude of , where 𝝈 is
𝜺𝒐
 Since there is no charge inside the Gaussian 𝜺𝒐
the surface charge density at that point
surface, Q = 0  This is known as Gauss law.
 If the electric field has components parallel to the
 Then from Gauss law, Result :
𝑄𝑖𝑛 surface of the conductor, then free electrons on
 The total electric flux through the closed surface
Φ𝐸 = ∮ 𝐸⃗ . ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝐴 = the surface of the conductor would experience
𝜀𝑜 depends only on the charges enclosed by the
acceleration. This means that the conductor is not
𝐸 (4 𝜋 𝑟 2 ) = 0 surface and independent of charges outside the
in equilibrium.
𝑬 = 𝟎 surface.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 Therefore at electrostactic equilibrium, the  When an external electric field is applied on a  The battery is then disconnected from the
electric field must be perpendicular to the surface conductor, the charges are aligned in such a way capacitor and the dielectric is inserted between
of the conductor. that an internal electric field is created which the plates. This decreases the electric field.
 For cylindrical Gaussian surface, the total electric cancels the external electric field.  Electric field without dielectric = 𝐸𝑜
flux is 𝚽𝑬 = 𝑬 𝑨 and the total charge inside the  But in dielectric, which has no free electrons, the Electric field with dielectric = E
surface is 𝑸 = 𝝈 𝑨 external electric field only realigns the charges so Relative permittivity or dielectric constant = 𝜀𝑟
 By Gauss law, that an internal electric field is produced. 𝐸𝑜
𝑄 ∴ 𝐸=
 The magnitude of the internal electric field is 𝜀𝑟
Φ𝐸 =
𝜀𝑜 smaller than that of external electric field.  Since 𝜀𝑟 > 1, we have 𝐸 < 𝐸𝑜
σA  Therefore the net electric field inside the dielectric  Hence electrostatic potential between the plates is
∴ EA =
𝜀𝑜 field is not zero, but is parallel to an external reduced and at the same time the charge 𝑄𝑜
𝛔 electric field with magnitude less than that of the remains constant.
(or) 𝐄 =
𝜺𝒐 external electric field. 𝐸𝑜 𝑉𝑜
𝑉=𝐸𝑑= 𝑑=
 In vector notation,  For example, let a rectangular dielectric slab is 𝜀𝑟 𝜀𝑟
𝛔 placed between two oppositely charged plates.  Then the capacitance of a capacitor with dielectric,
⃗⃗⃗𝐄 = 𝐧̂
𝜺𝒐  The uniform electric field between the plates acts 𝑄𝑜 𝑄𝑜 𝑄𝑜
Property - 4 : The electrostatic potential has the 𝐶= = = 𝜀𝑟 = 𝜀𝑟 𝐶𝑜
as the external electric field 𝐸⃗ 𝑒𝑥𝑡 which polarizes 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉𝑜
same value on the surface and inside of the [ 𝑜]
the dielectric slab. 𝜀𝑟
conductor.  Thus positive charges are induced on one side and  Since 𝜀𝑟 > 1, we have 𝐶 > 𝐶𝑜 .
 The conductor has no parallel electric component negative charges are induced on the other side of  Thus insertion of dielectric slab increases the
on the surface which means that charges can be the slab. capacitance.
moved on the surface without doing any work.  So the dielectric in the external field is equivalent  We have, 𝑪𝒐 = 𝟎
𝜺 𝑨
𝒅
 This is possible only if the electrostatic potential is to two oppositely charged sheets with the surface 𝜺𝒓 𝜺𝟎 𝑨 𝜺 𝑨
constant at all points on the surface and there is charge densities . These charges are called bound ∴ 𝑪 = =
no potential difference between any two points on 𝒅 𝒅
charges. Where, 𝜺𝒓 𝜺𝟎 = 𝜺 → permitivity of the dielectric medium
the surface.  They are not free to move like free electrons in  The energy stored in the capacitor without
 Since the electric field is zero inside the conductor, conductor. dielectric,
the potential is the same as the surface of the 13. Explain in detail the effect of dielectric placed in a
1 𝑄𝑜2
conductor. parallel plate capacitor when the capacitor is 𝑈𝑜 =
 Thus at electro static equilibrium, the conductor is 2 𝐶𝑜
disconnected from the battery.
always at equipotential.  After the dielectric is inserted,
Effect of dielectrics when the capacitor is
12. Explain dielectrics in detail and how an electric 𝟏 𝑸𝒐𝟐 𝟏 𝑸𝒐𝟐 𝑼𝒐
disconnected from the battery : 𝑼= = =
field is induced inside a dielectric. 𝟐 𝑪 𝟐 𝜺𝒓 𝑪𝒐 𝜺𝒓
Electric field induced inside a dielectric :  Since 𝜀𝑟 > 1, we have 𝑈 < 𝑈𝑜
 There is a decrease in energy because, when the
dielectric is inserted, the capacitor spend some
energy to pulling the dielectric slab inside.
 Consider a parallel plate capacitor.
 Area of each plates =A
Distance between the plates =𝑑
Voltage of battery = 𝑉𝑜
Total charge on the capacitor = 𝑄𝑜
 So the capacitance of capacitor without dielectric,
𝑄𝑜
𝐶𝑜 =
𝑉𝑜
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
14. Explain in detail the effect of dielectric placed in a  Since 𝜀𝑟 > 1, we have 𝑈 > 𝑈𝑜 Capacitors in parallel :
parallel plate capacitor when the battery remains  So there is increase in energy when the dielectric
connected to the capacitor. is inserted
Effect of dielectrics when the battery remains 15. Derive the expression for resultant capacitance,
connected to the capacitor: when capacitors are connected in series and in
parallel.
Capacitors in series :

##  Consider three capacitors of capacitance

𝐶1 , 𝐶2 and 𝐶3 connected in parallel with a battery
 Consider a parallel plate capacitor. of voltage V
 Area of each plates =A  In parallel connection,
Distance between the plates =𝑑 1) Each capacitor has same potential difference (V)
Voltage of battery = 𝑉𝑜 2) But charges on each capacitor will be different
Total charge on the capacitor = 𝑄𝑜  Let 𝑄1 , 𝑄2 , 𝑄3 be the charge on 𝐶1 , 𝐶2 , 𝐶3
 So the capacitance of capacitor without dielectric,  Consider three capacitors of capacitance respectively, then
𝑄𝑜 𝐶1 , 𝐶2 and 𝐶3 connected in series with a battery of
𝐶𝑜 = 𝑄 = 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 + 𝑄3
𝑉𝑜 voltage V 𝑄 = 𝐶1 𝑉 + 𝐶2 𝑉 + 𝐶2 𝑉 [∵ 𝑄 = 𝐶 𝑉]
 Dielectric is inserted between the plates and the  In series connection, 𝑄 = 𝑉 [𝐶1 + 𝐶2 + 𝐶2 ] − − − − − (1)
battery is remains in connected with the capacitor. 1) Each capacitor has same amount of charge (Q)  Let 𝐶𝑃 be the equivalent capacitance of capacitor
 So the charges stored in the capacitor is increased. 2) But potential difference across each capacitor in parallel connection, then
 Total charge without dielectric = 𝑄𝑜 will be different. 𝑄 = 𝐶𝑃 𝑉 − − − − − (2)
Total charge with dielectric = 𝑄  Let 𝑉1 , 𝑉2 , 𝑉3 be the potential difference across  From (1) and (2),
Relative permittivity (dielectric constat) = 𝜀𝑟 𝐶1 , 𝐶2 , 𝐶3 respectively, then 𝐶𝑃 𝑉 = 𝑉 [𝐶1 + 𝐶2 + 𝐶2 ]
∴ 𝑸 = 𝜺𝒓 𝑸𝒐 𝑉 = 𝑉1 + 𝑉2 + 𝑉3
𝑄 𝑄 𝑄 𝑪𝑷 = 𝑪𝟏 + 𝑪𝟐 + 𝑪𝟐
 Since 𝜀𝑟 > 1, we have 𝑄 < 𝑄𝑜 𝑉= + + [∵ 𝑄 = 𝐶 𝑉]
𝐶1 𝐶2 𝐶3  Thus the equivalent capacitance of capacitors
 Here the potential difference between the plates
1 1 1 connected in parallel is equal to the sum of the
remains constant. But the charges increases and 𝑉= 𝑄 [ + + ] − − − − − (1) individual capacitances.
the new capacitance will be 𝐶1 𝐶2 𝐶3
𝑄 𝜀𝑟 𝑄𝑜  The equivalent capacitance 𝑪𝑷 in a parallel
 Let 𝐶𝑆 be the equivalent capacitance of capacitor
𝐶= = = 𝜀𝑟 𝐶𝑜 connection is always greater than the largest
𝑉𝑜 𝑉𝑜 in series connection, then
𝑄 individual capacitance.
 Since 𝜀𝑟 > 1, we have 𝐶 > 𝐶𝑜 𝑉= − − − − − (2)
 Hence capacitance increases with the insertion of 𝐶𝑆
dielectric slab.  From (1) and (2) , we have
𝜺 𝑨 𝑄 1 1 1
 We know that, 𝑪𝒐 = 𝟎 = 𝑄 [ + + ]
𝒅
𝜺𝒓 𝜺𝟎 𝑨 𝜺 𝑨 𝐶𝑆 𝐶1 𝐶2 𝐶3
∴ 𝑪 = = 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
𝒅 𝒅 = + +
Where, 𝜺𝒓 𝜺𝟎 = 𝜺 → permitivity of the dielectric medium 𝑪𝑺 𝑪𝟏 𝑪𝟐 𝑪𝟑
 The energy stored in the capacitor without  Thus the inverse of the equivalent capacitance of
dielectric, capacitors connected in series is equal to the sum
1 of the inverses of each capacitance.
𝑈𝑜 = 𝐶 𝑉2  This equivalent capacitance 𝑪𝑺 is always less than
2 𝑜 𝑜
 After the dielectric is inserted, the smallest individual capacitance in the series
𝟏 𝟏
𝑼= 𝑪 𝑽𝒐𝟐 = 𝜺𝒓 𝑪𝒐 𝑽𝒐𝟐 = 𝜺𝒓 𝑼𝒐
𝟐 𝟐
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
16. Explain in detail the construction and working of  The positive charges are pushed towards the belt
Van de Graff generator. and negative charges are attracted towards the
Van de Gralff generator : comb ‘D’
 The positive charges stick to the belt and move up.
 When the positive charges reach the comb ‘E’ a
large amount of negative and positive charges are
induced on either side of comb ‘E’ due to
electrostatic induction.
 As a result. the positive charges are pushed away
from the comb ‘E’ and they reach the outer surface
of the sphere.
 These positive charges are distributed uniformly
on the outer surface of the hollow sphere.
 At the same time, the negative charges neutralize
the positive charges in the belt due to corona
discharge before it passes over the pulley.
 When the belt descends, it has almost no net
charge.
 This process continues until the outer surface
produces the potential difference of the order of
107 𝑉 which is the limiting value.
 It is designed by Robert Van de Graff.  Beyond this, the charges starts leaking to the
 It produce large electro static potential difference surroundings due to ionization of air.
of about 107 𝑉  It is prevented by enclosing the machine in a gas
Principle : filled steel chamber at very high pressure.
 Electro static induction Applications :
 Action of points  The high voltage produced in this Van de Graff
Construction : generator is used to accelerate positive ions
 It consists of large hollow spherical conductor ‘A’ (protons and deuterons) for nuclear
fixed on the insulating stand. disintegrations and other applications.
 Pulley ‘B’ is mounted at the centre of the sphere
and another pulley ‘C’ is fixed at the bottom.
 A belt made up of insulating material like silk or
rubber runs over the pulleys.
 The pulley ‘C’ is driven continuously by the
electric motor.
 Two comb shaped metallic conductor D and E are
fixed near the pulleys.
 The comb ‘D’ is maintained at a positive potential
of 104 𝑉 by a power supply.
 The upper comb ‘E’ is connected to the inner side
of the hollow metal sphere.
Working :
 Due to the high electgric field near comb ‘D’, air
between the belt and comb ‘D’ gets ionized.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
PHYSICS - VOL 1 UNIT - 2
NAME :
STANDARD : 12 SECTION :
SCHOOL :
EXAM NO :

## victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc, M.Phil, B.Ed.,

PG ASST (PHYSICS)
GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
8. Define current density. 13. Define resistance of the conductor.
PART - II 2 MARK QUESTIONS & ANSWERS  Current density (J) is defined as the current per  The ratio of potential difference (V) across the
1. Define current electricity. unit area of cross section of the conductor. given conductor to the current (I) passing through
 The branch of physics deals with moving charges 𝐼 the conductor is called resistance (R).
𝐽= 𝑽
is called current electricity. 𝐴 𝑹=
2. Define electric current.  Its unit is 𝑨 𝒎−𝟐 𝑰
 The electric current in a conductor is defined as 9. Give the microscopic form of Ohm’s law.  Its unit is ohm ( )
the rate of flow of charges through a given cross -  The current density is given by, 14. What are the factors that the resistance depend
sectional area. 𝑒𝜏 𝑛 𝑒2 𝜏 on?
⃗𝐽⃗ = 𝑛 𝑒 ⃗⃗⃗𝑣⃗𝑑 = 𝑛 𝑒 [ ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐸] = ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐸
𝑄 𝑑𝑄 𝑚 𝑚  The resistance of the conductor is,
𝐼= (𝑜𝑟) 𝑖=
𝑡 𝑑𝑡 (𝑜𝑟) ⃗𝑱⃗ = 𝝈 ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑬 1) directly proportional to its length (l)
 The S. I unit of current is ampere (A).  Thus Currnt density is directly proportional to the 2) inversely proportional to its area of cross
 It is a scalar quantity. applied electric field. This is known as section (A)
3. Define one ampere (1 A) microscopic form of Ohm’s law. 𝒍 𝝆𝒍
𝑹= =
 One ampere of current is equivalent to 1 coulomb 10. Current is a scalar quantity. Why? 𝝈𝑨 𝑨
of charge passing through a perpendicular cross  Current is defined as the scalar product of current where, 𝝈 → conductivity of the conductor
section in 1 second. [𝟏 𝑨 = 𝟏 𝑪 𝒔−𝟏 ] 𝝆 → resistivity of the conductor
density (⃗⃗⃗⃗𝐽) and area vector (⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐴) in which charges
4. What is called conventional current? 15. Define resistivity of the material.
crosses. (i.e.) 𝐈 = ⃗𝑱⃗ . ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑨 = 𝑱 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽  The electrical resistivity of a material is defined as
 By convention, this flow in the circuit should be
 The current can be positive or negative depending the resistance offered to current flow by a
from the positive terminal of the battery to the
on the choice of unit vector normal to the surface conductor of unit length having unit area of cross
negative terminal. This is called the conventional
area A. section.
current or simply current. 11. Give the macroscopic form of Ohm’s law.
 It is in the direction in which a positive test charge 𝟏 𝑹𝑨
 Let ‘V’ be the potential difference, ‘I’ be the 𝝆= =
would move. 𝝈 𝒍
current and ‘R’ be the resistance, then the  Its unit is ohm - metre ( m )
5. What are called free electrons and positive ions? macroscopic form of Ohm’s law is V = I R
 Any material is made up of neutral atoms with  It depends only the type of material and not the
12. What are called ohmic and non ohmic materials? dimension of the material.
equal number of electrons and protons. If the  Materials for which the current against voltage
outermost electrons leave the atoms, they become 16. Define conductivity of the material.
graph is a straight line through the orgin are said  The reciprocal of resistivity is called conductivity
free electrons and are responsible for electric to obey Ohm’s law and they are called ohmic
current. and it is given by,
materials. 𝟏
 The atoms after losing their outer most electrons 𝝈=
 But materials for which the current against 𝝆
will have more positive charges and hence are voltage graph is non - linear and they do not have
called positive ions. They will not move freely and  Its unit is mho- metre-1 (-1 m-1)
a constant resistance are called non - ohmic. They
hence the positive ions will not give rise to  It depends only the type of material and not the
do not obey Ohm’s law.
current. dimension of the material.
6. Define drift velocity. 17. Reparing the electrical connection with the wet
 The average velocity acquired by the free skin is always dangerous. Why?
electrons inside the conductor when it is  The humam body contains a large amount of
subjected to an electric field is called water which has low resistance of around 200 
drift velocity (𝑣⃗𝑑 ). Its unit is 𝒎 𝒔−𝟏 and the dry skin has high resistance of 500 k .
7. Define mobility.  But when the skin is wet, the resistance is reduced
 The magnitude of drift velocity acquired by the to 1000  .
free electrons per unit electric field is called 𝑉
 By Ohm’s law [𝑅 = ] if resistance decreses,
𝐼
mobility (𝜇). Its unit is 𝒎𝟐 𝑽−𝟏 𝒔−𝟏
current increases. Hence reparing electric
connection with wet skin is dangerous.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
18. Define temperature coefficient of resistivity. 23. What is called electric cell (battery) ?  The emf is considered positive when proceeding
 It is defined as the ratio of increase in resistivity  An electric cell is a device which converts from the negative to the positive terminal of the
per degree rise in temperature to its resistivity chemical energy in to electrical energy to produce cell and negative when proceeding from the
at 𝑇𝑜 . Its unit is 𝒑𝒆𝒓 ℃ electricity. positive to the negative terminal of the cell.
19. Define Superconductivity.  It contains two electrods (anode and cathode) 30. What is called Galvanometer?
 The resistance of certain material become zero immersed in an electrolyte.  A galvanometer is an instrument used for
below certain temperature called critical or 24. Define electromotive force. detecting and measuring even very small electric
transition temperature (TC)  The amount of work a battery or cell does to move currents.
 For mercury, TC = 4.2 K a certain amout of charge around the circuit is  It is extensively useful to compare the potential
 The materials which exhibit this property are called as electromotive force (𝜉). Its unit is volt (V) difference between various parts of the circuit.
known as super conductors.  The emf of a battery or a cell is the voltage 31. State the principle of potentiometer.
 The property of conducting current with zero provided by the battery when no current flows in  Let ‘I’ be the current, ′𝑟 ′ be the resistance per unit
resistance is called super conductivity. the external circuit. length and ′𝑙 ′ be the balancing length, then emf is
 It is discovered by Kammerlingh Onnes. 25. Define the internal resistance of the cell. 𝝃 = 𝑰𝒓𝒍 (𝒐𝒓) 𝝃∝𝒍
20. Distinguish electric energy and electric power.  A real battery is made of electrodes and  The emf is directly proportional to the balancing
Electric energy Electric power electrolyte. length. This is the principle of potentiometer.
1) Work has to be done to 1) The rate at which the  There is resistance to the flow of charges within 32. What is called Joule’s heating effect of current?
move the charge from electrical potential the battery and this resistance is called internal  When current flows through a resistor, some of
one end to other end of energy is delivered is resistance (r) the electrical energy delivered to the resistor is
the conductor and this called electric power.  A freshly prepared cell has low internal resistance converted into heat energy and it is dissipated.
workdone is called 𝒅𝑼 and it increased with ageing. This heating effect of current is known as Joule’s
𝑷= = 𝑽𝑰 26. State Kirchoff’s first law (current rule or junction heating effect.
electric energy. 𝒅𝒕
𝒅𝑾 = 𝒅𝑼 = 𝑽 𝒅𝑸 rule) 33. State Joule’s law of heating.
2) Its S.I unit is joule ( J ) 2) Its S.I unit is watt (W)  It states that the algebraic sum of currents at any  It states that the heat develop in an electrical
3) Its practical unit is 3) Its practical unit is junction in a circuit is zero (∑ 𝐼 = 0). circuit due to the flow, current varies directly as
kilowatt hour (kWh) horse power (H P)  It is a statement of conservation of electric charge. (i) the square of the current
1 𝑘𝑊ℎ = 3.6 𝑋 106 𝐽 1 𝐻 𝑃 = 746 𝑊 27. State Kirchoff’s second law (voltage rule or loop (ii) the resistance of the circuit and
21. Prove that the expression for power in an rule) (iii) the time of flow
electrical circuit is 𝑷 = 𝑽 𝑰  It states that in a closed circuit the algebraic sum (𝑖. 𝑒) 𝑯 = 𝑰𝟐 𝑹 𝒕
 Electric energy is given by, 𝑑𝑈 = 𝑉 𝑑𝑄 of the products of the current and reistance of 34. What are the properties of the substance used as
each part of the circuit is equal to the total emf heating element?
 By definition, the rate at which electric potential
energy is delivered is called power. (i.e) included in the circuit ( ∑ 𝑰 𝑹 = ∑ 𝝃).  An alloy of nickel and chromium called Nicrome is
𝑑𝑈 𝑑 (𝑉 𝑑𝑄) 𝑑𝑄  It is a statement of conservation of energy for an used as heating element. It has
𝑃= = =𝑉 isolated system. (i) a high specific resistance
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝒅𝑸 28. Give the sign convention followed by the Kirchoff’s (ii) high melting point
 But = 𝑰 → electric current
𝒅𝒕 current rule. (iii) heated to very high temperature without
∴ 𝑷= 𝑽𝑰 oxidation
 Current entering the junction is taken as positive
22. Write down the various equations for power.
and current leaving the junction is taken as 35. Write a note on electric fuses.
 The electric power is given by, negative.  Fuses are connected in series in a circuit to
𝑷=𝑽𝑰 protect the electric device from the heat
29. Give the sign convention followed by the Kirchoff’s
 By Ohm’s law, 𝑉 = 𝐼 𝑅 and hence votage rule. developed by the passage of excessive current.
𝑷 = 𝑰𝟐 𝑹  The product of current and resistance is taken as  It melt and breaks the circuit if the current
 Also, 𝐼 = 𝑉/ 𝑅 and hence, positive when the direction of the current is exceeds certain value.
𝑽𝟐 followed and is taken as negative when the  It is a short length of a wire made of a low melting
𝑷=
𝑹 direction of current is opposite to the loop point material.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
36. Write a note on circuit breakers (trippers) 41. Define Thomson’s effect. 2. Derive the relation between the drift velocity and
 Now a days in housed, circuit breakers are used  If two points in a conductor are at different the current.
instead of fuses. temperatures, the density of electrons at these Drift velocity and current - Relation :
 Whenever there is an ecessive current produced points will differ and as a result the potential
due to faulty wire connection, the circuit breaker difference is created between these points.
switch opens.  Thomson effect is reversiable.
 After repairing the faulty connection, we can close
the circuit breaker switch. PART - III 3 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS  Area of cross section of the conductor =𝐴
37. Write a note on electric bulb or lamp. 1.ANSWERS
Obtain an expression for drift velocity. How it is Number of electrons per unit volume =𝑛
 It consists of a tungsten filament kept inside a related with the mobility? Applied electric field = ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐸
glass bulb and heated to incandescence by Drift velocity (⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝒗𝒅 ) : Drift velocity of electrons = 𝒗𝒅
current.  If there is no electric field, all the free electrons in Charge of an electrons =𝑒
 Melting point of tungsten is 3380 ℃ a conductor are moves in random directions. As a  Let ‘𝑑𝑥’ be the distance travelled by the electron
 In incandescent electric lamps, only 5% of electric result no net flow of electrons in any direction and in time ‘𝑑𝑡’, then
energy is converted into light and the rest is hence there will not be any current. 𝑑𝑥
wasted as heat.  If the conductor is subjected toan electric field (⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝐸) 𝑣𝑑 = (𝑜𝑟) 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑣𝑑 𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑡
38. Define Seebeck effect. free electrons experinces a force given by,  The number of electrons available in the volume
 In a closed circuit consisting of two dissimilar ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹 = −𝑒 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝐸 − − − − − (1) of length ‘𝑑𝑥’ is = 𝐴 𝑑𝑥 𝑋 𝑛 = 𝐴 𝑣𝑑 𝑑𝑡 𝑋 𝑛
metals, when the junctions are maintained at  So all the free electrons are accelerated in a  Then the total charge in this volume element is,
different temperature an emf is developed. This direction opposite to the field. By Newton’s 𝑑𝑄 = 𝐴 𝑣𝑑 𝑑𝑡 𝑛 𝑒
phenomenom is called Seebeck effect or second law  By definition, the current is given by
thermoelectric effect. ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹 −𝑒 ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐸 𝑑𝑄 𝐴 𝑣𝑑 𝑑𝑡 𝑛 𝑒
 The current that flows due to the emf developed is ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎= = − − − − − −(2) 𝐼= =
𝑚 𝑚 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
called thermoelectric current. 𝑰 = 𝒏 𝒆 𝑨 𝒗𝒅
 But the positive ions scatter the electrons and
 The two dissimilar metals connected to form two change its direction of motion. So they move in 3. Write a note on carbon resistors.
junctions is known as thermocouple. zig-zag path. Carbon resistors :
39. What are the applications of Seebeck effect?  Carbon resistors consists of a ceramic core on
 In addition to the zig-zag motion due to collisions,
 Seebeck effect is used in thermoelectric the electrons move slowly along the conductor in which a thin layer of crystalline carbon is
generators (Seebeck generators) which are used ⃗⃗⃗⃗ deposited.
a direction opposite to that of 𝐸
in power plants to convert waste heat into  They ar inexpensive, stable and compact in size.
electricity.  This average velocity acquired by the free electrons
inside the conductors, when it is subjected to the  Colour rings drawn over it are used to indicate the
 This effect is utilized in automobiles as value of the resistance according to the rules in
electric field is called drift velocity (⃗⃗⃗𝑣⃗𝑑 )
automotive thermoelectric generators for the table.
increasing fuel efficiency  The average time between successive collision is
called the mean free time or relaxation time (𝜏). Colour Number Multiplier
 Seebeck effect is used in thermocouples and Black 0 1
thermopiles to measure the temperature  Hence the drift velocity is given by, 1
Brown 1 10
difference between the two objects. −𝒆 ⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑬
⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝒗𝒅 = ⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝒂𝝉= 𝝉 = −𝝁 𝑬 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ Red 2 102
40. Define Peltier effect. 𝒎 Orange 3 103
𝑒𝜏
 When an electric current is passed through a where , = 𝜇 → mobility of electrons
𝑚 Yellow 4 104
circuit of a thermocouple, heat is evolved at one  The magnitude of the drift velocity acquired by the Green 5 105
junction and absorbed at the other junction. This free electron per unit electric field is called mobility. Blue 6 106
is known as Peltier effect. |⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝒗𝒅 |
𝝁= Violet 7 107
 Peltier effect is reversiable. ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑬 Grey 8 108
𝟐 −𝟏 −𝟏
 It unit is 𝒎 𝑽 𝒔 White 9 109

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Coluur Tolerance  For conductors 𝜶 is positive (i.e) if the  Let ‘n’ cells each of emf 𝜉 and internal resistance
Gold 5% temperature of the conductor increases, its ‘r’ are connected in parallel with an external
Silver 10 % resistivity also increases. resistance ‘R’.
No ring (colourless) 20 %  Thus resistance at 𝑇 ℃  Total emf of the battery =𝑛𝜉
𝑟
 There is three coloured bands on its left and one 𝑹𝑻 = 𝑹𝒐 [𝟏 + 𝜶 (𝑻 − 𝑻𝒐 )] Total resistance of the circuit = +𝑅
𝑛
metallic coloured band on its right side.  For semiconductor, 𝜶 is negative. (i.e.) if  By Ohm’s law,
 The first and second rings are the significant temperature increases, resistance decreases. 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑒𝑚𝑓 𝜉 𝑛𝜉
figures of the resistance and the third ring indicate  A semiconductor with a negative temperature 𝐼= = 𝑟 = − −(1)
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 +𝑅 𝑛𝑟+𝑅
the decimal multiplier after them. The fourth coefficient of resistance is called a thermistor. 𝑛
metallic ring shows the tolerance of the resistor. 5. Write a note on electric cells in series.  If 𝑟 ≪ 𝑅, equation (1) becomes,
Example : Cells in series : 𝑛𝜉 𝜉
𝐼= ≈ 𝑛 𝐼1 [∵ = 𝐼1 ]
𝑅 𝑅
(i.e.) if ‘r’ is negligible compared to ‘R’ the current
supplied by the battery is ‘n’ times the that
supplied by the single cell
 𝑟 ≪ 𝑅, equation (1) becomes,
𝑛𝜉 𝜉

Let ‘n’ cells each of emf 𝜉 and internal resistance 𝐼= = ≈ 𝐼1
𝑛𝑟 𝑟
‘r’ are connected in series with an external (i.e.) if ‘r’ is very very greater than ‘R’, current due
resistance ‘R’. to the whole battery is same as due to single cell.
 For the given carbon resistor,  Total emf of the battery =𝑛𝜉 7. Explain the principle of potentiometer.
First ring (Green) = 5 Total resistance of the circuit = 𝑛𝑟+𝑅 Principle of potentiometer:
Second ring (Blue) = 6  By Ohm’s law,
Third ring (Orange) = 103 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑒𝑚𝑓 𝑛𝜉
Fourth metallic ring (Gold) = 5% 𝐼= = − − − (1)
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑛𝑟+𝑅
𝟑
 Value of the resistor = 𝟓𝟔 𝑿 𝟏𝟎 𝛀 = 𝟓𝟔 𝐤 𝛀  If 𝑟 ≪ 𝑅, equation (1) becomes,
Tolerance =5% 𝑛𝜉 𝜉
4. Define temperature coefficient of resistivity. 𝐼= ≈ 𝑛 𝐼1 [∵ = 𝐼1 ]
𝑅 𝑅
Obtain an expression for it. (i.e.) if ‘r’ is negligible compared to ‘R’ the current  A battery (Bt), key (K) and potentiometer wire
Temperature coefficient of resistivity : supplied by the battery is ‘n’ times the that (CD) are connected in series forms the primary
 Resistivity of the substance depends on the supplied by the single cell circuit.
temperature. Let  𝑟 ≪ 𝑅, equation (1) becomes,  The positive terminal of primary cell of emf ′𝜉 ′ is
 Resistivity at 𝑇𝑜 ℃ = 𝜌𝑜 𝑛𝜉 𝜉 connected to the point C and negative terminal is
𝐼= = ≈ 𝐼1 connected to the point D through galvanometer
Resistivity at 𝑇℃ = 𝜌𝑇 𝑛𝑟 𝑟
∴ 𝜌𝑇 = 𝜌𝑜 [1 + 𝛼 (𝑇 − 𝑇𝑜 )] − − − −(1) (i.e.) if ‘r’ is very very greater than ‘R’, current due (G) and high resistance (HR). This forms the
Where, 𝛼 → Temperature coefficient of resistivity to the whole battery is same as due to single cell. secondary circuit.
 From equation (1) 6. Write a note on electric cells in parallel.  Let contact be made at ‘J’ on the wire by jockey.
𝜌𝑇 = 𝜌𝑜 + 𝜌𝑜 𝛼 (𝑇 − 𝑇𝑜 ) Cells in parallel :  If the potential difference across CJ is equal to the
𝜌𝑇 − 𝜌𝑜 = 𝜌𝑜 𝛼 (𝑇 − 𝑇𝑜 ) emf (𝜉) of the cell, then the galvanometer shows
𝝆𝑻 − 𝝆𝒐 ∆𝝆 zero deflection. Here ‘CJ’ is the balancing length 𝒍
∴ 𝜶= =
𝝆𝒐 (𝑻 − 𝑻𝒐 ) 𝝆𝒐 ∆𝑻  If ‘r’ is the resistance per unit length of the wire,
Where, ∆𝝆 = 𝝆𝑻 − 𝝆𝒐 → change in resistivity then by Ohm’s law,
∆𝑻 = 𝑻 − 𝑻𝒐 → Change in temperature Potential difference across CJ = 𝐼 𝑟 𝑙
 It is defined as the ratio of increase in Hence, 𝝃 = 𝑰 𝒓 𝒍
resistivity per degree rise in temperature to  Since I and r are constants, , 𝝃 ∝ 𝒍
its resistivity at 𝑇𝑜 . Its unit is 𝒑𝒆𝒓 ℃
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
8. Explain Seebeck effect. Give its applications.  Let a current flow through the thermocouple.
PART - IV 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Seebeck effect :  At junction ‘A’, where the current flows from Cu to
Fe, heat is absorbed and it becomes cold. 1.ANSWERS
Describe the microscopic model of current and
 At juction ‘B’, where the current flows from Fe to obtain general form of Ohm’s law.
Cu, heat is liberated and it becomes hot. Microscopic model of current and Ohm’ law :
 When the direction current is reversed, junction
‘A’ becomes hot and junction ‘B’ becomes cold.
Hence peltier effect is reversiable.
 Seebeck discoved that in a closed circuit 10. Distinguish between Peltier effect and Joule’s
consisting of two dissimilar metals, when the  Area of cross section of the conductor =𝐴
effect.
juctions are maintained at different temperatures Number of electrons per unit volume =𝑛
Peltier effect Joule’s effect
an emf (potential difference) is developed. This is Applied electric field along leftwads = ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐸
1) Both heat liberated 1) Heat liberated only
called Seebeck effect. Drift velocity of the electrons = 𝒗𝒅
and absorbed occur occur
 The current that flows due to the emf developed is Charge of the electron = 𝒆
2) Occurs at junctions 2) Occurs all along the
called thermoelectric current.  If ‘𝑑𝑥 ′ be the distance travelled by the electron in
conductor
 The two dissimilar metals connected to form two time ‘𝑑𝑡’, then
3) Reversiable effect 3) Irreversiable effect 𝑑𝑥
junctions is known as thermocouple. 11. Explain Thomson effect. 𝑣𝑑 = (𝑜𝑟) 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑣𝑑 𝑑𝑡
 If hot and cold juntions are interchanged, the 𝑑𝑡
Thomson effect :
direction of current also reversed. Hence Seebeck  The number of electrons available in the volume
effect is reversiable. of length ‘𝑑𝑥’ is = 𝐴 𝑑𝑥 𝑋 𝑛 = 𝐴 𝑣𝑑 𝑑𝑡 𝑋 𝑛
 The magnitude of emf developed in thermocouple  Then the total charge in this volume element is,
depends on, 𝑑𝑄 = 𝐴 𝑣𝑑 𝑑𝑡 𝑛 𝑒
(i) Nature of the metals forming thermocouple  By definition, the current is given by
(ii) Temperature difference between the junctions 𝑑𝑄 𝐴 𝑣𝑑 𝑑𝑡 𝑛 𝑒
𝐼= =
Applications : 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
 Seebeck effect is used in thermoelectric  𝑰 = 𝒏 𝒆 𝑨 𝒗𝒅
 Thomson showed that, if two points in a Current density (𝑱⃗) :
generators (Seebeck generators).
conductor are at different temperatures, the  Current density (J) is defined as the current per
 This effect is utilized in automobiles as density of electrons at these points will differ and
automotive thermoelectric generators. unit area of cross section of the conductor.
as a result the potential difference is created 𝐼 𝑛 𝑒 𝐴 𝑣𝑑
 Seebeck effect is used in thermocouples and between these points. This is known as Thomson 𝐽= =
thermopiles. 𝐴 𝐴
effect. 𝑱 = 𝒏 𝒆 𝒗𝒅
9. Explain Peltier effect.  Thomson effect is reversiable.
Peltier effect :  Its unit is 𝑨 𝒎−𝟐
 If current passed through copper bar AB which is  In vector notation,
 When an electric current is passed through a heated at its mid point C, the point C will be at
circuit of a thermocouple, heat is evolved at one ⃗𝑱⃗ = 𝒏 𝒆 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝒗𝒅
higer potential. This indicates that the heat is
junction and absorbed at the other junction. This 𝒆𝝉 𝒏 𝒆𝟐 𝝉
absorbed along AC and evolved along CB. Thus ⃗𝑱⃗ = 𝒏 𝒆 [− ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑬] = − ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑬
is known as Peltier effect. heat is transferred in the direction of the current. 𝒎 𝒎
𝒏 𝒆𝟐 𝝉
It is called positive Thomson effect.  where, = 𝝈 → conductivity
𝒎
(e.g) Ag, Zn. Cd
∴ ⃗𝑱⃗ = − 𝝈 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑬
 When the copper bar is replaced by an iron bar,
 But conventionally, we take the dirction of current
heat is evolved along CA and absorbed along BC.
density as the direction of electric field. So the
Thus heat is transferred in the direction opposite
above equation becomes,
to the current. It is called negative Thomson
 In Cu - Fe thermocouple, the junctions A and B are ⃗𝑱⃗ = 𝝈 ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑬
effect.
maintained at the same temperature.  This is called microscopic form of Ohm’s law.
 (e.g.) Pt, Ni, Co, Hg
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
2. Obtain the macroscopic form of Ohm’s law from its  Materials that do not obey Ohm’s law are said to Resistors in parallel :
microscopic form and discuss its limitation. be non - ohmic. These materials have more
Macroscopic form of Ohm’s law : complex (non- linear) relationships between
voltage and current.
3. Explain the equivalent resistance of a series and
parallel resistor network.
Resistor in series :
 Consider a segment of wire of length ‘𝑙’ and area of
cross section ‘𝐴’.  When two or more resistors are connected across
 When a potential difference ‘V’ is applied across the same potential difference, they are said to be
the wire, a net electric field is created in the wire in parallel.
which constitutes the current.  Let 𝑅1 , 𝑅2 , 𝑅3 be the resistances of three resistors
 If we assume the electric field is uniform in the connected in parallel.
entire length, the potential difference is given by,  When two or more resistors are connected end to  Let ‘V’ be the potential difference applied across
𝑉 end, they are said to be in series. this combination.
𝑉=𝐸𝑙 (𝑜𝑟) 𝐸=
𝑙  Let 𝑅1 , 𝑅2 , 𝑅3 be the resistances of three resistors  In parallel connection,
 From the microscopic form of Ohm’s law, connected in series. (i) Potential difference across each resistance
𝑽 will be the same (V)
𝑱= 𝝈𝑬= 𝝈  Let ‘V’ be the potential difference applied across
𝒍 this combination. (ii) But current flows through different resistors
 By definition, the current density is  In Series connection, will be different.
𝐈  Let 𝐼1 , 𝐼2 , 𝐼3 be the currents flow through
𝑱= (i) Current through each resistor will be same (I)
𝑨 (ii) But potential difference across different 𝑅1 , 𝑅2 , 𝑅3 respectively, then from Ohm’s law
 Hence, resistor will be different. 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉
I 𝑉 𝐼1 = ; 𝐼2 = ; 𝐼3 =
= 𝜎  Let 𝑉1 , 𝑉2 , 𝑉3 be the potential difference across 𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅3
𝐴 𝑙 𝑅1 , 𝑅2 , 𝑅3 respectively, then from Ohm’s law  Hence the total current will be,
𝑙
∴ 𝑉=I [ ] 𝑉1 = 𝐼 𝑅1 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉
𝜎𝐴 𝐼 = 𝐼1 + 𝐼2 + 𝐼3 = + +
𝑽 = 𝐈𝑹 𝑉2 = 𝐼 𝑅2 𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅3
𝒍 𝑉3 = 𝐼 𝑅3 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
Where, = 𝑅 → Resistance of the conductor 𝑰= 𝑽 [ + + ] − − − − (𝟏)
𝝈𝑨  Total potential difference, 𝑹𝟏 𝑹𝟐 𝑹𝟑
 This is called macroscopic form of Ohm’s law. 𝑉 = 𝑉1 + 𝑉2 + 𝑉3 = 𝐼 𝑅1 + 𝐼 𝑅2 + 𝐼 𝑅3  Let 𝑹𝑷 be the equivalent resistance in parallel
𝑽 = 𝑰 [𝑹𝟏 + 𝑹𝟐 + 𝑹𝟑 ] − − − − (𝟏) connection, then,
 Let 𝑹𝑺 be the equivalent resistance in series 𝑽
connection, then 𝑰= − − − − (2)
𝑹𝑷
𝑽 = 𝑰 𝑹𝑺 − − − − (2)  From equation (1) and (2),
 From equation(1) and (2), we have, 𝑉 1 1 1
𝐼 𝑅𝑆 = 𝐼 [𝑅1 + 𝑅2 + 𝑅3 ] =𝑉 [ + + ]
𝑅𝑃 𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅3
∴ 𝑹𝑺 = 𝑹𝟏 + 𝑹𝟐 + 𝑹𝟑 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
Limittations:  When resistances are connected in series, the ∴ = + +
 From Ohm’s law, the graph between current versus 𝑹𝑷 𝑹𝟏 𝑹𝟐 𝑹𝟑
equivalent resistance is the sum of the individual
voltage is straight line with a slope equal to the resistances.  When resistances are connected in parallel, the
inverse of resistance (R) of the conductor. reciprocal of equivalent resistance is equal to the
 The equivalent resistance in series connection will
 Materials for which the current against voltage be greater than each individual resistance. sum of the reciprocal of the values of resistance of
graph is a straight line through the origin are said the individual resistor.
to obey Ohm’s law and their behavior is said to be  The equivalent resistance in parallel connection
Ohmic. will be lesser than each individual resistance.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
4. Explain the determination of the internal 5. Explain Kirchoff’s law. 6. Obtain the condition for bridge balance in
resistance of a cell using voltmeter. Kirchoff first law (current law) : Wheatstone’s bridge.
Internal resistance of a cell :  It states that the algebraic sum of currents at any Wheatstone’s bridge :
junction in a circuit is zero (∑ 𝐼 = 0).  An important application
Explanation : of Kirchoff’s laws is the
 It is a statement of Wheatstone’s bridge.
conservation of  It is used to compare
electric charge. resistances and also helps
 Thus all charges in determining the
that enter a given unknown resistance in the
junction in a circuit electrical network
 A real battery is made of electrodes and must leave that  The bridge consists of four resistances P, Q, R, S
electrolyte. junction. connected as shown.
 There is resistance to the flow of charges within  Current entering the junction is taken as positive  A galvanometer ‘G’ is connected between B and D
the battery and this resistance is called internal and current leaving the junction is taken as  A battery ‘𝜉 ′ is connected between A and C
resistance (r) negative.  Let 𝐼1 , 𝐼2 , 𝐼3 , 𝐼4 currents through various branches
 The emf of the cell is measured by connecting  Applying this law at junction ‘A’ and 𝐼𝐺 be the current through the galvanometer.
high resistance voltmeter across it without 𝐼1 + 𝐼2 − 𝐼3 − 𝐼4 − 𝐼5 = 0  Applying Kirchoff’s current law at B and D,
connecting the external resistance R (𝑜𝑟) 𝐼1 + 𝐼2 = 𝐼3 + 𝐼4 + 𝐼5 𝐼1 − 𝐼𝐺 − 𝐼3 = 0 − − − − (1)
 This circuit may be considered as open, the Kirchoff second law (voltage law) : 𝐼2 + 𝐼𝐺 − 𝐼4 = 0 − − − − (2)
voltmeter reading gives the emf (𝜉) of the cell.  It states that in a closed circuit the algebraic sum  Applying Kirchoff’s voltage law ABDA and ABCDA,
 Then external resistance is included in the circuit of the products of the current and reistance of 𝐼1 𝑃 + 𝐼𝐺 𝐺 − 𝐼2 𝑅 = 0 − − − − (3)
and current ‘I’ is established in the circuit. each part of the circuit is equal to the total emf 𝐼1 𝑃 + 𝐼3 𝑄 − 𝐼2 𝑅 − 𝐼4 𝑆 = 0 − − − − (4)
 This circuit is then considered as close, the included in the circuit ( ∑ 𝑰 𝑹 = ∑ 𝝃)  At balanced condition, the potential at B and D are
voltmeter reading gives the potential difference Explanation : same, and hence the galvanometer shows zero
(V) across ‘R’ deflection. So 𝑰𝑮 = 𝟎
𝑉
 By Ohm’s law, 𝑉 = 𝐼 𝑅 (or) 𝐼 =  Put this in equation (1), (2) and (3)
𝑅
 Due to internal resistance of the cell, the 𝐼1 − 𝐼3 = 0 (𝑜𝑟) 𝐼1 = 𝐼3 − − − − (5)
voltmeter reads the value “V” which is less than 𝐼2 − 𝐼4 = 0 (𝑜𝑟) 𝐼2 = 𝐼 4 − − − − (6)
the emf 𝜉 𝐼1 𝑃 − 𝐼2 𝑅 = 0 (𝑜𝑟) 𝐼1 𝑃 = 𝐼2 𝑅 − − − − (7)
 It is because, certain amount of voltage (Ir) has  Put equation (5) and (6) in (4)
dropped across the internal resistance ‘r’. Hence 𝐼1 𝑃 + 𝐼1 𝑄 − 𝐼2 𝑅 − 𝐼2 𝑆 = 0
𝑉 = 𝜉−𝐼𝑟 − − − − (2) 𝐼1 (𝑃 + 𝑄) − 𝐼2 (𝑅 + 𝑆) = 0
(𝑜𝑟) 𝐼𝑟= 𝜉−𝑉 ∴ 𝐼1 (𝑃 + 𝑄) = 𝐼2 (𝑅 + 𝑆) − − − − (8)
 It is a statement of conservation of energy for an
𝝃−𝑽 𝝃−𝑽 isolated system.  Divide equation (8) by (7)
∴ 𝒓= = [ ]𝑹 𝐼1 (𝑃 + 𝑄) 𝐼2 (𝑅 + 𝑆)
𝑰 𝑽  The product ‘IR’ is taken as positive when we =
 Since 𝜉 , V and R are known, internal resistance proceed along the direction of current and taken 𝐼1 𝑃 𝐼2 𝑅
‘r’ and total current ‘I’ can be determined. as negative when we proceed opposite to the 𝑃 + 𝑄 𝑅 + 𝑆
=
 The power delivered to the circuit is, direction of current. 𝑃 𝑅
𝑃 = 𝐼 𝜉 = 𝐼 ( 𝑉 + 𝐼 𝑟) = 𝐼 (𝐼 𝑅 + 𝐼 𝑟) 𝑄 𝑆
 Simillarly, the emf is considered as positive, when 1+ =1+
𝟐 𝟐 𝑃 𝑅
𝑷= 𝑰 𝑹+ 𝑰 𝒓 we proceed from negative to positive terminal of
where , 𝐼 2 𝑅 → power deliverd to R 𝑄 𝑆
the cell and as negative, when we proceed from =
𝐼 2 𝑟 → power deliverd to 𝑟 positive to negative terminal of the cell. 𝑃 𝑅
𝑷 𝑹
(𝑜𝑟) = − − − − (𝟗)
𝑸 𝑺
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1 (VOLUME I) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
7. Explain the determination of unknown resistance 8. How the emf of two cells are compared using
using meterbridge. potentiometer?
Meterbridge: Comparision of emf of two cells :

