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WEEKEND TOURISM – A CASE STUDY OF


PUDUCHERRY
Thesis submitted to Pondicherry University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
award of the degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
IN
TOURISM STUDIES
By
P. KARMENIVANNAN

Under the Supervision and Guidance of

Prof. G. ANJANEYA SWAMY


Dean
School of Management

DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM STUDIES


SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
(A Central University)
PUDUCHERRY – 605014
INDIA

MARCH 2016

 
 
 

 
Prof. G Anjaneya Swamy
Dean
School of Management
Pondicherry University
Puducherry
India

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled ‘Weekend Tourism- A Case Study of

Puducherry submitted to the Department of Tourism Studies, School of Management,

Pondicherry University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the

Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Tourism Studies is a record of original research

work done by Mr. P.Karmenivannan, a full-time Research Scholar in the Department

of Tourism Studies, under my supervision and guidance, and the thesis has not formed the

basis for the award of any Degree/Diploma/Associateship/Fellowship or similar title to any

candidate of any other University or Institution.

Prof. G Anjaneya Swamy


Research Supervisor

Dean
School of Management

Date :
Place : Puducherry

 
 

P. Karmenivannan
Research Scholar
Dept. of Tourism Studies
School of Management
Pondicherry University
Puducherry
India

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the thesis entitled ‘Weekend Tourism- A Case Study of

Puducherry submitted to the Department of Tourism Studies, School of Management,

Pondicherry University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the

Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Tourism Studies is a record of original research work

done by me under the supervision and guidance of Prof. G. Anjaneya Swamy, Dean,

School of Management, Pondicherry University, Puducherry and that it has not formed the

basis for the award of any Degree/Diploma/Associateship/Fellowship or similar title to

any candidate of any other University or Institute.

P.Karmenivannan

Research Scholar

Date :
Place : Puducherry

 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

“Forget Injuries, Never Forget Kindnesses” – Confucius

At the outset, I wish to extend my gratitude to each and every one who has
directly or indirectly helped me in accomplishing this task.

First and foremost, I would like to thank my supervisor Prof. G. Anjaneya


Swamy, Dean, School of Management, Pondicherry University for his remarkable
motivation and untiring patience bestowed on me during each and every step in the
course of the work. Working under his supervision has been particularly rewarding
and most gratifying. I am honored and proud to be a scholar of a good human being
who has concern for his fellow humans.

I am equally grateful to Dr. Y. Venkata Rao, Head, Department of Tourism


Studies for all his support in carrying out this work.

I am very much grateful to the Doctoral Committee Members,


Dr. Uma Chandrasekaran, Associate Professor, Department of Management Studies
and Dr. Jitendra Mohan Mishra, Assistant Professor, Department of Tourism
Studies, Pondicherry University, who shared their valuable knowledge, encouraging
comments and suggestions throughout my research work.

I would also like to express my thanks to all the teachers of the Department
of Tourism Studies, Pondicherry University for their kind support.

I would like to place on record my heartfelt gratitude to my friends


Mr. Pavan Kumar. T, Dr. U. Devasenadhipathi, Mrs. S. Anupama,
Mr. R. Panchanathan, Mr. S. Murugesan and T. Thamizharima,
Dr. A. Senthamizhraja, Dr. B. Balaji and Dr. R.Rajesh for always being there for
and with me.
My special thanks to Mr. S. Mariappan, and Mr. S. Sivakumar, who are
gracious enough in permitting me to use their room for thesis preparation.

I am sincerely thankful to Ms. Anurangjani. Mrs. Rohini. K, Dr. S.Jackline,


Mr. M. Anburaja, Mr. Senthilrajan, Mr.V.Murugan, Mr. N. Latchoumanan,
Mr. A. Saravanan, Mr. Shanmugavel, Dr.A.Vadivel, K. Krishna Kumar,
Mr. R. Rajasegar, Mr. M. Siva, Mr. D. Mohanraj, Mr. R. Suresh Kumar,
Mr. J. Sundarajan and my elder brother Mr. P. Murugadass for their everlasting
support that helped me to complete this research work successfully.

Many thanks to my Co-Scholars and well-wishers, Mrs. C. P. Sangeetha,


Mr. A. Sadanandam, Mrs. Rachel Jessy, Mr. Deleepan.G.V., Mr. Raghul,
Ms. Nabanita. K, Ms. R. Vaishnavi, Mrs. Sumithra, Dr.Sobana, , Mr. Nittin
Mittal, Mr. Rohit Borlikar, Mr. Sumit sen , Mr. Abinash Kumar Jha, Mr. Wasim
Ahmad, Mr. Atul Sharma,Mr. Prem Kumar, Mr. Karthik. A, Ms. Jenifer Marie,
Mr. Baskar (MBA Tourism), Mr. Ramasamy and Mr. Magesh, for their affection
and support that have made my university days enjoyable and memorable.

I would also like to thank the office staff Mr. Arunagiri and Mrs. Jayapriya
of Department of Tourism Studies for their support.

Needless to say that this work is the result of a strenuous journey and along
the way several of my friends and well wishers have immensely contributed in terms
of providing suggestion, valuable information and in many other ways in the absence
of which this work would have not seen the light of the day!