 Metrebridge is another form of Wheatstone’s  With key K2 open, the balancing point J is found out
 Potentiometer wire CD is connected to battery and balancing length CJ = 𝑙1 is measured.
bridge (Bt) and a key (K) in series. This is the primary
 It consists of uniform manganin wire AB of 1m  By the principle,
circuit. 𝜉 ∝ 𝑙1 − − − −(1)
length.  The end C is connected to central terminal M of
 This wire is stretched along a metre scale between  A suitable resistance is included in R and key K2 is
DPDT switch and another central terminal N is closed.
two copper strips C and D connected to jockey through a galvanometer G
 E is another copper strip mounted with two gaps  The current flows through R and cell is,
and high reistance HR. This is the secondary 𝜉
G1 and G2 circuit. 𝐼=
 An unknown resistance P is connected in G1 and 𝑅+𝑟
 The cell whose emf 𝜉1 and 𝜉2 to be compared are  Hence potential difference across R
standard resistance connected in G2 connected to 𝑀1 𝑁1 and 𝑀2 𝑁2 of DPDT switch. 𝜉
 A jockey J is connected from E through a  Initially the cell of emf 𝜉1 is included in the 𝑉 =𝐼𝑅= 𝑅
galvanometer G and high resistance HR. 𝑅+𝑟
secondary circuit and the balancing length 𝑙1 is  For this potential difference, again the balancing
 A Lechlanche cell 𝜉 and key K is connected across found by adjusting jockey for zero deflection. point J is found out and the balancing length
the bridge wire.  Simillarly the cell of emf 𝜉2 is included in the CJ = 𝑙2 is measured.
 The position of jockey is adjusted so that the secondary circuit and the balancing length 𝑙2 is  By the principle,
galvanometer shows zero deflection. Let the point found. 𝜉
be ‘J’  Let ‘r’ be the resistance per unit length and ‘I’ be 𝑅 ∝ 𝑙2 − − − −(2)
 The lengths AJ and JB now replace the resistance 𝑅+𝑟
the primary current, then by the principle  Divide equation (1) by (2)
R and S of the Wheatstone’s bridge. Then 𝜉1 = 𝐼 𝑟 𝑙1 − − − − (1) 𝜉 𝑙1
𝑃 𝑅 𝑅 𝐴𝐽 𝜉2 = 𝐼 𝑟 𝑙2 − − − − (2) =
= =  𝜉 𝑙2
𝑄 𝑆 𝑅 𝐽𝐵  Divide equantion (1) by (2), ( 𝑅)
𝑅+𝑟
Where 𝑅 → resistance per unit length 𝜉1 𝐼 𝑟 𝑙1 𝑅+𝑟 𝑙1
𝑷 𝑨𝑱 𝒍𝟏 = =
𝜉2 𝐼 𝑟 𝑙2 𝑅 𝑙2
= = − − − −(𝟏)
𝑸 𝑱𝑩 𝒍𝟐 𝝃𝟏 𝒍𝟏 𝑟 𝑙1
𝒍𝟏 = − − − −(𝟑) 1+ =
(𝒐𝒓) 𝑷= 𝑸 − − − −(𝟐) 𝝃 𝟐 𝒍𝟐 𝑅 𝑙2
𝒍𝟐 9. Explain the method of measurement of internal 𝑟 𝑙1 𝑙1 − 𝑙2
 Due to imperfect contace of wire at its ends, some resistance of a cell using potentio meter. = −1=
𝑅 𝑙2 𝑙2
resistance might be introduced at the contact. Internal resistance by potentiometer : 𝒍𝟏 − 𝒍𝟐
These are called end resistances.  Potentiometer wire CD is connected to battery 𝒓=𝑹 [ ] − − − (𝟑)
𝒍𝟐
 By interchange P and Q,tThis error can be (Bt) and a key (K1) in series. This is the primary  By substituting 𝑅, 𝑙1 , 𝑙2 in equation (3) the
eliminated, and the average value of P is found. circuit. internal resistance of the cell can be measured.
 Let 𝑙 be the length and r be the radius of wire, its  The cell 𝜉 whose internal resistance ‘r’ to be  Here the internal reistance is not constant, and it
specific resistance (resistivity) is given be. measured is connected to the secondary circuit. increased with increase of external resistance R.
𝑷𝑨 𝑷 𝝅 𝒓𝟐  A resistance box R and a key K2 is connected
𝝆= = − − − −(𝟑)
𝒍 𝒍 across the cell 𝜉

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
PHYSICS - VOL 1 UNIT - 3
NAME :
STANDARD : 12 SECTION :
SCHOOL :
EXAM NO :

## victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc, M.Phil, B.Ed.,

PG ASST (PHYSICS)
GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 3 MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
7.
Define magnetic inclination or dip. 13. What are the types of magnet?
PART - II 2 MARK QUESTIONS & ANSWERS  The angle subtended by the Earth’s total magnetic  Magnets are classified in to natural magnets and
1. Define magnetism. Give its applications. field 𝐵⃗ with the horizontal direction in the artificial magnets.
 The property of attracting iron is called magnetism. magnetic meridian is called dip or magnetic  Iron, cobalt, nickel etc are natural magnets.
 In olden days, magnets were used as magnetic inclination (I) Strength of natural magnets are very weak and the
compass for navigation, magnetic therapy for  For Chennai, angle of dip is 14°16 shape of the magnet are irregular.
treatment and magic shows. 8. Define horizontal component of Earth’s magnetic  Artificial magnets are made our desired shape and
 In modern days most of the things we use in daily field. strength. Bar magnets, cylindrical magnets, horse
life contains magnets. For example loud speaker,  The componenet of Earth’s magnetic field along the shoe magnets are some examples for artificial
motors, dynamo, cell phones, pendrive, CD, hard horizontal direction in the magnetic meridian is magnets.
disc in laptop etc called horizontal component of Earth’s magnetic 14. Define magnetic flux. Give its unit.
2. Define Giomagnetism or Terrestrial magnetism. field (𝐵𝐻 )  the number of magnetic field lines crossing per unit
 The branch of physics which deals with the Earth’s 9. Calculate the tangent of magnetic inclination or area is called magnetic flux (Φ𝐵 )
magnetic field is called Geomagnetism . angle of dip. 𝚽𝑩 = 𝑩 ⃗⃗ . 𝑨
⃗⃗ = 𝑩 𝑨 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽
3. What are the elements of the Earth’s magnetic field?  Let 𝐵𝐸 be the net Earth’s magnetic field at a point  The S.I unit of magnetc flux is weber (Wb) and C.G.S
 To specify the Earth’s magnetic field, three ‘P’ and ‘I’ be the angle of dip, then unit is maxwell (1 Wb = 108 maxwell)
quantities must be requied. They are Horizontal component ; 𝐵𝐻 = 𝐵𝐸 cos 𝐼  Its dimentional formula is [ML2T-2A-1]
(i) Magnetic declination (D) Vertical componenet ; 𝐵𝑉 = 𝐵𝐸 s𝑖𝑛 𝐼 15. Define magnetic flux density.
(ii) Magnetic dip or inclination (I) 𝐵𝐸 s𝑖𝑛 𝐼 𝐵𝐻  The magnetic flux density can be defined as the
(iii) The horizontal component of the Earth’s ∴ =
𝐵𝐸 cos 𝐼 𝐵𝑉 number of magnetic field lines crossing unit area
magnetic field (BH) 𝑩𝑯 kept normal to the direction of line of force.
4. Define geographic meridian and magnetic 𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝑰 =  Its S.I unit is tesla or 𝑾𝒃 𝒎−𝟐
𝑩𝑽
meridian. 16. Distinguish between uniform and non-uniform
 A vertical plane passing through the geographic  Also, 𝑩𝑬 = √𝑩𝑯𝟐 + 𝑩𝑽𝟐 magnetic field.
axis is called geographic meridian and a great circle Non-uniform magnetic
10. Define pol strength of the magnet. Uniform magnetic field
perpendicular to Earth’s geographic axis is called field
 The attracting property of the magnet is
geographic equator.
concentrated at its poles only and this property is 1) Magnetic field is said to 1) Magnetic field is said to
 A vertical plane passing throuth magnetic axis is be uniorm If it has the be non-uniform If the
called pole strength (𝑞𝑚 ).
called magnetic meridian and a great circle same magnitude and magnitude or direction
 The S.I unit of pole strength is 𝑨 𝒎
perdicular to Earth’s magnetic axis is called direction at all the or both varies at all its
11. Define magnetic dipole moment.
magnetic equator. points in a given region. points.
 Manetic dipole moment ( 𝒑𝒎 ) is defined as the
5. Define magnetic declination. 2) (e.g) Locally Earth’s 2) (e.g) Magnetic field of a
product of the pole strength ( 𝑞𝑚 ) and magnetic
 The angle between magnetic meridian at a point magnetic field is bar magnet
length (2 𝑙). i.e 𝒑𝒎 = 𝒒𝒎 𝟐 𝒍
and geographical meridian is called the magnetic uniform
declination (D).  In vector notation ; ⃗⃗⃗𝒑𝒎 = 𝒒𝒎 ⃗⃗⃗𝒅 [∵ |⃗⃗⃗𝑑 | = 2 𝑙]
𝟐 17. Discuss the types of force between two magnetic
 At higher latitudes, the declination is greater  Its S.I unit is 𝐴 𝒎 . Its direction is from South pole
pole strength.
whereas near the equator, the declination is to North poke.
smaller. 12. Define magnetic field.
6. For Chennai, the magnetic declination angle is  The magnetic field ⃗⃗⃗𝐵 at a point is defined as a force
− 𝟏°𝟖. Why it is negative? experienced by the bar magnet of unit pole
meridian lies west to the geographic meridian. ⃗𝑭
⃗⃗⃗𝑩 =  When north pole (N) of magnet A and north pole
𝒒𝒎 (N) of magnet B or south pole (S) of magnet A and
 Its S.I unit is 𝑵 𝑨−𝟏 𝒎−𝟏 south pole (S) of magnet B are brought close
together, they repels each other.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 3 MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 On the other hand, when north pole of magnet A 24. Define intensity of magnetization. 30. Define curie temperature.
and south pole of magnet B or south pole of magnet  The net magnetic moment per unit volume of the  As temperature increases, the ferromagnetism
A and north pole of magnet B are brought close material or is known as intensity of magnetization decreases due to the inceased thermal agitation of
together they attracts each other. or magnetization vector or magnetization. the atomic dipoles.
 Thus like poles repels and unlike poles attracts.  For magnet the intensity of magnetization can be  At a particular temperature, ferromagnetic
18. State Coulomb’s inverse square law of magnetism. defined as the pole strength per unit area material becomes paramagnetic. This temperature
 The force of attraction or repulsion between two 𝑝𝑚 𝑞𝑚 is known as Curie temperature (𝑇𝐶 ).
𝑀= =
magnetic poles is directly proportional to the 𝑉 𝐴 31. State Curie - Weiss law.
product of their pole strengths and inversely  Its unit 𝑨 𝒎−𝟏 . It is a vector quantity  The susceptibility of the material above the Curie
proportional to the square of the distance between 25. Define magnetic induction or total magnetic field. temperature is given by
them.  The magnetic induction (⃗⃗⃗𝐵 ) inside the specimen is 𝐶
⃗𝑜 ) 𝜒𝑚 =
19. What happens when a bar magnet is freely equal to the sum of the magnetic field ( 𝐵 𝑇 − 𝑇𝑜
suspended in uniform and non-uniform magnetic produced in vacuum due to magnetizing field and where, C  Curie law ; T  Kelvin temperature
field? the magnetic field ( 𝐵 ⃗ 𝑚 ) due to the induce  This relation is called Curie - Weiss law.
 Even though Earth has non- uniform magnetic field, magnetization of the substance, [⃗⃗⃗𝐵 = 𝐵 ⃗𝑜 +𝐵
⃗ 𝑚] 32. What is Hysteresis?
it is locally (at particular place) taken as uniform.  Hysterisis means ‘lagging behind’
26. Define magnetic susceptibility.
So bar magnet suspended freely in unifom magnetic  The phenomenon of lagging of magnetic induction
 Magnetic susceptibility (𝜒𝑚 ) is defined as the ratio
field experience only torque (rotational motion) (B) behind the magnetizing field (H) is called
of the intensity of magnetization (𝑀 ⃗⃗ ) induced in the
 When a bar magnet is freely suspended in non- hysteresis.
uniform magnetic field, it undergo translator material due to the magnetizing field (𝐻 ⃗)
33. Define hysteresis loss.
motion due to net force and rotational motion due  It is a dimensionless quantity.  During the magnetization of the specimen through
to torque. 27. What are the classification of magnetic materials? a cycle, there is loss of energy in the form of heat.
20. State tangent law.  Magnetic materials are generally classified in to This is known as hysteresis loss.
 When a magnetic needle or magnet is freely three types. They are  The energy lost per unit volume of the material
suspended in two mutually perpendicular uniform (i) Diamagnetic material when it is carried through one cycle of
magnetic fields, it will come to rest in the direction (e.g.) bismuth, copper, water magnetization is equal to the area of the hysteresis
of the resultant of the two fields. (ii) Paramagnetic material loop.
21. Define magnetizing field. (e.g.) Aluminum, platinum, chromium 34. What are the types of ferromagnetic materials?
 The magnetic field which is used to magnetize a (iii) Ferro magnetic material  Based on the shape and size of the bysterisis loop,
sample or specimen is called the magnetizing field (e.g.) Iron, nickel, cobalt ferromagnetic materials are classified as two types.
(𝐻⃗ ). Its unit is 𝑨 𝒎−𝟏 28. Define Meissner effect. They are
22. Define magnetic permeability.  Super conductors are perfect diamagnetic (i) Hard magnetic material - (e.g) steel
 Magnetic permeability is defined as the measure of materials. (ii) Soft magnetic material - (e.g) soft irom
ability of the material to allow the passage of  The exclusion of magnetic flux from a super 35. State right hand thumb rule.
magnetic lines through it or measure of the capacity conductor during its transition to the  If we hold the current carrying conductor in our
of the substance to take magnetization or the superconducting state is known as Meisnner effect right hand such that the thumb points in the
degree of penetration of magnetic field through the 29. Define Curie’s law. direction of current flow, then the fingers encircling
substance.  The susceptibility of the material is inversely the wire points in the direction of the magnetic field
23. Define relative permeability. proportional to its kelvin temperature. (i.e.)the lines produced.
 The relative permeability ( 𝝁𝒓 ) is defined as the magnetic susceptibility decreases with increase in 36. State Maxwell’s right hand cork screw rule.
ratio between absolute permeability ( 𝝁 ) of the temperature.  This rule is used to determine the direction of the
𝟏 𝑪
medium to the permeability of free space (𝝁𝒐 ). 𝝌𝒎 ∝ (𝒐𝒓) 𝝌𝒎 = magnetic field.
𝝁 𝑻 𝑻  If we advance a right handed screw along the
𝝁𝒓 =  Where C  curie constant. This is called Curie law
𝝁𝒐 direction of current, then the direction of rotation
 It has no unit and it is dimensionless quantity. of the screw gives the direction of the magnetic
field.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 3 MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
37. Define magnetic dipole moment of current loop. 45. Write a note on fast-neutron cancer therapy. 52. Define voltage sensitivity of the galvanometer.
 The magnetic dipole moment of any current loop is  When a deuteron is bombarded with a beryllium  It is defined as the deflection produced per unit
equal to the product of the current and area of the target, a beam of high energy neutrons are voltage applied across it.
loop. [⃗⃗⃗𝑝𝑚 = 𝐼 ⃗⃗⃗𝐴] produced. 𝜽 𝑵𝑩𝑨 𝟏
𝑰𝑺 = = =
38. State right hand thumb rule.  These high energy neutrons are sent into the 𝑰 𝑲 𝑮
 This rule is used to determine the direction of patient’s cancerous region to break the bonds in the 53. How galvanometer can be converted in to ammeter?
magnetic moment. DNA of the cancer cells.  A galvanometer is converted in to an ammeter by
 If we curl the fingers of right hand in the direction  This is used in treatment of fast-neutron cancer connecting a low resistance (shunt) in parallel with
of current in the loop, then the stretched thumb therapy. the galvanometer.
gives the direction of the magnetic moment 46. State Flemming’s left hand rule (FLHR). 54. How galvanometer can be converted in to voltmeter?
associated with the loop.  Stretch fore finger, the middle finger and the  A galvanometer is converted into a voltmeter by
39. Define gyro-magnetic ratio. thrumb of the left hand in mutully perpendicular connecting high reistance in series with
 The ratio of magnetic moment (𝜇𝐿 ) of the electron directions. If, galvanometer.
to its angular momentum (L) is called gyro- (i) fore finger points the direction of magnetic 55. Why ammeter should always connected in series to
magnetic ratio. field, the circuit?
𝜇𝐿 𝑒 (ii) the middle finger points the direction of the  The ammeter must offer low resistance such that it
= = 8.78 𝑋 1010 𝐶 𝑘𝑔−1 electric current, then will not change the current passing through it. So
𝐿 2𝑚
40. Define Bohr magneton. (iii) thumb will point the direction of the force ammeter is connected in series to measure the
 It is the unit of atomic magnetic moment. experienced by the conductor. circuit current.
 The minimum value of atomic magnetic moment is 47. Define one ampere.  An ideal ammeter has zero resistance.
called Bohr magneton.  One ampere is defined as that current when it is 56. Why voltmeter should always connected in parallel
𝒆𝒉 passed through each of the two infinitely long to the circuit?
𝟏 𝒃𝒐𝒉𝒓𝒎𝒂𝒈𝒏𝒆𝒕𝒐𝒏 = 𝝁𝑩 = = 𝟗. 𝟐𝟕 𝑿 𝟏𝟎−𝟐𝟒 𝑨 𝒎𝟐  The voltmeter must offer high resistance so that it
𝟒𝝅𝒎 parallel straight conductors kept at a distance of
41. State Ampere’s circuital law. one metre apart in vacuum caused each conductor will not draw appreciable current. So voltmeter is
 It state that the line integral of magnetic field over to experience a force of 2 𝑋 10−7 newton per connected in paralle to measure the potential
a closed loop is 𝝁𝒐 times net current enclosed by metre length of conductor. difference.
the loop. 48. Define figure of merit of a galvanometer.  An ideal voltmeter has infinite resistance.
⃗ . ⃗⃗⃗⃗
∮ ⃗𝑩 𝒅𝒍 = 𝝁𝒐 𝑰𝒐  It is defined as the current which produces a
deflection of one scale division in the galvanometer.
42. Define Lorentz force. 49. Define current sensitivity of a galvanometer.
 If the charge is moving in the electric field (𝐸 ⃗⃗⃗ ) and  It is defined as the deflection produced per unit
magnetic field (𝐵⃗ ), the total force experienced by current flowing through it.
𝜽 𝑵𝑩𝑨 𝟏
the charge is given by ⃗⃗⃗𝑭 = 𝒒 [⃗⃗⃗𝑬 + (⃗⃗⃗𝒗 𝑿 ⃗⃗⃗𝑩)] 𝑰𝑺 = = =
 It is known as Lorentz forec. 𝑰 𝑲 𝑮
50. How the current sensitivity of galvanometer can be
43. Define one tesla.
increased?
 The strength of the magnetic field is one tesla if unit
 By increasing the number of turns N
charge moving in it with unit velocity experiences
 By increasing the magnetic induction B
unit force.
 By increasing the area of the coil A
44. What are the limitations of cyclotron?
 By decreasing the couple per unit twist of the
 The speed of the ion is limited.
suspension wire
 Electron cannot be accelerated.
51. Why Phosphor - bronze is used as suspension wire?
 Uncharged particles cannot be accelerated.
 Because, for phosphor - bronze wire, the couple per
unit twist is very small.

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 3 MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 The tangent drawn at any point on the magnetic
PART - III 3 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS field lines gives the direction of magnetic field at
What are the properties of bar magnet? that point.
Properties of magnet:  They never intersect each other.
(i) A freely suspended bar magnet wil always point  The degree of closeness of the field lines
along the north - south direction. determines the relative strength of the magnetic
(ii) The attractive property of the magnet is maximum field. The magnetic field is strong where magnetic
near its end or pole. This is called pole strength. field lines crowd and weak where magnetic field
(iii) Two poles of a magnet have pole strength equal to lines thin out.
one another. 4. Explain Coulomb’s inverse square law in
(iv) When a magnet is broken into pieces, each piece magnetism.  Force experienced by the North pole along the
behave like a magnet with poles at its ends. Coulomb’ inverse square law in magnetism : direction of the field ; ⃗⃗⃗𝐹𝑁 = 𝑞𝑚 𝐵 ⃗
(v) The length of the bar magnet is called geometrical  Force experienced by the South pole opposite to the
length and length between two magnetic poles in a direction of the field ; ⃗⃗⃗𝐹𝑆 = − 𝑞𝑚 𝐵 ⃗
bar magnet is called magnetic length. The magnetic  Hence total force ; ⃗⃗⃗𝐹 = ⃗⃗⃗𝐹𝑁 + ⃗⃗⃗𝐹𝑆 = 0 ⃗
length is always slightly smaller than geometrical  So that there is no translator motion.
length. (i.e.)  But these two forces constitute a couple, which
magnetic length : geometrical length = 5 ∶ 6  Consider two bar magnets A and B as shown. tends to rotate the magnet along the direction of the
2. Write a note on pole strength.  Let , Pole strength of A = 𝑄𝑚𝐴 field ⃗⃗⃗𝐵.
Pole strength : Pole strength of B = 𝑄𝑚𝐵  Hence moment of force or torque about ‘O’ is
 The attracting property of the magnet is Distance between A and B = 𝑟 ⃗⃗𝜏 = ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑂𝑁 𝑋 ⃗⃗⃗𝐹𝑁 + ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑂𝑆 𝑋 ⃗⃗⃗𝐹𝑆
concentrated at its poles only and this property is  Then by Coulomb’s law, the force of attraction or
called pole strength (𝑞𝑚 ). ⃗⃗𝜏 = ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑂𝑁 𝑋 𝑞𝑚 𝐵 ⃗ + 𝑂𝑆 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑋 (−𝑞𝑚 𝐵 ⃗)
repulsion between two mannetic poles is directly ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗ ⃗|
 It is a scalar quantity with dimension [𝐿 𝐴]. Its  Here, |𝑂𝑁| = |𝑂𝑆| = 𝑙 and |𝑞𝑚 𝐵| = |−𝑞𝑚 𝐵
proportional to the product of their pole strengths
S.I unit is 𝑨 𝒎 (𝑜𝑟) 𝑵 𝑻 −𝟏  Hence the magnitude of the torque,
and inversely proportional to the square of the
 North pole of the magnet experiences a force in the 𝜏 = 𝑙 𝑞𝑚 𝐵 sin 𝜃 + 𝑙 𝑞𝑚 𝐵 sin 𝜃
distance between them. Hence
direction of the magnetic field and south pole 𝑄𝑚𝐴 𝑄𝑚𝐴 𝑄𝑚𝐴 𝑄𝑚𝐴 𝜏 = 2 𝑙 𝑞𝑚 𝐵 sin 𝜃 [𝑞𝑚 2𝑙 = 𝑝𝑚 ]
experiences force opposite to the magnetic field. ⃗⃗⃗
𝐹 ∝ ⃗⃗⃗
𝑟̂ (𝑜𝑟) 𝐹 = 𝑘 𝑟̂ 𝝉 = 𝒑𝒎 𝑩 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽
𝑟2 𝑟2
 Pole strength depends on the nature of materials of  In magnitude,  In vector notation, ⃗⃗𝝉 = 𝒑 ⃗ 𝒎 𝑿 ⃗𝑩 ⃗
the magnet, area of cross-section and the state of 𝑄𝑚 𝑄𝑚 6. Obtain an expression for potential energy of a bar
magnetization. 𝐹 =𝑘 𝐴2 𝐴 magnet placed in an uniform magnetic field.
𝑟
 If a magnet is cut in to two equal halves along the  where, 𝑘 → proportionality constant. Potential energy of a bar magnet :
length, then pole strength is reduced to half.  In S. I unit, the value of 𝑘 is
 If the magnet is cut into two equal halves 𝜇𝑜
𝑘= ≅ 10−7 𝐻 𝑚−1
perperdicular to the length, then pole strength 4𝜋
remains same.  Then the force,
 If we cut the magnet in to two pieces, we will not 𝝁𝒐 𝑸 𝒎𝑨 𝑸𝒎𝑨
𝑭 =
separate north and south poles. Instead we get two 𝟒𝝅 𝒓𝟐
magnets. (i.e) isolated mono pole does not exist in  where, 𝜇𝑜 → permiability of free space or vacuum  Let a bar magnet of dipole moment ⃗⃗⃗𝑝𝑚 is placed in
nature [𝜇𝑜 = 4 𝜋 𝑋 10−7 𝐻 𝑚−1 ]
a uniform magnetic field ⃗⃗⃗𝐵 at an angle 𝜃
3. Give the properties of magnetic field lines. 5. Calculate the torque acting on a bar magnet in
 The magnitude of the torque acting on the dipole is
Properties of magnetic field lines: uniform magnetic field.
; 𝝉 = 𝒑𝒎 𝑩 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽
 They are continuous closed lines. Their direction is Torque acting on a bar magnet :
 So work done bt external torque (𝜏𝑒𝑥𝑡 ) for a small
from North pole to South pole outside the magnet  Consider a mannet of length ‘2𝑙’ of pole strength
angular displacement against the torque (𝝉) is
and South pole to North pole inside the magnet. ‘𝑞𝑚 ’ kept in uniform magnetic field ⃗⃗⃗𝐵 . 𝑑𝑊 = 𝜏𝑒𝑥𝑡 𝑑𝜃 = 𝜏 𝑑𝜃 = 𝑝𝑚 𝐵 sin 𝜃 𝑑𝜃

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 3 MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 Hence the total work done to rotate the bar magnet 9. What are called dia, para and ferro magnetic  But due to random orientation of these moments,
from 𝜃 to 𝜃 is , material? the net magnetic moment of the material is zero.
𝜃 𝜃  Materials which exhibit weak magnetim in the  In the presence of external magnetic field, the
𝑊 = ∫ 𝑑𝑊 = ∫ 𝑝𝑚 𝐵 sin 𝜃 𝑑𝜃 direction opposite to the applied field are known as torque acting on the atomic dipoles will align them
𝜽 𝜽
𝑊 = 𝑝𝑚 𝐵 [− cos 𝜃]𝜃𝜽 = − 𝑝𝑚 𝐵 [cos 𝜃 − cos 𝜃 ] diamagnetic materials. They are repelled by the in the field direction.
magnet.  Thus a net magnetic dipole moment induced in the
 This workdone is stored as potential energy of the
bar magnet. Hence 𝑼 = − 𝒑𝒎 𝑩 [𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 − 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 ] (e.g.) Bismuth, Copper, Water direction of the applied field.
 Materials which exhibit weak magnetim in the  The induced dipole moment is present as long as
 If initial angle be  = 90 then,∶ 𝑼 = − 𝒑𝒎 𝑩 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽
direction of the applied field are known as the external field exists.
 The potential energy stored in a bar magnet placed paramagnetic materials. They are feebly attracted  When placed in a non-magntic field, these materials
in a uniform magnetic field is, 𝑼 = − ⃗⃗⃗𝒑𝒎 . ⃗⃗⃗𝑩 by the magnets will have a tendency to move from weaker to
(i) If  = 0 then, ∶ 𝑼 = − 𝒑𝒎 𝑩 = minimum (e.g.) Alluminium, Platinum, Chromium stronger part of the field.
(ii) If  = 180 then, ∶ 𝑼 = 𝒑𝒎 𝑩 = maximum  Materials which exhibit strong magnetim in the  Materials which exhibit weak magnetim in the
 Thus the potential energy of a bar magnet is direction of the applied field are known as direction of the applied field are known as
minimum when it is align along the external field feromagnetic materials. They are strongly attracted paramagnetic materials.
and maximum when it align anti parallel with the by the magnets (e.g.) Aluminium, Platinum, Chromium
external field. (e.g.) Iron, Cobalt, Nickel 12. Explain ferro magnetism.
7. What are the precausions taken wile using tangent 10. Explain dia magnetism. Ferromangntic material:
galvanometer (TG) Diamagnetic material :
Precausions:  The orbital motion of electron produce a magnetic
 All the neaby magnets and magnetic materials are field perpendicular to the plane of the orbit.
kept away from the instrument.  Thus each electron orbit has finite orbital magnetic
 Using sprit level, the levelling screws at the base are dipole moment. But the resultant magnetic moment
adjusted so that the small magnetic needle is for each atom is zero.
exactly horizontal and also the circular coil is  In the presence of an external magnetic moment,
some electrons are speeded up and some are  Ferro magnetic material also possesses net
exactly vertical.
slowed down. magnetic dipole moment as paramagnetic material.
 The plane of the coil is kept along the magnetic  A ferro magnetic material is made up of smaller
meridian.  According to Lenz’s law, the electrons whose
moments were anti-parallel are speeded up which rigions called ferromagnetic domain.
 The pointer in the compass box should read 0° − 0°  Within each domain, the magnetic moments are
⃗⃗ = 𝝁𝒐 (𝑯
⃗⃗⃗ + 𝑴⃗⃗⃗ ) , show that produces induced magnetic moment in a direction
8. Using the relation 𝑩 aligned in same direction due to strong interaction
opposite to the field.
𝝌𝒎 = 𝝁𝒓 − 𝟏  The induced moment disappears as soon as the arising from electron spin. So each domain has net
Proof : The total magnetic induction, external field is removed. magnetization in a direction.
𝐵⃗ = 𝜇𝑜 (𝐻 ⃗ + 𝑀⃗⃗ ) − − − − − (1)  When placed in a non-uniform magnetic field, it has  But the direction of magnetization is different for
 By definition, tendency to move the material from stronger to different domains. Hence the net magnetization of
⃗⃗
𝑀 weaker part of the field. the specimen is zero.
𝜒𝑚 = (𝑜𝑟) 𝑀 ⃗⃗ = 𝜒𝑚 𝐻 ⃗  In the presence of external magnetic field, the
𝐻⃗  This action is called diamagnetic action and such
⃗ = 𝜇𝐻 ⃗ materials are known as diamagnetic materials. domain having magnetic moments parallel to the
& 𝐵
(e.g.) Bismuth, Copper, Water field grow in size and the other domains are aligned
 Put this in equation (1),
11. Explain paramagnetism. with the field.
𝜇𝐻 ⃗ = 𝜇𝑜 (𝐻 ⃗ + 𝜒𝑚 𝐻 ⃗)
Paramagnetic material :  It results, a strong net magnetization of the material
𝜇𝐻 ⃗ = 𝜇𝑜 𝐻⃗ (1 + 𝜒𝑚 ) in the direction of the applied field is produced.
𝜇  In some magnetic material, each atom or molecule
= 1 + 𝜒𝑚 has net dipole magnetic moment which is vector  Materials which exhibit strong magnetism in the
𝜇𝑜 sum of orbital and spin magnetic moments of direction of the applied field is called ferro
(𝑜𝑟) 𝜇𝑟 = 1 + 𝜒𝑚 magnetic materials.
electrons.
∴ 𝝌 𝒎 = 𝝁𝒓 − 𝟏 (e.g.) Iron, Nickel, Cobalt
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 3 MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
13. List the properties of Diamagnetic materials.  The materials (Soft irom) with high initial  It may be either clockwise or anticlock wise
Properties of Diamagnetic materials : permeability, large mangnetic induction and thin depending on the direction of current in the
 Magnetic susceptibility is negative. hysteresis loop with smaller area are needed to conductor.
 Relative permeability is slightly less than one desigh transformer cores.  If strength of the current is increased, then the
 The magnetic field lines are excluded by 17. What are the differences between soft and hard density of the magnetic field will also increases.
diamagnetic materials when placed in a magnetic ferromagnetic materials?  The strength of the magnetic field decreases at the
fields. Soft ferromagnetic materials : distance from the conductor increases.
 Susceptibility is nearly temperature independent.  When external field is removes, its magnetization 19. Explain the magnetic field around the current
14. List the properties of Paramagnetic materials. will disappears. carrying circular loop.
Properties of Paramagnetic materials :  Area of the loop is small Circular coil carrying current :
 Magnetic susceptibility is small positive value.  Low retentivity
 Relative permeability is greater than one  Low coercivity
 The magnetic field lines are attracted in to  High susceptibility and magnetic permeability
paramagnetic materials when placed in a magnetic  Less hysteresis loss
field.  Used as solenoid core, transformer core and
 Susceptibility is inversely proportional to electromagnets
temperature. (e.g.) Soft iron, Mumetal, Stalloy
15. List the properties of Ferromagnetic materials. Hard ferromagnetic materials :
Properties of Ferromangnetic materials :  When external field is removes, its magnetization
 Magnetic susceptibility is positive and large will persists.
 Relative permeability is very very greater than one  Area of the loop is large
 The magnetic fleld lines are stronglyattracted in to  High retentivity  If we keep a magnetic compass near a current
the ferromagnetic materials when placed in a  High coercivity carrying circular conductor, then the magnetic
magnetic field.  Low susceptibility and magnetic permeability needle deflects which indicates the existence of
 Susceptibility is inversely proportional to  More hysteresis loss magnetic field.
temperature.  Used as permanent magnets  Tracing the direction of the deflection, it shows the
16. Explain the applications of hysteresis loop. (e.g.) Steel, Alnico, Lodestone magnetic lines are circular near A and B and nearly
Applications of hysteresis loop : 18. Explain the magnetic field around a straight current parallel to each other near the centre of the loop.
 The main significance of hysteresis loop is that it carrying conductor.  Thus the field present near the centre of the coil is
provides the following information. Current carrying straight conductor : almost uniform.
(i) Retentivity  The strength of the magnetic field is increased if
(ii) Coercivity either the current in the coil or the number of turns
(iii) Permiability or both are increased.
(iv) Susceptibility  The polarity (north pole or south pole) depends on
(v) Energy loss during on cycle of magnetization the direction of current in the loop.
 These information will help us in selecting proper 20. State and explain Biot-Savart law.
and suitable material for a given purpose. Biot - Savart law :
 For example, the materials (Steel and Alnico) with
high retentivity, high coercivity and high  When a magnetic compass is kept near a current
permeability are suitable for making permanent carrying straight conductor, the magnetic needle
magnets. deflects which indicates there exists a magnetic
 The materials (Soft iron and Mumetal) with high field.
initial permeability, low retentivity, low coercivity  If we trace the direction shown by the magnetic
and thin hysteresis loop with smaller area are needle, we can draw the magnetic field lines which
preferred to make electro mangnet. are concentric circles having their centre at the axis
of the conductor.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 3 MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 According to Biot - Savart law, the magnitude of Current loop as a magnetic dipole :  The direction of magnetic field is given by right
magnetic field 𝑑𝐵 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ at a point ‘P’ at a distance ‘r’  The magnetic field from the centre of a currnt loop hand palm rule. (i.e.) if the current carrying
from the small elemental length ‘dl’ of the current of radius ‘R’ along the axis solenoid is held in right hand such that the fingers
2
‘I’ carrying conductor varies, 𝜇 𝑜 𝐼 𝑅 curl in the direction of current, then extended
⃗⃗⃗𝐵 = 3 𝑘̂ thumb gives the direction of magnetic field.
(i) 𝑑𝐵 ∝ 𝐼
2 (𝑅2 + 𝑧 2 )2  Hence magnetic field of a solenoid looks like the
(ii) 𝑑𝐵 ∝ 𝑑𝑙
 At larger distance, 𝑧 ≫ 𝑅 and hence 𝑅2 + 𝑧 2 ≈ 𝑧 2 magnetic field of a bar magnet.
(iii) 𝑑𝐵 ∝ sin 𝜃
𝜇𝑜 𝐼 𝑅 2 𝜇𝑜 𝐼 𝜋 𝑅 2 Uses :
(iv) 𝑑𝐵 ∝ 2
1 ⃗⃗⃗𝐵 = ̂
𝑘 = ̂
𝑘
𝑟 2 𝑧3 2 𝜋 𝑧3  Solenoid can be used as electromagnets which
 Hence, Here, 𝜋 𝑅2 → area of the loop produces strong magnetic field that can be turned
𝐼 𝑑𝑙 sin 𝜃 𝜇 𝐼𝐴 𝜇𝑜 2 𝐼 𝐴
𝑑𝐵 ∝ ⃗⃗⃗𝐵 = 𝑜 𝑘̂ = 𝑘̂ − − − −(1) ON or OFF.
𝑟2 2 𝜋 𝑧3 4 𝜋 𝑧3  The strength of the magnetic field can be increased
𝐼 𝑑𝑙 sin 𝜃  We know that, magnetic field at a distance ‘𝑧’ along
(𝑜𝑟) 𝑑𝐵 = 𝑘 − − − − (1) by keeping iron bar inside the solenoid.
𝑟2 the axial line is  They are useful in designing variety of electrical
 where, 𝑘 → constant 𝜇 2 ⃗⃗⃗𝑝𝑚
𝜇𝑜 ⃗⃗⃗𝐵 = 𝑜 − − − − − −(2) appliences.
 In S. I. units, 𝑘 = 4 𝜋 𝑧3 24. Write a note in MRI.
4𝜋
 Hence,  Compare equation (1) and (2) MRI :
𝝁𝒐 𝑰 𝒅𝒍 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 ⃗⃗⃗𝒑𝒎 = 𝑰 ⃗⃗⃗𝑨  MRI is Magnetic Resonance Imaging which helps the
𝒅𝑩 = − − − − (2) (𝑜𝑟) 𝒑 = 𝑰 𝑨
𝟒𝝅 𝒓 𝟐 𝒎 physicians to diagonise or monitor treatment for a
 In vector notation,  This implies that a current carrying circular loop variety of abnormal conditions happening within
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝝁𝒐 𝑰 𝒅𝒍 𝑿 𝒓̂ behaves as a magnetic dipole of dipole moment 𝒑 𝒎 the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis.
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝒅𝑩 = − − − − (3)  So the magnetic dipole moment of any current  It is a non invasive medical test.
𝟒𝝅 𝒓𝟐 loop is equal to the product of the current and
 Here ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝒅𝑩 is perpendicular to both 𝑰⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝒅𝒍 and 𝒓̂  The patient is placed in a circular opening and large
area of the loop. current is sent through the superconduction wire
 From superposition principole the total magnetic 23. Explain current carrying solenoid behaves like a
field due to entire conductor is, to produce a strong magnetic field.
bar magnet.  This magnetic field produces radio frequency
𝝁𝒐 𝑰 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝒅𝒍 𝑿 𝒓̂ Current carrying conductor:
⃗⃗ = ∫ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑩 𝒅𝑩 = ∫ pulses which are fed to a computer which produce
𝟒𝝅 𝒓𝟐 pictures of organs which helps the physicians to
21. Give the difference between Coulomb’s law and examine various parts of the body
Biot-Savart’s law. 25. Define Lorentz force. Give the properties of Lorentz
Coulomb’s law Biot-Savart’s law magnetic force.
1) Electric field is 1) Magnetic field is Lorentz force :
calculated calculated  When an electric charge ′𝑞′ moves in the magnetic
2) Produced by a scalar 2) Produced be vector  A solenoid is a long coil of wire closely wound in the field 𝐵 ⃗ , it experience a force called Lorentz
source (i.e) charge ‘q’ source (i.e.) current form of helix. magnetic force.
⃗⃗⃗ ’
element ‘𝐼 𝑑𝑙  When current flows through the solenoid, magnetic 𝑭𝒎 = 𝑩 𝒒 𝒗 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽
3) It is directed along the 3) It is directed field is produced.  In vector notation,
position vector joining perpendicular to the  It is due to the superposition of magnetic fields of ⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝒎 = 𝒒 (𝒗
⃗ 𝑿 ⃗𝑩
⃗)
the source and the position vector and the each turn of the solenoid. Properties of Lorentz magnetic force :
point at which the field current element  Inside the solenoid, the magnetic field is nearly
(i) ⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝒎 is directly proportional to the magnetic field (𝑩 ⃗⃗ )
is calculated. uniform and parallel to its axis.
⃗⃗⃗
(ii) 𝑭𝒎 is directlty proportional to the velocity (𝒗 ⃗)
4) Does not depends on 4) Depends on the angle  But outside the solenoid, the field is negligibly
small. (iii) ⃗⃗⃗
𝑭 is directly proportional to sine of the angle
angle between 𝐼 ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑙 and 𝑟̂ 𝒎
 Depending on the direction of current, one end of between the velocity and magnetic field.
22. Explain the current loop acts as a magnetic dipole
and calculate its dipole moment. the solenoid behaves like North pole and the other (iv) ⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝒎 is directly proportional to the magnitude of the
end behaves like South pole. charge
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 3 MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
(v) The direction of ⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝒎 is always perpendicular to (i) If 𝑣 > 𝑣𝑜 , then charged particle deflects in the  Let 𝑅𝑎 be the resistance of ammeter, then

⃗⃗⃗𝑣 and 𝐵 direction of Lorentz force. 1 1 1
= +
(ii) If 𝑣 < 𝑣𝑜 , then charged particle deflects in the 𝑅𝑎 𝑅𝐺 𝑆
(vi) The direction of ⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝒎 on negative chanrge is
direction of Coulomb force. 𝑹𝑮 𝑺
opposite to the direction of ⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝒎 on positive charge (iii) If , then no deflection and the charged particle ⟹ 𝑹𝒂 =
(vii) If the of the charge is along the manetic field, then 𝑹𝑮 + 𝑺
moves in straight line.  Here, 𝑅𝐺 > 𝑆 > 𝑅𝑎
⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝒎 is zero.  Thus by proper choice of electric and magnetic  Thus an ammeter is a low resistance instrument,
26. Write a note on velocity selector. fields, the particle with particular speed can be and it always connected in series to the circuit.
Velocity selector: selected. Such an arrangement of fields is called a  An ideal ammeter has zero resistance.
velocity selector. 28. How Galvanometer can be converted in to
 This principle is used in Bainbridge mass voltmeter?
spectrograph to separate the isotopes. Galvanometer to a voltmeter :
27. How Galvanometer can be converted in to Ammeter.
Galvanometer to an Ammeter :