P.Karmenivannan.
ABSTRACT

The main objective of this research is to develop a profile and an operating


model for weekend tourists and to examine the gaps in expectations and experiences
of weekend tourists on tourism facilities and destination specific factors of
Puducherry destination. Field study for data collection was conducted for twelve
months from December 2013 to November 2014 on weekends only. A total of 450
samples were collected from tourists. Primary data were collected from the weekend
tourists at various tourists attractions of Puducherry. SPSS (Statistical Package for
Social Science) version-21 software was used to analyse the primary data. Statistical
tools namely, Percentage method, Independent Sample t test, one way ANOVA,
Mean Ranking Technique, Factor Analysis, Correlations and Multiple Regression
were used for primary data analysis. The study found that majority of the weekend
tourists are satisfied with the available tourism facilities and destination specific
factors. Weekend tourists expectations and experiences depends on two main factors
such as tourism facilities and destination specific factors. Further, satisfaction of
Puducherry weekend tourists was influenced by factors such as transportation,
accommodation, destination facilities, cultural and spiritual attractions, shopping,
entertainment, water sports and other tourist amenities. The study has shed light on
the primary characteristics of the weekend tourists. The research findings have
facilitated to explain the purpose for taking weekend breaks and also brought out
weekend tourists travel behavior. The findings should provide sufficient information
or knowledge for better marketing strategies to attract this tourist segment.
CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF CHARTS
LIST OF EXHIBITS
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Chapter No. Title Page No.


I INTRODUCTION 1 – 17
1.0  Introduction  1 
1.1  Indian Domestic Tourism  2 
Contributing  Factors  for  the  growth  of  Domestic 
1.2  3 
Tourism 
1.3  Short break provides Weekend market  4 
1.4  Weekend Tourism  5 
1.4.1  The Evolution of Weekend Tourism  5 
1.4.2  Emergence of Weekend concept in India  6 
1.4.3  Importance of  Weekend Tourism  6 
1.4.4  Weekend Tourists and Segmentation  7 
1.5  Background of the Study  7 
1.6  Need for the Study  8 
1.7  Objectives of the Study  9 
1.8  Hypotheses  9 
1.9  Research Questions  10 
1.10  Research Instruments  12 
1.11  Secondary Data  12 
1.12  Identification of Population and Sampling Strategies  12 
1.13  Pilot and Main Survey  13 
1.14  Reliability and Validity  14 
1.15  Data Analysis  14 
1.16  Significance of the Study  15 
1.17  Rationale of the Study  15 
1.18  Scope of the Study  16 
1.19  Limitations of the Study  16 
1.20  Layout of the Dissertation  16 
II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 18 – 38
2.0  Introduction  18 
2.1  The importance of tourism  18 
2.2  An Understanding on Weekend Tourism  19 
2.3  Tourists Satisfaction  20 
2.4  Determinants of Tourists Satisfaction  22 
2.5  Measurement of Tourists Satisfaction  25 
Tourists  Satisfaction  through  Expectation  and 
2.6  26 
Experience 
Tourists  Expectation  ‐  An  Essential  Element  of 
2.7  26 
Satisfaction 
2.8  Expectations, Experience and Satisfaction  29 
2.9  Tourists Satisfaction and Experience  33 
2.10  Tourists Experience and its impact on Satisfaction  33 
2.11  Conclusions  37 
III  DESTINATION PROFILE  39 – 74
3.0  Introduction   39 
3.1  Historical Background  40 
3.1.1  French Trade Relations  41 
3.1.2  French Rule in Puducherry  41 
3.2  Geographic Features   42 
3.3  Demography   43 
3.4  Administration   44 
3.5  Economy   44 
3.6  Education   44 
3.7  Health   45 
3.8  Transport System  46 
3.8.1  Road Transport  46 
3.8.2  Rail Transport  46 
3.8.3.  Airport  47 
3.9  Electricity and Telecommunication   47 
3.10  Accommodation and Tourism Services   48 
Motor  Bikes  –  A  boon  for  Internal  Transport  for 
3.11  50 
Tourists 
3.12  Share of Domestic Tourist Arrivals  51 
3.13  Puducherry: A paradise for film shooting  52 
3.14  Unique Selling Proposition of Puducherry   54 
3.15  Beaches  55 
3.16  Back Waters and Lakes  57 
3.16.1  Ousudu Lake  58 
3.17  Sri Aurobindo Ashram  59 
3.18  Auroville  59 
3.19  Arikamedu  60 
3.20  Boulevard Town  61 
3.20.1  Art and Architectural Styles  62 
3.20.2  Gardens and Parks  63 
3.20.3  Bharathi Park  64 
3.21  Monuments and Heritage Buildings  65 
3.21.1  Temples, Churches and Mosques  66 
3.22  Museums  68 
3.23  Science Centre and Planetarium  69 
3.24  Fairs and Festivals  69 
3.25  Shopping Paradise  71 
3.26  Puducherry’s Wines and Liquor  73 
3.27  Conclusion  74 
PROFILE AND TRIP CHARACTERISTICS
IV 75 – 95
OF THE WEEKEND TOURISTS
4.0  Introduction  75 
4.1  Statistical Analysis  75 
4.1.1  Demographic Profile of the sample respondents  75 
4.1.2  Weekend Tourist and their Trip Characteristics  80 
4.1.3  The Travel Decision  85 
4.1.4  Planning of the trip to Puducherry  87 
4.1.5  Choice of transport used to reach Puducherry  88 
4.1.6  Choice of Accommodation  89 
4.1.7  Booking Behaviour  90 
4.1.8  Cost attributes  91 
4.1.9  Repeated visitor  93 
4.1.10  Transport to move around the city  94 
4.2  Conclusion  95 
EXPECTATIONS, EXPERIENCES AND
V 96 – 133
SATISFACTION OF WEEKEND TOURISTS
5.0  Introduction  96 
5.1  Independent Sample t Test  96 
Mean  Difference  between  Gender  Vs  Tourist 
5.1.1  96 
Expectations and Tourism Experiences. 
Mean  difference  between  Visitor  Status  Vs  Tourist 
5.1.2  98 
Expectations and Experiences 
5.2  Paired Sample t‐test  100 
Mean  difference  between  Tourist  Expectations  and 
5.2.1  100 
Experiences on Tourism Facilities 
Mean  difference  between  Tourist  Expectation  and 
5.2.2  101 
Experience on Destination Specific Factors 
5.3  One‐way ANOVA  101 
Variance between Age of Tourists, their Expectation 
5.3.1  and Experience on Tourism Facilities and Destination  101 
Specific Factors 
Variance  between  Educational  Qualification  of 
5.3.2  Tourists, their Expectation and Experience on Tourism  102 
Facilities and Destination Specific Factors  
Variance  between  Annual  Income  and  Tourist 
5.3.3  Expectation  and  Experience  on  Tourism  Facilities  and  103 
Destination Specific Factors    
Variance  between  Source  of  Information  and  Tourist 
5.3.4  Expectation  and  Experience  on  Tourism  Facilities  and  105 
Destination Specific Factors 
Variance  between  Purpose  of  Visit  and  Tourist 
5.3.5  Expectation  and  Experience  on  Tourism  Facilities  and  106 
Destination Specific Factors 
Variance  between  Choice  of  Transport  and  Tourist 
5.3.6  Expectation  and  Experience  on  Tourism  Facilities  and  107 
Destination Specific Factors    
Variance  between  Choice  of  Accommodation  and 
5.3.7  Tourist  Expectation  and  Experience  on  Tourism  108 
Facilities and Destination Specific Factors   
Variance  between  Length  of  Stay  and  Tourist 
5.3.8  Expectation  and  Experience  on  Tourism  Facilities  and  109 
Destination Specific Factors   
Variance  between  Tourist  Companionship  and  Tourist 
5.3.9  Expectation  and  Experience  on  Tourism  Facilities  and  110 
Destination Specific Factors   
Variance  between  Tour  Budget  and  Tourist 
5.3.10  Expectation  and  Experience  on  Tourism  Facilities  and  111 
Destination Specific Factors   
5.4  Exploratory Factor Analysis  112 
5.4.1  Tourist Expectation on Tourism Facilities  113 
5.4.2  Tourist Experience on Tourism Facilities  116 
5.4.3  Tourist Expectation on Destination Specific Factors  119 
5.4.4  Tourist Experience on Destination Specific Factors  122 
5.5  Mean Ranking  126 
5.5.1  Tourist Satisfaction Indicators  126 
5.6  Correlation  127 
The  relationship  between  the  tourist  expectation  and 
5.6.1  127 
tourist experience on destination specific factors 
The  relationship  between  the  tourist  expectation  and 
5.6.2  128 
tourist experience of Tourism Facilities  
5.7  Multiple Regression  128 
Impact  of  Tourist  Expectation  of  Tourism  Facilities  on 
5.7.1  129 
Tourist Experience of Tourism Facilities 
 Impact  of  Tourist  Expectation  of  Destination  Specific 
5.7.2  Factors  on  Tourist  Experience  of  Destination  Specific  130 
Factors 
VI  RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS  134 – 159
6.0  Introduction   134 
6.1  Weekend Travel Phenomenon  134 
6.2  Focus on Weekend breaks  134 
6.3  Weekend Tourists Demographic Characteristics   135 
6.3.1  Gender  135 
6.3.2  Age  135 
6.3.3  Marital Status  136 
6.3.4  Education  136 
6.3.5  Employment and Occupation  136 
6.3.6  Economic Status  137 
6.3.7  Income  137 
6.3.8  Place of residence  137 
6.4  Weekend Tourist and their Trip Characteristics  138 
6.4.1  Group composition  138 
6.4.2  Nature of the Trip  138 
6.4.3  Trip Duration  138 
6.4.4  Number of Nights spent in Puducherry  139 
6.4.5  Trip Frequency  139 
6.4.6  Need for weekend Trips  140 
6.4.7  Relax and Rejuvenate  140 
6.4.8  Cannot take long holidays  140 
6.5  Travel Decision  140 
6.5.1  Information sources  140 
6.5.2  Influential factors for destination selection  141 
6.5.3  Advance Planning of the trip  142 
6.5.4  Transport Facilities used to reach Puducherry  142 
6.5.5  Type of Accommodation  143 
6.6  Weekend Tourist Behaviour  143 
6.6.1  Booking of Accommodation  143 
6.6.2  Booking of Transport Facilities  144 
6.6.3  Travel Expenses  144 
6.6.4  Cost of Accommodation  145 
6.6.5  Repeat visits  145 
6.6.6  Internal Transport  145 
6.7  Puducherry as a Weekend Destination  146 
6.7.1  Puducherry’s Accommodation Sector  146 
6.8  Independent Sample T Test  147 
Gender  Vs  Tourist  Expectations  and  Tourism 
6.8.1  147 
Experiences 
6.8.2  Visitor Status Vs Tourist Expectations and Experiences  148 