##  Let an electric charge ‘q’ of mass ‘m’ enters in to a

region of uniform magnetic field 𝐵 ⃗ with velocity ⃗⃗⃗𝑣  A voltmeter is an instrument used to measure
 Dut to Lorentz force, the charged particle moves in potential difference across any two points.
helical path.  A galvanometer is converted in to voltmeter by
 By applying proper electric field 𝐸⃗ , the Lorentz connecting high resistance in series with the
force can be balanced by Coulomb force  Ammeter is an instrument used to measure current. galvanometer.
 Here Coulomb force acts along the direction of  A galvanometer is converted into an ammeter by  The scale is calibrated in volts.
electric field, whereas the Lorentz force is connecting a low resistance called shunt in parallel  Galvanometer resistance = 𝑅𝐺
perpendicular to the direction of magnetic field. with the galvanometer. High resistanc = 𝑅ℎ
 Therefore in order to balance these forces, both  The scale is calibrated in amperes. Current flows through galvanometer = 𝐼𝐺
electric and magnetic fields must be perpendicular to  Galvanometer resistance = 𝑅𝐺 Voltage to be measured = 𝑉
each other. Shunt resistance = 𝑆 Total resistance of this circuit = 𝑅𝐺 + 𝑅ℎ
 Such an arrangement of perpendicular electric and Current flows through galvanometer = 𝐼𝐺  Here the current in the electrical circuit is same as
magnetic fields are known as cross fields. Current flows through shunt resistance = 𝐼𝑆 the current passing through the galvanometer. (i.e.)
 The force on electric charge due to these fields is, Current to be measured = 𝐼 𝐼𝐺 = 𝐼
⃗⃗⃗𝐹 = 𝑞 [𝐸⃗ + (𝑣 𝑋 𝐵 ⃗ )] The potential difference across galvanometer is 𝑽
𝑰𝑮 =
same as the potential difference shunt resistance. 𝑹𝑮 + 𝑹𝒉
 For a positive charge, the electric force on the (i.e.) 𝑉𝐺𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 𝑉𝑠ℎ𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑉
charge acts in downward direction whereas the 𝐼𝐺 𝑅𝐺 = 𝐼𝑆 𝑆 (𝑜𝑟) 𝑅𝐺 + 𝑅ℎ =
Lorentz force acts upwards. 𝐼𝐺
𝐼𝐺 𝑅𝐺 = (𝐼 − 𝐼𝐺 ) 𝑆 − − − −(1) 𝑽
When these two forces balance one another, the net 𝑰𝑮 ∴ 𝑹𝒉 = − 𝑹𝑮
force ⃗⃗⃗𝐹 = 0. Hence 𝑞 𝐸 = 𝐵 𝑞 𝑣𝑜 𝑺= 𝑹 𝑰𝑮
𝑰 − 𝑰𝑮 𝑮  Let 𝑅𝑣 be the resistance of voltmeter, then
𝑬
∴ 𝒗𝒐 =  From equation (1), 𝑹𝒗 = 𝑹𝑮 + 𝑹𝒉
𝑩 𝐼𝐺 𝑅𝐺 = 𝑆 𝐼 − 𝐼𝐺 𝑆
 This means for a given magnitude of electric field  Here, 𝑅𝐺 < 𝑅ℎ < 𝑅𝑣
𝐼𝐺 (𝑆 + 𝑅𝐺 ) = 𝑆 𝐼  Thus an voltmeter is a highresistance instrument,
𝐸⃗ and magnetic field 𝐵 ⃗ , the forces act only for the 𝑺
𝑰𝑮 = 𝑰 and it always connected in parallel to the circuit
particle moving with particular speed 𝒗𝒐 . 𝑺 + 𝑹𝑮 element.
 This speed is independent of mass and charge,
 An ideal ammeter has zero resistance.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 3 MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
29. Differentiate Scalar, Vector and Tensor.  The angle between magnetic meridian at a point
Scalar : PART - IV 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS and geographical meridian is called the magnetic
 It has only one component. 1.ANSWERS
Discuss Earth’s magnetic field in detail. declination (D).
 It has no direction (i.e) no unit vector Earth’s magnetic field :  The angle subtended by the Earth’s total magnetic
 Since it has no direction, its rank is zero. field wih the horizontal direction in the magnetic
Vector : meridian is called dip or magnetic inclination (I)
 It haIs resolved in to components. at that point.
 It has only one direction. (i.e.) has one unit vector  The component of Earth’s magnetic field along the
 Since each component have one direction, its rank horizontal direction in the magnetic meridian is
is one called horizontal component of Earth’s magnetic
Tensor : field (BH)
 It has resolved into components.  Let BH be the net Earth’s magnetic field at a point
 It has more than one direction (i.e) has more than on the surface of the Earth, then
one unit vector Horizontal component ; 𝐵𝐻 = 𝐵𝐸 cos 𝐼 − − − (1)
 If each component associated with two direction, Vertical component : 𝐵𝑉 = 𝐵𝐸 s𝑖𝑛 𝐼 − − − (2)
then its rank is two and if each component  A freely suspended magnet comes to rest (2) 𝐵𝑉
approximately along the geographical north - south ⟹ tan 𝐼 =
associated with three direction, then its rank is (1) 𝐵𝐻
three. direction. (i) At magnetic equator :
 In general, if each component associated with ‘n’  To explain this, William Gilbert proposed that,  At magnetic equator, 𝐼 = 0°, then
direction, then it is called tensor of rank ‘n’ Earth itself like a gigantic powerful magnet, but this 𝐵𝐻 = 𝐵𝐸
theory was not accepted. 𝐵𝑉 = 0
 Gover suggested that the Earth’s magnetic field is (ii) At magnetic poles :
due to hot rays coming out from the Sun.  At magnetic poles, 𝐼 = 90° , then
 So many theories have been proposed, but none of 𝐵𝐻 = 0
the theory completely explains the cause for the 𝐵𝑉 = 𝐵𝐸
Earth’s magnetism. 2. Calculate the magnetic induction at a point on the
 The north pole of magnetic compass needle is axial line of a bar magnet.
attracted towards the magnetic south pole of the ⃗ 𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑠 ) :
Magnetic field at axial line ( 𝐵
Earth which is near the geographic north pole.
 Simillarly the south pole of magnetic compass
needle is attracted towards the magnetic north
pole of the Earth which is near the the geographic
south pole.
 The branch of physics which deals with the Earth’s
magnetic field is called Geomagnetism (or)
Terrestrial magnetism.
 The Earth spins about an axis called geographic
axis and vertical line passing through the  Consider a bar magnet ‘NS’ of moment 𝑝𝑚 = 𝑞𝑚 2𝑙
geographic axis is called geographic meridian,  Let C be the point on its axis at a distance ‘r’ from
and a great circle perpendicular to Earth’s centre ‘O’
geographic axis is called geographic equator.  Let unit north pole (𝑞𝑚𝐶 = 1 𝐴 𝑚) is placed at ‘C’
 The straight line which connects magnetic poles of
 The repulsive force experienced by unit north pole
Earthis known as magnetic axis and the vertical lise
(i.e.) magnetic field at ‘C’ due to north pole
passing throuth magnetic axis is called magnetic
⃗⃗⃗𝐹 𝜇 𝑞𝑚
meridian and a great circle perpendicular to ⃗⃗⃗𝐵𝑁 = 𝑁 = 𝑜 𝑖̂ − − − − (1)
Earth’s magnetic axis is called magnetic equator. 𝑞𝑚𝐶 4 𝜋 (𝑟 − 𝑙)2
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 3 MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 The attractive force experienced by unit north pole  Let unit north pole (𝑞𝑚𝐶 = 1 𝐴 𝑚) is placed at ‘C’ 4. What is tangent law? Discuss in detail. Explain the
(i.e.) magnetic field at ‘C’ due to south pole  The repulsive force experienced by unit north pole principle, construction and working of tangent
⃗⃗⃗𝐹 𝜇 𝑞𝑚 (i.e.) magnetic field at ‘C’ due to north pole galvanometer.
⃗⃗⃗𝐵𝑆 = 𝑆 = − 𝑜 𝑖̂ − − − − (2) 𝐹𝑁 𝜇𝑜 𝑞𝑚 Tangent Galvanometer :
𝑞𝑚𝐶 4 𝜋 (𝑟 + 𝑙)2 𝐵𝑁 = = (𝑎𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 𝑁𝐶) − − − − (1)
𝑞𝑚𝐶 4 𝜋 𝑟 !𝟐  It is a device used to measure very small currents.
 Then total magnetic field at ‘C’ is
 The attractive force experienced by unit north pole  It is a moving magnet type galvanometer.
⃗ 𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑠 = ⃗⃗⃗𝐵𝑁 + ⃗⃗⃗𝐵𝑆
𝐵
(i.e.) magnetic field at ‘C’ due to south pole  Its working is based on tangent law.
𝜇𝑜 𝑞𝑚 𝜇𝑜 𝑞𝑚
= 𝑖̂ + [− 𝑖̂ ] 𝐹𝑆 𝜇𝑜 𝑞𝑚 Tangent law :
4 𝜋 (𝑟 − 𝑙)2 4 𝜋 (𝑟 + 𝑙)2 𝐵𝑆 = = (𝑎𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 𝐶𝑆) − − − − (2)  When a magnetic needle or magnet is freely
𝜇𝑜 1 1 𝑞𝑚𝐶 4 𝜋 𝑟 !𝟐
= 𝑞𝑚 [ − ] 𝑖̂ suspended in two mutually perpendicular uniform
4𝜋 (𝑟 − 𝑙) 2 (𝑟 + 𝑙)2  Here, 𝑩𝑵 = 𝑩𝑺
magnetic fields, it will come to rest in the direction
 Resolve these two magnetic fields into their
𝜇𝑜 (𝑟 + 𝑙)2 − (𝑟 − 𝑙)2 of the resultant of the two fields.
= 𝑞𝑚 [ ] 𝑖̂ components. Hence
4𝜋 (𝑟 − 𝑙)2 (𝑟 + 𝑙)2  Let B be the magnetic field produced by passing
⃗⃗⃗𝐵𝑁 = − 𝐵𝑁 cos 𝜃 𝑖̂ + 𝐵𝑁 sin 𝜃 𝑗̂
𝜇𝑜 𝑟2 + 𝑙2 + 2 𝑟 𝑙 − 𝑟2 − 𝑙2 + 2 𝑟 𝑙 current through the coil of tangent galvanometer
= 𝑞𝑚 [ ] 𝑖̂ 𝐵 ⃗ 𝑆 = − 𝐵𝑆 cos 𝜃 𝑖̂ − 𝐵𝑆 sin 𝜃 𝑗̂ and BH be the horizontal component of Earth’s
4𝜋 {(𝑟 − 𝑙) (𝑟 + 𝑙)}2  Then the total magnetic field at ‘C’ is magnetic field.
𝜇𝑜 4𝑟𝑙 𝐵⃗ 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 = ⃗⃗⃗𝐵𝑁 + 𝐵 ⃗𝑺
= 𝑞𝑚 2 𝑖̂  Under the action of two magnetic fields, the needle
4𝜋 (𝑟 − 𝑙 2 )2 = − 𝐵𝑁 cos 𝜃 𝑖̂ + 𝐵𝑁 sin 𝜃 𝑗̂ comes to rest at an angle  with 𝐵𝐻 , such that
𝜇𝑜 2 𝑟 (𝑞𝑚 2 𝑙) − 𝐵𝑺 cos 𝜃 𝑖̂ − 𝐵𝑆 sin 𝜃 𝑗̂ 𝑩 = 𝑩𝑯 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝜽
= 𝑖̂
4 𝜋 (𝑟 2 − 𝑙 2 )2 𝐵⃗ 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 = − 𝐵𝑁 cos 𝜃 𝑖̂ − 𝐵𝑺 cos 𝜃 𝑖̂ Construction :
𝜇 2 𝑟 𝑝𝑚  It consists of copper coil wound on a non-magnetic
⃗ 𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑠 = 𝑜
𝐵 𝑖̂ − − − − (3) 𝐵⃗ 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 = − 2 𝐵𝑁 cos 𝜃 𝑖̂ [∵ 𝐵𝑁 = 𝐵𝑺 ]
4 𝜋 (𝑟 2 − 𝑙 2 )2 𝜇𝑜 𝑞𝑚 circular frame.
 where 𝑞𝑚 2 𝑙 = 𝑝𝑚 → magnetic dipole moment = − 2 cos 𝜃 𝑖̂  It is fixed vertically on a horizontal turn table
 If 𝑟 ≫ 𝑙, then (𝑟 2 − 𝑙 2 )2 ≈ 𝑟 4 . So 4 𝜋 𝑟 !𝟐
𝜇 2 𝑞𝑚 providing with three levelling screws.
𝜇 2 𝑟 𝑝𝑚 𝐵⃗ 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 = − 𝑜 cos 𝜃 𝑖̂ − − − (3)  At centre, a compass box is placed which consists
𝐵⃗ 𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑠 = 𝑜 𝑖̂ 4𝜋 (𝑟 2 + 𝑙2)
4𝜋 𝑟4 of a small magnetic needle which is pivoted at its
𝜇 2 𝑝𝑚  But in ∆ 𝑁𝑂𝐶,
𝐵⃗ 𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑠 = 𝑜 𝑖̂ [𝑝𝑚 𝑖̂ = 𝑝𝑚 ] centre.
𝑂𝑁 𝑙 𝑙
4 𝜋 𝑟3 cos 𝜃 = = !=  A thin aluminium pointer is attached to the
1
𝝁 𝟐 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝒑𝒎 𝐶𝑁 𝑟 (𝑟 2 + 𝑙 2 )2 magnetic needle normally and moves over circular
⃗ 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 = 𝒐
⃗𝑩 − − − − (𝟒)
𝟒𝝅 𝒓𝟑  Then equation (3) becomes, scale.
3. Obtain the magnetic induction at a point on the 𝜇 𝑞𝑚 𝑙  The circular scale is divided in to four quadrants
equatorial line of a bar magnet. 𝐵⃗ 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 = − 2 𝑜 1 𝑖̂
4 𝜋 (𝑟 2 + 𝑙 2 ) (𝑟 2 and graduated in degrees.
Magnetic field at equatorial line ( 𝑩 ⃗⃗ 𝒆𝒒𝒖𝒂 ): + 𝑙 2 )2  In order to avoid parallax error in measurement, a
𝜇 𝑞𝑚 2 𝑙
𝐵⃗ 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 = − 𝑜 3 𝑖̂
mirror is placed below the aluminium pointer.
4 𝜋 (𝑟 2  Here the centre of magnetic needle will exactly
+ 𝑙 2 )2
𝜇 𝑝𝑚 coincide with the centre of the circular coil.
𝐵⃗ 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 = − 𝑜 3 𝑖̂
4 𝜋 (𝑟 2  The coil has three sections of 2, 5 and 50 turns
+ 𝑙 2 )2
which are different thickness and are used to
 where 𝑞𝑚 2 𝑙 = 𝑝𝑚 → magnetic dipole moment
3 measuring currents of different strengths.
 If 𝑟 ≫ 𝑙, then (𝑟 2 + 𝑙 2 )2 ≈ 𝑟 3 . So Theory :
𝜇 𝑝  When no current is passed through the coil, the
𝐵⃗ 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 = − 𝑜 𝑚 𝑖̂ [𝑝𝑚 𝑖̂ = 𝑝𝑚 ]
4 𝜋 𝑟3 small magnetic needle lies along horizontal
𝝁 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝒑 component of Earth’s magnetic field
⃗ 𝒆𝒒𝒖𝒂𝒕𝒐𝒓 = − 𝒐 𝒎
⃗𝑩 − − − −(𝟒)
 Consider a bar magnet ‘NS’ of moment 𝑝𝑚 = 𝑞𝑚 2𝑙 𝟒 𝝅 𝒓𝟑  When current pass through the coil, it produces
 Let C be the point on its equatorial line at a distance magnetic field in direction perpendicular to the
‘r’ from centre ‘O’ plane of the coil.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 3 MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 Now there are two fields, which are acting mutually  Let a ferro magnetic material (iron) is magnetized 6. Deduce the relation for magnetic induction at a
perpendicular to each other. slowly by a magnetizing field 𝐻 ⃗ point due to an infinitely long straight conductor
They are  The magnetic induction 𝐵 ⃗ is increases from point A carrying current.
(i) The magnetic field ‘B’ and attains saturated level at C. This is shown by Magnetic field due to long straight current carrying
due to current in the coil the path AC conductor :
(ii) Horizontal component of  The maximum point up to which the material cn be
Earth’s magnetic field magnetized by applying the magnetizing field is
‘BH’ called Saturation magnetization.
 Thus the magnetic needle deflects through an angle  If magnetizing field is now reduced, the magnetic
‘’. By tangent law, induction also decreases but in different path CA.
B = Bh tan θ − − − − − − − − (1)  When magnetizing field is zero, the magnetic
 When current ‘I’ passing through a circular coil of induction is not zero and it has positive value. (i.e.)
radius ‘R’ having ‘N’ turns, the magnitude of some magnetism is left in the material even when
magnetic field at the centre is, H=0.
μo N I  The ability of the material to retain the magnetism
B = − − − − − − − − (2)
2R in them even magnetizing field vanishes is called
 Put equation (2) in (1) remanence or retentivity.
μo N I
= BH tan θ  To remove the remance, the magnetizing field is
2R gradually increased in the reverse direction, so that
μo N 𝐼
𝐁𝐇 = ( ) − − − (3) the magnetic induction decreases along DE and  Consider a long straight wire NM carrying a current I
2 R tan 𝜃 becomes zero at ‘E’
 Also the current is ,  Let P be a point at a distance ‘a’ from ‘O’
𝟐 𝐑 𝐁𝑯  The magnitude of the reverse magnetizing field for  Consider an element of length ‘𝑑𝑙’ of the wire at a
𝐈 = 𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝛉 = 𝐊 𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝛉 − −(4) which the residual magnetism of the material distance ‘𝑙’ from point ‘O’
𝛍𝐨 𝐍 vanishes is called its coercivity.
 where,  Let ⃗⃗𝑟 be the vector joining the element ‘𝑑𝑙’ with
𝟐 𝐑 𝐁𝑯  Further increase of 𝐻 ⃗ in the reverse direction, the the point ‘P’ and ‘𝜃’ be the angle between ⃗⃗𝑟 and
K= −→ Reduction factor of TG mangetic indiuction increases along EF until it ⃗⃗⃗
𝛍𝐨 𝐍 𝑑𝑙
5. Define Hysterisis. Explain it with help of diagram. reaches saturation at F in the reverese direction.  Then the magnetic field at ‘P’ due to the element is,
Hysterisis :  If magnetizing field is decreased and then 𝝁𝒐 𝑰 𝒅𝒍 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽
increased with direction reversed, the magnetic ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝒅𝑩 = 𝒏
̂ − − − −(1)
 Hysterisis means ‘lagging behind’ 𝟒𝝅 𝒓𝟐
 The phenomenon of lagging of magnetic induction induction traces the path FGKC.  where, 𝒏 ̂ → unit vector normal to both 𝐼 ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑙 and 𝑟̂
⃗ ), behind the magnetizing field ( 𝐻
(𝐵 ⃗ ) is called  This closed curve ACDEFGKC is called hysteresis
 In ∆𝑃𝐴𝑂,
hysteresis. loop and it represents a cycle of magnetization. 𝑎
 In the entire cycle, the magnetic induction ‘B’ lags tan(𝜋 − 𝜃) =
Hysterisis loop : 𝑙
behind the magnetizing field ‘H’. 𝑎
(𝑜𝑟) − tan 𝜃 =
 This phenomenon is called hysteresis 𝑙
Hysterisis Loss : 𝑎
(𝑜𝑟) 𝑙= − = − 𝑎 cot 𝜃
 Due to hysterisis there is a loss of energy in the tan 𝜃
form of heat and It is found that the energy lost per  Differentiate,
unit volume of the material when it is carried 𝑑𝑙 = −𝑎 (− 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 𝜃) 𝑑𝜃 = 𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 𝜃 𝑑𝜃
through one cycle of magnetization is equal to the  Also from ∆𝑃𝐴𝑂,
𝑎 𝑎
area of the hysteresis loop. sin(𝜋 − 𝜃) = (𝑜𝑟) sin 𝜃 =
 Thus the loss of energy for a complete cycle is, 𝑟 𝑟
𝑎
(or) 𝑟= = 𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝜃
∆𝑬 = ∮ ⃗𝑯 ⃗⃗ . ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝒅𝑩 sin 𝜃

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 3 MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 put 𝑙 and 𝑟 in equation (1)  From Pythogorous theorem,
𝜇 𝐼 𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 𝜃 𝑑𝜃 sin 𝜃 𝑃𝐶 = 𝑃𝐷 = 𝑟 = √𝑅2 + 𝑧 2
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = 𝑜
𝑑𝐵 𝑛̂
4𝜋 𝑎2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 𝜃 𝑑𝜃 and ∠ 𝑂𝐶𝑃 = ∠𝑂𝐷𝑃 = 𝜃
𝜇 𝐼  According to Biot - Savart law, the magnetic field at
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = 𝑜 sin 𝜃 𝑑𝜃 𝑛̂
𝑑𝐵
4𝜋 𝑎 ‘P’ due to the current element 𝐼 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑑𝑙 is,
 Here 𝑑𝐵⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ is expressed in terms of angular 𝜇𝑜 𝐼 𝑑𝑙
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ =
𝑑𝐵 𝑛̂ [ ∵ 𝜃 = 90°]
coordinate ‘’. Hence the net magnetic field at ‘P’ 4 𝜋 𝑟2
𝜑2 𝜑2
𝜇𝑜 𝐼  where, 𝒏 ̂ → unit vector normal to both 𝐼 ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑙 & ⃗⃗𝑟  The magnetic dipole moment due to current
⃗⃗⃗𝐵 = ∫ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝐵 = ∫ sin 𝜃 𝑑𝜃 𝑛̂ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ can be resolved in to two componenets.
4𝜋 𝑎  Here, 𝑑𝐵 carrying circular loop is, ⃗⃗⃗𝝁𝑳 = 𝑰 𝑨⃗⃗
𝜑1 𝜑1 (i) ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝐵 sin 𝜃 − horizontal component (Y - axis)  In magnitude, 𝝁𝑳 = 𝑰 𝑨 − − − − − − (𝟏)
𝜇 𝐼
⃗⃗⃗𝐵 = 𝑜 [− cos 𝜃]𝜑
𝜑1 𝑛
2
̂ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ cos 𝜃 − vertical component (Z - axis)
(ii) 𝑑𝐵  If T is thetime period of an electron, the current due
4𝜋 𝑎
𝝁 𝑰  Here horizontal components of each element to revolving electron is,
⃗⃗⃗𝑩 = 𝒐 [𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝝋𝟏 − 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝝋𝟐 ] 𝒏̂ − − − (𝟐) cancel each other. 𝑒
𝟒𝝅 𝒂 𝐼= −
 For an infinitely long straight wire, 𝜑1 = 0 and  But vertical components alone contribute to total 𝑇
magnetic field at the point ‘P’ where ‘- e’  charge of an electron.
𝜑2 = 𝜋 (180°) . Then the magnetic field is
 If ‘R’ be the radius and ‘𝑣’ be the velocity of electron
𝜇 𝐼 𝜇𝑜 𝐼 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = ∫ 𝑑𝐵 cos 𝜃 𝑘̂
⃗ = ∫ 𝑑𝐵
B
⃗⃗⃗𝐵 = 𝑜 [1 − (−1)] 𝑛̂ = ⃗⃗⃗𝐵 =  𝑛̂ in the circular orbit, then
4𝜋 𝑎 4𝜋 𝑎 𝜇𝑜 𝐼 𝑑𝑙 2𝜋 2𝜋𝑅
𝝁 𝑰 ⃗ =
B ∫ 2 cos 𝜃 𝑘̂ − − − − − (1) 𝑇= =
⃗⃗⃗𝑩 = 𝒐 𝒏
̂ − − − − − (𝟑) 4𝜋 𝑟 𝜔 𝑣
𝟐𝝅 𝒂  Then equation (1) becomes,
7. Obtain a relation for the magnetic induction at a  Also from ∆𝑃𝑂𝐷, 𝑒 𝑒
point along the axis of a circular coil carrying 𝑅 𝑅 𝝁𝑳 = − 𝐴 = − 𝜋 𝑅2
𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 = = 𝑇 2𝜋𝑅
current. 𝑟 1 [ ]
(𝑅2 + 𝑧 2 )2 𝑣
Magnetic field due to current carrying circular coil :  But from equation (1) where, 𝐴 = 𝜋𝑅2 → area of the circular orbit
𝜇 𝐼 𝑑𝑙 𝑅 𝒆𝒗𝑹
⃗ = 𝑜 ∫
B ̂
1 𝑘
∴ 𝝁𝑳 = − − − − − (2)
4𝜋 (𝑅 + 𝑧 ) 2
2 2 𝟐
(𝑅 + 𝑧 2 )2  By definition, angular momentum of the electron
𝜇𝑜 𝐼 𝑅
⃗B = ̂ about ‘O’ is ⃗⃗𝐿 = ⃗⃗⃗𝑅 𝑋 ⃗⃗⃗𝑝
3 ∫ 𝑑𝑙 𝑘
4 𝜋 (𝑅 + 𝑧 )
2 2 2  In magnitude, angular momentum is given by,
 where, ∫ 𝑑𝑙 = 2 𝜋 𝑅 → total length of the coil. 𝐿 =𝑅𝑝=𝑚𝑣𝑅 − − − − (3)
𝜇𝑜 𝐼 𝑅  Dividing equation (2) by (3),
⃗ =
B 3
[2 𝜋 𝑅] 𝑘̂ 𝜇𝐿 𝑒𝑣𝑅 𝑒
4 𝜋 (𝑅2 + 𝑧 2 )2 = − =−
𝐿 2𝑚𝑣𝑅 2𝑚
𝝁 𝒐 𝑰 𝑹𝟐  In vector notation,
⃗ =
𝐁 ̂
𝒌 𝒆
𝟑
𝟐 (𝑹 + 𝒛 )𝟐
𝟐 𝟐 ⃗⃗⃗𝝁𝑳 = − ⃗
𝑳 − − − − (4)
𝟐𝒎
 Here B ⃗ points along the direction from ‘O’ to ‘P’  Here negative sign indicates that the magnetic
 If the current flows in clockwise direction, then dipole moment and angular momentum are in
 Consider a circular coil of radius ‘R’ carrying a ⃗ points along the direction from ‘P’ to ‘O’
B opposite direction. In magnitude,
current ‘I’ in anticlock wise direction. 8. Compute the magnetic dipole moment of revolving 𝜇𝐿 𝑒
 Let ‘P’ be the point on the axis at a distance ‘z’ from = = 8.78 𝑋 1010 𝐶 𝑘𝑔−1 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
electron. And hence define bohr magneton. 𝐿 2𝑚
centre ‘O’ Magnetic dipole moment of revolving electron :  This constant is called gyro-magnetic ratio.
 Consider two diametrically opposite line elements  Let an electron moves in circular motion around  According to Bohr quantization rule, angular
⃗⃗⃗ at C and D.
of the coil of each of length 𝑑𝑙 the nucleus. momentum of an electron is,
 Let ⃗⃗𝑟 be the vector joining the current element  The circulating electron in a loop is like current in ℎ
𝐿=𝑛ℏ=𝑛
(𝐼 ⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑙 ) at C to the point ‘P’ a circular loop. 2𝜋
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 3 MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
−34
 where, ℎ → Plank’s constant (ℎ = 6.63 𝑋 10 𝐽 𝑠) 𝐵 (2 𝜋 𝑟) = 𝜇𝑜 𝐼  Let ‘I’ be the current passing through the solenoid
𝑛 → Positive integer (𝑛 = 1, 2, 3, … . ..) 𝝁𝒐 𝑰 of ‘N’ turns, then
𝑩=
𝑒 𝑒 ℎ 𝟐𝝅𝒓 I0 = N I − − − − − − − − (3)
∴ 𝜇𝐿 = 𝐿= 𝑛  In vector notation,  Put equation (2) and (3) in (1)
2𝑚 2 𝑚 2𝜋
𝒆𝒉 𝝁 𝑰 B 𝐿 = μ0 N I
⃗ = 𝒐 𝒏
⃗𝑩 ̂
𝝁𝑳 = 𝒏 − − − − (𝟓) 𝟐 𝝅 𝒓 N
𝟒𝝅𝒎 B = μ0 I − − − − (4)
 The minimum magnetic moment can be obtained 10. Obtain an expression for magnetic field due to long 𝐿
by substituting 𝑛 = 1 current carrying solenoid.  Let ‘n’ be the number of turns per unit length, then
𝒆𝒉 Mangnetic field due to current carrying solenoid : 𝐍
= 𝒏 . Hence,
(𝝁𝑳 )𝒎𝒊𝒏 = 𝝁𝑩 = = 𝟗. 𝟐𝟕 𝑿 𝟏𝟎−𝟐𝟒 𝑨 𝒎𝟐 𝑳
𝟒𝝅𝒎 𝛍𝟎 𝐍 𝐈
 The minimum value of magnetic moment of 𝐁 = = 𝛍𝟎 𝐧 𝐈 − − − − (5)
𝑳
revolving electron is called Bohr magneton (𝝁𝑩 )  Since ‘n’ and μ0 are constants, for fixed current ‘I’
9. Using Ampere’s law, obtain an expression for the magnetic field ‘B’ inside the solenoid is also
magnetic field due to the current carrying wire of constant.
infinite length. 11. Obtain the magnetic fields at various points on the
Magnetic field due to current carrying straight wire toroid.
using Ampere’s law : Toroid :
 A solenoid is bent in such a way
its ends are joined together to
 Consider a solenoid of length ‘L’ having ‘N’ turns.
form a closed ring shape is
 To calculate the magnetic field at any point inside
called toroid.
the solenoid, consider an Amperian loop ‘abcd’
 From Ampere circuital law,
⃗ . ⃗⃗⃗
∮𝐵 𝑑𝑙 = 𝜇𝑜 𝐼𝑜 − − − − − (1)
 The LHS of equation (1) can be written as
𝑏 𝑐 𝑑 𝑎

⃗⃗⃗ = ∫ 𝐵
⃗ . 𝑑𝑙
∮𝐵 ⃗⃗⃗ + ∫ 𝐵
⃗ . 𝑑𝑙 ⃗⃗⃗ + ∫ 𝐵
⃗ . 𝑑𝑙 ⃗⃗⃗ + ∫ 𝐵
⃗ . 𝑑𝑙 ⃗⃗⃗
⃗ . 𝑑𝑙
 Consider a straight conductor of infinite length 𝑎 𝑏 𝑐 𝑑
carrying current ‘I’  Here,
𝑏 𝑏
 Imagine an Amperian circular loop at a distance ‘r’ b
from the centre of the conductor. ∫ B ⃗⃗⃗ = ∫ 𝐵 𝑑𝑙 cos 0° = B ∫ 𝑑𝑙 = B 𝒉
⃗ . d𝒍
a
 From Ampere’s circuital law, 𝑎 𝑎
𝑐
c
⃗ . ⃗⃗⃗
∮𝐵 𝑑𝑙 = 𝜇𝑜 𝐼 ⃗⃗⃗ = ∫ 𝐵 𝑑𝑙 cos 90° = 0
⃗ . d𝒍 Open space interior to the toroid (P) :
∫B
b  To calculate the magnetic field 𝐵𝑃 at ‘P’, consider
 Here ⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑙 is the line element along the tangent to the 𝑏
d an Amperian loop (1) of radius 𝒓𝟏
Amperian loop. So the angle between 𝐵 ⃗⃗⃗ is
⃗ and 𝑑𝑙 ⃗ . ⃗⃗⃗
∫ B d𝒍 = 0 [∵ B = 0]  Then Amperian circuital law for loop 1 is
zero (𝜃 = 0°). Thus, c
a
𝑐 ⃗ 𝑃 . ⃗⃗⃗
∮𝐵 𝑑𝑙 = 𝜇𝑜 𝐼𝑜
∮ 𝐵 𝑑𝑙 = 𝜇𝑜 𝐼 ∫ ⃗B. ⃗⃗⃗
d𝒍 = ∫ 𝐵 𝑑𝑙 cos 90° = 0
d
 Since the loop 1 encloses no current, 𝐼𝑜 = 0, then
 Due to symmetry, the magnitude of the magnetic 𝑏
field is uniform over the Amperian loop and hence,  Here ab = h . If we take large loop such that it is ⃗⃗⃗ = 0
⃗ 𝑃 . 𝑑𝑙
∮𝐵
equal to length of the solenoid, we have ⃗⃗ 𝑷 = 𝟎
𝐵 ∮ 𝑑𝑙 = 𝜇𝑜 𝐼 ∴ 𝑩
∮ ⃗B. ⃗⃗⃗
dl = B 𝑳 − − − − − − − (2) Open space exterior to the toroid (Q):
 For circular loop, ∮ 𝑑𝑙 = 2 𝜋 𝑟