6.9  Paired Samples t‐test   148 
Tourist  Expectations  and  Experiences  on  Tourism 
6.9.1  148 
Facilities 
Tourist  Expectations  and  Experiences  on  Destination 
6.9.2  148 
Specific Factors 
6.10  One ‐way ANOVA  149 
Age  of  Tourists  Vs  Tourist  Expectations  and 
6.10.1  Experiences  on  Tourism    Facilities  and  Destination  149 
Specific Factors 
Educational  Qualification  of  Tourists  Vs  Expectation 
6.10.2  and  Experience  on  Tourism  Facilities  and  Destination  149 
Specific Factors 
Annual Income Vs Tourist Expectation and Experience 
6.10.3  150 
on Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific Factors 
Source  of  Information  Vs  Tourist  Expectation  and 
6.10.4  Experience  on  Tourism  Facilities  and  Destination  151 
Specific Factors    
Purpose  of  Visit  Vs  Tourist  Expectations  and 
6.10.5  Experiences  on  Tourism  Facilities  and  Destination  151 
Specific Factors 
Choice  of  Transport  Vs  Tourist  Expectations  and 
6.10.6  Experiences  on  Tourism  Facilities  and  Destination  152 
Specific Factors    
Choice of Accommodation Vs Tourist Expectations and 
6.10.7  Experiences  on  Tourism  Facilities  and  Destination  153 
Specific Factors   
Length of Stay Vs Tourist Expectations and Experiences 
6.10.8  153 
on Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific Factors   
Tourist  Companionship  Vs  Tourist  Expectations  and 
6.10.9  Experiences  on  Tourism  Facilities  and  Destination  154 
Specific Factors   
Tour  Budget  Vs  Tourist  Expectations  and  Experiences 
6.10.10  155 
on Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific Factors   
6.11  Exploratory Factor Analysis  155 
6.11.1  Tourist Expectations on Tourism Facilities  155 
6.11.2  Tourist Experience on Tourism Facilities  156 
6.11.3  Tourist Expectations on Destination Specific Factors  157 
6.11.4  Tourist Experiences on Destination Specific Factors  157 
6.12  Mean Ranking  158 
6.13  Correlations   158 
Tourist  Expectations  and  Tourist  Experiences  on 
6.13.1  158 
Destination Specific Factors 
6.13.2  Expectations and Experiences of Tourism Facilities  159 
6.14  Multiple Regression – Results   159 
Impact of Tourist Expectations on Tourist Experiences 
6.14.1  159 
of Tourism Facilities 
Impact  of  Tourist  Expectations  on  Experiences  of 
6.14.2  159 
Destination Specific Factors 
SUGGESTIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS
VII  160 – 170
AND CONCULSIONS  
7.0  Introduction  160 
7.1  Suggestions  160 
7.2  Recommendations  163 
7.2.1  Destination Attractions  163 
7.2.2  Backwaters, Lakes, Gardens and Parks  165 
7.2.3  Development of Garden and Park  166 
7.2.4  Transportation  167 
7.2.5  Accommodation  168 
7.2.6  Other Tourists Facilities  168 
7.3  Conclusions  169 
7.4  Limitations of the study  169 
7.5  Scope for Further Researches  170 
  BIBILIOGRAPHY  
  APPENDIX  
  Questionnaire  
LIST OF TABLES
Table No. Title Page No.
3.1  Puducherry’s Hotel Rooms and Beds  49 
3.2  Puducherry’s Domestic Tourist Arrival Data  51 
4.1  Demographic Profile of the Sample Respondents  76 
4.2  Educational Qualification of the Sample Respondents  77 
4.3  Occupational Profile of the Sample Respondents  78 
4.4  Annual Income Distribution of the Sample Respondents  79 
4.5  Current Place of Residence of the Sample Respondents  80 
4.6  Tourist Status  81 
4.7  Tourist Companionship  81 
4.8  Nature of the Trip  82 
4.9  Total Nights Spent Away From Home on This Trip  82 
4.10  No. of Nights Spent in Puducherry  83 
4.11  Frequency of Weekend Trips  83 
4.12  Need Break From Work Stress  84 
4.13  Help to Relax/Rejuvenate  85 
4.14  Can't Take Long Holidays  85 
4.15  Source of Information about Pondicherry  86 
4.16  Factors Prompted To Choose Puducherry for the Weekend Trip  86 
4.17  Planning of the Trip to Puducherry  87 
4.18  Choice of Transport Used To Reach Puducherry  89 
4.19  Choice of Accommodation  89 
4.20  Booking of Accommodation  90 
4.21  Reservation of Transportation for the Trip  91 
4.22  Transportation Cost Per Person  92 
4.23  Accommodation Costs   93 
4.24  Repeated Visitor  93 
4.25  Transport to Move around the City (Internal Transport)  94 
Mean difference between Gender Vs Tourist Expectations and 
5.1  97 
Experiences 
Mean difference between Visitor Status Vs Tourist 
5.2  98 
Expectations and Experiences  
5.3  Tourist Expectations and Experiences on Tourism Facilities  100 
Tourist Expectations and Experiences on Destination Specific 
5.4  101 
Factors 
Age of Tourists and Tourist Expectation and Experience on 
5.5  102 
Tourism Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific Factors (DSF) 
Educational Qualification of Tourists and Tourist Expectation 
5.6  and Experience on Tourism Facilities (TF) and Destination  103 
Specific Factors (DSF) 
Annual Income and Tourist Expectation and Experience on 
5.7  104 
Tourism Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific Factors (DSF) 
Source of Information and Tourist Expectation and Experience 
5.8  on Tourism Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific Factors  105 
(DSF)    
Purpose of Visit and Tourist Expectation and Experience on 
5.9  106 
Tourism Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific Factors (DSF) 
Choice of Transport and Tourist Expectation and Experience on 
5.10  107 
Tourism Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific Factors (DSF 
Choice of Accommodation and Tourist Expectation and 
5.11  Experience on Tourism Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific  108 
Factors (DSF) 
Length of Stay and Tourist Expectation and Experience on 
5.12  109 
Tourism Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific Factors (DSF) 
Tourist Companionship and Tourist Expectation and 
5.13  Experience on Tourism Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific  110 
Factors (DSF) 
Tour Budget and Tourist Expectation and Experience on 
5.14  111 
Tourism Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific Factors (DSF)  
KMO and Bartlett’s Test – Tourist Expectations on Tourism 
5.15  113 
Facilities 
 Total Variance Explained – Tourist Expectations on Tourism 
5.16  113 
Facilities 
Rotated Component Matrix – Tourist Expectations on Tourism 
5.17  115 
Facilities 
KMO and Bartlett’s Test – Tourist Experiences on Tourism 
5.18  116 
Facilities 
Total Variance Explained – Tourist Experiences on Tourism 
5.19  116 
Facilities 
Rotated Component Matrix – Tourist Experiences on Tourism 
5.20  118 
Facilities 
KMO and Bartlett’s Test – Tourist Expectations on Destination 
5.21  119 
Specific‐Factors 
Total Variance Explained‐ Tourist Expectations on Destination 
5.22  120 
Specific‐Factors 
Rotated Component Matrix ‐ Tourist Expectations on 
5.23  121 
Destination Specific Factors 
 KMO and Bartlett’s Test ‐ Tourist Experiences on Destination 
5.24  122 
Specific Factors 
Total Variance Explained ‐ Tourist Experiences on Destination 
5.25  123 
Specific‐Factors 
Rotated Component Matrix‐ Tourist Experiences on  
5.26  124 
Destination specific factors 
5.27  Tourist Satisfaction Indicators  126 
Relationship between Tourist Expectation and Tourist 
5.28  127 
Experience on Destination Specific Factors 
Relationship between the Tourist Expectations and Tourist 
5.29  128 
Experiences on Tourism Facilities  
Model Summary – Impact of Tourist Expectations on Tourist 
5.30  129 
Experience of Tourism Facilities 
ANOVA ‐ Impact of Tourist Expectations on Tourist Experience 
5.31  129 
of Tourism Facilities 
Coefficients ‐ Impact of Tourist Expectations on Tourist 
5.32  130 
Experience of Tourism Facilities 
Model Summary – Impact of Tourist Expectations on Tourist 
5.33  131 
Experience of Destination Specific Factors  
ANOVA ‐ Impact of Tourist Expectations on Tourist Experience 
5.34  131 
of Destination Specific Factors 
Coefficients ‐ Impact of Tourist Expectations on Tourist 
5.35  132 
Experience of Destination Specific factors 
 