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 3 MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 To calculate magnetic field 𝑩𝑸 at ‘Q’ construct  Since Lorentz force alone acts on the particle, the 13. Describe the principle, construction and working of
Amperian loop (3) of radius 𝒓𝟑 magnitude of this force is Cylotron.
 Then Amperian circuital law for loop 3 is 𝐹 =𝐵𝑞𝑣 [𝜃 = 90°] Cylotron :
⃗⃗⃗ = 𝜇𝑜 𝐼𝑜
⃗ 𝑄 . 𝑑𝑙  Hence charged particle moves in a circular orbit  It is a device used to accelerate the charged
∮𝐵
and the necessary centripetal force is provided by particles to gain large kinetic energy. It is also
 Since in each turn of the toroid loop, current Lorentz force. (i.e.) called as high energy accelerator.
coming out of the plane of paper is cancelled by the 𝑚 𝑣2  It is invented by Lawrence and Livingston.
current going into plane of the paper. Thus 𝐼𝑜 = 0 𝐵𝑞𝑣= Principle :
𝑟
⃗ 𝑄 . ⃗⃗⃗  The radius of the circular path is,  When a charged particle moves normal to the
∮𝐵 𝑑𝑙 = 0 𝑚𝑣 𝑝
𝑟= = − − − − (1) magnetic field, it experience magnetic Lorentz
∴ ⃗⃗ 𝑸 = 𝟎
𝑩 𝐵𝑞 𝐵𝑞 force.
Inside the toroid (S) : where, 𝑚 𝑣 = 𝑝 → linear momentum Construction :
 To calculate magnetic field 𝑩𝑺 at ‘S’ construct  Let ‘T’ be the time period, then  It consists two semi circular metal containers
Amperian loop (2) of radius 𝒓𝟐 2𝜋𝑟 2𝜋𝑚𝑣 called Dees.
𝑇= =
 The length of the loop 2 ; 𝐿2 = 2 𝜋 𝑟2 𝑣 𝑣𝐵𝑞  The Dees are enclosed in an evacuated chamber
and the loop encloses the current ; 𝐼𝑜 = 𝑁 𝐼 𝟐𝝅𝒎 and it is kept in a region of uniform magnetic field
𝑻= − − − − (2) acts normal to the plane of the Dees.
 Then Amperian circuital law for loop 2 is 𝑩𝒒
It is called cyclotron time period.  The two Dees are kept separated with a gap and the
⃗ 𝑆 . ⃗⃗⃗
∮𝐵 𝑑𝑙 = 𝜇𝑜 𝐼𝑜  Let ‘f’ be the frequency, then source ‘S’ of charged particles to be accelerated is
𝟏 𝑩𝒒 placed at the centre in the gap between the Dees.
𝐵𝑆 ∮ 𝑑𝑙 = 𝜇𝑜 𝑁 𝐼 𝒇= = − − − − (𝟑)  Dees are connected to high frequency alternating
𝑻 𝟐𝝅𝒎
𝐵𝑆 (2𝜋𝑟2 ) = 𝜇𝑜 𝑁 𝐼  In terms of angular frequency, potential difference.
𝝁𝒐 𝑵 𝑰 𝑩𝒒 Working :
𝑩𝑺 = 𝝎=𝟐𝝅𝒇= − − − − (4)  Let the positive ions are ejected from source ‘S’
𝟐𝝅𝒓𝟐 𝒎
 Let ‘n’ be the number of turns per unit length, then It is called cyclotron frequency or gyro-frequency.  It is accelerated towards a Dee-1 which has
𝐍  From equantion (2), (3) and (4), we infer that time negative potential at that instant.
= 𝒏. Hence
𝟐𝝅𝒓𝟐 period (T), frequency (f) and angular frequency  Since the magnetic field is normal to the plane of
𝑩𝑺 = 𝛍𝟎 𝐧 𝐈 ( 𝝎 ) depends only on specific charge, but not the Dees, the ion undergoes circular path.
12. Obtain the expression for force on a moving charge velocity or the radius of the circular path.  After one semi-circular path in Dee-1, the ion
in a magnetic field. Special cases : reaches the gap between Dees.
Force on moving charge in a magnetic field :  If a charged particle moves in uniform magnetic  At this time the polarities of the Dees are reversed,
field, such that its velocity is not perpendicular to so that the ion is now accelerated towards Dee-2
the magnetic field, then its velocity is resolved into with a greater velocity.
two components.  For this circular motion, the centripetal force of the
 One component is parallel to the fjeld and the other charged particle is provided by Lorentz force, then
component is perpendicular to the field. 𝑚 𝑣2
 Here parallel component remains unchanged and =𝐵𝑞𝑣
𝑟
the perpendicular component keeps on changing 𝑚𝑣
𝑟=
due to Lorentz force. 𝐵𝑞
 Hence the path of the paricle is not circle, it is helix ∴ 𝒓 ∝𝒗
 Consider a charged particle of charge ‘q’ having around the field.  Thus the increase in velocity increases the radius of
mass ‘m’ enters perpendicular to uniform magnetic the circular path. Hence the particle undergoes
field ‘B’ with velocity 𝑣⃗⃗⃗ spiral path of increasing radius.
 So this charged particle experience Lorentz force  Once it reaches near the edge, it is taken out with help
which acts perpendicular to both 𝐵 ⃗ and 𝑣
⃗⃗⃗ and it is of deflector plate and allowed to hit the target T
⃗⃗⃗ = 𝑞 (𝑣
𝐹 ⃗ )
⃗⃗⃗ 𝑋 𝐵
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 3 MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 The important condition in cyclotron is the  Let ‘n’ be the number of free electrons per unit  Then Lorentz force acts on the length element 𝑑𝑙 in
resonance condition. (i.e.) the frequency ‘𝑓’ of the volume, then the total number of electrons in the conductor ‘B’ carrying current I2 due to this
charged particle must be equal to the frequency of small element of volume (𝑉 = 𝐴 𝑑𝑙) is 𝑁 = 𝑛 𝐴 𝑑𝑙 magnetic field 𝐵 ⃗1
the electrical oscillator ‘𝑓𝑜𝑠𝑐 ’ . Hence  Hence Lorentz force on the small element, 𝜇 𝐼
𝑩𝒒 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = 𝐼2 𝑑𝑙
𝑑𝐹 ⃗⃗⃗ 𝑋 𝐵⃗ 1 = − 𝐼2 𝑑𝑙 𝑘̂ 𝑋 𝑜 1 𝑖̂
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝐹 = −𝑒 𝑛 𝐴 𝑑𝑙 (𝑣𝑑 𝑋 𝐵 ⃗ ) − − − (1) 2𝜋𝑟
𝒇𝒐𝒔𝒄 =
𝟐𝝅𝒎  Here length 𝑑𝑙 is along the length of the wire and 𝜇𝑜 𝐼1 𝐼2 𝑑𝑙
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = −
𝑑𝐹 (𝑘̂ 𝑋 𝑖̂)
 The time period of oscillation is , hence the current element is 2𝜋𝑟
𝟐𝝅𝒎 𝜇𝑜 𝐼1 𝐼2 𝑑𝑙
𝑻= ⃗⃗⃗ = − 𝑛 𝐴 𝑒 𝑑𝑙 𝑣
I 𝑑𝑙 ⃗⃗⃗ 𝑑 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝐹 = − 𝑗̂
𝑩𝒒  Put this in equation (1), 2𝜋𝑟
 The kinetic energy of the charged particle is,  By Flemming’s left hand rule, this force acts left
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝐹 = 𝐼 ⃗⃗⃗ 𝑑𝑙 𝑋 𝐵⃗ − − − (2)
𝟏 𝑩𝟐 𝒒𝟐 𝒓𝟐 wards. The force per unit length of the conductor B
𝑲𝑬 = 𝒎 𝒗𝟐 =  Therefore, the force in a straight current carrying ⃗⃗⃗𝑭 𝝁𝒐 𝑰𝟏 𝑰𝟐
𝟐 𝟐𝒎 conductor of length ‘𝒍’ placed in a uniform magnetic
Limitations of cyclotron : = − 𝒋̂ − − − − − (𝟏)
field 𝒍 𝟐𝝅𝒓
(i) the speed of the ion is limited  Simillarly, net magnetic field due to 𝐼2 at a distance
⃗𝑭 = 𝐈 𝒍 𝑿 𝑩 ⃗⃗ − − − (3)
(ii) electron cannot be accelerated ‘r’ is
(iii) uncharged paricles cannot be accelerated.  In magnitude, 𝜇 𝐼
𝑭 = 𝑩 𝐈 𝒍 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 − − − (4) ⃗ 2 = 𝑜 2 𝑖̂
𝐵
14. Obtain an expression for the force on a current 2𝜋𝑟
carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field. Special cases :  Here 𝐵 ⃗ 2 acts perpendicular to plane of paper and
Force on current carrying conductor in magnetic (i) If the current carrying conductor placed along the outwards.
field : direction of magnetic field, then  = 0°  Then Lorentz force acts on the length element 𝑑𝑙 in
∴ 𝑭=𝟎 conductor ‘A’ carrying current I1 due to this
(ii) If the current carrying conductor is placed ⃗2
magnetic field 𝐵
perpendicular to the magnetic field, then  = 90°
𝜇 𝐼
∴ 𝑭 = 𝑩 𝐈 𝒍 = 𝒎𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒎𝒖𝒎 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝐹 = 𝐼1 ⃗⃗⃗ 𝑑𝑙 𝑋 𝐵 ⃗ 2 = 𝐼1 𝑑𝑙 𝑘̂ 𝑋 𝑜 2 𝑖̂
15. Obtain a force between two long parallel current 2𝜋𝑟
𝜇 𝐼 𝐼 𝑑𝑙
carrying conductors. Hence define ampere. ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = 𝑜 1 2
𝑑𝐹 (𝑘̂ 𝑋 𝑖̂)
Force between two parallel conductors carrying 2𝜋𝑟
𝜇𝑜 𝐼1 𝐼2 𝑑𝑙
current : ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝐹 = 𝑗̂
2𝜋𝑟
 By Flemming’s left hand rule, this force acts right
wards. The force per unit length of the conductor A
 When a current carrying conductor is placed in a ⃗⃗⃗𝑭 𝝁𝒐 𝑰𝟏 𝑰𝟐
magnetic field, the force experienced by the wire is = 𝒋̂ − − − − − (𝟐)
equal to the sum of Lorentz forces on the individual 𝒍 𝟐𝝅𝒓
 Thus the force experienced by two parallel current
chage carriers in the wire.
carrying conductors is attractive if they carry
 Let a current ‘I’ flows through a conductor of lengh
current in same direction.
‘L’ and area of cross-section ‘A’
 On the other hand, the force experienced by two
 Consider a small segment of wire of length ‘𝑑𝑙’  Consider two straight parallel current carrying parallel current carrying conductors is repulsive if
 The free electorns drift opposite to the direction of conductors ‘A’ and ‘B’ separated by a distance ‘r’ they carry current in opposite direction.
current with drift velocity 𝑣𝑑 kept in air. Definition of ampere :
 The relation between current and drift velocity is,  Let I1 and I2 be the currents passing through the  One ampere is defined as that current when it is
𝐼 = 𝑛 𝐴 𝑒 𝑣𝑑 − − − − − (1) A and B in same direction (z-direction) passed through each of two infinitely long parallel
 If the wire is kept in a magnetic field, then average  The net magnetic field due to I1 at a distance ‘r’ conductors kept a a distance of one metre apart in
force experienced by the electron in the wire is 𝜇 𝐼 𝜇 𝐼
𝐵⃗ 1 = 𝑜 1 (− 𝑖̂) = − 𝑜 1 𝑖̂ vacuum causes each conductor experience a force
𝐹 = − 𝑒 (𝑣𝑑 𝑋 𝐵 ⃗) 2𝜋𝑟 2𝜋𝑟 of 2 𝑋 10−7 newton per meter length of conductor.
 Here 𝐵⃗ 1 acts perpendicular to plane of paper and
inwards.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 3 MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
16. Deduce an expression for torque on a current loop  The net force on the rectangular loop is,  Force on section QR,
placed in magneitic field when unit vector 𝒏 ̂ is ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹𝑟𝑒𝑠 = ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝐹 𝑃𝑄 + ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝐹 𝑄𝑅 + ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹 𝑅𝑆 + ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹 𝑆𝑃 𝑄𝑅 = 𝑏 cos(90° − 𝜃)𝑖̂ + 𝑏 sin(90° − 𝜃) (−𝑘̂ )
Here, ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
perpendicular to ⃗𝑩
⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ̂ ⃗
𝐹𝑟𝑒𝑠 = 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 𝑘 + 0 − 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 𝑘 + 0 ̂ ⃗ 𝑄𝑅 = 𝑏 sin θ 𝑖̂ − 𝑏 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 𝑘̂
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
Torque on a current loop : ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹𝑟𝑒𝑠 = 0 ⃗ ∴ 𝐹 𝑄𝑅 = 𝐼 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
⃗⃗⃗ 𝑄𝑅 𝑋 𝐵⃗
 Consider a rectangular current loop PQRS kept in  Hence the net force on the rectangular loop in this 𝐹 𝑄𝑅 = 𝐼 [𝑏 sin θ 𝑖̂ − 𝑏 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 𝑘̂] 𝑋 𝐵 𝑖̂
⃗⃗⃗⃗
uniform magnetic field ⃗⃗⃗𝐵 with its plane parallel to configuration is zero. = − 𝐼 𝑏 𝐵 cos 𝜃 (𝑘̂ 𝑋 𝑖̂)
the field  But the net torque due to these forces about an axis
 Let 𝑃𝑄 = 𝑅𝑆 = 𝑎 → Length of the loop ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑭 𝑸𝑹 = − 𝑰 𝒃 𝑩 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 𝒋̂ − − − − (𝟐)
passing through the centre,
𝑄𝑅 = 𝑆𝑃 = 𝑏 → Breadth of the loop ⃗⃗𝜏𝑟𝑒𝑠 = ⃗⃗⃗𝑟1 𝑋 ⃗⃗⃗⃗𝐹 𝑃𝑄 + ⃗⃗⃗𝑟2 𝑋 ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹 𝑄𝑅 + ⃗⃗⃗ 𝑟3 𝑋 ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹 𝑅𝑆 + ⃗⃗𝑟⃗4 𝑋 ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹 𝑆𝑃
 Let 𝒏 ̂ be the unit vector normal to the plane of the  Force on section RS,
𝑏 𝑏
current loop. ⃗⃗𝜏𝑟𝑒𝑠 = (−𝑖̂) 𝑋 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 𝑘̂ + ⃗0 + 𝑖̂ 𝑋 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 (−𝑘̂) + ⃗0 𝐹 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑋 𝐵
⃗⃗⃗ 𝑅𝑆 = 𝐼𝑅𝑆 ⃗
2 2
𝑏 𝑏 ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹 𝑅𝑆 = 𝐼(𝑅𝑆) 𝑗̂ 𝑋 𝐵 𝑖̂
⃗⃗𝜏𝑟𝑒𝑠 = − ̂
𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 (𝑖̂ 𝑋 𝑘 ) − 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 (𝑖̂ 𝑋 𝑘̂)
2 2 = 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 (𝑗̂ 𝑋 𝑖̂)
𝑏 𝑏 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑭 𝑹𝑺 = − 𝑰 𝒂 𝑩 𝒌 ̂ − − − − (𝟑)
⃗⃗𝜏𝑟𝑒𝑠 = − 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 (−𝑗̂) − 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 (−𝑗̂)
2 2  Force on section SP,
𝑏 𝑏 𝑆𝑃 = 𝑏 cos(90° + 𝜃) (− 𝑖̂) + 𝑏 sin(90° + 𝜃) 𝑘̂
Here, ⃗⃗⃗⃗
⃗⃗𝜏𝑟𝑒𝑠 = 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 𝑗̂ + 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 𝑗̂
2 2 𝑆𝑃 = − 𝑏 sin θ 𝑖̂ + 𝑏 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 𝑘̂
⃗⃗⃗⃗
⃗⃗𝜏𝑟𝑒𝑠 = 𝑎 𝑏 𝐼 𝐵 𝑗̂ = 𝑨 𝑰 𝑩 𝒋̂ − − − − − (𝟓)
where, 𝑎 𝑏 = 𝐴 → area of the rectangular loop ∴ 𝐹 𝑆𝑃 = 𝐼⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
⃗⃗⃗ 𝑆𝑃 𝑋 𝐵⃗
 Let the loop is divided in to four sections PQ, QR, RS 17. Deduce an expression for torque on a current 𝐹 𝑆𝑃 = 𝐼 [− 𝑏 sin θ 𝑖̂ + 𝑏 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 𝑘̂] 𝑋 𝐵 𝑖̂
⃗⃗⃗⃗
and SP. The Lorentz force on each loop can be loop placed in magneitic field when unit vector = 𝐼 𝑏 𝐵 cos 𝜃 (𝑘̂ 𝑋 𝑖̂)
calculated as follows. ̂ is at an angle  with 𝑩
𝒏 ⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑭 𝑺𝑷 = 𝑰 𝒃 𝑩 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 𝒋̂ − − − − (𝟒)
 Force on section 𝑃𝑄 Torque on a current loop :  The net force on the rectangular loop is,
⃗⃗⃗
𝐹 𝑃𝑄 = 𝐼𝑃𝑄 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑋 𝐵
⃗  Consider a rectangular current loop PQRS kept in ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹𝑟𝑒𝑠 = ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝐹 𝑃𝑄 + ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝐹 𝑄𝑅 + ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹 𝑅𝑆 + ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹 𝑆𝑃
⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹 𝑃𝑄 = 𝐼(𝑃𝑄) (− 𝑗̂) 𝑋 𝐵 𝑖̂ uniform magnetic field ⃗⃗⃗𝐵 with its plane inclined to 𝐹𝑟𝑒𝑠 = 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 𝑘̂ − 𝐼 𝑏 𝐵 cos 𝜃 𝑗̂
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
= − 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 (𝑗̂ 𝑋 𝑖̂) the field − 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 𝑘̂ + 𝐼 𝑏 𝐵 cos 𝜃 𝑗̂
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑭 𝑷𝑸 = 𝑰 𝒂 𝑩 𝒌 ̂ − − − − (𝟏)  Let 𝑃𝑄 = 𝑅𝑆 = 𝑎 → Length of the loop ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗
𝐹𝑟𝑒𝑠 = 0
 Force on section 𝑄𝑅 𝑄𝑅 = 𝑆𝑃 = 𝑏 → Breadth of the loop
 Since the forces on sections QR and SP are equal in
 Let 𝒏 ̂ be the unit vector normal to the plane of the
𝐹 𝑄𝑅 = 𝐼 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
⃗⃗⃗ 𝑄𝑅 𝑋 𝐵 ⃗ magnitude, opposite in direction and in same line,
current loop.
⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹 𝑄𝑅 = 𝐼(𝑄𝑅) 𝑖̂𝑋 𝐵 𝑖̂ no torque produce by these two sections.
= 𝐼 𝑏 𝐵 (𝑖̂ 𝑋 𝑖̂)  On the other hand forces on sections PQ and RS are
equal and opposite but in different lines and hence
𝑭 𝑸𝑹 = ⃗⃗⃗𝟎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ − − − − (𝟐)
these two forces constitute a couple.
 Force on section 𝑅𝑆
𝐹 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑋 𝐵
⃗⃗⃗ 𝑅𝑆 = 𝐼𝑅𝑆 ⃗
⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹 𝑅𝑆 = 𝐼(𝑅𝑆) 𝑗̂ 𝑋 𝐵 𝑖̂
= 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 (𝑗̂ 𝑋 𝑖̂)
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑭 𝑹𝑺 = − 𝑰 𝒂 𝑩 𝒌 ̂ − − − − (𝟑)  Let  be the angle between normal vector 𝒏 ̂ and
 Force on section 𝑆𝑃 magnetic field 𝑩 ⃗⃗
⃗⃗⃗ 𝑆𝑃 = 𝐼⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹 𝑆𝑃 𝑋 𝐵 ⃗  Force on section PQ,
⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑋 𝐵
𝐹 𝑃𝑄 = 𝐼𝑃𝑄 ⃗
𝐹 𝑆𝑃 = − 𝐼(𝑆𝑃) 𝑖̂ 𝑋 𝐵 𝑖̂
= − 𝐼 𝑏 𝐵 (𝑖̂ 𝑋 𝑖̂) ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹 𝑃𝑄 = 𝐼(𝑃𝑄) (− 𝑗̂) 𝑋 𝐵 𝑖̂
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑭 𝑺𝑷 = 𝟎 ⃗ − − − − (𝟒) = − 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 (𝑗̂ 𝑋 𝑖̂)
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑭 𝑷𝑸 = 𝑰 𝒂 𝑩 𝒌 ̂ − − − − (𝟏)
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 3 MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 Hence the net torque produced by these two forces  In order to pass electric current through the
about the axis of the rectangular loop is galvanometer, the suspension strip W and the
⃗⃗𝜏𝑟𝑒𝑠 = ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑂𝐴 𝑋 ⃗⃗⃗𝐹𝑃𝑄 + ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑂𝐵 𝑋 ⃗⃗⃗𝐹𝑅𝑆 spring S are connectee to terminals.
𝑏 Working :
⃗⃗𝜏𝑟𝑒𝑠 = [cos(90° − 𝜃) (−𝑖̂) + sin(90° − 𝜃) 𝑘̂ ] 𝑋 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 𝑘̂
2
𝑏
+ [cos(90° − 𝜃) 𝑖̂ + sin(90° − 𝜃) (−𝑘̂) ] 𝑋 (−𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 𝑘̂)
2
𝑏
⃗⃗𝜏𝑟𝑒𝑠 = [− sin 𝜃 𝑖̂ + cos 𝜃 𝑘̂ ] 𝑋 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 𝑘̂
2
𝑏
− [sin 𝜃 𝑖̂ − cos 𝜃 𝑘̂ ] 𝑋 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 𝑘̂
2
𝑏 𝑏
⃗⃗𝜏𝑟𝑒𝑠 = − sin 𝜃 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 (−𝑗̂) + 0 − sin 𝜃 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 (−𝑗̂)
2 2  Consider a single turn of rectangular coil PQRS of
𝑏 𝑏
⃗⃗𝜏𝑟𝑒𝑠 = sin 𝜃 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 𝑗̂ + sin 𝜃 𝐼 𝑎 𝐵 𝑗̂ length 𝑙 and breadth 𝑏, such that
2 2 𝑃𝑄 = 𝑅𝑆 = 𝑙 ; 𝑄𝑅 = 𝑆𝑃 = 𝑏
⃗⃗𝜏𝑟𝑒𝑠 = 𝑎 𝑏 𝐼 𝐵 sin 𝜃 𝑗̂
 Let ‘I’ be the electric current flowing through the
⃗⃗𝝉𝒓𝒆𝒔 = 𝑨 𝑰 𝑩 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 𝒋̂ − − − − − (𝟓) rectangular coil
 But magnetic dipole moment ; 𝑝𝑚 = 𝐼 𝐴 , then  The horse-shoe type magnet has hemi-spherical
⃗⃗𝝉𝒓𝒆𝒔 = 𝒑𝒎 𝑩 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 𝒋̂ = 𝒑 ⃗ 𝒎𝑿𝑩 ⃗⃗ magnetic poles which produces a radial magnetic
Special cases : field.
(i) If 𝜃 = 90°, then ⃗⃗𝝉𝒓𝒆𝒔 = 𝒑𝒎 𝑩 𝒋̂ = 𝑨 𝑰 𝑩 𝒋̂ = 𝒎𝒂𝒙  Due to this radial field, the sides QR and SP are
(ii) If 𝜃 = 0°, then ⃗⃗𝝉𝒓𝒆𝒔 = 𝟎 always parallel to the magnetic field ‘B’ and
(iii) If 𝜃 = 180°, then ⃗⃗𝝉𝒓𝒆𝒔 = 𝟎 experience no force.
18. Describe the principle, construction and working of  But the sides PQ and RS are always perpendicular
moving coil galvanometer. to the magnetic field ‘B’ and experience force and
Moving coil galvanometer : due to ths torque is produced.
 It is a device which is used to indicate the flow of  For single turn, the deflecting couple is,
current. 𝜏𝑑𝑒𝑓 = 𝐹 𝑏 = 𝐵 𝐼 𝑙 𝑏 = 𝐵 𝐼 𝐴
Principle :  For coil with N turns, we get
 When a current carrying loop is placed in a uniform 𝝉𝒅𝒆𝒇 = 𝑵 𝑩 𝑰 𝑨 − − − − (1)
magnetic field it experiences a torque.  Due to this deflecting torque, the coil get twisted
Construction : and restoring torque is developed.
 It consists of a rectangular coil PQRS of insulated  The magnitude of restoring torque is proportional
thin copper wire. to amount of twist and it is given by
 A cylindrical soft-iron core is placed 𝝉𝒓𝒆𝒔 = 𝑲 𝜽 − − − − (2)
symmentrically inside the coil. where 𝐾 → restoring couple per unit twist (or)
 This rectangular coil is suspended freely between torsional constant
two pole pieces of a horse-shoe magnet by means of  At equilibrium, 𝝉𝒅𝒆𝒇 = 𝝉𝒓𝒆𝒔
phosphor - bronze wire. 𝑁𝐵𝐼𝐴= 𝐾𝜃
 Lower end of the coil is connected to a hair spring 𝑲
which is also made up of phosphor bronze. 𝑰= 𝜽 = 𝑮 𝜽 − − − (𝟑)
𝑵𝑩𝑨
 A small plane mirror is attached on the suspension 𝑲
where, 𝐺 = → galvanometer constant (or)
wire to measure the deflection of the coil with help 𝑵𝑩𝑨
of lamp and scale arrangement. current reduction factor

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
PHYSICS - VOL 1 UNIT - 4
NAME :
STANDARD : 12 SECTION :
SCHOOL :
EXAM NO :

## victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc, M.Phil, B.Ed.,

PG ASST (PHYSICS)
GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
7. What are called eddy currents? How are they 14. Define mutual inductance or coefficient of mutual
PART - II 2 MARK QUESTIONS & ANSWERS produced? induction.
1. Define magnetic flux.  When magnetic flux linked with a conductor in the  Mutual inductance is also defined as the opposing
 The magnetic flux through an area ‘A’ in a form of a sheet or a plate changes, an emf is emf induced in the one coil, when the rate of
magnetic field is defined as the number of induced. As a result, the induced current flow in change of current through the other coil is 1 A s-1
magnetic field lines passing through that area concentric circular paths which resembles eddies  Its S.I unit is 𝑯 (𝑜𝑟) 𝑾𝒃 𝑨−𝟏 (𝑜𝑟) 𝑽 𝒔 𝑨−𝟏 and its
normally. of water. Hence these are known as Eddy currents dimension is [𝑴 𝑳𝟐 𝑻−𝟐 𝑨−𝟐 ]
 The S.I unit of magnetic flux is 𝑻 𝒎𝟐 (or) weber or Foucault currents. 15. What the methods of producing induced emf?
2. Define electromagnetic induction. 8. A spherical strone and a spherical metallic ball of  By changing the magnetic field ‘B’
 Whenever the magnetic flux linked with a closed same size and mass are dropped from the same  By changing the area ‘A’ of the coil
coil changes, an emf is induced and hence an height. Which one will reach earth’s surface first?  By changing the relative orientation ‘’ of the coil
electric current flows in the circuit. Justify your answer. with magnetic field.
 This emf is called induced emf and the current is  The stone will reach the earth’s surface earlier 16. How an emf is induced by changing the magnetic
called induced current. This phenomenon is called than the metal ball. field?
electromagnetic induction.  Because when the metal ball falls through the  Change in magnetic flux of the field is brought
3. What is the importance of electromagnetic magnetic field of earth, the eddy currents are about by,
induction? produced in it which opposed its motion. (i) The relative motion between the circuit and
 There is an ever growing demand for electric  But in the case of stone, no eddy currents are the magnet
power for the operation of almost all the devices produced and it falls freely. (ii) Variation in current flowing through the
used in present day life. 9. What is called inductor? nearby coil
 All these are met with the help of electric  Inductor is a device used to store energy in a 17. What is called AC generator or alternator?
generators and transformer which function on mangnetic field when an electric current flows  AC generator is a device which converts
electromagnetic induction. through it. mechanical energy used to rotate the coil or field
4. State Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction. (e.g.) solenoids and toroids magnet in to electrical energy.
(i) Whenever magnetic flux linked with a closed 10. What is called self induction? 18. State the principle of AC generator (alternator)
circuit changes, an emf is induced in the circuit.  The phenomenon of inducing an emf in a coil,  It work on the principle of electromagnetic
(ii) The magnitude of induced emf in a closed circuit is when the magnetic flux linked with the coil itself induction. (i.e.) The relative motion between a
equal to the time rate of change of magnetic flux changes is called self induction. conductor and a magnetic field changes the
linked with the circuit.  The emf induced is called self-induced emf. magnetic flux linked with the conductor which in
5. State Lenz’s law. 11. Define self inductance or coeffient of self induction. turn induces an emf.
 Lenz’s law states that the direction of the induced  Self inductance of a coil is defined as the flux  The magnitude of the induced emf is given by
current is such that is always opposes the cause linkage of the coil, when 1 A current flows through Faraday’s law and its direction by Flemming’s
responsible for its production. it. right hand rule.
6. State Flemming’s right hand rule.  Its S.I unit is 𝑯 (𝑜𝑟) 𝑾𝒃 𝑨−𝟏 (𝑜𝑟) 𝑽 𝒔 𝑨−𝟏 and its 19. State single phase AC generator.
 The thumb, index finger and middle finger of right dimension is [𝑴 𝑳𝟐 𝑻−𝟐 𝑨−𝟐 ]  In a single phase AC generator, the armature
hand are stretched out in mutually perpendicular 12. Define the unit of self inductance (one henry) conductors are connected in series so as to form a
directions. If index finger points the direction of  The inductance of the coil is one henry, if a current single circuit which generates a single - phase
magnetic field and the thumb points the direction changing at the rate of 1 A s-1 induces an opposing alternating emf and hence it is called single-phase
of motion of the conductor, then the middle finger emf of 1 V in it. alternator.
will indicate the direction of the induced current. 13. What is called mutual induction? 20. State three phase AC generators.
 Flemming’s right hand rule is also known as  When an electric current passing through a coil  If there are three separate coils, which would give
generator rule. changes with time, an emf is induced in the three separate emf’s then they are called three
neighbouring coil. This phenomenon is known as phase AC generators.
mutual induction and the emf is called mutually
induced emf.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
21. What are the advantages of three phase 27. Define mean value or average value of AC. 33. Define inductive reactance.
AC generators?  The mean or average value of alternating current  The resistance offered by the inductor in an ac
 For a given dimension of the generator, three - is defined as the average of all values of current circuit is called inductive reactance and it is given
phase machine produces higher power output over a positive half cycle or negative half cycle. by ; 𝑿𝑳 = 𝝎 𝑳 = 𝟐 𝝅 𝒇 𝑳
than a single -phase machine. 𝟐 𝑰𝒎  Its unit is ohm (𝜴)
𝑰𝒂𝒗𝒈 = = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟑𝟕𝟏 𝑰𝒎
 For the same capacity, three phase alternator is 𝝅 34. An inductor blocks AC but it allows DC. Why?
smaller in size when compared to single phase 28. Define RMS value of AC.  The DC current flows through an inductor
genarators.  The root mean square value of an alternating produces uniform mangetic field and the magnetic
 Three phase transmission system is cheaper. A current is defined as the square root of the mean flux linked remains constant. Hence there is no self
relatively thinner wire is sufficient for of the square of all currents over one cycle. induction and self induced emf (opposing emf). So
transmission of three phase power. 𝑰𝒎 DC flows through an inductor.
𝑰𝑹𝑴𝑺 = = 𝟎. 𝟕𝟎𝟕 𝑰𝒎
22. What is called transformer? √𝟐  But AC flows through an inductor produces time
 It is a stationary device used to transform 29. Define effective value of alternating current. varying magnetic field which inturn induces self
electrical power from one circuit to another  RMS value of AC is also called effective value of AC induced emf and this opposes any change in the
without changing its frequency.  The effective value of AC (𝐼𝑒𝑓𝑓 ) is defined as the current. Since AC varies both in magnitude and
 The applied alternating voltage is either increased value of steady current which when flowing direction, it flow is opposed by the back emf
or decreased with corresponding decrease or through a given circuit for a given time produces induced in the inductor and hence inductor blocks
increase in current in the circuit. the same amount of heat as produced by the AC
23. Distinguish between step up and step down alternating current when flowing through the 35. Define capacitive reactance.
transformer. same circuit for the same time.  The resistance offered by the capacitor is an ac
Step up transformer Step down transformer 30. The common house hold appliences, the voltage circuit is called capacitive reactance and it is given
𝟏 𝟏
If the transformer If the transformer rating is specified as 230 V, 50 Hz. What is the by ; 𝑿𝑪 = =
𝝎𝑪 𝟐𝝅𝒇𝑪
converts an alternating converts an alternating meaning of it?
 Its unit is ohm (𝜴)
current with low voltage current with high voltage  The voltage rating specified in the common house
36. A capacitor blocks DC but it allows AC. Why?
in to an alternating in to an alternating hold appliences indicates the RMS value or
 When DC flows through capacitor, electrons flows
current with high voltage current with low voltage is effective value of AC. (i.e.) 𝑽𝒆𝒇𝒇 = 𝟐𝟑𝟎 𝑽
from negative terminal and accumulated at one
is called step up called step down  Its peak value will be, plate making it negative and hence another plate
transformer. transformer. 𝑽𝒎 = 𝑽𝒆𝒇𝒇 √𝟐 = 𝟐𝟑𝟎 𝑿 𝟏. 𝟒𝟏𝟒 = 𝟑𝟐𝟓 𝑽 becomes positive. This process is known as
24. State the principle of transformer.  Also 50 Hz indicates, the frequency of domestic AC charging and once capacitor is fully charged, the
 The principle of transformer is the mutual supply. current will stop and we say capacitor blocks DC.
induction between two coils. (i.e.) when an 31. Define phasor and phasor diagram.  But AC flows through capacitor, the electron flow
electric current passing through a coil changes  A sinusoidal alternating voltage or current can be in one direction while charging the capacitor and
with time, and emf is induced in the neighbouring represented by a vector which rotates about the its direction is reversed while discharging. Though
coil. orgin in anti-clockwise direction at a constant electrons flow in the circuit, no electrons crosses
25. Define the efficiency of the transformer. angular velocity ‘𝜔’. Such a rotating vector is called the gap between the plates. In this way, AC flows
 The efficiency (𝜂) of a transformer is defined as a phasor. through a capacitor.
the ratio of the useful output power to the input  The diagram which shows various phasors and 37. Define resonance.
power. phase relations is called phasor diagram.
𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟  When the frequency of the applied sourch is equal
𝜂= 𝑋 100 % 32. Draw the phasor diagram for an alternating to the natural frequency of the RLC circuit, the
𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 voltage 𝒗 = 𝑽𝒎 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝝎𝒕 current in the circuit reaches it maximum value.
26. Define Sinusoidal alternating voltage.
Then the circuit is said to be in electrical
 If the waveform of alternating voltage is a sine resonance.
wave, then it is known as sinusoidal alternating
 The frequency at which resonance takes place is
voltage and it is given by,
called resonant frequency.
𝒗 = 𝑽𝒎 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒕
 Hence the condition for resonance is : 𝑿𝑳 = 𝑿𝑪
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
38. What are the applications of series RLC resonant 45. Define Flux linkage.
circuit?  The product of magnetic flux (Φ𝐵 ) linked with PART - III 3 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 RLC circuits have many applications like filter ANSWERS
each turn of the coil and the total number of turns 1. Establish the fact that the relative motin between
circuits, oscillators, voltage multipliers etc., (N) in the coil is called flux linkage (NΦ𝐵 ) the coil and the magnet induces an emf in the coil of
 An important use of series RLC resonant circuits is 46. Define impedeance of RLC circuit. a closed circuit.
in the tuning circuits of radio and TV systems. To  The effective opposion by resistor, inductor and Faraday’s experiment - 1 :
receive the signal of a particular station among capacitor to the circuit current in the series RLC
various broadcasting stations at different circuit is called impedance (Z)
frequencies, tuning is done. 𝒁 = √ 𝑹𝟐 + (𝑿𝑳 − 𝑿𝑪 ) 𝟐
39. Resonance will occur only in LC circuits. Why?
 When the circuits contains both L and C, then
voltage across L and C cancel one another when
𝑉𝐿 and 𝑉𝐶 are 180 out of phase and the circuit
becomes purely resistive.  Consider a closed circuit consisting of a coil ‘C’ and
 This implies that resonance will not occur in a a galvanometer ‘G’. Initially the galvanometer
RL and RC circuits. shows no deflection.
40. Define Q - factor or quality factor.  When a bar magnet move towards the stationary
 Q - factor is defined as the ratio of voltage across coil with its north pole (N) facing the coil, there is a
L or C to the applied voltage at resonance. momentary deflection in the galvanometer. This
41. Define power in an AC circuits. indicates that an electric current is set up in the coil
 Power of a circuits is defined as the rate of  If the magnet is kept stationary inside the coil, the
consumption of electric energy in that circuit. galvanometer does not indicate deflection.
 It is the product of the voltage and current.  The bar magnet is now withdrawn from the coil, the
42. Define power factor. galvanometer again gives a momentary deflection
 Power factor (cos 𝜙) of a circuit is defined as the but is opposite direction. This indicates current
cosine of the angle of lead or lag flows in opposite direction.
 Power factor is also defined as the ratio of true  Now if the magnet is moved faster, it gives a larger
power to the apparent power. deflection due to a greater current in the circuit.
43. Define wattles current.  The bar magnet is reversed (i.e.) the south pole now
 If the power consumed by an AC circuit is zero, faces the coil and the experiment is repeated, same
then the current in that circuit is said to be results are obtained but the directions of deflection
wattless current. get reversed.
 This wattles current happens in a purely inductive  Simillarly if the magnet is kept stationary and the
or capacitive circuit. coil moved towards or away from the coil, similar
44. What are called LC oscillations? results are obtained.
 Whenever energy is given to a circuit containing a  Thus the above experiments concluded that,
pure inductor of inductance L and a capacitor of whenever there is a relative motion between the
capacitance C, the energy oscillates back and forth coil and the magnet, ther is a deflection in the
between the magnetic field of the inductor and the galvanometer, indicating the electric current set up
electric field of the capacitor. in the coil.
 Thus the electrical oscillations of definite
frequency are generated. These oscillations are
called LC oscillations.

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
2. Prove that experimentaly if the current in a one 
At the same time, when they recede away from  The negative sign in the above equation gives the
closed circuit changes, an emf is induced in one another, the magnetic flux linked with the coil direction of the induced current
another circuit. decreases. The decrease in magnetic flux again  If a coil consisting of ‘N’ turns, then
Faraday’s experiment - 2 : induces an emf in opposite direction and hence an 𝒅𝚽𝑩 𝒅 ( 𝐍 𝚽𝑩 )
electric current flows in opposite direction. 𝝐= −𝑵 = −
𝒅𝒕 𝒅𝒕
 So there is deflection in the galvanometer, when  Here N Φ𝐵 is called flux linkage.
there is a relative motion between the coil and the 5. Give an illustration of determining direction of
magnet. induced current by using Lenz’s law.
Experiment - 2 : Explanation of Lenz’s law :
 In the second experiment, when the primary coil
‘P’ carries an electric current, a magnetic field is
established around it. The magnetic lines of this
field pass through itself and the neighbouring
secondary coil ‘S’
 Consider a closed circuit called primary consisting
 When the primary circuit is open, no current flows
of coil ‘P’, a battery ‘B’ and a key ‘K’
in it and hence the magnetic flux linked with
 Consider an another closed circuit called secondary
secondary coil is zero
consisting of coil ‘S and a galvanometer ‘G’
 When the primary circuit is closed, the increasing  Let a bar magnet move towards the solenoid with
 Here the two coils ‘P’ and ‘S’ are kept at rest in
current increases the magnetic flux linked with its north pole pointing the solenoid.
close proximity with respect to one another.
primary as well as secondary coil. This increasing  This motion increases the magnetic flux linked
 When the primary circuit is closed, current starts
flux induces a current in the secondary coil. with the solenoid and hence an electric current is
flowing in this circuit. At this time, the
 When the current in the primary coil reaches a induced. Due to the flow of induced current, the
galvanometer gives a momentary deflection. After
steady value, the magnetic flux linked with the coil become a magnetic dipole whose two
that, when current reaches a steady value, no
secondary coil does not change and the current in magnetic poles are on either end of the coil.
deflection is observed in the galvanometer.
it will disappear.  Here the cause producing the induced current is
 Similarly, if the primary circuit is broken, current
 Similarly, when the primary circuit is broken, the the movement of the magnet.
starts decreasing and there is again a momentary
decreasing current induces an electric current in  According to Lenz’s law, the induced current
deflection but in the opposite direction. When
the secondary coil, but in opposite direction. should flow in such a way that it opposed the
current becomes zero, the galvanometer shows no
 So there is a deflection in the galvanometer, movement of the north pole towards coil.
deflection.
whenever there is a change in the primary current.  It is possible if the end nearer to the magnet
 From the above observations, it is concluded that
4. State and explain Faraday’s laws of becomes north pole. Then it repels the north pole
whenever the electric current in the primary
electromagnetic induction. of the bar magnet and opposed the movement of
changes, the galvanometer in secondary shows a
Faraday’s first law : the magnet.
deflection.
 Whenever magnetic flux linked with a closed  Once pole end are known, the direction of the
3. How we understood the conclusions obtained from
circuit changes, an emf is induced in the circuit. induced current could be found by using right
Faraday’s experiment - Explanation :  The induced emf lasts so long as the change in hand thumb rule.
Experiment - 1 : magnetic flux continues.  Whwn the bar magnet is with drawn, the nearer
Faraday’s second law : end becomes south pole which attracts north pole
 In the first experiment, when a bar magnet is
placed close to a coil, then there is some magnetic  The magnitude of induced emf in a closed circuit is of the bar magnet, opposing the receding of the
flux linked with the coil. equal to the time rate of change of magnetic flux magnet.
linked with the circuit.  Thus the direction of the induced current can be
 When the barmagneti and coil approach each
other, the magnetic flux linked with the coil  If magnetic flux linked with the coil changes by found from Lenz’s law.
𝑑Φ𝐵 in time 𝑑𝑡 , then the induced emf is given by, 6. Show that Lenz’s law is in accordance with the law of
increases and this increase in magnetic flux
𝑑Φ𝐵 conservation of energy.
induces an emf and hence a transient current 𝜖= −
flows in one direction. 𝑑𝑡 Conservation of energy - Lenz’s law :
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 According to Lenz’s law, when a magnet is moved  Due to this force, all the free electrons are  According to Faraday’s law, current is induced in
either towards or away from a coil, the induced accumulate at the end A which produces the the loop which flows in a direction so as to oppose
current produced opposes its motion. potential difference across the rod which inturn the pul of the loop.
 As a result, there will always be a resisting force establishes an electric field ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 directed along BA  Let ‘𝑥 ’ be the length of the loop which is still
on the moving magnet. So work has to be done by  Due to the electric field, the Coulomb force starts within the magnetic field, then its area = 𝑙 𝑥
some external agency to move the magnet against acting on the free electron along AB and it is given  Then the magnetic flux linked with the loop is,
this resistive force. by, ⃗ . ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
Φ𝐵 = ∫ 𝐵 𝑑𝐴 = ∫ 𝐵 𝑑𝐴 cos 0° = 𝐵 𝐴 = 𝐵 𝑙 𝑥
 Here the mechanical energy of the moving magnet ⃗⃗⃗𝐹𝐸 = − 𝑒 ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 − − − − − (2)
is converted into the electrical energy which  At equilibrium, |⃗⃗⃗𝐹𝐵 | = |⃗⃗⃗𝐹𝐸 |  As this magnetic flux decreases, the magnitude of
inturn gets converted in to Joule heat in the coil. the induced emf is given by,
(i.e) energy is conserved from one form to another |−𝑒 (⃗⃗⃗𝑣 𝑋 ⃗⃗⃗𝐵 )| = |−𝑒 ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 | 𝑑Φ𝐵 𝑑 𝑑𝑥
𝐵 𝑒 𝑣 sin 90° = 𝑒 𝐸 ∈= = (𝐵 𝑙 𝑥) = 𝐵 𝑙
 On the contrary to Lenz’s law, let us assume that 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
the induced current helps the cause responsible 𝐵𝑣 = 𝐸 − − − − (3) ∈= 𝑩𝒍𝒗 − − − − − (1)
for its production.  The potential difference between two ends of the  This emf is known as motional emf, since it is
 If we push the magnet little bit towards the coil, rod is , produced due to the movement of the loop in the
the induced current helps the movement of the 𝑉=𝐸𝑙=𝐵𝑣𝑙 magnetic field.
magnet towards the coil.  Thus the Lorentz force on the free electrons is  From Lenz’s law, it is found that the induced
 Then the magnet starts moving towards the coil responsible to maintain this potential difference current flows in clockwise direction.
without any expense of energy, which is and hence produces an emf 9. Explain energy conservation.
impossible in practice. 𝝐=𝑩𝒍𝒗 − − − − (4) Energy conservation :
 Therefore the assumption that the induced current  Since this emf is produced due to the movement of
helps the cause is wrong. the rod, it is often called as motional emf.
7. Obtain an expression for motional emf from 8. Obtain an expression for motional emf from
Motional emf from Lorentz force: Motional emf from Faraday’s law :

##  Let a loop placed in a magnetic field ⃗⃗⃗𝐵 is pulled

with a constant velocity 𝑣 ⃗⃗⃗ towards right side.
 Due to this movement, the loop experiences
 Consider a straight conductor rod AB of length ‘𝑙’ magnetic forces.
in a uniform magnetic field 𝐵 ⃗ which is directed
 Let ⃗⃗⃗𝐹1 , ⃗⃗⃗𝐹2 , ⃗⃗⃗𝐹3 forces acting on the three segments
perpendicularly in to plane of the paper.  Consider a rectangular loop of width ‘𝑙’ in a
of the loop
 Let the rod move with a constant velocity uniform magnetic field 𝐵 ⃗ which is directed
 Here ⃗⃗⃗𝐹2 and ⃗⃗⃗𝐹3 are equal in magnitude and
⃗⃗⃗ towards right side.
𝑣 perpendicularly in to plane of the paper.
opposite in direction and cancel each other.
 When the rod moves, the free electrons present in  A part of the loop is in the magnetic field, while
⃗ the remaining part is outside the field. Therefore the force ⃗⃗⃗𝐹1 alone acts on the left
it also move with same velocity 𝑣 ⃗⃗⃗ in 𝐵
segment towards left side which is given by,
 As a result, the Lorentz forec acts on free electron  If the loop is pulled with a constant velocity
⃗⃗⃗𝐹1 = 𝑖 ⃗𝑙 𝑋 𝐵 ⃗
in the direction from B to A and it is given by, ⃗⃗⃗ towards right side, then the magnetic flux
𝑣
linked with the loop will decrease. (𝑜𝑟) 𝐹1 = 𝑖 𝑙 𝐵 sin 90° = 𝑖 𝑙 𝐵 − − (1)
⃗⃗⃗𝐹𝐵 = −𝑒 (⃗⃗⃗𝑣 𝑋 ⃗⃗⃗𝐵 ) − − − − (1)

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 In order to move the loop a constant force ⃗⃗⃗𝐹 is  When the electro magnet is switched on, and the 𝐍 𝚽𝑩
∴ 𝐋=
applied which is equal to the magnetic force ⃗⃗⃗𝐹1 . pendulum is made to oscillate, it comes to rest 𝒊
⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗ within a few oscillations. Because eddy currents  Where, L  constant called coefficient of self
So 𝐹 = − 𝐹1
are produced in it and it will oppose the induction (or) self inductance
 In magnitude,
∈ 𝐵𝑙𝑣 oscillations (Lenz’s law)  When the current (𝑖) changes with time, an emf is
𝐹 = 𝐹1 = 𝑖 𝑙 𝐵 = 𝑙𝐵= 𝑙𝐵  However some slots are cut in the disc, the eddy induced in the coil and it is given by,
𝑅 𝑅 𝑑(N Φ ) 𝑑 (𝐿 𝑖) 𝒅𝒊
𝑩𝟐 𝒍𝟐 𝒗 currents are reduced and now the pendulum 𝐵
∈= − = − = −𝑳
𝑭= − − − − (2) executes several oscillations before coming to rest. 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝒅𝒕
𝑹 ∈
Where, R  resistance of the loop  This clearly demonstrates the production of eddy ∴ 𝑳 = − − − − − (𝟐)
current in the disc of the pendulum. 𝒅𝒊
∈  emf ( )
11. What are the drawbacks of Eddy currents. How it 𝒅𝒕
 The rate at which the mechanical work is done to Coefficient of self induction - Definition :
pull the loop (i.e.) the power is is minimized?
Drawbacks of Eddy currents :  Self inductance of a coil is defined as the flux
𝑃 = ⃗⃗⃗
𝐹 . ⃗⃗⃗𝑣 = 𝐹 𝑣 cos 0° = 𝐹 𝑣 linkage of the coil, when 1 A current flows through
 When eddy currents flow in the conductor, a large
𝐵2 𝑙 2 𝑣 it.
𝑃= [ ]𝒗 amout of energy is dissipated in the form of heat.
𝑅  Self inductance of a coil is also defined as the
 The energy loss due to flow of eddy current is
𝑩𝟐 𝒍𝟐 𝒗𝟐 opposing emf induced in the coil, when the rate of
𝑷= − − − − (3) inevitable but it can be reduced.
𝑹 change of current through the coil is 1 A s-1
 To reduce eddy current losses, the core of the
 When the induced current flows in the loop, Joule 13. How will you define the unit of inductance?
transformer is made up of thin laminas insulated
heating takes place. The rate at which thermal Unit of inductance :
from one another. In case of electric motor the
energy (i.e.) power dissipated in the loop is,  Inductance is a scalar and its unit is 𝑾𝒃 𝑨−𝟏 (or)
winding is made up of a group of wire insulated
∈ 2 𝐵𝑙𝑣 2
from one another. 𝑽 𝒔 𝑨=𝟏 (or) henry (H)
2
𝑃= 𝑖 𝑅= [ ] 𝑅= [ ] 𝑅  It dimension is [𝑴 𝑳𝟐 𝑻−𝟐 𝑨−𝟐 ]
𝑅 𝑅  The insulation used does not allow huge eddy
𝑩𝟐 𝒍𝟐 𝒗𝟐 currents to flow and hence losses are minimized. Definition - 1 :
𝑷= − − − − − (4) 𝐍 𝚽𝑩
𝑹 12. Explain self induction and define coefficient of self  The self inductance is given by, 𝐋 =
𝒊
 Thus equation (3) and (4) are same. (i.e.) the induction on the basis of (1) magnetic flux and  The inductance of the coil is one henry if a current
mechanical work done in moving the loop appears (2) induced emf of 1 A produces unit fux linkage in the coil.
as thermal energy in the loop. Self induction : Definition - 2 :
10. Define eddy currents. Demonstrate the production ∈
 The self inductance is given by, 𝑳 = − 𝒅𝒊
of eddy currents. (
𝒅𝒕
)