LIST OF Charts
Chart No. Title Page No.
1.1  Research Framework  11 
5.1  Operating Model for Weekend Tourism  133 

LIST OF Exhibits
Exhibit No. Title Page No.
3.1  Hotel De Lorient: A Star Heritage Hotel  48 
3.2  Weekend Tourists on Rental Motor Bikes  50 
3.3  Promenade Beach Road  53 
3.4  Le Café Restaurant at Promenade Beach Road  54 
Paradise Beach: Popularly known as Island Beach among the 
3.5  56 
Weekend Tourists 
3.6  Auro Beach: Weekend tourists enjoying at beach  57 
3.7  Chunnambar Back Water  58 
3.8  Sri Aurobindo Ashram  59 
3.9  Matrimandir: The soul of Auroville  60 
3.10  An Aerial View of Boulevard  61 
3.11  Franco Tamil Architectural style House  62 
3.12  Botanical Garden: Depicted as zoo in the movie ‘Life of Pie’  63 
3.13  Aayi Mandapam: Bharathi Park  64 
3.14  Lycee Francaise  65 
3.15  French War Memorial  66 
3.16  Kargil War Memorial  66 
3.17  Immaculate Conception Cathedral  67 
3.18  Manakula Vinayagar Temple  68 
3.19  Museum  68 
3.20  Puducherry Carnival: Organised by PTDC  70 
3.21  Vinayaka Chaturthi Celebration  70 
3.22  Vintage Car Rally: This Rally is conducted every year  71 
3.23  Sunday Bazaar  72 
3.24  Road side stalls  73 
3.25  Sunday Bazaar: Mahatma Gandhi Road  73 
 
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 
AC Air Conditioned
AD Anno Domini
ANOVA Analysis of Variance
BC Before Christ
BSNL Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
CAGR Compound Annual Growth Rate
DSF Destination Specific Factors
ECR East Coast Road
EFA Explorative Factor Analysis
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GSDP Gross State Domestic Product
HOLSAT Holiday Satisfaction
IMFL Indian Made Foreign Liquor
ICT Information, Communication and Technology
INR Indian Rupee
INTACH Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage
IT Information Technology
ITES Information Technology Enabled Services
KMO Kaiser Meyer Olkin
KWh Kilowatt hour
LCC Low cost carriers
MNC Multi National Company
NCSM National Council of Science Museums
NLC Neyveli Lignite Corporation
NGO Non Governmental Organization
PCA Principal Component Analysis
PPP Public Private Partnership
PRTC Puducherry Road Transport Corporation
PTDC Puducherry Tourism Development
SPSS Statistical Package for Social Science
SD Standard Deviation
TF Tourism Facilities
UN United Nations
UNWTO United Nations World Tourism Organization
U.S United States
USP Unique Selling Proposition
UT Union Territory
VFR Visit Friends and Relatives
WPR Visit Friends and Relatives
WOM Word of Mouth
WTTC World Travel and Tourism Council

 
Chapter I
Introduction
1.0 Introduction

Tourism is no more an indulgence of select rich but now emerged as a mass


phenomenon because of more affluence, more leisure time and increased desire to
seek pleasure. Tourism, the smokeless industry has benefited immensely from the
globalization process. Travel has been increasing across the globe, driven by rising
purchasing power of growing middle class in many nations including the developing
economies. International tourism witnessed a record number of international tourists
(overnight visitors) reaching 1.1 billion in 2014 with an increase of 4.4 percent
compared to 2013. This is the fifth consecutive year of above average growth since
the 2009 global economic crisis, (UNWTO, 2014).

In India, the Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of domestic tourist


visits to all states and union territories from 1991 to 2013 was 13.80%. During 2014,
Domestic tourist visits to States and Indian Union territories registered a growth of
11.93% over 9.59% of 2013 (Ministry of Tourism, 2014).

The implementation of economic liberalisation policies in India since 1991 has


been a turning point not only for tourism industry but all industries across the
spectrum. Specifically, average income, infrastructural facilities and rural-urban
migration of people began to exhibit unprecedented growth. Many foreign
multinational companies, mostly from United States of America and Europe have
started business in India and adopted a work culture of 40 hours workweek for their
employees. This resulted in five day workweek and two days rest or weekend holiday,
mostly during Saturdays and Sundays.

Weekend travel helps the tourists to escape from daily work stress and to
rejuvenate their mind and body after the weekly routine from Monday through Friday.
As a result, many employees prefer to spend their weekend as pleasant and in diverse
ways as possible. The weekend holidays may be short but very frequent and
contributes to a major share in the growth of domestic tourism in India. Seasonality,
which is viewed as a major problem for tourism industry can be reduced through
weekend tourism. Of late, Puducherry has emerged as a popular weekend destination
among the domestic leisure tourists. Almost 50 percent of domestic tourists of

1
 
1.0 Introduction

Tourism is no more an indulgence of select rich but now emerged as a mass


phenomenon because of more affluence, more leisure time and increased desire to
seek pleasure. Tourism, the smokeless industry has benefited immensely from the
globalization process. Travel has been increasing across the globe, driven by rising
purchasing power of growing middle class in many nations including the developing
economies. International tourism witnessed a record number of international tourists
(overnight visitors) reaching 1.1 billion in 2014 with an increase of 4.4 percent
compared to 2013. This is the fifth consecutive year of above average growth since
the 2009 global economic crisis, (UNWTO, 2014).

In India, the Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of domestic tourist


visits to all states and union territories from 1991 to 2013 was 13.80%. During 2014,
Domestic tourist visits to States and Indian Union territories registered a growth of
11.93% over 9.59% of 2013 (Ministry of Tourism, 2014).

The implementation of economic liberalisation policies in India since 1991 has


been a turning point not only for tourism industry but all industries across the
spectrum. Specifically, average income, infrastructural facilities and rural-urban
migration of people began to exhibit unprecedented growth. Many foreign
multinational companies, mostly from United States of America and Europe have
started business in India and adopted a work culture of 40 hours workweek for their
employees. This resulted in five day workweek and two days rest or weekend holiday,
mostly during Saturdays and Sundays.

Weekend travel helps the tourists to escape from daily work stress and to
rejuvenate their mind and body after the weekly routine from Monday through Friday.
As a result, many employees prefer to spend their weekend as pleasant and in diverse
ways as possible. The weekend holidays may be short but very frequent and
contributes to a major share in the growth of domestic tourism in India. Seasonality,
which is viewed as a major problem for tourism industry can be reduced through
weekend tourism. Of late, Puducherry has emerged as a popular weekend destination
among the domestic leisure tourists. Almost 50 percent of domestic tourists of

1
Puducherry are found to be weekend tourists. (Rajesh, 2015). Therefore, this study
focuses on weekend tourism and the weekend tourists expectations and experiences at
Puducherry.

1.1 Indian Domestic Tourism

“Domestic tourism is as old as the Indian society” (Singh, 2009). However, in


the last one decade the country has witnessed a phenomenal growth in domestic
tourism. The domestic tourist visits increased from 66.6 million in 1991 to 236.4
million in 2001 and 864.5 million in 2011 to 1281.9 million in 2014, (Ministry of
Tourism, Govt of India). There has been a steady increase of domestic tourists visits
in the country. In fact, this market had performed comparatively much better than the
international tourists market in India with no immediate sign of slowing down. Last
decade saw a clear slow down for all tourists and destinations. But today, this is not so
due to continuous domestic tourist visits throughout the year in larger numbers
although international tourists stay away during monsoon months. Singh (2009),
states that for every international tourist in India, there are 80 domestic tourists. As
per India Tourism Statistics at Glance 2014, the number has increased even more to
166 domestic tourists approximately for every foreign tourist. Indian domestic
tourism market is more than the total international tourists received by all global
markets 1,135 million in 2014(UNWTO, 2014).