## Eddy currents:  The inductance of the coil is one henry if a current

−𝟏
 When magnetic flux linked with a conductor in the changing at the rate of 𝟏 𝑨 𝒔 induces an
form of a sheet or a plate changes, an emf is opposing emf of 1 V in it.
induced. 14. Discuss the physical significance of inductance.
 As a result, the induced current flow in concentric Physical inductance of inductance :
circular paths which resembles eddies of water.
Hence these are known as Eddy currents or  When an electric current flowing through a coil
Foucault currents. changes, an emf is induced in the same coil. This
Demonstration : phemomenon is known as self induction. The emf
 Let a pendulum that can be freely suspended induced is called self-induced emf.
between the poles of a powerful electromagnet.  Let Φ𝐵 be the magnetic flux linked with each turn
 Keeping the magnetic field switched off, If the of the coil of turn ‘N’, then total flux linkage (𝑁Φ𝐵 )
pendulum is made to oscillate, it executes a large is directly proportional to the current ‘𝑖’
number of oscillations before stops. Here air N Φ𝐵 ∝ 𝑖 (𝑜𝑟) N Φ𝐵 = 𝐿 𝑖  Generally inertia means opposition to change the
friction is a only damping force. state of the body.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 In translational motion, mass is a measure of  Let ‘L’ be the self inductance of the solenoid, then 17. Explain mutual induction. Define coefficient of
inertia, whereas in rotational motion, moment of 𝑁 Φ𝐵 𝜇𝑜 𝑛2 𝑖 𝐴 𝑙 mutual induction on the basis of (1) magnetic flux
inertia is a measure of rotational inertia. 𝐿 = = and (2) induced emf
𝑖 𝑖
 Simillarly inductance plays the same role in a 𝟐
𝑳 = 𝝁𝒐 𝒏 𝑨 𝒍 Mutual induction :
circuit as the mass and moment of inertia play in  If the solenoid is filled with a dielectric medium of
mechanical motion. relative permeability ‘𝜇𝑟 ’, then
 When a ciruit is switched on, the increasing 𝑳 = 𝝁𝒐 𝝁𝒓 𝒏 𝟐 𝑨 𝒍 = 𝝁 𝒏 𝟐 𝑨 𝒍
current induces an emf which opposes the growth  Thus, the inductance depens on
of current in a circuit. (i) geomentry of the solenoid
 Similllarly, when a circuit is broken, the decreaing (ii) medium present inside the solenoid
current induces an emf in the reverese direction 16. An inductor of inductance ‘L’ carries an electric  When an electric current passing through a coil
which opposed the decay of the current. current ‘𝒊’. How much energy is stored while changes with time, an emf is induced in the
 Thus inductance on the coil opposes any change in establishing the current in it? neighbouring coil. This phenomenon is known as
current and tries to maintain the original state. Energy stored in an solenoid : mutual induction and the emf is called mutually
15. Assuming that the length of the solenoid is large  Whenever a current is established in the circuit, induced emf.
when compared to its diameter, find the equation the inductance opposes the growth of the current.  Consider two coils 1 and 2 which are placed close
for its inductance.  To establish the current, work has to done against to each other. If an electric current ‘𝑖1 ’ is sent
Self inductance of a long solenoid (L) : this opposition. This work done is stored as through coil -1, the magnetic field produced by it
magnetic potential energy. also linked with the coil -2
 Consider an inductor of negligible resistance, the  Let ‘Φ21 ’ be the magnetic flux linked with each
induced emf ‘∈’ at any instant ‘t’ is turn of the coil-2 of 𝑁2 turns due to coil -1, then
𝑑𝑖 the total flux linked with coil -2 is proportional to
∈ = −𝐿
𝑑𝑡 the current ‘𝑖1 ’ in the coil -`1 (i.e.)
 Let ‘dW’ be the workdone in moving a charge ‘dq’ 𝑁2 Φ21 ∝ 𝑖1 (𝑜𝑟) 𝑁2 Φ21 = 𝑀21 𝑖1
in a time ‘dt’ against the opposition, then 𝑵𝟐 𝚽𝟐𝟏
𝑑𝑊 = − ∈ 𝑑𝑞 = − ∈ 𝑖 𝑑𝑡 ∴ 𝑴𝟐𝟏 = − − − − (𝟏)
𝑑𝑖 𝒊𝟏
 Consider a long solenoid of length ‘𝑙’, area of cross 𝑑𝑊 = − [−𝐿 ] 𝑖 𝑑𝑡 = 𝐿 𝑖 𝑑𝑖  Here 𝑀21 → constant called coefficient of mutual
𝑑𝑡
section ‘A’ having ‘N’ number of turns  Total wor done in establishing the current ‘𝑖’ is induction or mutual inductance coil -2
 Let ‘𝑛’ be number of turns per unit length (i.e.) 2 𝑖 with respect to coil -1
𝑖 1  When the current ‘𝑖1 ’ changes with time, an emf
turn density 𝑊 = ∫ 𝑑𝑊 = ∫ 𝐿 𝑖 𝑑𝑖 = 𝐿 [ ] = 𝐿 𝑖 2
2 0 2 ‘∈2 ’ is induced in coil -2 and it is given by,
 When an electric current ‘𝑖’ is passed through the
coil, a magnetic field at any point inside the  This work done is stored as magnetic potential 𝑑 (𝑁2 Φ21 ) 𝑑 (𝑀21 𝑖1 ) 𝑑𝑖1
∈2 = − = − = − 𝑀21
solenoid is, energy. (i.e) 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝟏 ∈𝟐
𝐵 = 𝜇𝑜 𝑛 𝑖 𝑼𝑩 = 𝑳 𝒊 𝟐 ∴ 𝑴𝟐𝟏 = − − − − − (2)
𝟐 𝒅𝒊
 Due to this field, the magnetic flux linked with the ( 𝟏)
 The energy stored per unit volume of the space is 𝒅𝒕
solenoid is,  Simillarly,
called energy density (𝑢𝐵 ) and it is given by,
⃗⃗⃗ = ∮ 𝐵 𝑑𝐴 cos 90° = 𝐵 𝐴
Φ𝐵 = ∮ ⃗⃗⃗𝐵 . 𝑑𝐴 1 𝑵𝟏 𝚽𝟏𝟐
𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 (𝑈𝐵 ) 2 𝐿 𝑖
2
1 (𝜇𝑜 𝑛2 𝐴 𝑙) 𝑖 2 𝑴𝟏𝟐 = − − − − (𝟑)
𝑢𝐵 = = = 𝒊𝟏𝟐
Φ𝐵 = [𝜇𝑜 𝑛 𝑖] 𝐴 ∈𝟏
𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 (𝐴 𝑙) 𝐴𝑙 2 𝐴𝑙
 Hence the total magnetic flux linked (i.e.) flux & 𝑴𝟏𝟐 = − − − − − (4)
𝝁𝒐 𝒏 𝟐 𝒊𝟐 𝒅𝒊𝟐
𝟐 𝒅𝒕
𝑁 Φ𝐵 = 𝑁 𝜇𝑜 𝑛 𝑖 𝐴 = (𝑛 𝑙) 𝜇𝑜 𝑛 𝑖 𝐴 𝟐  Here 𝑀21 → constant called coefficient of mutual
𝑩
𝑵 𝚽𝑩 = 𝝁𝒐 𝒏𝟐 𝒊 𝑨 𝒍 𝒖𝑩 = [∵ 𝐵 = 𝜇𝑜 𝑛 𝑖] induction or mutual inductance coil -2
𝟐 𝝁𝒐
with respect to coil -1
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Coefficient of mutual induction - Definition :  Simillarly, Let ‘𝑖2 ’ be the current flowing through  As the rod moves from AB to DC in a time ‘dt’, the
 The mutual inductance is defined as the flux solenoid -2, then the magnetic field produced area enclosed by the loop and hence the magnetic
linkage of the one coil, when 1 A current flow inside it is, flux through the loop decreases.
through other coil. 𝐵2 = 𝜇𝑜 𝑛2 𝑖2  The change in magnetic flux in time ’dt’ is
 Mutual inductance is also the opposing emf  Hence the magnetic flux linked with each turn of 𝑑Φ𝐵 = 𝐵 𝑑𝐴 = 𝐵 (𝑙 𝑋 𝑣 𝑑𝑡)
induced in one coil, when the rate of change of solenoid -1 due to solenoid -2 is 𝑑Φ𝐵
current through other coil is 1 𝐴 𝑠 −1 =𝐵𝑙𝑣
Φ12 = ∮ ⃗⃗⃗𝐵2 . ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝐴2 = ∮ 𝐵2 𝑑𝐴2 cos 0° = 𝐵2 𝐴2 𝑑𝑡
18. Show that the mutual inductance between a pair of  This change in magnetic flux results and induced
coils is same (𝑴𝟏𝟐 = 𝑴𝟐𝟏 ) Φ12 = (𝜇𝑜 𝑛2 𝑖2 ) 𝐴2 emf and it is given by,
Mutual inductance between a pair of coils :  Then total flux linkage of solenoid -1 of 𝑁1 turns is 𝑑Φ𝐵
𝑁1 Φ12 = (𝑛1 𝑙 ) (𝜇𝑜 𝑛2 𝑖2 ) 𝐴2 ∈=
𝑑𝑡
𝑁1 Φ12 = 𝜇𝑜 𝑛1 𝑛2 𝐴2 𝑙 𝑖2 − − − − (3) ∈= 𝑩𝒍𝒗
 So the mutual inductance of solenoid -1 with  This emf is called motional emf. The direction of
respect to solenoid -2 is given by, induced current is found to be clock wise from
𝑁1 Φ12 𝜇𝑜 𝑛1 𝑛2 𝐴2 𝑙 𝑖2 Fleming’s right hand rule.
𝑀12 = =
𝑖2 𝑖2 20. What are the advantages of stationary armature -
𝑴𝟏𝟐 = 𝝁𝒐 𝒏𝟏 𝒏𝟐 𝑨𝟐 𝒍 − − − − (4) rotating field alternator?
 From equation (2) and (4), 𝑴𝟏𝟐 = 𝑴𝟐𝟏 Advantages of stationary armature - rotating field
 In general, the mutual inductance between two alternator :
long co-axial solenoids is given by  The current is drawn directly from fixed terminals
𝑴 = 𝝁𝒐 𝒏 𝟏 𝒏 𝟐 𝑨𝟐 𝒍 on the stator without the use of brush contacts.
 Consider two long co-axial solenoids of same  If the solenoid is filled with a dielectric medium of  The insulation of stationary armature winding is
length ‘𝑙’ relative permeability ‘𝜇𝑟 ’, then easier.
 Let 𝐴1 and 𝐴2 be the area of cross section of the 𝑴 = 𝝁 𝒐 𝝁 𝒓 𝒏 𝟏 𝒏 𝟐 𝑨𝟐 𝒍 = 𝝁 𝒏 𝟏 𝒏 𝟐 𝑨𝟐 𝒍  The number of slip rings is reduced. Moreover the
solenoids. Here 𝐴1 > 𝐴2  Thus, the inductance depens on sliding contacts are used for low-voltage DC
 Let the turn density of these solenoids are (i) geomentry of the solenoids source.
𝑛1 and 𝑛2 resectively. (ii) medium present inside the solenoids  Armature windings can be constructed more
 Let ‘𝑖1 ’ be the current flowing through solenoid -1, (iii) proximity of the two soienoids rigidly to prevent deformation due to any
then the magnetic field produced inside it is, 19. How will you induce an emf by changing the area mechanical stress.
𝐵1 = 𝜇𝑜 𝑛1 𝑖1 enclosed by the coil. 21. Explain various energy losses in a transformer.
 Hence the magnetic flux linked with each turn of EMF induced by changing area enclosed by the coil Energy losses in a transformer :
solenoid -2 due to solenoid -1 is (i) Core loss or Iron loss :
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 2 = ∮ 𝐵1 𝑑𝐴2 cos 0° = 𝐵1 𝐴2
Φ21 = ∮ ⃗⃗⃗𝐵1 . 𝑑𝐴  Hysterisis loss and eddy current loss are
known as core loss or Iron loss.
Φ21 = (𝜇𝑜 𝑛1 𝑖1 ) 𝐴2  When transformer core is magnetized or
 Then total flux linkage of solenoid -2 of 𝑁2 turns is demangnetized repeatedly by the alternating
𝑁2 Φ21 = (𝑛2 𝑙 ) (𝜇𝑜 𝑛1 𝑖1 ) 𝐴2 voltage applied across primary coil, hyterisis
𝑁2 Φ21 = 𝜇𝑜 𝑛1 𝑛2 𝐴2 𝑙 𝑖1 − − − − (1) takes place and some energy lost in the form
 So the mutual inductance of solenoid -2 with of heat. It is minimized by using silicone steel
respect to solenoid -1 is given by,  Consider a conducting rod of length ‘𝑙’ moving in making transformer core.
𝑁2 Φ21 𝜇𝑜 𝑛1 𝑛2 𝐴2 𝑙 𝑖1  Alternating magnetic flux in the core induces
𝑀21 = = with a velocity ‘𝑣’ towards left on a rectangular
𝑖1 𝑖1 metallic frame work. eddy currents in it. Therefore there is energy
𝑴𝟐𝟏 = 𝝁𝒐 𝒏𝟏 𝒏𝟐 𝑨𝟐 𝒍 − − − − (2)  The whole arangemetn is placed in a uniform loss due to the flow of eddy current called
⃗⃗⃗
magnetic field ‘ 𝐵’ acting perpendicular to the eddy current loss. It is minimized by using
plane of the coil inwards. very thin laminations of transformer core.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
(ii) Copper loss : (ii) 𝑃 = 2 𝑀𝑊, 𝑅 = 40 Ω, 𝑉 = 100 𝑘𝑉 , then  Then Average value of AC,
 The primary and secondary coils in 𝑃 2 𝑋 106 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑣𝑒 𝑜𝑟 𝑛𝑒𝑔𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑓 − 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒
𝐼 = = = 20 𝐴 𝐼𝑎𝑣 =
transformer have electrical resistance. 𝑉 100 𝑋 103 𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑓 − 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒
 When an electric current flows through them, Power loss = 𝐼 2 𝑅 = (20)2 𝑋 40 = 0.016 𝑋 106 𝑊 𝟐 𝑰𝒎
some amount of energy is dissipated due to 𝐈𝒂𝒗𝒈 = = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟑𝟕 𝑰𝒎
0.016 𝑋 106 𝝅
Joule’s heating and it is known as copper loss. % 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠 = = 0.008 = 𝟎. 𝟖 %  For negative half-cycle ; 𝐈𝒂𝒗𝒈 = − 𝟎. 𝟔𝟑𝟕 𝑰𝒎
It is minimized by using wires of larger 2 𝑋 106
24. Obtain an expression for RMS value of alternating
diameter (thicki wire)  Thus it is clear that, when an electric power is
current.
(iii) Flux leakage : transmitted at high voltage, the power loss is
RMS value of AC (𝐼𝑅𝑀𝑆 ) :
 The magnetic flux linked with primary coil is reduced to a large extent.
 The root mean squae value of an alternating
not completely linked with secondary.  So at transmitting point the voltage is increased
current is defined as the square root of the mean
Energy loss due to this flux leakage is and the corresponding current is decreased by
of the squares of all currents over one cycle.
minimize by winding coils one over the using step-up transformer. At receiving point, the
Expression :
other. voltage is decreased and the current is increased
22. Discuss the advantages of AC in long distance by using step-down transformer
power transmission. 23. Obtain the expression for average value of
Long distance power transmission : alternating current.
 The electric power is generated in power stations Average or Mean value of AC :
using AC generators are transmitted over long  The average value of AC is defined as the average
distances through transmission lines to reach of all values of current over a positive half-cycle or
towns or cities. This process is called power negative half-cycle.
Expression :  The alternating current at any instant is
transmission. 𝑖 = 𝐼𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡 = 𝐼𝑚 sin 𝜃
 But during power transmission, due to Joules’s  The sum of the squares of all currents over one
heating ((𝐼 2 𝑅) in the transmission lines, sizable cycle is given by the area of one cycle of squared
fraction of electric power is lost. wave.
 This power loss can be reduced either by reducing  Consider an elementary area of thickness ‘𝑑𝜃’ in
current (I) or by reducing resistance (R) the first half-cycle of the squared current wave.
 Here the resistance ‘R’ can be reduced with thick Area of the element = 𝑖 2 𝑑𝜃
wires of copper or aluminium. But this increases  Area of one cycle of squared wave,
the cost of production of transmission lines and  The average or mean value of AC over one 2𝜋
2𝜋
hence this method is not economically viable. complete cycle is zero. Thus the average or mean
= ∫ 𝑖 2 𝑑𝜃 = ∫ 𝐼𝑚 2 sin2 𝜃 𝑑𝜃
 Thus by using transformer, the current is value is measured over one half of a cycle. 0
0
reduced by stepped up the alternating voltage  The alternating current at any instant is 2𝜋
1 − cos 2𝜃
and thereby reducing power losses to a 𝑖 = 𝐼𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡 = 𝐼𝑚 sin 𝜃 = 𝐼𝑚 2 ∫ [ ] 𝑑𝜃
 The sum of all currents over a half-cycle is given 0 2
greater extent.
by area of positive half-cycle (or) negative half- [∵ cos 2𝜃 = 1 − 2 sin2 𝜃 ]
Illustration : 2 2𝜋 2𝜋
cycle. 𝐼𝑚
 Let an electric power of 2 MW is transmitted = [∫ 𝑑𝜃 − ∫ cos 2𝜃 𝑑𝜃]
through the transmission lines of resistance  Consider an elementary strip of thickness ‘𝑑𝜃’ in 2 0 0
40 Ω at 10 𝑘𝑉 and 100 𝑘𝑉 positive half-cycle, 𝐼𝑚
2
sin 2𝜃 2𝜋
Area of the elementary strip = 𝑖 𝑑𝜃 = [𝜃− ]
(i) 𝑃 = 2 𝑀𝑊, 𝑅 = 40 Ω, 𝑉 = 10 𝑘𝑉, then 2 2 0
𝑃 2 𝑋 106  Then area of positive half-cycle, 𝐼𝑚 2 sin 4𝜋 sin 0
𝐼= = = 200 𝐴 𝜋
3 𝜋 = [2𝜋 − −0+ ]
𝑉 10 𝑋 10 2 2 2
Power loss = 𝐼 2 𝑅 = (200)2 𝑋 40 = 1.6 𝑋 106 𝑊 = ∫ 𝑖 𝑑𝜃 = ∫ 𝐼𝑚 sin 𝜃 𝑑𝜃 = 𝐼𝑚 [− cos 𝜃]𝜋0 [∵ sin 0 = sin 4𝜋 = 0]
0
1.6 𝑋 106 0 𝐼𝑚
2
% of Power loss = = 0.8 = 𝟖𝟎 % = − 𝐼𝑚 [cos 𝜋 − cos 0] = − 𝐼𝑚 [−1 − 1] = 2 𝐼𝑚 = [2 𝜋] = 𝐼𝑚 2 𝜋
2 𝑋 106 2
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 Hence,  Let a pure resistor of resistance ‘R’ connected  The instantaneous value of the alternating voltage
across an alternating voltage source ‘𝑣’ is given by,
𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑤𝑎𝑣𝑒
𝐼𝑅𝑀𝑆 = √  The instantaneous value of the alternating voltage 𝑣 = 𝑉𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡 − − − − (1)
𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒 is given by,  Let ‘𝑖’ be the alternating current flowing in the
2 2 𝑣 = 𝑉𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡 − − − − (1) circuit due to this voltage, which induces a self
𝐼𝑚 𝜋 𝐼𝑚
IRMS = √ = √  Let ‘𝑖’ be the alternating current flowing in the induced emf (back emf) across ‘L’ and it is given by
2𝜋 2 circuit due to this voltage, then the potential drop 𝑑𝑖
𝑰𝒎 ∈= − 𝐿 − − − − (2)
across ‘R’ is 𝑑𝑡
𝐈𝐑𝐌𝐒 = = 𝟎. 𝟕𝟎𝟕 𝑰𝒎
√𝟐 𝑉𝑅 = 𝑖 𝑅 − − − − (2)  From Kirchoff’s loop rule, 𝑣 − (−∈) = 0
 Simillarly for alternating voltage, it can be shown  From Kirchoff’s loop rule, 𝑣 − 𝑉𝑅 = 0 (𝑜𝑟) 𝑣 = −∈
that, (𝑜𝑟) 𝑣 = 𝑉𝑅 𝑑𝑖
𝑉𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡 = − (− 𝐿 )
𝑽𝒎 𝑉𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡 = 𝑖 𝑅 𝑑𝑡
𝐕𝐑𝐌𝐒 = = 𝟎. 𝟕𝟎𝟕 𝑽𝒎 𝑉𝑚 𝑑𝑖
√𝟐 𝑖= sin 𝜔𝑡 𝑉𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡 = 𝐿
 RMS value of AC is also called effective value (𝐼𝑒𝑓𝑓 ) 𝑅 𝑑𝑡
𝒊 = 𝑰𝒎 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒕 − − − − (3) 𝑉𝑚
25. Draw the phasor diagram and wave diagram for 𝑉 ∴ 𝑑𝑖 = sin 𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
Here, 𝑚 = 𝐼𝑚 → Peak value of AC 𝐿
that current ‘𝒊’ leads the voltage ‘V’ by phase angle 𝑅  Integrate on both sides,
of ‘𝝓’  From equation (1) and (3), it is clear that, the 𝑉𝑚
Phasor and wave diagram of ‘𝒊’ leads ‘V’ by ‘𝝓’ applied voltage and the current are in phase with 𝑖= ∫ sin 𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝐿
 Let the alternating current and voltage at any each other. This is indicated in the phasor and 𝑉𝑚 − cos 𝜔𝑡 𝑉𝑚 𝜋
instant is, wave diagram. 𝑖= ( )= [− sin ( − 𝜔𝑡)]
𝑣 = 𝑉𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡 𝐿 𝜔 𝜔𝐿 2
𝑉𝑚 𝜋
𝑖 = 𝐼𝑚 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝜙) 𝑖= sin (𝜔𝑡 − )
𝜔𝐿 2
𝝅
𝒊 = 𝑰𝒎 𝐬𝐢𝐧 (𝝎𝒕 − ) − − − − (3)
𝟐
𝑉𝑚
Where, = 𝐼𝑚 → peak value of AC
𝜔𝐿
 From equation (1) and (3), it is clear that current
𝝅
lags behind the applied voltage by . This is
𝟐
indicated in the phasor and wave diagram.

## 27. Find out the phase relation ship between voltage

and current in a pure inductive circuit.
26. Find out the phase relation ship between voltage AC circuit containing pure inductor:
and current in a pure resistive circuit.
AC circuit containing pure resistor :

## Inductive reactance (𝑿𝑳 ) :

 In pure inductive circuit, ‘𝜔 𝐿’ is the resistance
 Let a pure inductor of inductance ‘L’ connected offered by the inductor and it is called inductive
across an alternating voltage source ‘𝑣’ reactance (𝑋𝐿 ). Its unit is ohm (𝜴)
𝑿𝑳 = 𝝎 𝑳 = 𝟐 𝝅 𝒇 𝑳
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
28. Find out the phase relation ship between voltage Capacitive reactance (𝑿𝑪 ) : resistance, smaller the current with flat curve is
and current in a pure capacitive circuit.  In pure capacitive circuit, ‘1⁄𝜔 𝐶 ’ is the resistance obtained.
AC circuit containing pure capacitor : offered by the capacitor and it is called capacitive
reactance (𝑋𝐶 ). Its unit is ohm (𝜴)
𝟏 𝟏
𝑿𝑪 = =
𝝎𝑪 𝟐𝝅𝒇𝑪
29. Explain resonance in series RLC circiuit.
Resonance on series in RLC circuit :
 When the frequency of applied alternating source
 Let a pure capacitor of capacitance ‘C’ connected is increases, the inductive reactance ( 𝑿𝑳 )
across an alternating voltage source ‘𝑣’ increases, where as capacitive reactance (𝑿𝑪 )
 The instantaneous value of the alternating voltage decreases. 30. Define quality factor. Obtain an expression for it.
is given by, Definition :
𝑣 = 𝑉𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡 − − − − (1)  At particular frequency (𝜔 𝑅 ), 𝑿𝑳 = 𝑿𝑪
 Q - factor is defined as the ratio of voltage across
 Let ‘ 𝑞 ’ be the instantaneous charge on the  At this stage, the frequency of applied source (𝜔𝑅 ) L (or) C to the applied voltage at resonance.
capacitor. The emf across the capacitor at that is equal to the natural frequency of the RLC circuit, Expression :
instant is, the current in the circuit reaches its maximum  The current in the series RLc circuit becomes
𝑞
∈= − − − − (2) value. maximum at resonance.
𝐶  Then the circuit is said to be in electrical  Due to the increase in current, the voltage across
 From Kirchoff’s loop rule, 𝑣 − ∈= 0 L and C are also increased,
resonance. The frequency at which resonance
(𝑜𝑟) 𝑣 = ∈
𝑞 takes place is called resonant frequency.  This magnification of voltages at series resonance is
𝑉𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡 =  Thus at resonance, termed as Q - factor.
𝐶
∴ 𝑞 = 𝐶 𝑉𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡 𝑋𝐿 = 𝑋𝐶  By definition,
1 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑎𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝐿 (𝑜𝑟) 𝐶
 By the definition of current, 𝜔𝑅 𝐿 = 𝑄 − 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =
𝑑𝑞 𝑑(sin 𝜔𝑡) 𝜔𝑅 𝐶 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒
𝑖= = 𝐶 𝑉𝑚 = 𝐶 𝑉𝑚 (cos 𝜔𝑡) 𝜔 1 𝐼𝑚 𝑋𝐿 𝑋𝐿 𝜔𝑅 𝐿
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 2
𝜔𝑅 = 𝑄 − 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 = = =
𝜋 𝑉𝑚 𝜋 𝐿𝐶 𝐼𝑚 𝑅 𝑅 𝑅
𝑖 = 𝜔 𝐶 𝑉𝑚 sin ( + 𝜔𝑡) = sin ( + 𝜔𝑡)  Hence the resonant angular frequency, 1 𝐿
2 1
( ⁄𝜔 𝐶 ) 2
1 𝑄 − 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =
𝝅 𝜔𝑅 = √𝐿 𝐶 𝑅
𝒊 = 𝑰𝒎 𝐬𝐢𝐧 (𝝎𝒕 + − ) − − − − (3) √𝐿 𝐶
𝟐
𝑉  And resonant frequency, 𝟏 𝑳
where, 1 𝑚 = 𝐼𝑚 → Peak value of AC 𝑸 − 𝒇𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒐𝒓 = √
( ⁄𝜔 𝐶 ) 1 𝑹 𝑪
 From equation (1) and (3), it is clear that current 𝑓𝑅 =
𝝅 2 𝜋 √𝐿 𝐶  The physical meaning is that Q - factor indicates
leads the applied voltage by . This is indicated in Effects of series resonance : the number of times the voltage across L (or) C is
𝟐
the phasor and wave diagram.  When series resonance occurs, the impedance of greaterthan the applied voltage at resonance.
the circuit is minimum and is equal to the 31. Obtain an expression for average power of AC over
resistance of the circuit. So the current in the a cycle. Discuss its special cases.
circuit becomes maximum. Average power of AC :
𝑉
 (i.e.) At resonance, Z = R & 𝐼𝑚 = 𝑚  Power of a circuit is defined as the rate of
𝑅
 The maximum current at resonance depends on consumption. It is given by the product of the
the value of resistance (R) voltage and current.
 For smaller resistance, larger the current with  The alternating voltage and alternating current in
sharper curve is obtained. But for larger the series RLC circuit at an instance are given by,
𝑣 = 𝑉𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡
𝑖 = 𝐼𝑚 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝜙)
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 Then the instantaneous power is given by, 33. Define power factor in various ways. Give some Case (ii) :
𝑃 = 𝑣 𝑖 = 𝑉𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡 𝐼𝑚 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝜙) examples for power factor.  When charge 𝑞 = 0 ; Current « 𝑖 = 𝐼𝑚 , the total
𝑃 = 𝑉𝑚 𝐼𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡 (sin 𝜔𝑡 cos 𝜙 − cos 𝜔𝑡 sin 𝜙) Power factor - Definitions : energy,
𝑃 = 𝑉𝑚 𝐼𝑚 (𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜔𝑡 cos 𝜙 − sin 𝜔𝑡 cos 𝜔𝑡 sin 𝜙 ) (i) The cosine of the angle lead or lag is called power 1 1
1 factor (power factor = = cos 𝜙) 𝑈 = 0 + 𝐿 𝐼𝑚2 = 𝐿 𝐼𝑚2
 Here the average of 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜔𝑡 over a cycle is and 2 2
2 𝑅 𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑑𝑞 𝑑
that of sin 𝜔𝑡 cos 𝜔𝑡 is zero. (ii) Power factor =
𝑍
= 𝐼𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑑𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 [∵ 𝑖 = − =− (𝑄 cos 𝜔𝑡) = 𝑄𝑚 𝜔 sin 𝜔𝑡 = 𝐼𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡]
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑚
 Thus average power over a cycle is, (iii) Power factor =
𝑉 𝐼 cos 𝜙 𝑇𝑟𝑢𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟
= 𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑄
1 𝑉𝑚 𝐼𝑚 𝑉𝐼  Hence, 𝐼𝑚 = 𝑄𝑚 𝜔 = 𝑚
√𝐿𝐶
𝑃𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 𝑉𝑚 𝐼𝑚 ( cos 𝜙) = cos 𝜙 Examples : 1 𝑄𝑚2 𝑄𝑚2
2 √2 √2 ∴ 𝑈 = 𝐿 [ ] = − − − − (2)
𝑷𝒂𝒗𝒈 = 𝑽𝑹𝑴𝑺 𝑰𝑹𝑴𝑺 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝝓  For purely resistive circuit, 𝜙 = 0 and cos 𝜙 = 1 2 𝐿𝐶 2𝐶
Where, 𝑉𝑅𝑀𝑆 𝐼𝑅𝑀𝑆 → apparent power  For purely inductive or capacitive circuit,  Here the total energy is wholly magnetic
𝜋
cos 𝜙 → power factor 𝜙 = ± and cos 𝜙 = 0 Case (iii) :
2
Special cases :  For RLC circuit, power factor lies between 0 and 1  When charge = 𝑞 , Current = 𝑖, then the total
(i) For purely resistive circuit, 𝜙 = 0 and cos 𝜙 = 1 34. What are the advantages and disadvantages of AC energy,
∴ 𝑷𝒂𝒗𝒈 = 𝑽𝑹𝑴𝑺 𝑰𝑹𝑴𝑺 over DC? 𝑞2 1
(ii) For purely inductive or capacitive circuit, Advantages of AC over DC : 𝑈 = + 𝐿 𝑖2
𝜋
2𝐶 2
𝜙=± and cos 𝜙 = 0. ∴ 𝑷𝒂𝒗𝒈 = 𝟎  The generation of AC is cheaper than that of DC  Here, 𝑞 = 𝑄𝑚 cos 𝜔𝑡 & 𝑖 = 𝑄𝑚 𝜔 sin 𝜔𝑡. So
2
−1 𝑋𝐿− 𝑋𝐶  When AC is supplied at higher voltages, the 𝑄𝑚2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜔𝑡 1
(iii) For series RLC circuit, 𝜙 = tan [ ] 𝑈 = + 𝐿 𝑄𝑚2 𝜔2 sin2 𝜔𝑡
𝑅 transmission losses are small compared to DC 2𝐶 2
∴ 𝑷𝒂𝒗𝒈 = 𝑽𝑹𝑴𝑺 𝑰𝑹𝑴𝑺 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝝓 transmission. 1
 Since, 𝜔2 =
(iv) For series RLC circuit at resonance, 𝜙 = 0 and 𝐿𝐶
 AC can easily be converted into DC with the help
𝑄𝑚2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜔𝑡 𝐿 𝑄𝑚2 sin2 𝜔𝑡
cos 𝜙 = 1. ∴ 𝑷𝒂𝒗𝒈 = 𝑽𝑹𝑴𝑺 𝑰𝑹𝑴𝑺 of rectifier. 𝑈= +
32. Write a note on wattful current and wattles current. Disadvantages of AC over DC : 2𝐶 2 𝐿𝐶
2
𝑄𝑚 𝑄𝑚2
Wattful current and Wattless current :  Alternating voltages cannot be used for certain 𝑈= (𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜔𝑡 + sin2 𝜔𝑡) = − − − (3)
application. (e.g) charging of batteries, 2𝐶 2𝐶
 From equation (1), (2) and (3) it is clear that the
electroplating, electric traction etc.,
total energy of the system remains constant
 At high voltages, it is more dangerous to work
with AC than DC.
35. Show that the total energy is conserved during LC
 Consider an AC circuit in which the voltage oscillations.
(𝑽𝑹𝑴𝑺 ) leads the current (𝑰𝑹𝑴𝑺 ) by phase angle ‘𝜙’ Conservation of energy LC oscillations :
 Resolve the current in to two perpendicular  During LC oscillations, the energy of the system
components, oscillates between the electric field of the
(i) 𝑰𝑹𝑴𝑺 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝝓 - Component along 𝑽𝑹𝑴𝑺 capacitor and the magnetic field of the inductor.
(ii) 𝑰𝑹𝑴𝑺 𝒔𝒊𝒏 - Component perpendicular to 𝑽𝑹𝑴𝑺  Although these two energies vary with time, the
 Here the component of current (𝑰𝑹𝑴𝑺 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝝓) which total energy remains constant. (i.e)
is inphase with the voltage is called ative 𝑞2 1
𝑈 = 𝑈𝐸 + 𝑈𝐵 = + 𝐿 𝑖 2 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
component. The power consumed by this 2𝐶 2
component = 𝑽𝑹𝑴𝑺 𝑰𝑹𝑴𝑺 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝝓 . It is known as Case (i) :
wattfull current  When the charge of in the ccapacitor ; 𝑞 = 𝑄𝑚
 The other component of current which has a phase and the current through the inducor ; 𝑖 = 0
angle of with the voltage is called reactive 𝑄𝑚2 𝑄𝑚2
𝑈= +0= − − − − (1)
component. The power consumed by this current is 2𝐶 2𝐶
zero. It is known as wattles current.  The total energy is wholly electrical.

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Electro magnetic damping : 𝑑 𝑑
PART - IV 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ∈= − (𝑁Φ𝐵 ) = − (𝑁 Φ𝑚 cos 𝜔𝑡)
 The armature of the galvanometer coil is wound 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
Explain the applications of eddy currents (or) on a soft irom cylinder. = − 𝑁 Φ𝑚 (− sin 𝜔𝑡) 𝜔
Focault currents.  Once the armature is deflected, the relative motion ∈ = 𝑵 𝚽𝒎 𝝎 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒕 − − − − − (1)
Induction stove : between the soft irom cylinder and the radial  When 𝜃 = 90°, then the induced emf becomes
 It is used to cook food quickly and safely with less magnetic field induces eddy current in the maximum and it is given by,
consumption. Below the cooking zone, there is a cylinder. ∈𝒎 = 𝑵 𝚽𝒎 𝝎 = 𝑵 𝑩 𝑨 𝝎 − − − − − (2)
tightly woind coil of insulated wire.  The damping force due to the flow of eddy current  Therefore the value of induced emf at that instant
 A suitable cooking pan is placing over the cooking brings the armature to rest immediately and the is then given by,
zone. galvanometer shows a steady deflection. ∈ = ∈𝒎 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒕 − − − − − (3)
 When the stove is switched on, an AC flowing in  This is called electromagnetic damping.  Thus the induced emf varies as sine function of the
the coil produces high frequency alternating 2. Show mathematically that the rotation of a coil in a time angle and this is called sinusoidal emf or
magnetic field which induces very strong eddy magnetic field over one rotation induces an alternating emf.
currents in the cooking pan. alternating emf of one cycle.  If this alternating voltage is given to a closed
 The eddy currents in the pan produce so much of Induction of emf by changing relative orientation circuit, a sinusoidally varying current flows in it.
heat due to Joule heating which is used to cook the of the coil with the magnetic field : This current is called alternating current an is
food. given by,
Eddy current brake : 𝒊 = 𝑰𝒎 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒕 − − − − − (4)
 This types of brakes are generally used in high  where, 𝑰𝒎 → peak value of induced current
speed trains and roller coasters. 3. Elaborate the standard construction details of AC
 Strong electromagnets are fixed just above the generator.
rails.To stop the train, electromagnets are swiched AC generator - construction :
on. The magnetic field of these magnets induces  AC generator (alternator) is an energy conversion
eddy currents in the rails which oppose the device. It converts mechanical energy used to
movement of the train. This is eddy current linear rotate the coil or field magnet in to electrical
brake. energy.
 In some cases, the circular disc connected in train  It works on the principle of electromagnetic
is made to rotate in between the pole of a induction.
electromagnet. When there is a relative motion  It consists of two major parts stator and rotor.
between the disc and the magnet, eddy currents  In commercial alternators, the armature winding
are induced in the disc which stop the train. Ths is is mounted on stator and the field magnet on rotor
eddy current circular brake. Stator : It has three components
Eddy current testing : (i) Stator frame :
 It is one of the non - destructive testing methods to  Consider a rectangular coil of ‘N’ turns kept in a  It is used for holding stator core and armature
find defects like surface craks, air bubbles present uniform magnetic field ‘B’ windings in proper position.
in a specimen.  The coil rotates in anti-clockwise direction with an  It provides best ventilation with the help of
 A coil of insulated wire is given an alternating angular velocity ‘𝜔’ about an axis. holes provided in the frame itself.
electric current, so that it produces an alternating  Initially let the plane of the coil be perpendicular (ii) Stator core (Armature) :
magnetic field. to the field (𝜃 = 0) and the flux linked with the  It is made up of iron or steel alloy.
 When this coil is brought near the test surface, coil has its maximum value. (i.e.) Φ𝑚 = 𝐵 𝐴  It is a hollo cylinder and is laminated to
eddy current is induced in it, and the presence of  In time ‘t’, let the coil be rotated through an angle minimize eddy current loss.
defects caused the change in phase and amplitude 𝜃 (= 𝜔𝑡), then the total flux linked is  The slots are cut on inner surface of the core
of the eddy current. 𝑁 Φ𝐵 = 𝑁 𝐵 𝐴 cos 𝜔𝑡 = 𝑁 Φ𝑚 cos 𝜔𝑡 to accommodate armature windings.
 Thus the defects present in the specimen are  According to Faraday’s law, the emf induced at (iii) Armature windings :
identified. that instant is,
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 It the coil wound on slots provided in the  When the field magnet rotates through 90, the
armature core. magnetic field becomes parallel to PQRS. The
 One or more than one coil may be employed, induced emf’s across PQ and RS would become
depending on the type of alternator. maximum. According to Flemming’s right hand
 Two types of windings are commonly used rule, the direction of induced emf for PQ is
and they are single-layer winding and downwards and for RS is upwards. Therefore the
double-layer winding. current flows along PQRS. The point A in the graph
Rotar : represents this maximum emf.
 It consists magnetic field windings  When field magnet rotates 180, the field is again
 The magnetic poles are magnetized bhy DC source perpendicular to PQRS and the induced emf
 The ends of field windings are connected to a pair becomes zero. This is represented by point B
of slip rings, attached to a common shaft about  When field magnet rotates 270, the field is again
which rotor rotates. Slip rings rotate along with Principle : parallel to PQRS, the induced emf is maximum but
rotor.  Electro magnetic induction the direction is reversed. Thus the current flows
 To maintain connection between the DC source Construction : along SRQP. This is represented by point C.
and field windings, two brushed are used which  Consider a stator core consisting of 2 slots in  On completion of 360, the induced emf becomes
continuously slide over the slip rings which 2 armature conductor PQ and RS are zero and it is represented by the point D.
 There are two types, namely mounted to form single - turn rectangular loop  From the graph, it is clear that, when field magnet
(i) Salient pole rotor : PQRS completes one rotation, the emf induced in PQRS is
 The word salient means projecting. alternating in nature.
 Rotor has 2 salient poles with field windings which
 This rotor has a number of projecting can be magnetized by means of DC source. 5. How are the three different emfs generated in a
poles having their bases riveted to the Working : three-phase AC generator? Show the graphical
rotor. representation of these three emfs.
 It is mainly used in low-speed alternators Three phase AC generator :
(ii) Cylindrical pole rotor :
 This rotor consists of a smooth solid
cylinder. The slots are cut on the outer
surface of the cylinder along its length.
 It is suitable for very high speed
alternators.
 The frequency of alternating emf induced
is directly proportional to the rotor speed.
In order to maintain the frequency
constant, the rotor run at a constant
speed.  If the AC generator consists three separate coils,
4. Explain the working of a single - phase AC which would give three separate emfs, then it is
generator with necessary diagram.  The loop PQRS is stationary and is perpendicular called three-phase generators.
Single phase AC generator : to the plane of the paper. Construction :
 In a single phase AC generator, the armature  Assume the initial position of the field magnet is  It has 6 slots, cut in its inner rim. Each slot is 60
conductors are connected in series so as to form a horizontal. At that instant, the direction of away from one another. six armature conductors
single circuit which generates a single-phase magnetic field is perpendicular to the plane of the are mounted in these slots.
alternating emf and hence it is called single-phase loop PQRS. The induced emf is zero. It is  The conductors 1 - 4, 2 - 5 and 3 - 6 are joined in
alternator. represented by origin ‘O’ in the graph series to form coils 1, 2 and 3
 Let the magnetic field rotate in clock-wise  So these coils are rectangular in shape and are
direction. 120 apart from one another.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Working :  If the transformer converts an alternating current  Dividing equation (1) by (2),
with high voltage in to an alternating current with 𝑽𝑺 𝑵𝑺
= − − − − (3)
low voltage, it is called step-down transformer. 𝑽𝑷 𝑵𝑷
Principle : Where, K  transformation ratio
 Mutual induction between two coils.  For an ideal transformer,
Construction : input power = output power
𝑉𝑃 𝑖𝑃 = 𝑉𝑆 𝑖𝑆
𝑽𝑺 𝒊𝑷
= − − − − (4)
𝑽𝑷 𝒊𝑺
 From equation (3) and (4), we have
𝑽𝑺 𝑵𝑺 𝒊𝑷
= = =𝑲 − − − − (5)
𝑽𝑷 𝑵𝑷 𝒊𝑺
(i) If K > 1 (or) 𝑵𝑺 > 𝑵𝑷 , then 𝑽𝑺 > 𝑽𝑷 and 𝒊𝑺 < 𝒊𝑷
This is step up transformer in which voltage
increased and the corresponding current is
decreased.
 It consists of two coils of high mutual inductance (ii) If K < 1 (or) 𝑵𝑺 < 𝑵𝑷 , then 𝑽𝑺 < 𝑽𝑷 and 𝒊𝑺 > 𝒊𝑷
wound over the same transformer core made up of This is step down transformer in which voltage
silicone steel. decreased and the corresponding current is
 To avoid eddy current loss, the core is generally increased.
 The initial position of the field magnet is Efficiency of a transformer :
laminated
horizontal and field direction is perpendicular to  The efficiency (𝜂) of a transformer is defined as
the plane of the coil - 1.  The alternating voltage is applied across primary
coil (P), and the output is taken across secondary the ratio of the useful output power to the input
 When it rotated from that position in clock-wise power.
coil (S)
direction, alternating emf ‘∈1 ’ in coil - 1 begins a 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟
cycle from origin ‘O’  The assemnbled core and coils are kept in a 𝜂= 𝑋 100 %
container which is filled with suitable medium for 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟
 When it rotated through 120, alternating emf ‘∈2 ’ 7. Derive an expression for phase angle between the
better insulation and cooling purpose.
in coil - 2 statrs at point ‘A’ applied voltage and current in a series RLC circuit.
Working :
 When it rotated through 240, alternating emf ‘∈3 ’ Series RLC circuit :
 The alternating voltage given to the primary coil,
in coil - 3 statrs at point ‘B’
set up an alternating magnetic flux in the
 Thus these emfs produced in the three phase AC
laminated core.
generator have 120 phase difference between one
 As the result of flux change, emf is induced in both
another.
primary and secondary coils.
6. Explain the principle , construction and working of
 The emf induced in the primary coil ‘∈𝑃 ’ is almost
transformer.
equal and opposite to the applied voltage ‘𝑉𝑃 ’ and
Transformer :
is given by,
 It is a stationary device used to transform 𝑑Φ𝐵
electrical power from one circuit to another 𝑉𝑃 = ∈𝑃 = − 𝑁𝑃 − − − − (1)
without changing its frequency. 𝑑𝑡
 The frequency of alternating magnetic flux is same  Consider a circuit containing a resistor of
 It is done with either increasing or decreasing the
as the frequency of applied voltage. Therefore resistance ‘R’, a inductor of inductance ‘L’ and a
applied alternationg voltage with corresponding
induced in secondary will also have same capacitor of capacitance ‘C’ connected across an
decrease or increase of current in the circuit.
frequency as that of applied voltage, alternating voltage source.
 If the transformer converts an alternating current
 The emf induced in the secondary coil ‘∈𝑆 ’ is,  The applied alternating voltage is given by,
with low voltage in to an alternating current with 𝑑Φ𝐵
high voltage, it is called step-up transformer. 𝑉𝑆 = ∈𝑆 = − 𝑁𝑆 − − − − (2) 𝑣 = 𝑉𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡 − − − − − (1)
𝑑𝑡
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 Let ‘𝑖’ be the current in the circuit at that instant. Special cases : Stage -1 :
 Hence the voltage developed across R, L and C (i) When 𝑋𝐿 > 𝑋𝐶 , the phase angle 𝝓 𝒊𝒔 𝒑𝒐𝒔𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆.  Consider the capacitor is fully charged with
𝑉𝑅 = 𝑖 𝑅 ( 𝑉𝑅 𝑖𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑝ℎ𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑖) It means that 𝒗 leads 𝒊 by 𝜙. maximum charge 𝑄𝑚 . So that the energy stored in
𝜋 (𝒊. 𝒆. ) 𝒗 = 𝑽𝒎 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒕 & 𝒊 = 𝑰𝒎 𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝝎𝒕 − 𝝓) 𝑄𝑚2
𝑉𝐿 = 𝑖 𝑋𝐿 (𝑉𝐿 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑠 𝑖 𝑏𝑦 ) the capacitor is maximum (i.e.) 𝑈𝐸 =
2
𝜋 This circuit is inductive. 2𝐶
𝑉𝐶 = 𝑖 𝑋𝐶 (𝑉𝐶 𝑙𝑎𝑔𝑠 𝑖 𝑏𝑦 )  As there is no current in the inductor, 𝑈𝐵 = 0
2 (ii) When 𝑋𝐿 < 𝑋𝐶 , the phase angle 𝝓 𝒊𝒔 𝒏𝒆𝒈𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆.
 The phasor diagram is drawn by representing It means that 𝒗 lags behind 𝒊 by 𝜙.  Therefore the total energy is wholly electrical.
current along 𝑂𝐼 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ , 𝑉𝑅 𝑎𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 𝑂𝐴⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ , 𝑉𝐿 𝑎𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 𝑂𝐵
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ (𝒊. 𝒆. ) 𝒗 = 𝑽𝒎 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒕 & 𝒊 = 𝑰𝒎 𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝝎𝒕 + 𝝓) Stage - 2 :
and 𝑉𝐶 𝑎𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 𝑂𝐶 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ This circuit is capacitive  The capacitor now begins to discharge through the
(iii) When 𝑋𝐿 = 𝑋𝐶 , the phase angle 𝝓 𝒊𝒔 𝒛𝒆𝒓𝒐. It inductor that establishes current ‘𝑖’ clockwise
means that 𝒗 inphase with 𝒊 direction.
(𝒊. 𝒆. ) 𝒗 = 𝑽𝒎 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒕 & 𝒊 = 𝑰𝒎 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒕  This current produces a magnetic field around the
This circuit is resistive inductor and energy stored in the inductor which
8. What are called LC oscillations? Explain the 𝐿 𝑖2
is given by 𝑈𝐵 =
generation of LC oscilations. 2
LC oscillations :  As the charge in the capacitor decreases, the
 Whenever energy is given to a circuit containing a energy stored in it also decreases and is given by
𝑞2
pure inductor of inductance L and a capacitor of 𝑈𝐸 =
capacitance C, the energy oscillates back and forth 2𝐶
 Thus the total energy is the sum of electrical and
between the magnetic field of the inductor and the
magnetic energies.
electric field of the capacitor.
Stage - 3 :
 Thus the electrical oscillations of definite
 If 𝑉𝐿 > 𝑉𝐶 , then the net voltage drop across LC  When the charge in the capacitor becomes zero, its
frequency are generated. These oscillations are
combination is (𝑉𝐿 − 𝑉𝐶 ) which is represented by energy becomes zero (i.e.) 𝑈𝐸 = 0
called LC oscillations.
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗  In this stage maximum current (𝐼𝑚 ) flows through
𝐴𝐷 Generation of LC oscillations :
inductor and its energy becomes maximum. (i.e.)
 By parallogram law, the diagonal ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑂𝐸 gives the  Whenever energy is given to a circuit containing a 𝐿𝐼2
resultant voltage ‘𝑣’ pure inductor of inductance L and a capacitor of 𝑈𝐵 = 2𝑚
capacitance C, the energy oscillates back and forth  Thus the total energy is wholly magnetic.
∴ 𝑣 = √𝑉𝑅2 + (𝑉𝐿 − 𝑉𝐶 ) 2 between the magnetic field of the inductor and the Stage - 4 :
electric field of the capacitor.
𝑣 = √𝑖 2 𝑅2 + (𝑖 𝑋𝐿 − 𝑖 𝑋𝐶 ) 2  Eventhough the charge in the capacitor is zero, the
 Thus the electrical oscillations of definite current will continue to flow in the same direction.
𝑣 = 𝑖√ 𝑅2 + (𝑋𝐿 − 𝑋𝐶 ) 2 frequency are generated. These oscillations are
𝑣  Since the current flow is in decreasing magnitude,
(𝑜𝑟) 𝑖= − − − (4) called LC oscillations. the capacitor begins to charge in the opposite
√ 𝑅2 + (𝑋𝐿 − 𝑋𝐶 ) 2 Generation of LC - oscillations :
𝒗 direction.
(𝑜𝑟) 𝒊= − − − (𝟓)  Thus a part of the energy is transferred from the
𝒁
 Where, 𝒁 = √ 𝑹𝟐 + (𝑿𝑳 − 𝑿𝑪 ) 𝟐 is called inductor back to the capacitor. The total energy is
impedance of the circuit, which refers to the the sum of the electrical and magnetic energies.
effective opposition to the circuit current by the Stage - 5 :
series RLC circuit.  When the current in the circuit reduces to zero,
 From the phasor diagram, the phase angle the capacitor becomes fully charged in the
between ‘𝑣’ and ‘𝑖’ is found out by opposite direction.
𝑽𝑳 − 𝑽𝑪 𝑿𝑳 − 𝑿𝑪  Thus the energy stored in the capacitor becomes
𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝝓 = = − − − (𝟔) maximum and the energy stored in the inductor is
𝑽𝑹 𝑹
zero.
 So the total energy is wholly electrical.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Stage - 6 : Angular frequency of LC oscillations :
 This state of the circuit is similar to the initial state  The elecro magnetic energy is
but the difference is that the capacitor is charged 1 1 1
U = [ ] 𝑞 2 + 𝐿𝑖 2 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
in opposite direction. So it will starts discharge 2 𝐶 2
through inductor in anti-clockwise direction.  Differentiate,
 The total energy is the sum of the the electrical 𝑑𝑈 1 𝑑𝑞 1 𝑑𝑖
= (2 𝑞 ) + 𝐿 (2 𝑖 ) = 0
and magnetic energies. 𝑑𝑡 2𝐶 𝑑𝑡 2 𝑑𝑡
Stage - 7 : 𝑑𝑈 𝑞 𝑑𝑞 𝑑𝑞 𝑑 𝑑𝑞 𝑑𝑞
= + L [ ( )] = 0 [∵ 𝑖 = ]
 The processes are repeated in opposite direction 𝑑𝑡 𝐶 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
2
and finally the circuit returns to the initial state. 𝑑 𝑞 𝑞
(𝑜𝑟) 𝐿 + =0 − − − − − − − (1)
 Thus when the circuit goes through these stages, 𝑑𝑡 2 𝐶
an alternating current flows in the circuit.  Its solution is, 𝑞(𝑡) = 𝑄𝑚 cos(𝜔𝑡 + 𝜙)
 As this process is repeated again and again, the  Differentiate with respect to ‘t’
electrical oscillations of definte frequency are 𝑑𝑞 𝑑
𝑖(𝑡) = = [𝑄 cos(𝜔𝑡 + 𝜙)]
generated. These are known as LC oscillations. 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑚
9. Compare the electromagnetic oscillations of LC 𝑖(𝑡) = − 𝑄𝑚 𝜔 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝜙) = − 𝐼𝑚 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝜙)
circuit with the mechanical oscillations of block-  Again differentiate with respect ot ‘t’,
spring system to find the expression for angular 𝑑2𝑞
= − 𝑄𝑚 𝜔2 cos(𝜔𝑡 + 𝜙) = − 𝐼𝑚 𝜔 cos(𝜔𝑡 + 𝜙)
frequency of LC oscillatiors mathematically. 𝑑𝑡 2
Analogies between LC oscillations and simple  Put this in equation (1), the angular frequency of
harmonic oscillations : LC oscillations is,
Electromagnetic 𝟏
Mechanical oscilations 𝝎=
oscilations √𝑳 𝑪
This circuit consists This circuit consists
inductor and capacitor spring and block
Charge ‘q’ Displacement ‘𝑥’
𝑑𝑞 𝑑𝑥
Current 𝑖 = Velocity 𝑣 =
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
Inductance ‘L’ Mass ‘m’
1
Reciprocal if capacitance Force constant ‘𝑘’
𝐶
1 1 1
Electrical energy = [ ] 𝑞 2
Potential energy = 𝑘𝑥 2
2 𝐶 2
1 1
Magnetic energy = 𝐿𝑖 2 Kinetic energy = 𝑚𝑣 2
2 2
Electro magnetic energy Mechanical energy
1 1 1 1 1
= [ ] 𝑞 2 + 𝐿𝑖 2 = 𝑘𝑥 2 + 𝑚𝑣 2
2 𝐶 2 2 2

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
PHYSICS - VOL 1 UNIT - 5
NAME :
STANDARD : 12 SECTION :
SCHOOL :
EXAM NO :

## victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc, M.Phil, B.Ed.,

PG ASST (PHYSICS)
GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 5 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
9. Define emission spectra.
PART - II 2 MARK QUESTIONS & ANSWERS PART - III 3 MARK QUESTIONS & ANSWERS
 The spectrum obtained from a self luminous
1. Define displacement current. source of light is called emission spectrum. 1. Discuss briefly the experiment conducted by Hertz
 The displacement current can be defined as the  Each sourch has its own characteristic emission to produce and detect electromagnetic spectrum.
current which comes into play in the region in spectrum. Hertz experiment :
which the electric field and the electric flux are 10. Define absorbtion spectra.  The theoritical prediction of existence of
changing with time  When light is allowed to pass through an electromagnetic wave by Maxwell was
 That is when ever the change in electric field takes absorbing substance, then the spectrum obtained experimentally confirmed by Henrich Hertz.
place, displacement current is produced. is known as absorbtion spectrum.  His experimental set up consists of two metal
2. Define electro magnetic waves.  It is the characteristic of absorbing substance. electrodes which are made of small spherical
 Electromagnetic waves are non-mechanical waves 11. Define Fraunhofer lines. metals.
which move with speed equals to the speed of light  When the spectrum obtained from the Sun is  These are connected to larger spheres and the
(in vacuum) examined, it consists of large number of dark lines ends of them are connected to induction coil which
3. Define intensity of electromagnetic wave. (line absorbtion spectrum). produce very high emf.
 The energy crossing per unit area per unit time  These dark lines in the solar spectrum are known  Due to this high voltage, the air between the
and perpendicular to the direction of propagation as Fraunhofer lines. electrodes gets ionized and spark is produced.
of electromagnetic wave is called the intensity 12. What are the uses of Fraunhofer lines?  A receiver (ring electrode) kept at a distance also
4. Define radiation pressure.  The absorption spectra for various materials are gets spark which implies that the energy is
 The force exerted by an electromagnetic wave on compared with the Fraunhofer lines in the solar transmitted from electrode to the receiver as a
unit area of a surface is called radiation pressure. spectrum, which helps to identifying elements wave known as electromagnetic waves.
5. What is called pointing vector? Give its unit. present in the Sun’s atmosphere.  If the receiver is rotated by 90, then no spark is
 The rate of flow of energy crossing a unit area is observed by the receiver.
known as pointing vector for electromagnetic  This confirms that electromagnetic waves are
waves. The pointing vector at any point gives the transverse waves as predicted by Maxwell.
direction of energy transport from that point.  Hertz detected radio waves and also computed the
 The unit for pointing vector is 𝑾 𝒎−𝟐 speed of radio waves which is equal to the speed
6. Give the modified form of Ampere’s circuital law. of light (3 𝑋 108 𝑚 𝑠 −1 ).
 If 𝐼𝐶 and 𝐼𝐷 are the conduction and displacement 2. Obtain an expression for energy density associated
current, then the modified Ampere’s circuital law with an electromagnetic wave propagating in
is givent by, vacuum or free space.
∮ ⃗⃗⃗𝐵 . ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑙 = 𝜇𝑜 (𝐼𝐶 + 𝐼𝐷 ) Energy density of electromagnetic wave :
 The energy per unit volume (i.e.) the energy
𝑑 density of electromagnetic wave is,
(𝑜𝑟) ∮ ⃗⃗⃗𝐵 . ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑙 = 𝜇𝑜 𝐼𝐶 + 𝜇𝑜 𝜀𝑜 ∫ ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 . ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝐴
𝑑𝑡 𝑢 = 𝑢𝐸 + 𝑢𝐵
 This is also known as Ampere - Maxwell’s law. 1 1
7. Define electromagnetic spectrum. 𝑢 = 𝜀𝑜 𝐸 2 + 𝐵2 − − − (1)
2 2 𝜇𝑜
 The orderly distribution of electromagnetic waves 1
where, 𝑢𝐸 = 𝜀𝑜 𝐸 2  energy density in
in terms of wavelength or frequency is called 2
electromagnetic spectrum. electric field
1
8. Define dispersion. and 𝑢𝑚 = 𝐵2  energy density in
2 𝜇𝑜
 When white light is made to pass through the magnetic field
prism, it is split in to its seven xonstituent colours.  The velocity of electromagnetic waves,
This phenomenon is known as dispersion of light. 1 1
 The patern of colours obtanined on the screen 𝐶= (𝑜𝑟) 𝐶2 =
√𝜀𝑜 𝜇𝑜 𝜀𝑜 𝜇𝑜
after dispersion is called spectrum.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 5 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 If 𝐸 = 𝐵 𝐶 then, 𝑢𝐸 = 𝑢𝑚 4. Write a note on Radio waves.  Frequency range : 7 𝑋 1014 𝐻𝑧 − 4 𝑋 1014 𝐻𝑧
 Hence equation (1) becomes, Radio waves :  It obeys the laws of reflection, refraction,
𝟏 𝟐  It is produced by oscillators in electric circuits. interference, diffraction, polarization,
𝒖 = 𝜺𝒐 𝑬𝟐 = 𝑩
𝝁𝒐  Wavelength range : 1 𝑋 10−4 𝑚 − 1 𝑋 104 𝑚 photo -electric effect and photographic action.
 The average energy density for electromagnetic  Frequency range ∶ 3 𝑋 109 𝐻𝑧 − 3 𝑋 104 𝐻𝑧  It can be used to,
waves,  They obey reflection and diffraction (i) study the structure of molecules
𝟏 𝟏  It is used in, (ii) arrangement of electrons in eternal shells of
〈𝒖〉 = 𝜺𝒐 𝑬𝟐 = 𝑩𝟐 (i) radio and television communication systems atoms and
𝟐 𝟐 𝝁𝒐
(ii) cellular phones to transmit voice (iii) sensation of our eyes
3. Explain the sources of electromagnetic waves.
Sources of electromagnetic waves : communication in the ultra high frequency 8. Write a note on ultra violet rays.
band Ultra violet rays :
 Any stationary source charge produces only
5. Write a note on infra microwaves.  It is produced by Sun, arc and ionized gases.
electric field. When the charge moves with
Microwaves :  Wavelength range : 6 𝑋 10−10 𝑚 − 4 𝑋 10−7 𝑚
uniform velocity, it produces steady current which
gives rise magnetic field around the conductor in  It is produced by electromagnetic oscillators in  Frequency range : 5 𝑋 1017 𝐻𝑧 − 7 𝑋 1014 𝐻𝑧
which charge flows. electrical circuits  It has less penetrating power
 If the charged particle accelerates, in addition to  Wavelength range: 1 𝑋 10−3 𝑚 − 3 𝑋 10−4 𝑚  It can be absorbed by atmospheric ozone and
electric field, it also produces magnetic field. Here  Frequency range : 3 𝑋 1011 𝐻𝑧 − 1 𝑋 109 𝐻𝑧 harmful to human body.
both electric and magnetic fields are time varying  They obey reflection and polarization  It is used to,
fields.  It is used in, (i) destroy bacteria
 The linked electric and magnetic fields have wave (i) radar system for aircraft navigation, (ii) sterilizing the surgical instruments,
property which propagate in the direction (ii) speed of the vehicle, (iii) burglar alarm
perpendicular to the plane containing electric and (iii) microwave oven for cooking (iv) detect the invisible writing, finger prints and
magnetic field vectors. (iv) very long distance wireless communication (v) study of molecular structure
 This is known as electromagnetic waves and it is through satellites 9. Write a note on X - rays.
transverse in nature. 6. Write a note on infra red rays. X - rays :
 Any oscillatory motion is also an accelerating Infra red rays :  It is produced when there is a sudden deceleration
motion, so when the charge oscillates about their  It is produced from hot bodies and also when the of high speed electrons at high atomic number
mean position, it produces electromagnetic waves. molecules undergo rotational and vibrational target.
 Let, electric and magnetic vectors are given by, transitions.  Also by electronic transitions among the
𝐸𝑦 = 𝐸𝑜 sin(𝑘𝑧 − 𝜔𝑡)  Wavelength range : 8 𝑋 10−7 𝑚 − 5 𝑋 10−3 𝑚 innermost orbits of atoms.
 Frequency range : 4 𝑋 1014 𝐻𝑧 − 6 𝑋 1010 𝐻𝑧  Wavelength range : 1 𝑋 10−13 𝑚 − 1 𝑋 10−8 𝑚
𝐵𝑥 = 𝐵𝑜 sin(𝑘𝑧 − 𝜔𝑡)
then the direction of propagation of  It provides electrical energy to satellites by means  Frequency range : 3 𝑋 1021 𝐻𝑧 − 1 𝑋 1016 𝐻𝑧
electromagnetic waves are along Z -axis of solar cells  It has more penetrating power than UV - rays.
 Here the frequency of the electromagnetic wave is  It is used in,  It is used in,
equal to the frequency of the source (oscillation (i) producing dehydrated fruits (i) studying structures of inner atomic electron
charge) (ii) green housed to keep the plants warm, shell and crystal structures.
 In free space or vacuum, the ratio between 𝑬𝒐 and (iii) heat therapy for muscular pain or sprain (ii) detecting fracture, diseased organs, formation
𝑩𝒐 is equal to the speed of electromagnetic wave (iv) TV remote as a signal carrier, to look through of bones and stones, observing the progress of
which is equal to speed of light (c) haze fof or mist healing bones
𝑬𝒐 (v) night vision or infrared photography (iii) detect faults, cracks, flaws and holes in a
𝒄 = 7. Write a note visible light. finished metal product
𝑩𝒐
Visible light : 10. Write a note on gamma rays.
 It is produced by incandescent bodies and also it is Gamma rays :
radiated by excited atoms in gases.  It is produced by transitionsof atomic nuclei and
 Wavelength range : 4 𝑋 10−7 𝑚 − 7 𝑋 10−7 𝑚 decay of certain elementary particles.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 5 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
−14 −10
 Wavelength range : 1 𝑋 10 𝑚 − 1 𝑋 10 𝑚  This law relates electric field with the changing
 Frequency range : 3 𝑋 1022 𝐻𝑧 − 3 𝑋 1018 𝐻𝑧 PART - IV 5 MARK QUESTIONS & ANSWERS magnetic flux.
 They produce chemical reactions on photographic 1. Write down Maxwell equations in integral form.  This equation implies that, the line integral of the
plates, fluorescence, ionization, diffraction. Maxwel equations - Integral form : electric field around any closed path is equal to the
 Its penetrating power is higher than X-rays and  Electrodynamics can be summarized into four rate of change of magnetic flux through the closed
UV rays. basic equations, known as Maxwell’s equations. path bounded by the surface.
 It has no charge but harmful to human body.  Maxwell’s equations completely explain the  Mathematically it is expressed as,
 It is used in, behaviour of charges, currents and properties of 𝒅𝚽𝑩
∮𝑬 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ = −
⃗ . 𝒅𝒍 − − − − (3)
(i) providing information about the structure of electric and magnetic fields. 𝒅𝒕
atomic nuclei  This equation ensures the existence of Here, 𝑬 ⃗ → electric field
(ii) radio therapy for the treatment of cancer and electromagnetic waves.  The electrical energy supplied to our houses from
tumour Eqution - 1 : electricity board by using Faraday’s law of
(iii) food industry to kill pathogenic micro  It is nothing but Gauss’s law induction.
organism  It relates the net electric flu to net electric charge Equation - 4 :
enclosed in a surface.  It is modified Ampere’s circuital law and also
 Mathematically, Gauss law is expressed as, called as Ampere - Maxwell’s law.
𝑸𝒄𝒍𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒅  This law relates the magnetic field around any
∮𝑬 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ =
⃗ . 𝒅𝑨 − − − − (1)
𝜺𝒐 closed path toe the conduction current and
 Here, 𝑬 ⃗ → electric field displacement current through that path.
𝑸𝒄𝒍𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒅 → charge enclosed  Mathematically,
 This equation is true for both discreate or ∮ ⃗⃗⃗𝐵 . ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑙 = 𝜇𝑜 (𝐼𝐶 + 𝐼𝐷 )
continuous distribution of charges
 It also indicates that the electric field lines start 𝑑
(𝑜𝑟) ∮ ⃗⃗⃗𝐵 . ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑙 = 𝜇𝑜 𝐼𝐶 + 𝜇𝑜 𝜀𝑜 ∫ ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 . 𝑑𝐴⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
from positive change and terminate at negative 𝑑𝑡
charge. Here, ⃗𝑩⃗ → magnetic field
 The electric field lines do not form a continuous  It implies that both conduction and displacement
closed path (i.e.) isolated positive or negative current produces magnetic field
charges can exist. 2. Explain the modification of Ampere’s circuital law.
Equation - 2 : Maxwell’s corrections to Ampere’s circuital law :
 It has no name. But this law os similar to Gauss law  According to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic
in electrostatics. Hence this law can be called as induction, the change in magnetic field produces
Gauss’s law in magnetism. an electric field. Mathematically
 According to this law, the surface integral of 𝜕 𝜕
∮ 𝐸⃗ . 𝑑𝑙⃗⃗⃗ = − Φ𝐵 = − ∮𝐵 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
⃗ . 𝑑𝐴
magnetic field over a closed surface is zero. 𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑡
 Mathematically, this law can be expressed as,  It implies that the electric field 𝐸⃗ is induced along
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = 𝟎
⃗⃗ . 𝒅𝑨 a closed loop by the changing magnetic flux Φ𝐵 in
∮𝑩 − − − − (2)
the region encircled by the loop.
Here, 𝑩⃗⃗ → magnetic field  The converse of this statement, that is change in
 This equation implies that the magnetic field lines electric flux produces magnetic field is explained
form a continuous closed path. (i.e.) no isolated by Maxwell.
magnetic monopole exists 𝜕 𝜕
∮𝐵 ⃗⃗⃗ = −
⃗ . 𝑑𝑙 Φ𝐸 = − ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
∮ 𝐸⃗ . 𝑑𝐴
Equation - 3 : 𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑡
 This is Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic  This is known as Maxwell’s law of induction.
induction.

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12 PHYSICS UNIT - 5 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 To understand how the changing electric field  The change in electric flux is,  The average energy density for electromagnetic
produces magnetic field, let us consider the 𝑑Φ𝐵 1 𝑑𝑞 1 wave is
= = 𝐼 𝟏 𝟏
situation of charging a parallel plate capacitor. 𝑑𝑡 𝜀𝑜 𝑑𝑡 𝜀𝑜 𝑑 〈𝒖〉 = 𝜺𝒐 𝑬𝟐 = 𝑩𝟐
𝒅𝚽𝑩 𝟐 𝟐 𝝁𝒐
∴ 𝑰𝒅 = 𝜺𝒐
𝒅𝒕  The energy crossing per unit area per unit time
𝑑𝑞
Where, = 𝑰𝒅 → Displacement current and perpendicular to the direction of propagation
𝑑𝑡
 The displacement current can be defined as the of electromagnetic wave is called the intensity.
current which comes in to play in the region in  They carry energy and momentum. The force
which the electric field and the electric flux are exerted by an electromagnetic surface is called
 The electric current passing through the wire is radiation pressure.
the conduction current ‘𝐼𝐶 ’ changing with time.
 So Maxwell modified Ampere’s law as  If the electromagnetic wave incident on a material
 This current generates magnetic field around the surface is completely absorbed, then the energy
wire connected across the capacitor. ⃗ . ⃗⃗⃗⃗
∮ ⃗𝑩 𝒅𝒍 = 𝝁𝒐 𝑰 = 𝝁𝒐 (𝑰𝑪 + 𝑰𝒅 ) − − − (3) delivered is ‘U’ and the momentum imparted on
 To calculate the magnetic field at a point ‘P’ near 𝑼
the suface is 𝒑 =
the wire, let us consider an amperian loop which  Where, 𝐼 = 𝐼𝐶 + 𝐼𝑑 → total current 𝒄
encloses the surface 𝑆1 . Thus from Ampere 3. Explain the properties of electromagnetic waves.  If the incident electromangnetic wave of energy ‘U’
circuital law, is totally reflected from the surface, then the
Properties of electromagnetic waves :
momentum delivered to the surface is ,
∮𝐵 ⃗ . ⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑙 = 𝜇𝑜 𝐼𝐶 − − − − (1)  Electromagnetic waves are produced by any 𝑼 𝑼 𝑼
accelerated charge. ∆𝒑 = − (− ) = 𝟐
𝑆1 𝒄 𝒄 𝒄
 They do not require any medium for propagation.
 Suppose the same loop is enclosed by balloon  The rate of flow of energy crossing a unit area is
So electromagnetic waves are non-mechanical
shaped surface 𝑆2 , then the boundaries of two known as pointing vector for electromagnetic
wave.
surfaces are same but shape of the enclosing waves.
surfaces are different.  They are transverse in nature, (i.e) the oscillating 𝟏
electric field vector, oscillation magnetic field ⃗⃗⃗𝑺 = (𝑬⃗ 𝑿𝑩
⃗⃗ ) = 𝒄𝟐 𝜺𝒐 (𝑬
⃗ 𝑿𝑩⃗⃗ )
 Ampere’s law does not depend on shape of the 𝝁𝒐
vector and direction of propagation are mutually
enclosing surface and hence the integrals will give 4. Explain in detail the emission spectra.
perpendicular to each other.
the same answer. Emission spectra :
 They travel with speed of light in vacuum or free
 But there is no current in between the plates of  The lighe from self luminous source gives
space and it is given by,
the capacitor, the magnetic field on the surface is 𝟏 emission spectrum.
zero. So the magnetic field at ‘P’ is zero. Hence 𝒄= = 𝟑 𝑿 𝟏𝟎𝟖 𝒎 𝒔−𝟏  Each source has its own characteristic emission
√ 𝜺𝒐 𝝁𝟎 spectrum.
∮𝐵 ⃗ . ⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑙 = 0 − − − − (2)  In a medium with permittivity ‘𝜀’ and permeability  The emission spectrum can be divided in to three
𝑆2 ‘𝜇’, the speed of electromagnetic wave is less than types ;
 Here there is an inconsistency between equation speed in free space or vacuum. (i.e.) 𝒗 < 𝒄 (i) Continuous emission spectra :
(1) and (2). Maxwell resolved this inconsistency Hence, refractive index of the medium is,  Incandescent solids, liquids gives
as follows. 𝒄
𝝁 = = √ 𝜺𝒓 𝝁𝒓 continuous spectra.
 Due to external source, the capacitor gets charged 𝒗  It consists of wavelengths containing all
up because of current flowing through the  They are not deflected by electric or magnetic
the visible colours ranging from violet to
capacitor. This produces an increasing electric field.
red.
field between the capacitor plates.  They show interference, diffraction and (e.g.) Spectrum obtained from carbon arc,
 This time varying electric field (or flux) existing polarization. incandescent filament lamp, etc
between the plates of the capacitor also produces  The energy density (energy per unit volume) (ii) Line emission spectra :
a current known as displacement current. associated wtth and elelctromagnetic wave  Light from excited atoms gives line
 From Gauss ‘s law, propagating in free space is spectrum. They are also known as
𝑞 𝟏 𝟐
Φ𝐸 = ∮ 𝐸⃗ . ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝐴 = 𝐸 𝐴 = 𝒖 = 𝜺𝒐 𝑬𝟐 = 𝑩 discontinuous spectra.
𝜀𝑜 𝝁𝒐
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 5 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 The line spectr are sharp lines of definite (iii) Band absorption spectrum :
wavelengths or frequencies.  When the white light is passed through
 It is different for different elements the iodine vapour, dark bands on
(e.g.) spectra of atomic hydrogen, helium, continuous bright background is
etc obtained. This is known as band
(iii) Band emission spectra : absorption spectra.
 The light from excited molecules gives  It is also obtained when white light is
band spectrum. passed through diluted solution of blood
 It consists of several number of very or chlorophyll or through certain
closely spaced spectral lines which solutions of organic and inorganic
overlapped together forming specific compounds.
coloured bands.
 This spectrum has a sharp edge at one
end and fades out at the other end.
 Band spectrum is the characteristic of the
molecule.
(e.g.) spectra of hydrogen gas, ammonia
gas in the discharge tube, etc
5. Explain in detail the absorption spectra.
Absorption spectra :
 When light is allowed to pass through an
absorbing substance, then the spectrum obtained
is known as absorption spectrum.
 It is characteristic of the absorbing substance.
 Absorption spectrum is classified into three types;
(i) Continuous absorption spectrum :
 When the light is passed through a
medium, it is dispersed by the prism, we
get continuous absorption spectrum.
 For instance, when we pass white light
through a blue glass plate, it absorbs
every thing except blue. This is an
example for continuous absorption
spectrum.
(ii) Line absorption spectrum :
 When light from incandescent lamp is
passed through cold gas, the spectrum
obtained through the dispersion due to
the prism is line absorption spectrum.
 For example, when light from carbon arc
is made to pass through sodium vapour, a
continuous spectrum of carbon arc with
two dark lines in the yellow rigion of
sodium vapour is obtained.

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
PHYSICS - VOL 2 UNIT - 6
NAME :
STANDARD : 12 SECTION :
SCHOOL :
EXAM NO :

## victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc, M.Phil, B.Ed.,

PG ASST (PHYSICS)
GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
2 & 3 mark questions and answers 5. Write a note on real and virtual images formed by (2) Radius of curvature :
a plane mirror.  The radius of the sphere of which the
1. Define reflection. Virtual image : spherical mirror is a part is called the radius
 The bouncing back of light in to the same medium  When a real object is placed at a point ‘O’ in front of curvature (R) of the mirror.
when it encounters a reflecting surface is called of a plane mirror, it produces divergent rays in all (3) Pole :
reflection of light. directions.  The middle point on the spherical surface of
2. State the laws of reflection.  After reflection at plane mirror, they appear to the mirror (or) the geometrical centre of the
(1) The incident ray, reflected ray and the normal to come from a point ‘I’ behind the mirror. mirror is called the pole (P) of the mirror.
the surface all are coplanar.  This image cannot be formed on the screen but (4) Principal axis :
(2) The angle of incidence (𝑖) is equal to angle of only seen with eyes. It is called virtual image.  The line joining the pole (P) and the centre of
reflection (𝑟). That is 𝒊 = 𝒓 Real image : curvature (C) is called the principal axis (or)
3. What is the angle of deviation due to reflection?  If convergent rays incident on a plane mirror and optical axis of the mirror.
 The angle between the incident and deviated ray after relection, they pass through a point ‘ I ‘ in (5) Focus or Focal point :
is called angle of deviation (d) of the light ray. front of the mirror.  Light rays travelling parallel and close to the
 This image can be formed on a screen and can also principal axis when incident on a spherical
be seen with eyes. It is called real image. mirror, converge at a point for concave mirror
or appears to diverge from a point for convex
mirror on the principal axis. This point is
called the focus or focal point (F) of the mirror
(6) Focal length :
 From figure (a),  The distance between the pole (P) and the
𝑑 = 180° − (𝑖 + 𝑟) [𝑖 = 𝑟] Focus (F) is called the focal length (f) of the
𝒅 = 𝟏𝟖𝟎° − 𝟐 𝒊 mirror.
 The angle between the incident ray and the (7) Focal plane :
reflecting surface is called glancing angle (𝛼).  The plane through the focus and
6. What are the conditions for nature of objects and perpendicular to the principal axis is called
 From figure (b),
images regarding plane mirror. the focal plane of the mirror.
𝑑 = ∠𝐵𝑂𝑌 + ∠𝑌𝑂𝐶 = 𝛼 + 𝛼 = 𝟐 𝜶
Natur of
4. What are the characteristics of the image formed Condition
object/image
by the plane mirror?
Characteristics of the image of the plane mirror : Real image Rays actually converge at the image
 Virtual, erect and laterally inverted. Virtual image Rays apper to diverge from the image
 Size of image is equal to the size of the object. Real object Rays actually diverge from the object
 The distance of the image behind the mirror is Virtual object Rays apper to diverge at the object
equal to the distance of object in front of it. 7. Distinguish convex mirror and concanve mirror?
 If an object placed between two plane mirrors Convex mirror Concave mirror
inclined at an angle 𝜃 , then the number (n) of It is a spherical mirror in It is a spherical mirror in 9. Define paraxial rays and marginal rays.
images formed is, which reflection takes which reflection takes Paraxial rays :
360°
(1) If [ ] even, then ; 𝑛 = [
360°
− 1 ] for place at the convex place at the concave  The rays travelling very close to the principal axis
𝜃 𝜃 surface and other surface surface and other surface and make small angle with it are called paraxial
objects placed symmentrically or is silvered is silvered
unsymmentrically. rays.
360° 360°
8. Define (1) centre of curvature, (2) Radius of Marginal rays :
(2) If [ ] odd, then ; 𝑛 = [ − 1 ] for curvature (3) pole, (4) principal axis, (5) focus or  The rays travelling far away from the principal
𝜃 𝜃
objects placed symmentrically focal point, (6) focal length, (7) focal plane axis and fall on the mirror far away from the pole
360°
(3) If [ ] odd, then ; 𝑛 = [
360°
] for objects (1) Centre of curvature : are called as marginal rays.
𝜃 𝜃  The centre of the sphere of which the mirror
placed unsymmentrically is a part is called centre of curvature (C)
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
10. Obtain the relation between focal length (f) and 11. How we locate the image formation in spherical 14. Define optical path.
radius of curvature (R) of the spherical mirror. mirrors?  Optical path of a medium is defined as the
Relation between f and R : Image formation in spherical mirrors: distance (d) light travels in vacuum in the same
time it travels a distance (d) in the medium.
 If ‘n’ is the refractive index of the medium. then
optical path is ; d = n d
15. What is called refraction?
 Refraction is passing through of light from one
a) A ray parallel to the principal axis after reflection optical medium to another optical medium
will pass through or appear to pass through the through a boundary.
principal focus. 16. State the laws of refraction.
b) A ray passing through or appear to pass through  The incident ray, refracted ray and normal are all
the principal focus, after reflection will travel coplanar.
 Let ‘C’ be the centre of curvature of the mirror. parallel to the principal axis,  The ratio of angle of incident ‘i’ in the first medium
 Consider a light ray parallel to the principal axis c) A ray passing through the centre of curvature to the angle of reflection ‘r’ in the second medium
and incident at ‘M’ on the mirror. retraces its path after reflection as it is a case of is equal to the ratio of refractive index of the
 After reflection, it will passes through principal normal incidence. second medium ‘𝑛2 ’ to that of the refractive index
focus ‘F’ d) A ray falling on the pole will get reflected as per of the first medium ‘𝑛1 ’
 The line ‘CM’ is the normal to the mirror at ‘M’ law of reflection keeping principal axis as the sin 𝑖 𝑛2
 From the figure (a), =
normal. sin 𝑟 𝑛1
angle of incidence ; 𝑖 = ∠𝐴𝑀𝐶 12. What are the Cartesian sign conventions for a (𝒐𝒓) 𝒏𝟏 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝒊 = 𝒏𝟐 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝒓
angle of reflection ; 𝑟 = ∠𝐶𝑀𝐹 spherical mirrors? 17. What is the angle of deviation due to refraction?
 By the law of reflection. we have, 𝒊 = 𝒓 Cartesian sign convention : Angle of deviation due to refraction :
 Thus, , ∠𝑀𝐶𝑃 = 𝑖 & ∠𝑀𝐹𝑃 = 2 𝑖  The angle between the incident and deviated ray
 From ∆𝑀𝐶𝑃 and ∆𝑀𝐹𝑃 is called angle of deviation.
𝑃𝑀  When light travels from rarer to denser medium it
tan 𝑖 =
𝑃𝐶 deviates towards normal. Hence the angle of
𝑃𝑀 deviation ; 𝒅 = 𝒊 − 𝒓
tan 2 𝑖 =
𝑃𝐹  When light travels from denser to rarer medium it
 As the angles are small, we have tan 𝑖 ≈ 𝑖 and deviates away normal. Hence the angle of
tan 2 𝑖 ≈ 2 𝑖 . So deviation ; 𝒅 = 𝒓 − 𝒊
𝑃𝑀  The incident light is taken from left to right.
𝑖 = − − − − − (1)  All the distances are measured from the pole.
𝑃𝐶
𝑃𝑀  The distance measured to the right of pole along
2𝑖 = − − − − − (2) the principal axis are taken as positive
𝑃𝐹
 Put eqn (1) in eqn (2)  The distance measured to the left of pole along the
18. Write the characteristics of refraction,
𝑃𝑀 𝑃𝑀 principal axis are taken as negative
2 = Characteristics of refraction :
𝑃𝐶 𝑃𝐹  Heights measured in the upward perpendicular
(1) When light passes from rarer to denser medium it
(𝑜𝑟) 2 𝑃𝐹 = 𝑃𝐶 direction to the principal axis are taken as positive
deviates towards normal in the denser medium.
(𝑜𝑟) 2 𝑓= 𝑅  Heights measured in the downward perpendicular
(2) When light passes from denser to rarer medium it
𝑹 direction tothe principal axis are taken as negative
(𝑜𝑟) 𝒇= − − − − − (3) deviates away from normal in the rarer medium.
𝟐 13. Define refractive index.
(3) In any refracting surface, there will also be some
 Refractive index (n) of a transparent medium is
reflection takes place. This phenomenon in which
defined as the ratio of speed of light in vacuum
light undergoing reflection and refraction at the
(or air) to the speed of light on that medium.
𝒄 same time at same surface is called simultaneous
𝒏= reflection or simultaneous refraction.
𝒗
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
19. What is the principle of reversiability?  Put this in eqn (1)  If the rarer medium is air, then 𝒏𝟐 = 𝟏 and let
 The principle of reversibility states that, light will 𝐷𝐵 𝐷𝐵 𝒏𝟏 = 𝒏 , then
𝑛1 [ ] = 𝑛2 [  ] 𝟏
be follow exactly the same path if its direction of 𝑑 𝒅
1 1 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝒊𝑪 =
travel is reversed. 𝒏
𝑛1 = 𝑛2  𝟏
 This is true for both reflection and refraction. 𝑑 𝒅 (or) 𝒊𝑪 = 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 ( )
20. Define relative refractive index. 𝒏𝟐
∴ 
𝒅 = 𝒅 𝒏
 From Snell’s law,
sin 𝑖 𝑛
= 2 𝒏𝟏 26. Obtain the reason for glittering of diamond.
sin 𝑟 𝑛1  For air ; 𝒏𝟐 = 𝟏 and let 𝒏𝟐 = 𝒏 , then apparent Glittering of diamond :
𝑛2
 Here the term [ ] is called relative refractive depth  The glittering of diamond is due to the total
𝑛1
𝒅 internal reflection of light happens inside the
index of second medium with respect to the first 𝒅 =
𝒏 𝒏 diamond.
medium and it is denoted by 𝑛21 (i,e.) 𝒏𝟐𝟏 = 𝟐
𝒏𝟏  Thus the bottom appears to be elevated by (𝑑 − 𝑑  )  The refractive index of diamond is 2.417 and the
21. Obtain the equation for apparent depth. 𝒅 𝟏 critical angle is 24.4
Apparent depth : 𝒅 − 𝒅 = 𝒅 − = 𝒅 (𝟏 − )
𝒏 𝒏  Diamond has large number of cut pland faces.
22. Define critical angle.  So light entering the diamond get total internally
 The angle of incidence in the denser medium for reflected from many cut faces before getting out.
which the refracted ray graces the boundary is  This gives a sparkling effect for diamond.
called critical angle 𝒊𝑪 27. What are mirage and looming?
23. Define total internal reflection. Mirrage :
 If the angle of incidence in the denser medium is  In hot places, air near the ground is hotter than air
greater than the critical angle, there is no at a height. Hot air less dense.
refraction possible in the rarer medium.  The refractive index of air decreases with
 We observe that the bottom of a tank filled with  The entire light is reflected back in to the denser decrease in density.
water with water appears raised as shown. medium itself, This phenomenon is called total  Because of this, the air near hot ground acts as
 Light OB from the object ’O’ passes through water internal reflection. rarer medium than the air at height.
get refracted in air 24. What are the conditions to achieve total internal  When light from tall object like tree, passes
 The refracted ray BC appers to come from ‘I’ reflection? through a medium whose refractive index
which is just above ‘O’ (i.e) the object is appears to  Light must travel from denser to rarer medium decreases towards the ground, it successively
be at ‘I’  Angle of incidence must be greater than critical deviates away from the normal and undergoes
 Refractive index of water = 𝒏𝟏 angle (𝑖 > 𝑖𝐶 ) total internal reflection when the angle of
Refractive index of air = 𝒏𝟐 25. Obtain an expression for critical angle. incidence near the ground exceeds the critical
Angle of incidence in water = 𝒊 Critical angle: angle.
Angle of refraction in air = 𝒓  When light ray passes from denser medium to  This gives an illusion as if the light comes from
Original depth of tank = 𝑫𝑶 = 𝒅 rarer medium, it bends away from normal. So somewhere below the ground.
Apparent depth of tank = 𝑫𝑰 = 𝒅 𝑖<𝑟  For of the shaky nature of the layers of air,the
 Here 𝒏𝟏 > 𝒏𝟐 . Hence , 𝒊 < 𝒓  As 𝑖 increases, 𝑟 also increases rapidly and at a observers feels as wet surface beneath the object.
 By Snell’s law in product form, certain stage it just gracing the boundary  This phenomenon is called mirage.
𝑛1 sin 𝑖 = 𝑛2 sin 𝑟 (𝑟 = 90°). The corresponding anle of incidence is Looming :
 As the angles aresmall, we can write called critical angle (𝑖𝐶 )  In cold places, the refractive index increases
sin 𝑖 ≈ 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝑖 & sin 𝑟 ≈ 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑟  From Snell’s law of product form towards the ground, because the temperature of
Hence, 𝑛1 ta𝑛 𝑖 = 𝑛2 tan 𝑟 − − − − (1) 𝒏𝟏 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝒊 = 𝒏𝟐 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝒓 air close to the ground is less than the air at
 In ∆𝐷𝑂𝐵 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ∆𝐷𝐼𝐵,  When 𝑖 = 𝑖𝐶 , then 𝑟 = 90° height.
𝐷𝐵 𝐷𝐵 𝒏𝟏 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝒊𝑪 = 𝒏𝟐 𝐬𝐢𝐧 90°  So in cold regions like glaciers and frozen lakes
ta𝑛 𝑖 = =
𝐷𝑂 𝑑 𝒏𝟏 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝒊𝑪 = 𝒏𝟐 and seas, the reverse effect of mirage will happen.
𝐷𝐵 𝐷𝐵 𝒏𝟐
ta𝑛 𝑟 = =  𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝒊𝑪 =  Hence an inverted image is formed little above the
𝐷𝐼 𝒅 𝒏𝟏 surface. This phenomenon called looming.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
28.  Transmitting signals from one end to another end  It is defined as a point, where all the parallal rays
29. Write a note on the prisms making using of total due to the phenomenon of total internal reflection travelling close to the principal axis converge to
internal reflection. is called optical fibres. form an image on the principal axis.
Prisms making using use of total internal reflection  It consists of inner part called core and outer part  For convergent lens such an image is real and for
called cladding or sleeving divergent lens, the imagt is virtual.
 The refractive index of the core must be higher  Here, 𝑃𝐹2 = 𝑓2 → secondary focal length
than that of the cladding. 34. What are the sign conventions for lens on focal
 Signal in the form of light is made to incident length?
inside the core-cladding boundary at an angle  The sign of focal length is not decided on the
greater than the critical angle. direction of measurement of the focal length from
 Hence it undergoes repeated total internal the pole of the lens as they have two focal lengths
reflections along the length of the fibre without on either side of the lens.
 Prisms can be designed to reflect light by 90° or by undergoing any refraction.  The focal length of thin lens is taken as positive for
180° by making use of total internal reflection.  Even while bending the optic fibre, it is done in a converging lens and negative for a diverging lens
 In both cases, the critical angle of material of the such a way that the condition for total internal 35. Define power of a lens.
prism must be less than 45° .This is true for both reflection is ensured at every reflection.  The power ‘P’ of a lens is defined as the reciprocal
crown glass and flint glass 32. Write a note on an endoscope. of its focal length (𝒇)
30. What is Snell’s window (or) Radius of illumination? Endoscope : 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
Snell’s window : 𝑷 = = (𝒏 − 𝟏) [ − ]
 An endoscope is an instrument used by doctors 𝒇 𝑹𝟏 𝑹𝟐
 When a light source like electric bulb is kept which has a bundle of optical fibres that are used  The unit of power is diopter (D)
inside a water tank, the light from the source to see inside a patient’s body.  Power is positive for converging lens and negative
travels in all direction inside the water.  It works on the phenomenon of total internal for diverging lens.
 The light that incident on water surface at an reflection. 36. Write a note on prism.
angle less than the critical angle will undergo  It is inserted in to the body through mouth or nose  A prism is a triangular block of glass or plastic
refraction and emerge out from the water. or a special hole made in the body. which is bounded by the three plane faces not
 The light incident at an angle greater than the  The necessary instruments for operation is parallel to each other.
critical angle will undergo total internal reflection. attached at their ends.  Its one face is grounded which is called base.
 But the light incident at critical angle graces the 33. Define primary and secondary focal points.
 The other two faces are polished which are called
surface and hence the entire surface of water Primary focal point (𝐅𝟏 ) : refracing faces of the prism.
appears illuminated when seen from outside.  The angle between the two refracting faces is
 On the otherhand, when light entering water from
called angle of prism (A)
outside is seen from inside the water, the view is
37. Define angle of minimum deviation.
restricted to a particular angle equal to the critical  The angle between incident ray and emergent ray
angle 𝑖𝐶
is called angle of deviation (d).
 The restricted illuminated circular area is called  It is defined as a point, where an object should be  When the angle of incidence increases, the angle
Snell’s window. placed to give paraller emergent ray to the of deviation decreases, reaches a minimum value
31. Write a note on optical fibres. principal axis and then continues to increase.
Optical fibre:  For convergent lens such an object is real and for  The minimum value of angle of deviation is called
divergent lens, the object is virtual. angle of minimum deviation (D).
 Here, 𝑃𝐹1 = 𝑓1 → principal focal length 38. What is called dispersion of light?
Secondary focus point (𝐅𝟐 ) :  The splitting of white light in to its constituent
colours is called dispersion of light.
 This band of colours of light is called its spectrum.
 The spectrum consists seven colours in the order
VIBGYOR

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
39. Define dispersive power. 45. How are rainbows formed? 47. Write a note on wave theory of light.
 Dispersive power (𝜔) is the ability of the material Formation of rainbows : Wave theory of light :
of the prism to cause prism.  Rainbows are formed due to dispersion of sunlight  Christian Huygens proposed the wave theory of
 It is defined as the ratio of the angular dispersion through droplets of water during rainy days. light.
for the extreme colours to the deviation for any  Rainbow is observed during rainfall or after  According to wave theory, light is a disturbance
mean colour. rainfall or looking water fountain provided the from a source that travels as longitudinal
40. What is Rayleigh’s scattering? Sun is at the back of the observer. mechanical wave through the ether medium that
 The scattering of light by atoms and molecules  When sun light falls on the water drop suspended was presumed to pervade in all space.
which have size (𝒂) very less than that of the air, it splits in to its constituent seven colours.  This theory could successfully explain reflection,
wavelength ( 𝜆 ) of light is called Rayleigh’s Here waterdrops acts as a glass prism. refraction, interference, and diffraction.
scattering.  Primary rainbow is formed when one total  But polarization could not explain by this theory
(i.e) condition for Rayleigh’s scattering is 𝒂 <<  internal reflection takes place inside the drop. as it is the property of only transverse waves.
41. State Rayleigh’s scattering law. The angle of view for violet to red in primary  Later the existence of ether in all space was
 The intensity (I) of Rayleigh’s scattering is rainbow is 40 to 42 proved to be wrong.
inversely proportional to fourth power of  Secondary rainbow is formed when two total 48. Write a note on electromagnetic wave theory .
wavelength (𝜆) internal reflection takes place inside the drop. Electromagnetic wave theory of light :
𝟏 The angle of view for violet to red in primary  Maxwell proposed electromagnetic theory of light.
𝑰 ∝ 𝟒
𝝀 rainbow is 52 to 54  According to electromagnetic wave theory, light is
42. Why does sky appears blue colour? 46. What are the salient features of corpuscular an electromagnetic wave which is transverse in
 According to Rayleigh’s scattering, shorter theory of light? nature carrying electromagnetic energy.
wavelenths (violet) scattered much more than Corpuscular theory :  No medium is necessary for the propagation of
longer wavelengths (Red)  Sir Isaac Newton proposed corpuscular theory of electromagnetic waves.
 As our eyes are more sensitive to blue colour than light.  All the phenomenon of light could be successfully
violet, the sky appears blue during day time.  According this theory, light is emitted as tiny, explained by electromagnetic theory.
43. Why does sky and Sun looks reddish during sunset massless and perfectly elastic particles called  But the interaction of light with matter like
and sunrise? corpuscles. photoelectric effect, Compton effect could not be
 During sunset or sunrise, the light from Sun  As the corpuscles are very small, the source of explained by this theory.
travels a greater distance through atmosphere. light does not suffer appreciable loss of mass even 49. Write a short note on quantum theory of light.
 Hence the blue light which has shorter wavelength if it emits light for a long time. Quantum theory of light :
is scattered away and less scattered red light of  They travel with high speed and they are  By extending Max Plank quantum ideas, Albert
longer wavelength reaches observer unaffected by the force of gravity. So their path is Einstein proposed quantum theory of light.
 This is the reason for reddish appearance of sky a straight line.  According to quantum theory, light is not
and Sun during sunrise and sunset.  The energy of light is the kinetic energy of these continuous but it propagated in the form of
44. Why does cloud appears as white colour? corpuscles. discrete packets of energy called photon.
 When size of particles or water drops are greater  When they impinge on the retina of the eye, the  Each photon has energy ‘E’ of
than the wavelength of light (𝑎 ≫ 𝜆), the intensity vision is produced. The different size of the 𝑬=𝒉𝝂
of scattering is equal for all the wavelength. corpuscles is the reason for different colours of Here 𝒉 →Plank’s constant( 𝒉 = 𝟔. 𝟔𝟐𝟓𝑿 𝟏𝟎−𝟑𝟒 𝑱𝒔)
 Since clouds contains large amount of dust and light. 50. What is Dual nature of light ?
water droplets, all the colours get equally  The reflection of light is due to repulsion of the  A light has both wave as well as particle nature
scattered irrespective of wavelength. This is the corpuscles by the medium and refraction of light and hence it is said to have dual nature.
reason for the whitish appearance of cloud. is due to the attraction of the courpuscles by the (1) Light propagated as a waves
 But the rain clouds appear dark because of the medium. (2) Light interacts with matter as a particle
condensation of water droplets on dust paricles  This theory could not explain, why speed of light is
that make the cloud become opque. lesser in denser medium than rarer medium and
also interference, diffraction and polarization.