The growth in domestic tourism has facilitated to popularise and restore


several tourist destinations in India and has helped many destinations in offsetting the
seasonality problems, considered an enemy of the tourism industry. For example,
international tourist destinations like Goa, Shimla, Mysore and Ooty receive short trip
domestic tourists throughout the year, especially on weekends from nearby cities
which reduces the seasonality issues of the destination. Many researches on domestic
tourism have found that weekend tourism is all poised to form the basis for a viable
and sustainable tourism industry in India. The contribution of domestic tourism is
enormous to the country’s like economic growth, employment opportunities and
poverty alleviation. Domestic tourism development is as important as inbound
tourism for the growth of Indian tourism industry. It functions like a spring-board for
the growth and expansion of international tourism of a country and an essential

2
contributor to the growth of tourism and provides a foundation for sustainable tourism
growth and development, especially in times of global uncertainties.

Domestic tourism in India has been on the rise for the past one decade. R.
Walker and T. Walker (2011) states that, some countries actively promote domestic
leisure tourism where residents visit other parts of their own country keeping the
money flows inside the country and generates employment with in the country. India
is a diverse country with a huge variety of religions and cultures spread over a vast
geographic area and experiences a wide range of climates (Stephen, 2007). Visit to
each Indian state will make one feel like visiting a different country and each region
has got something for every tourist.

1.2 Contributing Factors for the growth of Domestic Tourism

Page, S.(2002) has listed the structural change that contributes to the rise in
the secondary trips among European travellers. They are as follows:

 Increased holiday and leave entitlements;


 Availability of public and national holidays which encourage ‘long
weekends’ that are ideal for short breaks;
 Rising prosperity from double income families with greater disposable
income;
 Changing perceptions of travel with relative reductions in price,
convenience and the availability of transport options, making it a social,
psychological and recreational necessity for many; and
 Time-space compression, where improvements in transport technology
have made access to destinations for short breaks a reality, avoiding
multiple travel options to national airports.

These factors aptly apply to the rising Indian domestic tourism as well. Many
researchers on Indian domestic tourism have expressed similar views for the growth
of domestic tourism in India (Prasad (2009), Singh (2009) Swain (2010), Chaudhary,
etc.). Further, Mintel (2003) and Euro monitor (2005) point out five main factors for

3
the growth of domestic tourism in India, viz., improved amenities, price competition,
increased disposable income, government policy and appropriate marketing.

1.3 Short break provides Weekend market

‘A weekend and a long weekend makes a short trip and one week and more is
a long holiday’ (Boerjan, 1995).According to Murphy, et al (2010) Short breaks
constitute an attractive market grown considerably over the past two decades which
often provides a weekend market to supplement the business tourism on weekdays. It
more gradually fills out shoulder seasons and provides some event related peaks in the
off-season, and during lengthy recession, it becomes possible alternative to the
traditional vacation. In India, the growth of short holidays in the last one decade is
more impressive than other holiday markets. This particular niche market is a very
significant component of Indian domestic tourism market. The short break holiday is
often described as supplementary or addition to the main holidays. Some prefer short
breaks because of their work commitments which do not permit them taking long
holidays.

Murphy, et al (2010) defines short break holiday as “a non-business trip


between one and four nights away from place of residence”. This is a new phase of
the holiday market. Besides other holidays, short holidays of between one and three
nights deserve better attention. United Kingdom and European countries used short
break holiday market to complement and supplement the market of business tourists
of city hotels on weekends. The short trip tourists in India or abroad mostly prefer
domestic destinations mostly 300-400 km from their residence, while they devote
more time for sightseeing or pleasure activities rather than spending more time on
travel reaching the destination as it limits their leisure activities. The availability of
various modes of transports, viz. luxury buses, own cars, self driven car rental
facilities, express trains and cheaper flights play significant role in the growth of
domestic tourism. Further, long weekend for the short break travellers is no longer
limited to closer destinations but a wide and wonderful choice of destinations. The
city population is more likely to make use of Low cost carriers (LCC) to travel further
away, at times to nearby international destinations, whereas those from regional

4
centres were more likely to use the family car and go to domestic destinations such as
the local capital city or an icon destination, generally the coast.

According to Murphy (2010), short break market is an important component


of the overall domestic market and often provides a weekend market to supplement
the weekday business or other holiday market. Therefore, more attention be given to
short breaks besides other holidays as weekend tourism is a part of short trip, which
predominantly contributes to the growth of domestic tourism in India and across the
globe.

1.4 Weekend Tourism

A short trip includes weekend and a long weekend (Boerjan, 1995). Pintilii, et
al (2010) commented on weekend tourism as all forms of short tourism carried out
especially during weekends. Further, he says weekend tourism at times intervened
with main forms of tourism, provided that the period for conducting it is
predominantly the end of the week. Weekend is used by many working population as
a time to recover from work demands and to regain energy that translates into their
well-being (Fritz et al, 2013).

1.4.1 The evolution of Weekend Tourism

The work week and weekend are devoted to labour and rest respectively. In
most Western countries the workweek is Monday through Friday and the weekend
includes Saturday and Sunday. The one day rest every week stems from several
religious traditions viz. Friday for Muslims, Saturday (the Sabbath) for Jewish and
Sunday (The Lord’s Day) for Christians (Eviatar, 1985). The two day weekend
concept originated during the industrial revolution in the late 1800s in Britain and it
marked a major turning point in history. Industrial revolution influenced the daily life
of people in some way or the other. During this period the traditional farmers
transformed as factory workers that produced consumer goods. (Katie et al, 2008).