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
51. Write a note on wave nature of light. 57. Can two independent monochromatic sources acts 62. What are called constructive and destructive
Wave nature of light : as coherent sources? interference?
 Light is transverse electromagnetic wave.  Two independent monochromatic sources never Constructive interference :
 The wave nature of light was confirmed by the be coherent, because they may emit waves of  During superposition of two coherent waves, the
experiments on interference and diffraction. same frequency and same amplitude, but not with points where the crest of one wave meets the
 Like electromagnetic wave, light can travel same phase. crest of other (or) the trough of one wave meets
through vacuum.  Due to thermal vibrations, the atoms while the trough of the other wave, the waves are
 The transverse nature of light was proved by emitting light undergoes this change in phase. in-phase.
polarization. 58. Give the methods to obtain coherent light waves.  Hence the displacement is maximum and these
52. Define wave front.  Coherent waves are obtained by following three points appear as bright.
 A wavefront is the locus of points which are in the techniques.  This type of interference is said to be constructive
same state or phase of vibration. (1) Intensity or amplitude division interference.
(1) A point source located at a finite distance (2) Wavefront division Destructive interference :
gives spherical wavefront. (3) Source and images  During superposition of two coherent waves, the
(2) A line source gives cylindrical wavefront. 59. Write a note on intensity or amplitude division. points where the crest of one wave meets the
(3) A point source located at infinite distance Intensity or amplitude division : trough of other (or) vice versa, the waves are
gives plane wavefront.  If light is incident on a partially silvered mirror, out-of-phase.
53. State Huygen’s principle. both reflection and refraction takes place  Hence the displacement is minimum and these
Huygen’s principle : simultaneously. points appear as dark.
 Each point of the wavefront is the source of  As the two light beams are obtained from the  This type of interference is said to be destructive
secondary wavelets which spreading out in all same light source, the two divided light beams will interference.
directions with speed of the wave. be coherent beams. 63. What is bandwidth of interference pattern?
 The envelope to all this wavelets gives the  They will be either in-phase or at constant phase  The band width () is defined as the distance
position and shape of the new wavefront at a later difference. between any two consecutive bright or dark
time. (e.g.) Michelson’s interferometer fringes.
54. Define interference. 60. Write a note on wavefront division. 64. What are the conditions for obtaining clear and
 The phenomenon of superposition of two light Wavefront division : broad interference bands?
waves which produces increase in intensity at  It is the common method used for producing two (1) The screen should be as far away from the source
some points and decrease in intensity at some coherent sources. as possible.
other points is called interference of light.  We know all the points on the wavefront are at the (2) The wavelength of light used must be larger.
55. Give the relation between phase difference and same phase. (3) Two coherent sources must be as close as possible
path difference.  If two points are chosen on the wavefront by using 65. Brilliant colours are exhibited by the surface of oil
 Phase is the angular position of a vibration. a doubl slit, the two points will act as coherent films and soap bubbles. Why?
 In the path of the wave, one wavelength  sources.  The colours exhibited by the surface of oil films
corresponds to a phase of 2  (e.g.) Young’s double slit method and soap bubbles are due to interference of white
 Hence the path difference 𝛿 corresponds to a 61. Write a note on Source and images method. light undergoing multiple reflections from the top
phase difference 𝜙 is Source and images : and bottom surfaces of thin films.
𝝀  In this method, a source and its image will act as a  The colourd depends upon,
𝜹= 𝝓 set of coherent source, because the source and its (1) thickness of the film
𝟐𝝅
56. Whar are called coherent sources? image will have waves in-phase or constant phase (2) refractive index of the film
 Two light sources are said to be coherent, if they difference. (3) angle of incidence of the light
produce waves which have same phase or (e.g.) Fresnel’ biprism - two virtual sources as 66. What is diffraction?
constant phase difference, same frequency or coherent sources  Diffraction is bending of waves around sharp
wavelength, same waveform and preferably same Lloyd’s mirror - the source and its virtual edges into the geometrically shadowed region.
amplitude. image as coherent sources  We observe diffraction only when the size of the
obstacle is comparable to the wavelength
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
67. Distinguish between Fresnel and Fraunhofer Expression :  The Rayleigh’s criterion is said to be limit of
diffraction. resolution.
Fresnel diffraction Fraunhofer diffraction 75. Define polarization.
Spherical or cylindrical Plane wavefront undergoes  The phenomenon of restricting the vibrations of
wave front undergoes diffraction light to a particular direction perpendicular to the
diffracion direction of wave propagation motion is called
The source of light is finite The source of light is infinite polarization.
distance from the obstacle distance from the obstacle 76. Distinguish between unpolarized and plane
Convex lenses need not be Convex lenses are to be  Let Fresnel distance = 𝑧 polarized light.
used used  From the diffraction equation for first minimum, Unpolarized light Plane polarized light
Difficult to observe and Easy to observe and 𝜆 𝜆 A transverse wave which A transverse wave which has
analyse analyse sin 𝜃 = (𝑜𝑟) 𝜃 = has vibrations in all vibrations in only one
𝑎 𝑎
68. What is diffraction grating?  From the definition of Fresnel’s distance, directions in a plane direction in a plane
 Grating is a plane sheet of transparent material on 𝑎 𝑎 perpendicular to the perpendicular to the
sin 2𝜃 = (𝑜𝑟) 2𝜃 = direction of propagation is direction of propagation is
which opaque rulings are made with a fine 𝑧 𝑧
diamond pointer.  Equating the above two equantion, said to be unpolarized light said to be planepolarized light
 Thus gratting has multiple slits with equal widths 𝜆 𝑎 Symmetrical about the ray Asymmetrical about the
2 =
of size comparable to the wavelength of light 𝑎 𝑧 direction ray direction
 The modern commercial grating contains about 𝒂𝟐 Produced by conventional It is obtained from
𝒛=
6000 lines per centimeter. 𝟐𝝀 light sources unpolarized light with help
69. Define grating element and corresponding points. 72. Give the reason for colourful appearance of the of polarizers
 The combined width of a ruling (b) and a slit (a) is compact disc. 77. Define plane of vibration and plane of polarization.
called grating element (e = a + b)  On the read or writable side of the disc, there are Plane of vibration:
 Points on successive slits separated by a distance many narrow circular tracks whose width are  The plane containing the vibrations of the electric
equal to the grating element are called comparable to the wavelength of visible light. field vector is known as plane of vibration.
corresponding points.  Hence the diffraction takes place after reflection Plane of polarization:
70. Distinguish between interference and diffraction. for incident white light to give colourful  The plane perpendicular to the plane of vibration
Interference Diffraction appearance. and containing the ray of light is known as the
Superposition of two Bending of waves around  Thus tracks act as reflecting grating. plane of polarization.
waves the edges 73. What are resolution and resolving power? 78. How an unpolarized light can be polarized?
Superposition of waves Superposition of wavefronts  Two point sources must be imaged in such a way  The unpolarized light can be polarized by
from two coherent sources emitted from various that their images are sufficiently far apart that following techniques.
points of the same their diffraction pattersn do not overlap. This is (1) Polarization by selective absorption
wavefront called resolution. (2) Polarization by reflection
Equally spaced fringes Unequally spaced fringes  The inverse of resolution is called resolving (3) Polarization by double refraction
Intensity of all the bright Intensity falls rapidly for power. The ability of an optical instrument to (4) Polarization by scattering
fringes is almost same higher orders separate or distinguish small or closely adjacent 79. Discuss polarization by selective absorption.
Large number of fringes Less number of fringes are objects through the image formation is said to be Polarization by selective absorption (Polaroids) :
are obtained obtained. resolving power of the instrument.  Selective absorption is the property of a material
74. What is Rayleigh’s criterion? which transmits waves whose electric field vibrate
71. What is Fresnel’s distance? Obtain an expression
 According to Rayleigh’s criterion, for tow point in a plane parallel to a certain direction of
for it.
objects to be just resolved, the minimum distance orientation and absorbs all other waves.
Fresnel’s distance:
between their diffraction images must be in such a  The polroids or polarizer using this property of
 Fresnel’s distance is the distance upto which ray
way that the central maximum of one coincides selective absorption to produce intense plane
optics is obeyed and beyond which ray optics is
with the first minimum of the other and vice polarized light.
not obeyed but wave optics becomes significant.
versa.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 Selective absorption is also called as dichroism. 85. Explain polarization by reflection.
 Edwin Land developed polarizer in the form of Polarization by reflection :
thin sheets.
 Tourmaline is a natural polarizing material. But
 A number of needle shaped crystals of quinine
iodosulphate with their axes parallel to one
another packed in between two transparent
plastic sheets serve as a good polaroid.
 Recently new type of polaroids are prepared in
which thin film of polyvinyl alcohol (colour less
crystals) is used.  The amplitude of the incident light was resolved in
80. What is polarizer and analyser? to two components,
Polariser :  It is the simplest method to produce plane
(1) 𝒂 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 - parallel component to the axis of
 The polaroid which plane polarizes the polarized light.
transmission of the analyser
unpolarized light passing through it is called a  It is discovered by Malus.
(2) 𝒂 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 - perpendicular component to the axis
polarizer.  Here, XY - reflecting surface
of transmission of the analyser
Analyser : AB - incident unpolarized light beam
 Here only the parallel component (𝒂 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽) will
 The polaroid which is used to examine whether a BC - reflecting light beam
be transmitted by the analyser.
beam of light is polarized or not is called analyser. BD - refracted light beam
 Hence ht intensity of the transmitted light is,
81. Discuss how a plane polarized and partially 2  On examining the reflected beam ‘BC’ with an
𝐼 ∝ (𝑎 cos 𝜃 )
polarized light will be analysed using analyser? analyser, it is found that the ray is is partially
𝐼 = 𝑘(𝑎 cos 𝜃 )2
Plane polarized light : 2 2 plane polarized.
𝐼 = 𝑘 𝑎 cos 𝜃
 If the intensity of light varies from maximum to 𝟐  When the light is allowed to be incident on
𝑰 = 𝑰𝒐 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽
zero for every rotation of 90 of the analyser, the particular angle, the reflected beam is found to be
(1) When 𝜃 = 0° , 𝑰 = 𝑰𝒐
light is said to be plane polarized plane polarized. That angle of incidence is called
(2) When 𝜃 = 90° , 𝑰 = 𝟎
Partially polarized light : polarizing angle ( 𝒊𝑷 )
83. List the uses of polaroids.
 If the intensity of light varies from maximum to 86. State and prove Brewster’s law
Uses of polaroids :
mimimum for every rotation of 90 of the Brewste’ s law :
 Used in goggles and cameras to avoid glare of light
analyser, the light is said to be partially polarized.  The angle of incidence at which a beam of
 Used in holography (three dimensional motion
82. State and prove Malus’ law. unpolarized light falling on a transparent surface
pictrure)
Malus’s law : is reflected as a beam of plane polarized light is
 Used to improve contrast in old oil paintings
 When a beam of plane polarized light of intensity called polarizing angle or Brewster’s angle (𝑖𝑃 )
 Used in optical stress analysis.
𝐼𝑜 is incident on an analyser, the light transmitted  Sir David Brewster found that, at polarizing
 Used as window glasses to control the intensity of
of intensity I from the analyser varies directly as angle, the reflected and transmitted rays are
incoming light
the square of the cosine of the angle  between perpendicular to each other.
 Polarised needle beam acts as needle to
the transmission axis of polarizer and analyser.  Let, incident polarizing angle = 𝑖𝑃
This is known as Malus’ law. Angle of refraction = 𝑟
 Polaroid produce polarized lights to be used in
𝑰 = 𝑰𝒐 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝟐 𝜽 liquid crystal display (LCD)
Proof : 84. Defined angle of polarization.
 Let the angle between plane of polarizer and  The angle of incidence at which the reflected beam
analyser =  is plane polarized is called polarizing angle or
Intensity of electric vector transmitted by the Brewste’s angle (𝒊𝑷 )
polarizer = 𝐼𝑜  The polarizing angle for glass is ; 𝒊𝑷 = 𝟓𝟕. 𝟓°
Amplitude of this electric vector = 𝑎

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 From the figure, 88. Define double refraction.  Nicol prism is made by calcite crystal which is
𝑖𝑃 + 90° + 𝑟𝑃 = 180°  When a ray of unpolrized light is incident on a double refracting crystal.
𝒓𝑷 = 𝟗𝟎° − 𝒊𝑷 − − − −(1) calcite crystal, two refracted rays are produced.  ABCD is the principal section of a calcite crystal
 From Snell’s law Hence two images of a single object are formed. with its length is three times of its breadth.
sin 𝑖𝑃 This phenomenon is called double refraction.  The face angles are 72 and 108
=𝑛
sin 𝑟𝑃  The obtained images are called as,  It is cut in to two halves along the diagonal AB and
sin 𝑖𝑃 (1) Ordinary image joined together by a layer of canada balsam, a
=𝑛 (2) Extra ordinary image
sin(90° − 𝑖𝑃 ) transparent cement.
sin 𝑖𝑃  Double refraction is also called bi refringence.  Let an unpolarized light from monochromatic
=𝑛 89. Distinguish between ordinary ray and extra ordinary source is incident on the face AC of the Nicol prism.
cos 𝑖𝑃
𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝒊𝑷 = 𝒏 ray.  Here double refraction takes place, and the ray
 This relation is known as Brewster’s law. Ordinary ray Extraordinary ray split in to ordinary ray and extraordinary ray.
 This law states that, the tangent of the polarizing They obey the laws of They do not obey the laws  For this calcite crystal.
angle for a transparent medium is equal to its refraction of refraction refractive index for the ordinary ray = 1.658
refractive index. Inside the crystal, they Inside the crystal, they refractive index for the extraordinary ray = 1.486
87. Write a note on pile of plates. travel with same velocity travel with different  The refractive index of canada balsam = 1.523
Pile of plates : in all directions velocities along different Here canada balsam does not polarize light
directions  The ordinary ray is totally internally reflected at
A point source inside the A point source inside the the layer of canada balsam.
crystal produces spherical crystal produces elliptical  The extraordinaty ray alone is transmitted
wavefront for ordinary wavefront for extra through the crystal which is plane polarized.
ray ordinary ray 93. What are the uses and drawbacks of Nicol prism?
90. Define Optic axis. Uses :
 Inside the double refracting crystal, there is a  It produces plane polarized light and funcitons as
particular direction in which both the ordinary a polarizer.
and extraordinary rays travel with same velocity.  It can also used as an analyser.
 It work on the principle of polarization by This direction is called optic axis. Drawbacks :
reflection.  Along optic axis, the refractive index is same for  It cost is very high due to scarity of large and
 It consists of a number of glass plates placed one both rays. flawless calcite crystal.
over the other in a tube. 91. Define uniaxial crystal and biaxial crystal.  Due to extraordinary ray passing obliquely
 These plates are inclined at an angle 𝟑𝟑. 𝟕° to the  Crystals like calcite, quartz, tourmaline and ice through it, the emergent ray is always displaced a
axis of the tube. having only one optic axis are called uniaxial little to one side.
 A beam of unpolarized light is allowed to fall on crystals.  The effective field of view is quite limited.
the pile of plates along the axis of the tube. So the  Crystals like mica, topaz, selenite and aragonite  Light emerging out of it is not uniformly plane
angle of incidence of light will be 𝟓𝟔. 𝟑°, which is having two optic axes are called biaxial crystals. polarized.
the polarizing angle for glass. 92. Discuss about Nicol prism. 94. Explain polarization by scattering.
 The vibrations perpendicular to the plane of Nicol prism : Polarization by scattering:
incidence are reflected at each surface and those  The light from a clear blue portion of the sky
parallel to it are transmitted. shows a rise and fall of intensity when viewed
 The larger the number of surfaces, the greater the through a polaroid which is rotated.
intensity of the reflected plane polarized light.  This is because of sunlight, which has changed its
 The pile of plates is used as a polrizer and also as direction on encountering the molecules of the
an analyser. earth’s atmosphere.
 The electric field of light interact with the
electrons present in the air molecules.

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 The magnification ‘m’ is given by, 97. Distinguish between near point focusing and
𝑣 normal focusing.
𝑚=
𝑢 Near point focusing Normal focusing
 Using lens equation, The image is formed at The image is formed at
𝑣
𝑚 =1− near point infinity
𝑓
In this position, the eye In this position, the eye is

𝑣 feel little strain most relaxed to view the
𝑚 =1− image
𝑓
Magnification is high Magnification is low
 Substitute, 𝑣 = −𝐷
𝑫 𝑫
𝑫 𝒎= 𝟏+ 𝒎=
𝒎= 𝟏+ 𝒇 𝒇
𝒇
96. Discuss about simple microscope and obtain the 98. Why is oil immersed objective preferred in a
 Under the influence of the electric field of the equations for magnification for near point microscope?
incident wave the electrons in the molecules focusing and normal focusing.  The ability of microscope depends not only in
acquire components of motion in both these Simple microscope - Normal focussing : magnifying the object but also in resolving two
directions. points on the object separated by a small distance
1.22 𝜆
 We have shown an observer looking at 90 to the (𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑛 = )
2 sin 𝛽
direction of the sun.  That is, smaller the value of ′𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑛 ′ better will be
 Clearly, charges accelerating paralled do not the resolving power of the microscope.
radiate energy towards this observer since their  To further reduce the value of , the optical path of
acceleration has no transverse component. the light is increased by immersing the objective
 The radiation scattered by the molecule is  Here the image is formed at infinity. of the microscope in to a bath containg oil of
therefore polarized perpendicular to the plane of  So we will not get direct practical relation for 1.22 𝜆
refractive index ‘n’. 𝑖. 𝑒. (𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑛 = )
the paper. magnification. Hence we can practically use the 2 𝑛 sin 𝛽
 This explains the reason for polarization of angular magnification.  Such an objective is called oil immersed objective.
sunlight by scattering.  The angular magnification is defined as the ratio  The term ‘𝒏 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜷′ is called numerical aperture
95. Discuss about simple microscope and obtain the of angle (𝜃𝑖 ) subtended by the image with aided (NA)
equations for magnification for near point eye to the angle (𝜃𝑂 ) subtended by the object with 99. What are the merits and demerits of reflecting
focusing .. unaided eye. That is, telescope?
Simple microscope - Near point focussing : 𝜃𝑂 Merits :
𝑚= − − − − − − (1)  Only one surface is to be polished and maintained.
𝜃𝑖
 For unaided eye,  Support can be given from the entire back of the
ℎ mirror rather than only at the rim for lens.
tan 𝜃𝑂 ≈ 𝜃𝑂 =  Mirror weigh much less compared to lens.
𝐷
 For aided eye, Demerits :
ℎ  The objective mirror would focus the light inside
tan 𝜃𝑖 ≈ 𝜃𝑖 = the telescope tube. One must have an eye piece
𝑓
insided obstruction some light.
 Thus eqn (1) becomes,
ℎ 100. What is the use of an erecting lens in a terrestrial
𝜃 ( ) telescope?
 A simple microscope is a single magnifying lens of 𝑚=
𝑂
= 𝐷
small focal length. 𝜃𝑖 ℎ  A terrestrial telescope is used to see object at long
( ) distance on the surface of earth. Hence image
 In near point focusing, object distance ‘u’ is less 𝑓
than ‘f’ 𝑫 should be erect.
𝒎=  So an additional erecting lens is used to make the
 The image is formed at near point or least distance 𝒇
‘D’ of distinct vision. final image enlarged and erect.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
101. What is the use of spectrometer? 108. Explain Young’s double slit method.
 The collimator is an arrangement to produce a Young’ s double slit experiment :
parallel beam of light.
102. What are the uses of spectrometer?
 Spectrometer is an optical instrument used to,
(1) study the spectra of different sources of light
(2) measure the refractive indices of materials
103. What is myopia? What is its remedy?
 A person suffering from myopia or nearsightedness
cannot see distant objects clearly.
 It occurs when the eye lens has too short focal
length due to thickening of the lens or larger  Thomas Young used an opaque screen with two
diameter of the eyeball than usual. small openings called double slit 𝑆1 and 𝑆2 kept
 Using concave lens this defect can be rectified. equidistance from a source ‘S’
104. What is hypermetopia? What is its remedy?  The width of each slit is about 0.03 mm and they
 A person suffering from hypermetopia or are separated by a distance of about 0.3 mm.
farsightedness cannot see objects close to the eye.  As 𝑆1 and 𝑆2 are equidistant from ‘S’, the light
 It occurs when the eye lens has too long focal waves from ‘S’ reach 𝑆1 and 𝑆2 in phase.
length due to thinning of eye lens or shortening of  So 𝑆1 and 𝑆2 act as coherent sources which are the
the eyeball than normal. requirement of obtaining interference pattern.
 Using convex lens this defect can be rectified.  The wavefronts from 𝑆1 and 𝑆2 get superposed on
105. What is presbyopia? the otherside of the double slit.
 The least distance for clear vision for aged people  When screen is placed at a distance of about 1 m
is appreciably more than 25 cm and the person from double slit, equally spaced alternate bright
has to keep the object inconveniently away from and dark fringes are appears on the screen. These
the eye. are called interference fringes.
 Thus reasing or viewing smaller things held in the  At the point ‘O’ on the screen, the waves from
hands is difficult for them. 𝑆1 and 𝑆2 travels equal distances and arrive
 This kind of farsightedness arising due to aging is in-phase. Due to constructive interference, bright
called presbyopia. fringe is formed at point ‘O’ . This is called central
106. What is astigmatism? bright fringe.
 Astigmatism is the defect arising due to different  When one of the slit is covered, then the fringes
curvatures along different planes in the eye lens. disappear and there is uniform illumination
 Astigmatic person cannot see all the directions observed on the screen. This clearly shows that
equally well. the fringes are due to interference e.
 Lenses with different curvatures in different
planes called cylindrical lens is used to rectify
astigmatism defect.
107. Whar are called Airy’s discs?
 When a circular aperture like a lens or the iris of
eye forms an image of a point object, the image
formed will not be a point, but a diffraction
pattern of concentric circles that becomes fainter
while moving away from the centre.
 These are known as Airy’s discs.

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
𝑣 𝑣  If the toothed wheel was not rotating, the reflected
5 - Mark Question & Answer (𝑜𝑟) = −1
𝑢 𝑓 light from the mirror would again pass through
1. Derive the mirror equation and the equation for  Dividing both sides by 𝑣 the same cut and reach the observer through G.
lateral magnification. 1 1 1 Working :
= −
Mirror equation : 𝑢 𝑓 𝑣  The angular speed of the rotation of the toothed
 The equation which gives the relation between 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 wheel was increased until light passing through
+ = − − − − − (𝟒)
object distance (𝑢), image distance (𝑣) and focal 𝒗 𝒖 𝒇 one cut would completely be blocked by the
length (𝑓) is of spherical mirror is called mirror  This is called mirror equation. It is also valid for adjacent tooth. Let that angular speed be 𝜔
equation. convex mirror.  The total distance traveled by the light from the
Lateral magnification: toothed wheel to the mirror and back to the wheel
 It is defined as the ratio of the height of the image is ‘2d’ and the time taken be ‘t’.
1
(ℎ ) to the height of the object (h)..  Then the speed of light in air,
2𝑑
 From eqn (1) 𝑣=
𝐴1 𝐵1 𝑃𝐴1 𝑡
=  But the angular speed is,
𝐴𝐵 𝑃𝐴 𝜃
− ℎ1 −𝑣 𝜔=
= 𝑡
ℎ −𝑢  Here 𝜃 is the angle between the tooth and the slot
 Let an object AB is placed on the principle axis of a  Hence magnification,
concave mirror beyond the centre of curvature ‘C’ which is rotated by the toothed wheel within that
𝒉𝟏 𝒗
1 1
 The real and inverted image 𝐴 𝐵 is formed 𝒎= =− − − − − (𝟓) time ‘t’ . Then,
𝒉 𝒖 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑛
between C and F  Using eqn (4) 𝜃=
 By the laws of reflection, 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑡ℎ + 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑢𝑡𝑠
𝒉𝟏 𝒇−𝒗 𝒇 2 𝜋 𝜋
angle of incidence (𝑖) = angle of reflection (𝑟) 𝒎= = = − − (𝟔) 𝜃= =
𝒉 𝒇 𝒇−𝒖 2𝑁 𝑁
∠𝐵𝑃𝐴 = ∠𝐵1 𝑃𝐴1
1 1 2. Describe the Fizeau’s method to determine speed  Hence angular speed,
 From figure, ∆ 𝐵𝑃𝐴 and ∆ 𝐵 𝑃𝐴 are similar
of light. 𝜋
triangles. So ( ) 𝜋
Fizeau’s method : 𝜔= 𝑁 =
𝐴1 𝐵1 𝑃𝐴1 𝑡 𝑁𝑡
= − − − − − (1) 𝜋
𝐴𝐵 𝑃𝐴 (𝑜𝑟) 𝑡 =
 Also ∆ 𝐷𝑃𝐹 and ∆ 𝐵1 𝐴1 𝐹 are similar triangles. So 𝑁𝜔
𝐴1 𝐵1 𝐴1 𝐹  Therefore the speed of light in air,
= [𝑃𝐷 = 𝐴𝐵] 2𝑑 2𝑑
𝑃𝐷 𝑃𝐹 𝑣= =
1 1
𝐴 𝐵 1
𝐴 𝐹 𝑡 𝜋
= − − − − − (2) ( )
𝑁𝜔
𝐴𝐵 𝑃𝐹 𝟐𝒅𝑵𝝎
 From eqn (1) and (2), 𝒗=
𝑃𝐴1 𝐴1 𝐹 𝝅
=  The speed of light in air was determined as,
𝑃𝐴 𝑃𝐹  The light from the source S was first allowed to 𝒗 = 𝟐. 𝟗𝟗𝟕𝟗𝟐 𝑿 𝟏𝟎𝟖 𝒎 𝒔−𝟏
𝑃𝐴1 𝑃𝐴1 − 𝑃𝐹 3. Obtain the equation for radius of illumination (or)
= − − − − (3) fall on a partially silvered glass plate G kept at an
𝑃𝐴 𝑃𝐹 angle of 45 to the vertical. Snell’s window.
 By applying sign conventions, Radius of Snell’s window :
1
𝑃𝐴 = −𝑢 ; 𝑃𝐴 = −𝑣 ; 𝑃𝐹 = −𝑓  The light then allowed to pass through a rotating
toothed-wheel with N -teeth and N -cuts.  Light is seem from a point ‘A’ at a depth ‘d’
−𝑣 − 𝑣 − ( −𝑓)
=  The speed of rotation of the wheel could be varied  Applying Snell’s law in product form at point ‘B,
−𝑢 −𝑓 through an external mechanism. 𝑛1 sin 𝑖𝐶 = 𝑛2 sin 90°
𝑣 𝑣−𝑓 𝑛1 sin 𝑖𝐶 = 𝑛2
(𝑜𝑟) =  The light passing through one cut in the wheel get
𝑢 𝑓 𝑛2
reflected by a mirror M kept at a long distance ‘d’ (𝑜𝑟) sin 𝑖𝐶 = − − − (1)
(about 8 km) from the toothed wheel. 𝑛1
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 If the outer medium is air, then 𝑛3 = 1 . The
acceptance angle becomes,
𝒊𝒂 = 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 (√𝒏𝟏𝟐 − 𝒏𝟐𝟐 )
 Light can have any angle of incidence from zero to
𝒊𝒂 with the normal at the end of the optical fibre
forming a conical shape called acceptance cone.
 The term (𝑛3 sin 𝑖𝑎 ) is called numerical aperture
(NA) of optical fibre
 𝐼𝑛 ∆𝐴𝐵𝐶,  Applying Snell’s law at point ‘A’,
𝐶𝐵 𝑅 sin 𝑖𝑎 𝑛1 𝑵𝑨 = 𝒏𝟑 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝒊𝒂 = √𝒏𝟏𝟐 − 𝒏𝟐𝟐
sin 𝑖𝐶 = = − − − (2) = − − − − − (1)
𝐴𝐵 √𝑅2 + 𝑑 2 sin 𝑟𝑎 𝑛3
5. Derive the equation for lateal displacement of light
 Compare eqn (1) and (2)  To have total internal reflection inside optical
𝑅 𝑛2 passing through a glass slab.
fibre, the anle of incidentce at the core-cladding
= Refraction through a glass slab :
√𝑅2 + 𝑑 2 𝑛1 interface at B should be atleast critical angle (𝑖𝐶 )
𝑅2 𝑛2 2  Appliying Snell’s law at point ‘B’
(𝑜𝑟) = ( ) sin 𝑖𝐶 𝑛2
𝑅2 + 𝑑 2 𝑛1 =
2
𝑅 + 𝑑 2
𝑛1 2 sin 90° 𝑛1
(𝑜𝑟) = ( ) 𝑛2
𝑅 2 𝑛2 (𝑜𝑟) sin 𝑖𝐶 = − − − − − (2)
𝑛1
𝑑2 𝑛1 2
1+ 2 = ( )  From ∆𝐴𝐵𝐶 , 𝑖𝐶 = 90° − 𝑟𝑎
𝑅 𝑛2  Then eqn (2) becomes,
𝑑2 𝑛1 2 𝑛12 𝑛2
= ( ) − 1 = −1 sin(90° − 𝑟𝑎 ) =  Thickness of glass slab = t
𝑅2 𝑛2 𝑛22 𝑛1
𝑛2 Refractive index of glass = n
𝑑2 𝑛12 − 𝑛22 (𝑜𝑟) cos 𝑟𝑎 =
=  The perpendicular distance ‘CE’between refracted
𝑅2 𝑛22 𝑛1
ray and incident ray at C gives the lateral
2
𝑅 𝑛22 𝑛 2
2 displacement (L).
(𝑜𝑟) = 2 ∴ s𝑖𝑛 𝑟𝑎 = √1 − cos 2 𝑟𝑎 = √1 − ( )
𝑑 2 𝑛1 − 𝑛22 𝑛1  𝐼𝑛 ∆𝐵𝐶𝐸 ,
𝑛22 𝐿
𝑅2 = 𝑑 2 [ 2 ] sin(𝑖 − 𝑟) =
𝑛1 − 𝑛22 𝑛12 − 𝑛22 √𝑛12 − 𝑛22 𝐵𝐶
s𝑖𝑛 𝑟𝑎 = √ = 𝐿
𝑛12 𝑛1 𝐵𝐶 =
𝒏𝟐𝟐 sin(𝑖 − 𝑟)
∴ 𝑹=𝒅√  Put this in eqn (1),
𝒏𝟏𝟐 − 𝒏𝟐𝟐 sin 𝑖𝑎 𝑛1  𝐼𝑛 ∆𝐵𝐶𝐹,
= 𝑡
 If the rarer medium outsideis air, then 𝑛2 = 1 and 2 2 𝑛 cos 𝑟 =
√𝑛1 − 𝑛2 3
𝐵𝐶
let 𝑛1 = 𝑛 , then ( ) 𝑡
𝑛1
𝟏 𝐵𝐶 =
𝑹=𝒅 [ ] sin 𝑖𝑎 1 cos 𝑟
√𝒏𝟐 − 𝟏 =  Hence,
4. Derive the equation for acceptance angle and √𝑛12 − 𝑛22 𝑛3
𝐿 𝑡
numerical aperture of optical fibe. 2 2 2 2 =
√𝑛1 − 𝑛2 𝑛1 − 𝑛2 sin(𝑖 − 𝑟) cos 𝑟
Acceptance angle : sin 𝑖𝑎 = = √ 𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝒊 − 𝒓)
𝑛3 𝑛32 𝑳 =𝒕 [ ]
 To ensure the critical angle incidence in the core-
𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝒓
cladding boundary inside the optical fibre, the 𝟐
𝒏𝟏 − 𝒏𝟐 𝟐
light should be incident at a certain angle at the 𝒊𝒂 = 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 [√ ]  Therfore lateral displacement depends on,
ene of the optical fibre while entering in to it. This 𝒏𝟑𝟐 (1) thickness of the glass slab
angle is called acceptance angle. (2) angle of incidence
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
6. Derive equation for refraction at single spherical  Here rarer medium is air and hence 𝒏𝟏 = 𝟏 and  Put this eqn (2), we ge
surface. let the refractive index of second medium be 𝑛 𝑢 (𝑣 − 𝑢)
ℎ2 [ 2 ]
Refraction at single spherical surface : 𝒏𝟐 = 𝒏 . Therefore 𝑛2 𝑢 − 𝑛1 𝑣
𝑚= =
𝒏 𝟏 𝒏− 𝟏 ℎ1 𝑛 𝑣 (𝑣 − 𝑢)
− = − − − (𝟑) [ 1 ]
𝒗 𝒖 𝑹 𝑛2 𝑢 − 𝑛1 𝑣
7. Obtain an equation for lateral magnification due to 𝒉𝟐 𝒏𝟏 𝒗
𝒎= = − − − − − (𝟑)
single spherical surface. 𝒉𝟏 𝒏𝟐 𝒖
lateral magnification in single spherical surface : 8. Obtain Lens maker formula and metion its
significance.
Lens maker’s formula :
 A thin lens of refractive index 𝑛2 is placed in a
medium of refractive index 𝑛1
 Refractive index of rarer medium = 𝑛1
 Let 𝑅1 and 𝑅2 be radii of curvature of two
Refractive index of spherical medium = 𝑛2
spherical surfaces ① and ② respectively
Centre of curvature of spherical surface = 𝐶
Point object in rarer medium = 𝑂  Height of object ; 𝑂𝑂1 = ℎ1
Point image formed in denser medium = 𝐼 Height of image ; 𝐼𝐼1 = ℎ2
 Apply Snell’s law of product form at the point N  Refractive index of first medium = 𝑛1
𝑛1 sin 𝑖 = 𝑛2 sin 𝑟 Refractive index of second medium = 𝑛2
 Since the angles are small, we have, Centre of curvature of spherical surface = 𝐶
sin 𝑖 ≈ 𝑖 k‰W« sin 𝑟 ≈ 𝑟  The ration between imaght height to the object
∴ 𝑛1 𝑖 = 𝑛2 𝑟 − − − − (1) height is called lateral magnification (𝑚) . i.e.
 𝐿𝑒𝑡, ∠𝑁𝑂𝑃 = 𝛼, ∠𝑁𝐶𝑃 = 𝛽, ∠𝑁𝐼𝑃 = 𝛾, then 𝐼𝐼1
𝑃𝑁 𝑃𝑁 𝑚= − − − − (1)
tan 𝛼 = (𝑜𝑟) 𝛼 = 𝑂𝑂1
𝑃𝑂 𝑃𝑂  ∆𝐶𝑂𝑂1 and ∆𝐶𝐼𝐼1 are similar triangles. So  Let P be pole of the lens and O be the Point object.
𝑃𝑁 𝑃𝑁 𝐼𝐼1 𝐶𝐼
tan 𝛽 = (𝑜𝑟) 𝛽=  Here 𝐼1 be the image to be formed due the
𝑃𝐶 𝑃𝐶 =
𝑃𝑁 𝑃𝑁 𝑂𝑂 1 𝐶𝑂 refracton at the surface ① and 𝐼 be the final image
tan 𝛾 = (𝑜𝑟) 𝛾 = 𝐼𝐼1 𝑃𝐼 − 𝑃𝐶 obtanined due the refracton at the surface ②
𝑃𝐼 𝑃𝐼 (𝑜𝑟) =
𝑂𝑂 1 𝑃𝐶 + 𝑃𝑂  We know that, equation for single spherical surface
 From figure , 𝑖 = 𝛼 + 𝛽 and 𝑛2 𝑛1 𝑛2 − 𝑛1
 Using Cartesian sign convension, we get − =
𝛽 = 𝑟 + 𝛾 (or) 𝑟 = 𝛽 − 𝛾 − ℎ2 𝑣−𝑅 𝑣 𝑢 𝑅
 Put the values of 𝑖 and 𝑟 in eqn (1) 𝑚= =  For refracting surface ①, the light goes from
ℎ1 𝑅 + (−𝑢)
𝑛1 (𝛼 + 𝛽) = 𝑛2 (𝛽 − 𝛾) 𝒉𝟐 𝒗−𝑹 𝑹−𝒗 𝑛1 𝑡𝑜 𝑛2 . Hence
𝑛1 𝛼 + 𝑛1 𝛽 = 𝑛2 𝛽 − 𝑛2 𝛾 (𝑜𝑟) 𝒎= =− [ ]= − −(𝟐) 𝑛2 𝑛1 𝑛2 − 𝑛1
𝒉𝟏 𝑹−𝒖 𝑹−𝒖 − = − − − (1)
(𝑜𝑟) 𝑛1 𝛼 + 𝑛2 𝛾 = 𝑛2 𝛽 − 𝑛1 𝛽 𝑣1 𝑢 𝑅1
 We know that, equation for single spherical surface
(𝑜𝑟) 𝑛1 𝛼 + 𝑛2 𝛾 = (𝑛2 − 𝑛1 ) 𝛽 𝑛2 𝑛1 𝑛2 − 𝑛1  For refracting surface ②, the light goes from
 Put 𝛼 , 𝛽 and 𝛾 , we have − = 𝑛2 𝑡𝑜 1 . Hence
𝑣 𝑢 𝑅 𝑛1 𝑛2 𝑛1 − 𝑛2
𝑃𝑁 𝑃𝑁 𝑃𝑁 𝑛2 𝑢 − 𝑛1 𝑣 𝑛2 − 𝑛1 − 1 = − − − (2)
𝑛1 [ ] + 𝑛2 [ ] = (𝑛2 − 𝑛1 ) [ ] = 𝑣 𝑣 𝑅2
𝑃𝑂 𝑃𝐼 𝑃𝐶 𝑣𝑢 𝑅
𝑛1 𝑛2 𝑛2 − 𝑛1 𝑛2 𝑣 𝑢 − 𝑛1 𝑣 𝑢  Adding equation (1) and (2), we get,
(𝑜𝑟) + = (𝑜𝑟) 𝑅= 𝑛2 𝑛1 𝑛1 𝑛2 𝑛2 − 𝑛1 𝑛1 − 𝑛2
𝑃𝑂 𝑃𝐼 𝑃𝐶 𝑛2 𝑢 − 𝑛1 𝑣 − + − 1 = +
 Using Cartesian sign convension, we get  Thus, 𝑣1 𝑢 𝑣 𝑣 𝑅1 𝑅2
𝑃𝑂 = −𝑢 ; 𝑃𝐼 = +𝑣 ; 𝑃𝐶 = +𝑅 𝑛1 𝑛1 1 1
𝑛1 𝑛2 𝑛2 − 𝑛1 𝑛2 𝑢 (𝑣 − 𝑢) − = (𝑛2 − 𝑛1 ) [ − ]
∴ + = 𝑅−𝑢 = 𝑣 𝑢 𝑅1 𝑅2
−𝑢 𝑣 𝑅 𝑛2 𝑢 − 𝑛1 𝑣
1 1 (𝑛2 − 𝑛1 ) 1 1
𝒏𝟐 𝒏𝟏 𝒏𝟐 − 𝒏𝟏 𝑛1 𝑣 (𝑣 − 𝑢) − = [ − ]
(𝒐𝒓) − = − − − (2) 𝑅−𝑣 = 𝑣 𝑢 𝑛1 𝑅1 𝑅2
𝒗 𝒖 𝑹 𝑛2 𝑢 − 𝑛1 𝑣
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
𝟏 𝟏 𝒏𝟐 𝟏 𝟏 𝐼𝐼1  Writing the lens equation for lens ②
− = ( − 𝟏) [ − ] − − − (𝟐) 𝑚= − − − − (1) 1 1 1
𝒗 𝒖 𝒏𝟏 𝑹𝟏 𝑹𝟐 𝑂𝑂1 − 1= − − − − (2)
 If the object is at infinity, the image is formed at  ∆𝑃𝑂𝑂1 and ∆𝑃𝐼𝐼1 are similar triangles . So , 𝑣 𝑣 𝑓2
the forcus of the lens. Thus, for 𝑢 = ∞ , 𝑣 = 𝑓 𝐼𝐼1 𝑃𝐼  Adding equation (1) and (2)
Then equation becomes, = 1 1 1 1 1 1
𝑂𝑂1 𝑃𝑂 − + − 1 = +
1 1 𝑛2 1 1  Using Cartesian sign convension, 𝑣 1 𝑢 𝑣 𝑣 𝑓1 𝑓2
− = ( − 1) [ − ] − ℎ2 𝑣 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
𝑓 ∞ 𝑛1 𝑅1 𝑅2 − = + − − − (𝟑)
𝑚= =
𝟏 𝒏𝟐 𝟏 𝟏 ℎ1 −𝑢 𝒗 𝒖 𝒇𝟏 𝒇𝟐
= ( − 𝟏) [ − ] − − − (𝟑) 𝒉𝟐 𝒗
𝒇 𝒏𝟏 𝑹𝟏 𝑹𝟐  If this combination acts as a single lens of focal
(𝑜𝑟) 𝒎= = − − − − (𝟐)
 Here first medium is air and hence 𝒏𝟏 = 𝟏 and 𝒉𝟏 𝒖 lenth ‘F’, then, ,
let the refractive index of second medium be  The magnification is negative for real image and 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
− = − − − (𝟒)
𝒏𝟐 = 𝒏 . Therefore positive for virtural image. 𝒗 𝒖 𝑭
𝟏 𝟏 𝟏  Thus for convex lens, the magnification is  Compare eqn (3) and (4)
= (𝒏 − 𝟏) [ − ] − −(𝟒) negative, and for concave lens, the magnification is 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
𝒇 𝑹𝟏 𝑹𝟐 = + − − − (𝟓)
 The above equation is called lens maker’s positive. 𝑭 𝒇𝟏 𝒇𝟐
formula.  Combining the lens equation and magnification  For any number of lenses,
 By comparing eqn (2) and (3) equation, we get 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
𝒉𝟐 𝒇 = + + + +⋯
𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝑭 𝒇𝟏 𝒇𝟐 𝒇𝟑 𝒇𝟒
− = − − − − − − (𝟓) 𝒎= =
𝒗 𝒖 𝒇 𝒉𝟏 𝒇 + 𝒖  Let 𝑷𝟏 , 𝑷𝟐 , 𝑷𝟑 , 𝑷𝟒 … be the power of each lens,
 This equation is known as lens equation.. 𝒉𝟐 𝒇 − 𝒗 then the net power of the lens combination,
(𝒐𝒓) 𝒎= = 𝑷 = 𝑷𝟏 + 𝑷𝟐 + 𝑷𝟑 + 𝑷𝟒 + ⋯
9. Derive the equation for thin lens and obtain its 𝒉𝟏 𝒇
magnification. 10. Derive the equation for effective forcal length for  Let 𝒎𝟏 , 𝒎𝟐 , 𝒎𝟑 , 𝒎𝟒 … be the magnification of
Magnification of thin lens : lenses in contact. each lens, then the net magnification of the lens
Focal length of lenses in contact : combination,
𝒎 = 𝒎𝟏 𝑋 𝒎𝟐 𝑋 𝒎𝟑 𝑋 𝒎𝟒 𝑋 …
11. Derive the equation for effective focal length for
lenses in out of contact.
Focal length for lenses in out of contact :

##  Let an object 𝑂𝑂1 is placed on the principal axis

with its height perpendicular to the principal axis.
 The ray 𝑂1 𝑃 passing through the pole of the lens
 Let us consider two lenses ① and ② of focal  OA - incident ray . AI - refracted ray
goes undeviated.
lengths 𝑓1 and 𝑓2 placed co-axially in contact with
 But the ray parallel to principal axis, after  Let, ∠𝐴𝑂𝑃 = 𝛼 and ∠𝐴𝐼𝑃 = 𝛽 .
each other.
refraction it passes through secondary focus ‘F’  𝐹𝑟𝑜𝑚 ∆𝑂𝐴𝐼 , the angle of deviation,
 Let the object is placed at ‘O’ beyond the principal
 At the point of intersection of these two rays, an 𝛿 = 𝛼 + 𝛽 − − − − − − − (1)
focus of ① on the principal axis.
inverted, real image 𝐼𝐼1 is formed.  In ∆𝑂𝐴𝑃 and ∆𝑃𝐴𝐼 , the angles 𝛼 and 𝛽 are small.
 It forms an image at 𝐼1
 Height of object ; 𝑂𝑂1 = ℎ1 Hence
 This image 𝐼1 acts as an object for lens ② and
Height of image ; 𝐼𝐼1 = ℎ2 𝑃𝐴 𝑃𝐴
hence the final image is formed at ‘I’ tan 𝛼 = (𝑜𝑟) 𝛼 =
 The lateral magnification (m) is defined as the  Writing the lens equation for lens ① 𝑃𝑂 𝑃𝑂
ration of the heiht of the image to that of the 1 1 1 𝑃𝐴 𝑃𝐴
− = − − − − (1) tan 𝛽 = (𝑜𝑟) 𝛽=
object. 𝑣 1 𝑢 𝑓1 𝑃𝐼 𝑃𝐼
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 So angle of deviation,
𝑃𝐴 𝑃𝐴
𝛿= +
𝑃𝑂 𝑃𝐼
 Here, 𝑃𝐴 = ℎ, 𝑃𝑂 = −𝑢, 𝑃𝐼 = 𝑣 . then
ℎ ℎ 1 1 ℎ
𝛿= + =ℎ [ − ]= − − − (1)
−𝑢 𝑣 𝑣 𝑣 𝑓

##  Here, ‘PQ’ be incident ray, ‘QR’ be refracted ray

and ‘RS’ be emergent ray.
 The angle between incident ray and emergent ray  The minimum value of angled of deviation is
is called angle of deviation (d) called angle of minimum deviation (D).
 Let QN and RN be the normal drawn at the points  At minimum deviation,
Q and R (1) 𝑖1 = 𝑖2
 Let 𝑓1 and 𝑓2 be the focal lenths and ‘d’ be  The incident and emergent ray meet at a point M (2) 𝑟1 = 𝑟2
separation between two lenses, then the net  From figure, ∠ 𝑀𝑄𝑅 = 𝑑1 = 𝑖1 − 𝑟1 (3) Refracted ray ‘QR’ is parallel to the base ‘BC’
deviation is, and ∠ 𝑀𝑅𝑄 = 𝑑2 = 𝑖2 − 𝑟2 of the prism.
𝛿 = 𝛿1 + 𝛿2 [𝑏𝑦 𝑒𝑞𝑛 (1)]  Then total angle of deviation, Refractive index of the material of the prism (n) :
ℎ1 ℎ1 ℎ2  At angle of minimum deviation,
= + − − − − − − (2) 𝑑 = 𝑑1 + 𝑑2
𝑓 𝑓1 𝑓2 𝑑 = (𝑖1 − 𝑟1 ) + (𝑖2 − 𝑟2 ) 𝑖1 = 𝑖2 = 𝑖
 From figure, 𝑑 = (𝑖1 + 𝑖2 ) − (𝑟1 + 𝑟2 ) − − − (1) 𝑟1 = 𝑟2 = 𝑟
ℎ2 − ℎ1 = 𝑃2 𝐺 − 𝑃2 𝐶 = 𝐶𝐺  In the quadrilateral AQNR, ∠𝑄 = ∠𝑅 = 90° .  Ït‰iw rk‹ghL (4) k‰W« (5) -š ÃuÂæl
ℎ2 − ℎ1 = 𝐵𝐺 tan 𝛿1 ≈ 𝐵𝐺 𝛿1 ≈ 𝑑 𝛿1 Hence 𝐴= 𝑟+ 𝑟 =2𝑟
ℎ1 𝑨
ℎ2 − ℎ1 = 𝑑 𝐴 + ∠𝑄𝑁𝑅 = 180° (𝑜𝑟) 𝒓= − − − − − − (6)
𝑓1 (𝑜𝑟) 𝐴 = 180° − ∠𝑄𝑁𝑅 − − − (2) 𝟐
ℎ1  In QNR, and 𝐷 = (𝑖 + 𝑖) − 𝐴 = 2 𝑖 − 𝐴
(𝑜𝑟) ℎ2 = ℎ1 + 𝑑 − − − − (3) (𝑜𝑟) 2 𝑖 = 𝐴 + 𝐷
𝑓1 𝑟1 + 𝑟2 + ∠𝑄𝑁𝑅 = 180°
 Put eqn (3) in (2) 𝑨+𝑫
𝑟1 + 𝑟2 = 180° − ∠𝑄𝑁𝑅 − − − (3) 𝒊= − − − − − − (7)
ℎ1 ℎ1 ℎ1 ℎ1 𝑑  From eqn (2) and (3) 𝟐
= + +  Then by Snell’s law ,
𝑓 𝑓1 𝑓2 𝑓1 𝑓2 𝐴 = 𝑟1 + 𝑟2 − − − − (4) sin 𝑖
𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝒅  Put eqn (4) in eqn (1), n=
(𝑜𝑟) = + + − − − −(𝟒) sin 𝑟
𝒇 𝒇𝟏 𝒇𝟐 𝒇𝟏 𝒇𝟐 𝒅 = (𝒊𝟏 + 𝒊𝟐 ) − 𝑨 − − − −(5) 𝑨+𝑫
12. Derive the equation for angle of deviation  Thus the angle of deviation depends on, 𝐬𝐢𝐧 [ ]
𝐧= 𝟐 − − − − (𝟖)
produced by af prism and thus obtain the equation (1) the angle of incidence (𝑖1 ) 𝑨
𝐬𝐢𝐧 [ ]
for refractive index of material of the prism. (2) the angle of the prism (A) 𝟐
Angle of deviation (d) : 13. What is dispersion? Obtain the equation for
(3) the material of the prism (n)
 Let ‘ABC’ be the section of triangular prism. dispersive power of a medium.
(4) the wavelength of the light ()
 Here face ‘BC’ is grounded and it is called base of Dispersion :
Angle of minimum deviation (D) :
the prism.  Splitting of white light into its constituent colours
 A graph is plotted between the angle of incidence is called dispersion.
 The other two faces ‘AB’ and ‘AC’ are polished along x-axis and angle of deviation along y-axis.
which are called refracting faces.  The coloured band obtained due to dispersion is
 From the graph, as angle of incidence increases, called spectrum.
 The angle between two refraction faces is called the angle of deviation decreases, reaches a
angle of the prism ‘A’ minimum value and then continues to increase.
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Dispersive power :  The angular dispersion is given by, Law (2) :
𝛿𝑉 − 𝛿𝑅 = (n𝑉 − 1) 𝐴 − (n𝑅 − 1) 𝐴  Angle of incidence,
𝛿𝑉 − 𝛿𝑅 = n𝑉 𝐴 − A − n𝑉 𝐴 + A ∠𝑖 = ∠𝑁𝐴𝐿 = 90° − ∠𝑁𝐴𝐵 = ∠𝐵𝐴𝐵1
𝜹𝑽 − 𝜹𝑹 = (𝐧𝑽 − 𝐧𝑹 ) 𝑨 − − − − − (5)  Angle of reflection,
 Let 𝜹 be the angle of deviation for mean ray ∠𝑟 = ∠𝑁 1 𝐵1 𝑀1 = 90° − ∠𝑁 1 𝐵1 𝐴1 = ∠𝐴1 𝐵1 𝐴
(yellow) and n be the corresponding refractive  In ∆𝐴𝐵𝐵1 and ∆𝐵1 𝐴1 𝐴,
index, then ∠𝐵 = ∠𝐴1 = 90°
𝜹 = (𝐧 − 𝟏) 𝑨 − − − − − − (6) 𝐴𝐴1 = 𝐵𝐵1 and
 By definition, dispersive power hypotenuse 𝐴𝐵1 𝑖𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑚𝑜𝑛
𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝜹𝑽 − 𝜹𝑹  Thus the two triangles are congruent. (i.e)
 Dispersive power (𝝎) is the ability of the material 𝜔= =
𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑑𝑒𝑣𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝜹 ∠𝐵𝐴𝐵1 = ∠𝐴1 𝐵1 𝐴
of the prism to cause dispersion. (n𝑉 − n𝑅 ) 𝐴 ∴ ∠𝒊 = ∠𝒓
 It is defined as the ration of the angular 𝜔=
(n − 1) 𝐴  Hence laws of reflection are proved.
dispersion for the extreme colours to the (𝐧𝑽 − 𝐧𝑹 ) 15. Prove laws of refraction using Huygen’ principle.
deviation for any mean colour. 𝝎= − − − − − − − (𝟕)
(𝐧 − 𝟏) Laws of refraction - Proof :
 Let A be the angle of prism and D be the angle of  Dispersive power is a dimensionless quantity. It
minimum deviation, then the refractive index of has no unit. It is always positive.
the material of the prism is 14. Prove laws of reflection using Huygens principle.
𝐴+𝐷 Laws of reflection - Proof :
sin [ ]
n= 2
𝐴
sin [ ]
2
 If the angle of the prism is small in the order of
10 then it is called small angle prism. In this
prism, the angle of deviation also become small.
 Let A be the angle of prism and 𝛿 be the angle of  Let XY be the refracting surface .
minimum deviation, then the refractive index  𝑋𝑌 − Reflecting surface
 The incident wavefront AB is in rarer medium (1)
𝐴+𝛿  𝐴𝐵 −Incident plane wavefront.
sin [ ]  The incident rays from L and M are perpendicular
2  The incident rays from L and M are perpendicular
n= − − − − (1) to this incident wavefront.
𝐴 to this incident wavefront.
sin [ ]  Initially the point ‘A’ reaches refracting surface.
2  Initially the point ‘A’ reaches reflecting surface.
 Since A and 𝛿 are small, we may write,  Then the successive points between AB reaches
 Then the successive points between AB reaches
𝐴+𝛿 𝐴+𝛿 the surface.
sin [ ] ≈ [ ] the surface.
2 2  Finally, by the time B reaches 𝐵1 , the point A
 Finally, by the time B reaches 𝐵1 , the point A
𝐴 𝐴 would have reached 𝐴1 in the other medium.
sin [ ] ≈ [ ] would have reached 𝐴1
2 2  This is applicable to all the points on the
 This is applicable to all the points on the
 Put this in eqn (1), wavefront AB. Thus the refracted wavefront 𝐴1 𝐵1
wavefront AB. Thus the reflected wavefront 𝐴1 𝐵1
𝐴+𝛿 emanates as a plane wavefront.
[ ] 𝐴+𝛿 emanates as a plane wavefront.
2  The line from 𝐿1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑀1 perpendiculars to 𝐴1 𝐵1
n= =  The line from 𝐿1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑀1 perpendiculars to 𝐴1 𝐵1
𝐴 𝐴 represent refracted rays.
[ ] represent reflected rays.
2  Let 𝑣1 be the speed of light in medium (1) and 𝑣2
n𝐴 = 𝐴+𝛿  .As the reflection happens in the same medium,
be the speed of light in medium (2). Here 𝑣1 > 𝑣2
(or) 𝛿 = n 𝐴 − 𝐴 the speed of light is same before and after
 The time taken for the ray to travel from B to 𝐵1 is
∴ 𝜹 = (𝐧 − 𝟏) 𝑨 − − − − − − (2) reflection. Hence, 𝐴𝐴1 = 𝐵𝐵1
same as the time taken for the ray to travel from
 Thus, angle of deviation for violet and red light, Law (1) :
A reaches 𝐴1 . So 𝐴𝐴1 = 𝑣2 𝑡 and 𝐵𝐵1 = 𝑣1 𝑡
𝜹𝑽 = (𝐧𝑽 − 𝟏) 𝑨 − − − − − − (3)  The incident rays, the reflected rays and the
𝐵𝐵1 𝑣1
𝜹𝑹 = (𝐧𝑹 − 𝟏) 𝑨 − − − − − − (4) normal are in the same plane. ∴ = − − − − − (1)
𝐴𝐴 1 𝑣2
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Law (1) : (2) When, 𝜙 = ±𝜋, ±3𝜋, ±5𝜋 … …. the resultant 17. Obtain the equation for Path difference and band
 The incident rays, refracted rays and the normal amplitude becomes minimum width in Young’s double slit experiment.
are in the same plane. 𝑨𝒎𝒊𝒏 = √(𝒂𝟏 − 𝒂𝟐 )𝟐 Path difference (𝜹) :
Law (2) :  The intensity of light is directly proportional to
 Angle of incidence, the square of the amplitude.
∠𝑖 = ∠𝑁𝐴𝐿 = 90° − ∠𝑁𝐴𝐵 = ∠𝐵𝐴𝐵1 𝐼 ∝ 𝐴2
 Angle of refraction, 𝐼 ∝ 𝑎12 + 𝑎22 + 2 𝑎1 𝑎2 cos 𝜙
∠𝑟 = ∠𝑁 1 𝐵1 𝑀1 = 90° − ∠𝑁 1 𝐵1 𝐴1 = ∠𝐴1 𝐵1 𝐴 𝑰 ∝ 𝑰𝟏 + 𝑰𝟐 + 𝟐 √𝑰𝟏 𝑰𝟐 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝝓 − − − (𝟒)
 From ∆𝐴𝐵𝐵1 and ∆𝐵1 𝐴1 𝐴 , (1) When, 𝜙 = 0, ±2𝜋, ±4𝜋, … …. .the resultant
𝐵𝐵1 𝑐 intensity becomes maximum. This is called
sin 𝑖 ( 1) 𝐵𝐵1 𝑣1 ( ) 𝑛2
𝐴𝐵 𝑛1
= 1 = = = 𝑐 = constructive interference.
sin 𝑟 𝐴𝐴 𝐴𝐴 1 𝑣2 ( ) 𝑛1 𝑰𝒎𝒂𝒙 ∝ (𝒂𝟏 + 𝒂𝟐 )𝟐
( 1) 𝑛2
𝐴𝐵
 In product form, 𝑰𝒎𝒂𝒙 ∝ 𝑰𝟏 + 𝑰𝟐 + 𝟐 √𝑰𝟏 𝑰𝟐 − − − (𝟓)
𝒏𝟏 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝒊 = 𝒏𝟐 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝒓 (2) When, 𝜙 = ±𝜋, ±3𝜋, ±5𝜋 … …. the resultant
intensity becomes minimum. This is called  Let distance between 𝑆1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑆2 =𝑑
16. Obtain the equation for resultant intensity due to Distance of the screen from double slit =𝐷
interference of light. destructive interference.
𝟐 Wavelength of coherent light wave =
Resultant intensity due to interference : 𝑰𝒎𝒊𝒏 ∝ (𝒂𝟏 − 𝒂𝟐 )
 Hence path difference between the light waves
𝑰𝒎𝒂𝒙 ∝ 𝑰𝟏 + 𝑰𝟐 − 𝟐 √𝑰𝟏 𝑰𝟐 − − − (𝟔) from 𝑆1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑆2 to the point ‘P’ is
Special case : 𝛿 = 𝑆2 𝑃 − 𝑆1 𝑃 = 𝑆2 𝑃 − 𝑀𝑃 = 𝑆2 𝑀
 If 𝒂𝟏 = 𝒂𝟐 = 𝒂 , then resultant amplitude,  From the figure, ∠𝑂𝐶𝑃 = ∠𝑆2 𝑆1 𝑀 = 𝜃
𝐴 = √𝑎2 + 𝑎2 + 2 𝑎2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜙  𝐼𝑛 ∆𝑆2 𝑆1 𝑀
𝐴 = √2 𝑎2 + 2 𝑎2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜙 𝑆2 𝑀 𝛿
sin 𝜃 = =
𝐴 = √2 𝑎2 (1 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜙) 𝑆1 𝑆2 𝑑
∴ 𝛿 = sin 𝜃 . 𝑑
𝜙  Here 𝜃 is small. Hence, sin 𝜃 ≈ tan 𝜃 ≈ 𝜃
𝐴 = √2 𝑎2 [2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 ( )]
2 𝛿= 𝜃. 𝑑 − − − − − (1)
 Let 𝑆1 and 𝑆2 are the two light waves meeting at a 𝝓  Also, in ∆𝑂𝐶𝑃,
point ‘P’ 𝑨 = 𝟐 𝒂 𝒄𝒐𝒔 ( ) − − − − − (𝟕) 𝑂𝑃 𝑦
𝟐 𝜃 ≈ tan 𝜃 = =
 At any instant ‘t’, the displacement equations,  If 𝑰𝟏 = 𝑰𝟐 = 𝑰𝑶 , then the resultant intensity, 𝑂𝐶 𝐷
𝑦1 = 𝑎1 sin 𝜔𝑡 − − − − (1) 𝐼 ∝ 𝐴2  Put this in eqn (1)
𝑦2 = 𝑎2 sin (𝜔𝑡 + 𝜙) − − − − (2) 𝒚
𝜙 𝜹= 𝒅 − − − − − (2)
where, 𝜙  phase difference between them 𝐼 ∝ 4 𝑎2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 ( ) 𝑫
2  Point ‘P’ may be apper either bright or dark
 Then the resultant displacement, 𝝓
𝑦 = 𝑦1 + 𝑦2
𝟐
𝑰 = 𝟒 𝑰𝑶 𝒄𝒐𝒔 ( ) − − − − − (8) depending on the path differendce.
𝟐 Condition for bright fringe (maxima) :
𝑦 = 𝑎1 sin 𝜔𝑡 + 𝑎2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝜙) When, 𝜙 = 0, ±2𝜋, ±4𝜋, … …., 𝑰𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 𝟒 𝑰𝑶
 By solving this, we get,  For constructive interference, the path difference
and 𝜙 = ±𝜋, ±3𝜋, ±5𝜋 … …., 𝑰𝒎𝒊𝒏 = 𝟎 will be,
𝒚 = 𝑨 𝒔𝒊 𝒏 (𝝎𝒕 + 𝜽) − − − − (3)
 Thus the phase difference () between the two 𝜹= 𝒏𝝀 [ 𝑛 = 0, 1, 2, … ]
 where, 𝐴 = √𝑎12 + 𝑎22 + 2 𝑎1 𝑎2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜙 and waves decides the intensity of light at the point, 𝑦
where the two waves meet. 𝑑 = 𝑛𝜆
𝑎2 sin 𝜙 𝐷
𝜃 = tan−1 [ ]  Thus the distance of the n th brigt fringe from ‘O’ is
𝑎1 + 𝑎2 cos 𝜙
𝑫
(1) When , 𝜙 = 0, ±2𝜋, ±4𝜋, … …. .the resultant 𝒚𝒏 = 𝒏 𝝀 − − − − − (3)
amplitude becomes maximum 𝒅
𝑨𝒎𝒂𝒙 = √(𝒂𝟏 + 𝒂𝟐 )𝟐
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Condition for dark fringe (minima) :  A parallel beam of light is incident on the film at (1) The condition for constructive interference in
 For destructive interference, the path difference an angle ‘𝑖’ reflected ray is,,
will be,  At upper surface, the light wave is divided in to 𝛿 =𝑛𝜆
𝝀 two parts. One part is reflected and other part is 𝜆
𝜹 = (𝟐 𝒏 − 𝟏) [ 𝑛 = 1, 2, … ] (𝑜𝑟) 2𝜇𝑑 + =𝑛𝜆
𝟐 refracted. 2
𝑦 𝜆  The refracted part which enters in to the film, 𝝀
𝑑 = (2 𝑛 − 1) (𝑜𝑟) 𝟐 𝝁 𝒅 = (𝟐𝒏 − 𝟏) − − − (𝟓)
𝐷 2 again gets divided at the lower surface in two 𝟐
 Thus the distance of the n th darkt fringe from ‘O’ is parts. One is transmitted and the other is reflected (2) The condition for destructive interference in
𝑫 𝝀 back in to the film. reflected ray is,
𝒚𝒏 = (𝟐 𝒏 − 𝟏) − − − − − (4)
𝒅 𝟐  Here interference is produced by both the 𝜆
Band width (𝜷) : 𝛿 = (2𝑛 + 1)
reflected and transmitted light. 2
 The band width is defined as the distance between Interference due to transmitted light : 𝜆 𝜆
(𝑜𝑟) 2 𝜇 𝑑 + = (2𝑛 + 1)
any two consecutive bright or dark fringes.  If we approximate the incidence to be nearly 2 2
 The distance between (n+1) th and nth consecutive normal (𝑖 = 0), then the points ‘B’ and ‘D’ are very (𝑜𝑟) 𝟐𝝁𝒅 = 𝒏𝝀 − − − (6)
bright fringes from ‘O’ is close to each other. 19. Discuss diffraction at single slit and obtain the
𝛽 = 𝑦𝑛+1 − 𝑦𝑛  The extra distance travelled by the wave condition for n th minimum.

## 𝐷 𝐷 transmitted at ‘D’ is (𝐵𝐶 + 𝐶𝐷) Diffraction at single slit :

𝛽= (𝑛 + 1) 𝜆 − 𝑛𝜆
𝑑 𝑑  Hence the path difference between the waves
𝑫 transmitted from ‘B’ and ‘D’ is
𝜷= 𝝀 − − − − − − − (𝟓)
𝒅 𝛿 = 𝜇 (𝐵𝐶 + 𝐶𝐷) = 𝜇 (𝑑 + 𝑑)
 Simillarly the distance between (n+1)th and nth 𝜹 =𝟐𝝁𝒅 − − − (1)
consecutive dark fringes from ‘O’ is (1) The condition for constructive interference in
𝛽 = 𝑦𝑛+1 − 𝑦𝑛 transmitted ray is, 𝛿 = 𝑛 𝜆
𝐷 𝜆 𝐷 𝜆 (𝑜𝑟) 𝟐𝝁𝒅 =𝒏𝝀 − − − (2)
𝛽= [2(𝑛 + 1) − 1] − ( 2𝑛 − 1 )
𝑑 2 𝑑 2 (2) The condition for distructive interference in
𝑫 𝜆
𝜷= 𝝀 − − − − − − − (𝟔) transmitted ray is, 𝛿 = (2𝑛 − 1)
𝒅 2  Let a parallel beam of light fall normally on a
𝝀 single slit AB. The centre of the slit is C
 Eqn (5) and (6) shows that the bright and dark (𝑜𝑟) 𝟐 𝝁 𝒅 = (𝟐𝒏 − 𝟏) − − − (3)
fringes are of same width equally spaced on either 𝟐  A straight line through ‘C’ perpendicular to the
side of central bright fringe Interference due to reflected light : plane of slit meets the centre of the screen at ‘O’
18. Obtain the equations for constructive and  When light travelling in a rarer medium and  Let 𝑦 be the distance of of point ‘P’ from ‘O’
destructive interference for transmitted and getting reflected by a denser medium, undergoes a  The lines joining ‘P’ to the different points on the
reflected waves in thin films. phase change of  . Hence an additional path slit can be treated as parallel lines, making and
𝝀
Interference in thin films : difference of is introduced. angle 𝜃 with the normal ‘CO’
𝟐
 Again for normal incidence (𝑖 = 0), the points ‘A’  All the parallel waves from different points on the
and ‘C’ are very close to each other. slits get interfere at ‘P’ to give resultant intensity.
 The extra distance travelled by the wave coming Condition for minima :
out from ‘C’ is (𝐴𝐵 + 𝐵𝐶)  To explain minimum intensity, divide the slit
 Hence the path difference between the waves in to even number of parts.
reflected at ‘A’ and ‘C’ is (1) Condition for P to be first minimum :
𝛿 = 𝜇 (𝐴𝐵 + 𝐵𝐶) = 𝜇 (𝑑 + 𝑑) = 2 𝜇 𝑑  Let us divide the slit AB in to two half’s each of
𝑎
𝜆 width
 Since additional path difference is introduced 2
2
 The various points on the slit which are
due to reflection at A, the the total path difference, 𝑎
 Consider a thin film of transparent material of 𝝀 separated by the same width ( ) called
2
refractive index ‘’ and thickness ‘t’ 𝜹 =𝟐𝝁𝒅 + − − − (4)
𝟐 corresponding points
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 The path difference of light waves from 20. Discuss the diffraction at a grating and obtain the  If ‘N’ be the number of rulings drawn per unit
different corresponding points meeting at ‘P’ condition for mth maximum. width (1 m), then , 𝑁 𝑎 + 𝑁 𝑏 = 1 (𝑜𝑟)
𝑎 Diffraction in grating : 𝑁 (𝑎 + 𝑏) = 1
𝛿 = sin 𝜃
2 1
 The condition for ‘P’ to be first minimum, 𝑎+𝑏 =
𝑁
𝑎 𝜆 1
sin 𝜃 = ∴ sin 𝜃 = 𝑚 𝜆
2 2 𝑁
(𝑜𝑟) 𝒂 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 = 𝝀 (𝑜𝑟) 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 = 𝑵 𝒎 𝝀 − − − − − (𝟐)
(2) Condition for P to be second minimum : 21. Discuss the experiment to determine the
 Let us divide the slit AB in to four equal parts wavelength of monochromatic light using
𝑎
of width diffraction grating.
4
 Here various corresponding points on the slit Experiment to determine wavelength of light :
𝑎  Let ‘AB’ represent the plane transmission grating.
which are separated by the same width ( )
4  It has number of slits of equal width (𝑎) and equal
 The path difference of light waves from number of opaque rulings of equal width (𝑏)
different corresponding points meeting at ‘P’  Lte a plane wavefornt of monochromatic light of
𝑎
𝛿 = sin 𝜃 wavelength ‘ 𝜆 ’ be incident normally on the
4 grating.
 The condition for ‘P’ to be second minimum,
𝑎 𝜆  As the slit size is comparable to that of
sin 𝜃 = wavelength, the incident light diffracts at the  The wavelength of a spectral line can be very
4 4 grating.
(𝑜𝑟) 𝒂 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 = 𝟐 𝝀 accurately determined with help of a diffraction
 Using convex lens, the diffracted waves are grating and a spectrometer.
(3) Condition for P to be nth minimum :
focused on the screen.  Let all the preliminary adjustments are made on
 Let us divide the slit AB in to 2n equal parts
𝑎  Consider a point ‘P’ on the screen, at an angle ‘𝜃 ‘ the spectrometer.
of width
2𝑛 with the normal drawn from the centre of the  The slit of the spectrometer is illuminated by a
 The condition for ‘P’ to be nth minimum, grating to the screen.
𝑎 𝜆 monochromatic light, whose wavelength to be
sin 𝜃 =  The path difference (𝛿) between the diffracted determined.
2𝑛 2 waves from one pair of corresponding points is,  The telescope is brought in line with collimator to
(𝑜𝑟) 𝒂 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 = 𝒏 𝝀 𝛿 = (𝑎 + 𝑏) sin 𝜃 view the direct image of the slit.
Condition for maxima :  The point ‘P’ will be bright, when  The given transmission grating is then mounted
 To explain maximum intensity, divide the slit in to 𝛿=𝑚𝜆 [𝑚 = 0,1,2,3 … ] on the prism table with its plane perpendicular to
odd number of parts.  Hence, the incident beam of light coming from collimator.
 For first maximum, the slit is divided in to three (𝒂 + 𝒃) 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 = 𝒎 𝝀 − − − − (1)
𝑎  The telsescope is turn to one side until the first
equal parts each of width ( ). Hence where 𝑚  order of diffraction order diffraction image of the slit coincides with
3
𝑎 𝜆 𝝀 (1) Condition for zero order maximum : the vertical cross wire of the eye piece.
sin 𝜃 = (𝑜𝑟) 𝒂 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 = 𝟑  When, (𝑎 + 𝑏) sin 𝜃 = 0, then, 𝜃 = 0 ; 𝑚 = 0
3 2 𝟐  The reading of the position of the telescope is
 For secod maximum, the slit is divided in to five It is zero order diffraction or central noted.
𝑎
equal parts each of width ( ). Hence maximum  Similarly the first order diffraction image on the
5 (2) Condition for first order maximum : other side is made to coincide with vertical cross
𝑎 𝜆 𝝀
sin 𝜃 = (𝑜𝑟) 𝒂 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 = 𝟓  When, (𝑎 + 𝑏) sin 𝜃1 = 𝜆, then, 𝜃 = 𝜃1 ; 𝑚 = 1 wire and corresponding reading is noted.
5 2 𝟐 It is first order diffraction  The difference between two positions gives 2 𝜃
 In general, for nth first maximum, the slit is divided
𝑎 (3) Condition for second order maximum :  Half of its value gives 𝜃, the diffraction angle for
in to (2n+1) equal parts each of width ( ).  When,(𝑎 + 𝑏) sin 𝜃2 = 2𝜆, then,𝜃 = 𝜃2 ; 𝑚 = 2 first order maximum.
2𝑛+1
Hence It is second order diffraction  The wavelength of light is calculated from,
𝑎 𝜆 𝝀 (4) Condition for higher order maxima : 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽
sin 𝜃 = (𝑜𝑟) 𝒂 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 = (𝟐𝒏 + 𝟏) 𝝀=
2𝑛 + 1 2 𝟐 (𝑎 + 𝑏) sin 𝜃 = 𝑚 𝜆 𝑵𝒎
victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
22. Discuss the experiment to determine the 24. Discuss about astronomical telescope.
wavelength of different colours using diffraction Astronomical telescope :
grating.  An astronomical telescope is used to get the
Determination of wavelength of different colours : magnification of distant astronomical objects like
 White light is a composite light which contains all stars, planets …
wavlengths from violet to red in visible region.  The image formed by this will be inverted.
 When white light is used, the diffraction pattern
consists of a white central maximum and on both
sides continuous coloured diffraction patterns are
formed.

##  The first inverted image formed by the objective is

to be adjusted close to, but within the focal plane
of the eyepiece, so that the final image is formed
nearly at infinity or at the near point.
 The final image is inverted with respect to the  It has an objective of long focal length and a much
original object. larger aperture than eye piece.
Magnification (m) :  Light from a distant object enters the objective
 From the ray diagram, the linear magnification and a real image is formed in the tube at its second
due to the objective is, focal point.
ℎ1 𝐿  The eye piece magnifies this image producing a
𝑚𝑜 = = − − − − − (1)
 The central maximum is white as all the colours ℎ 𝑓𝑜 final inverted image.
meet here constructively with no phase difference. Here ‘L’ is the distance between the first focal Magnification (m) :
 It produces a spectrum of diffraction pattern from point of the eye piece to the second focal point of  The magnification ‘m’ is the ratio of the angle 𝛽
violet to red on either side of central maximum. the objective. This is called the tube length. subtended at the eye by the final image to the
 By measuring the angle (𝜽) at which these colours  The magnification of the eyepiece, angle 𝛼 which the object subtends at the lens or
appear for various order (m) of diffraction, the 𝐷 the eye.
𝑚𝑒 = 1 + − − − − − (2) 𝛽
wavelength of different colours could be 𝑓𝑒 𝑚=
calculated using the formula,  The total magnification ‘m’ in near point focusing , 𝛼
𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 𝑳 𝑫  From figure,
𝝀= 𝒎 = 𝒎𝒐 𝒎𝒆 = [ ] [𝟏 + ] ℎ
𝑵𝒎 𝒇𝒐 𝒇𝒆 [ ]
𝑓𝑒
where, 𝑵  number of rulings drawn per unit  If the final image is formed at infinity (normal 𝑚=
width of grating focusing), the magnification if eye piece is, ℎ
[ ]
𝐷 𝑓𝑜
23. Explain about compound microscope and obtain
𝑚𝑒 = − − − − − (3) 𝒇𝒐
the equation for magnification. 𝑓𝑒 𝒎=
Compound microscope : 𝒇𝒆
 The total magnification ‘m’ in normal focusing is,
 The lens near the object is called the objective, 𝑳 𝑫  The length of the telescope is approximately,
forms a real, inverted, magnified image of the 𝒎 = 𝒎𝒐 𝒎𝒆 = [ ] [ ] 𝑳 = 𝒇𝒐 + 𝒇𝒆
𝒇𝒐 𝒇𝒆
object.
 This serves as the object for the second lens which
is the eyepiece.
 Eye piece serves as a simple microscope that
produces finally an enlarged and virtual image.

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 6 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
25. Explain the experimental determination of (2) Angle of minimum deviation (D) :
material of the prism using spectrometer.
Determination of refractive index :
 The preliminary adjustments of the telescope,
collimator and the prism table of the spectrometer
 The refractive index () of the prism is
determined by knowing the angle of the prism (A)
and the angle of minimum deviation (D)
(1) Angle of the prism (A) :
 The prism is placed on the prism table, so that the
light from the collimator falls on a refracting face
and the refracted image is observed through the
telescope.
 The prism table is now rotated, so that the angle of
deviation decreases.
 A stage comes when the image stops for a moment
and if we rotate the prism table further in the
same direction, the image is seen to recede and
the angle of deviation increases.
 The vertical cross wire of telescope is made to
coincide with the image of the slit, where it turns
 The prism is placed on the prism table with its back. This gives the minimum deviation position.
refracting edge facing the collimator.  The vernier readings corresponding to this
 The slit is illuminated by a sodium light. position is noted.
 The parallel rays coming from the collimator fall  Now the prism is removed and the telescope is
on the two faces AB and AC. turned to receive the direct ray and the vernier
 The telescope is rotated to the position 𝑇1 until readings are again noted.
the image of the slit formed by the reflection at the  The difference between the two readings gives the
face AB coincides with the vertical cross wire of angle of minimum deviation (D)
the telescope. Refractive index (𝝁) of the prism :
 The corresponding vernier readings are noted.  The refractive index of the material of the prism is
 The telescope is then rotated to the position calculated using the formula,
𝑇2 where the image of the slit formed by the 𝑨+𝑫
𝐬𝐢𝐧 ( )
𝝁= 𝟐
reflection at the face AC coincides with the vertical
𝑨
cross wire of the telescope. The corresponding 𝐬𝐢𝐧 ( )
𝟐
 The difference between these two readings gives
the angle rotated by the telescope, which is twice
the angle of the prism.
 Half of this value gives the angle of the prism (A)

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
PHYSICS - VOL 2 UNIT - 7
NAME :
STANDARD : 12 SECTION :
SCHOOL :
EXAM NO :

## victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc, M.Phil, B.Ed.,

PG ASST (PHYSICS)
GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 7 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
2 & 3 Marks Questions and Answers 8. How does photo electric current vary with the  There is no time lag between incidence of light
1. Why do metals have a large number of free intensity of the incident light? and ejection of photoelectrons.
electrons? Variation of photo current with intensity : 12. Explain why photoelectric effect cannot be
 In metals, the electrons in the outer most shells  Keeping the frequency explained on the basis of wave nature of light
are loosely bound to the nucleus. (𝜈 ) and acceleration Failures of classical wave theory :
potential (V) as  According to wave theory, light of greater
 Even at room temperature, due to thermal
constant, the intensity intensity should impart greater kinetic energy to
agitation the loosely bounded electrons are
of incident light is the liberated electrons.
detached from their orbit and free to move inside
varied and the But the experiments show that maximum kinetic
the metal in a random manner. This is the reason
corresponding photo energy of the photoelectrons does not depend on
for large number of free electrons in the metal.
2. Define surface barrier. eletric current is the intensity of the incident light.
measured  According to wave theory, if a sufficiently intense
 The potential barrier which prevents free electrons
from leaving the metallic surface is called surface  A graph is drawn between intensity along X-axis beam of light is incident on the surface, electrons
and the photo current along Y-axis. will be liberated from the surface of the target,
barrier.
 From the graph, the photo current (i.e) the number however low the frequency of the radiation is.
 It is created by the positive nuclei of the metal
of electrons emitted per second is directly But photoelectric emission is not possible below a
3. Define electron emission.
proportional to the intensity of incident light. certain minimum frequency called threshold
 The liberation of electrons from any surface of a
9. Define stopping potential. frequency.
substance is called electron emission.
 The negative or retarding potential given to  Since the energy of light is spread across the
 The material with small work function is more
collecting electrode which is just sufficient to stop wavefront, each electron needs considerable
effective in electron emission.
the most energetic photoelectrons emitted and amount of time (a few hours) to get energy
4. Define work function of a metal. Give its unit.
make the photo current zero is called stopping sufficient to overcome the work function and to
 The minimum energy needed for an electron to potential or cut - off potential. get liberated from the surface.
escape from the metal surface is called work 10. Define threshold frequency. But experiments show that photoelectric emission
function of that metal. It is denoted by 𝜙𝑂 is almost instantaneous process
 For a giver surface, the emission of photo
 Its unit is electron volt (eV). electrons takes place only if the frequency of 13. Explain the concept of quantization of energy.
5. Define electron volt (eV) incident light is greater than a certain minimum Quantization of energy :
 One electron volt is defined as the kinetic energy frequency called threshold frequency.  Max Planck proposed quantum concept in 1900 in
gained by a electron when accelerated by a 11. State the laws of photo electric effect. order to explain the block body radiations.
potential difference of 1 volt. Laws of photo electric effect :  According to Planck, matter is composed of a large
𝟏 𝒆𝑽 = 𝟏. 𝟔𝟎𝟐 𝑿 𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟗 𝑱  For a given frequency of incident light, the number number of oscillating particles (atoms) which
6. What is photo electric effect? of photoelectrons emitted is directly proportional vibrate with different frequencies.
 The ejection of electrons from a metal plate when to the intensity of the incident light. The  Each atomic oscillator which vibrates with its
illuminated by light or any other electromagnetic saturation current is also directly proportional to characteristic frequency emits or absorbs
radiation of suitable wavelength or frequency is the intensity of incident light. electromagnetic radiation of the same frequency.
called photo electric effect.  Maximum kinetic energy of the photo electrons is (i) If an oscillator vibrates with frequency v, its
 The ejected electrons are called as photo independent of intensity of the incident light. energy can have only certain discrete values,
electrons and the corresponding current is called  Maximum kinetic energy of the photo electrons 𝑬𝒏 = 𝒏 𝒉 𝝂 [𝑛 = 1,2,3, … . ]
photo electric current from a given metal is directly proportional to the where h  Planck’s constant.
7. What are called photo sensitive materials? frequency of incident light. (ii) The oscillators emit or absorb energy in small
 The materials which eject photoelectrons upon  For a given surface, the emission of packets or quanta and the energy of each
irradiation of electromagnetic wave of suitable photoelectrons takes place only if the frequency of quantum is E = h ν
wavelength are called photosensitive materials. incident light is greater than a certain minimum  This implies that the energy of the oscillator is
(e.g.) Metals like cadmium, zinc, magnesium etc frequency called the threshold frequency. quantized and not continuous This is called
and Alkali metals like lithium, sodium, caesium quantization of energy.

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed PG ASST [PHYSICS], GBHSS, PARANGIPETTAI - 608 502
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 7 (VOLUME II) 2, 3, & 5 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
14. Explain Eienstein’s explanation for the particle 19. What is called matter waves or de Broglie waves? 24. Write the relationship of de Broglie wavelength λ
nature (quanta ) of light  The waves assoiated with matter particles like associated with a particle of mass m in terms of its
Particle nature of light - Eienstein’s explanation : electrons in motion is called matter waves or kinetic energy K.
 According to Einstein, the energy in light is not de Broglei waves.  De Broglie wavelength in terms of potential ‘V’ ,
spread out over wavefronts but is concentrated in 20. Derive the expression of de Brogli