It was in 1908 that the New England Cotton Mill in the United States
instituted the first five day workweek to facilitate both immigrant Jewish workers and

5
Christians to adhere to the Sabbath on Saturdays and Sundays respectively. Later on
in 1926, Henry Ford announced the eight hours work day or five day week, with no
over time and with no cut in pay. This followed by the Amalgamated Clothing
Workers of American Union’s demand for a five day work week which was accepted.
In 1940, the provision of the 1938 Fair Labour Standards Act was signed by the then
U.S President, Franklin Roosevelt, which established five day or Maximum 40 hour
work week with two day weekend which was eventually adopted throughout United
States of America.

The following decades witnessed more number of countries following either


Friday to Saturday or Saturday to Sunday as weekend to match the International
market. The workweek reforms occurred periodically in the late 2000s brought many
Arab countries in line with the majority of world countries, in terms of working hours,
duration of the workweek, and the weekend days.

1.4.2 Emergence of Weekend Concept in India

In India, it was in 1991 that the government began policy initiatives to


liberalise the economy with the goal of making Indian economy more market oriented
and to expand the role of private and foreign investment in the country. Indian Market
was opened to the foreign companies. Many foreign MNCs (Multi National
Companies) mostly from United States and European countries started their
operations in India and followed the work schedule of 40 to 44 hours per week which
led to five days work a week. The standard working week of Monday to Saturday was
in practice in India for a long time with 48 hours work schedule per week. But after
the emergence of foreign MNCs in India, the five day work week was adopted
broadly by Indian companies and in the process the modern weekend concept has
been effectively created.

1.4.3 Importance of Weekend Tourism

Although recent literature on domestic tourism has broadened our knowledge


on the topic, still there remain some deficiencies and gaps in the specific tourist
groups in domestic tourism. For example, while domestic tourism demand has been

6
addressed by various authors, study on the specific tourist groups that make up this
demand is lacking. The weekend tourism market is one among the most notable cases
in point. It is true that weekend tourists have largely been overlooked in terms of
academic enquiry. With a few notable exceptions (Pintilii, et. al. 2010, Fritz et. al.
2013), most of the observations on weekend tourism have come from reports created
by market research firms and by the tourism departments. This inadequacy in the
academic research is a concern, specifically when one considers that weekend tourism
has become one of the most significant growth sectors in Indian tourism in recent
years. However, understanding of weekend tourism, which is an important niche
market, remains comparatively poor. No empirical data addressing weekend tourists
and their expectations, experience and satisfaction currently exists. As such, there
exists a significant gap in the domestic tourism knowledge base and this research is an
attempt to address this gap.

1.4.4 Weekend Tourists and Segmentation

Two immediate questions would arise in relation to weekend tourism: Is there


a distinctive weekend tourist segment? and if so, how does it differ from other
domestic or short trip holiday segments? In order to understand the growing weekend
travel market, it is important to examine these questions. Weekend tourists have
hardly ever been identified separately and empirically studied in domestic or short
holiday tourism research. This is regrettable as segmenting tourist markets along such
lines could be very informative for destination management bodies. Thus, the need to
identify and examine weekend tourists as a distinctive Domestic tourism segment is
something that is both needed and overdue.

1.5 Background of the Study

Puducherry is a hot spot for weekend tourists with its close proximity to two
metropolitan cities which, of late, have emerged as country’s major Information
Technology hubs, namely, Chennai and Bangalore. These are the two cities,
generating tourists for Puducherry weekend tourism. Puducherry had received half a
million domestic tourists in the year 2003, and by 2013 the number has grown to more

7
than a million tourists. This excludes the 35,000 and more visitors who visit
Puducherry every day (PTDC).

Puducherry, therefore, needs to showcase itself as an attractive weekend


destination. Since consumer satisfaction is determined by overall feeling or attitude a
person possess about a product after it has been purchased (Solomon, 2002), tourists
must be satisfied and happy during their holiday so that they would consider revisiting
Puducherry or recommending it to others.

In the current scenario, tourist satisfaction is of utmost importance because of


its influence on repeat visit and word-of-mouth (WOM) publicity. Against this
backdrop, this study, therefore, focuses on expectations, experiences and satisfaction
of weekend tourists of Puducherry.

1.6 Need for the study

Puducherry is considered as one of the booming weekend tourism destinations


and has the immense potential to strengthen the local economy besides opening
employment opportunities. Tourists from the two nearby metro cities, Chennai and
Bangalore arrive in large numbers during weekends and long weekends for a quick,
enjoyable and refreshing trip to different tourist places in this erstwhile French
colony. In order to take a break from the hustle and bustle of the big cities, tourists
especially, the young travellers plan their weekend trips to Puducherry. The
unmistakable French connection, the tree lined boulevards, the quaint spiritual
sceneries, the endless stretches of unspoilt virgin beaches and backwaters and a wide
choice of restaurants serving both native and continental cuisines provide a mix of
experiences that draws tourists from across the country for their weekend break.

Puducherry has a distinct spiritual vibration that cannot be felt anywhere else
in India. The blend of spiritual aura, Colonial heritage, Tamil Culture and the
cosmopolitan flair of many nationalities is an additional advantage to this spiritual
land. This inherent ambience of Puducherry becomes most evident in the oldest part
of the town which flanks the seashore and boulevard. Quiet beaches and peaceful
resorts in the north and south of the city balance the town’s busy, yet easy going life.

8
The town of Puducherry has a wide choice of hotels to choose from, Beach resorts for
tourists and families, Heritage hotels for those who want to experience something out
of the ordinary, high class commercial hotels for the corporate visitors and the
Ashram and Auroville Guest Houses for the spiritual seekers.

Puducherry is also emerging as a favourite shopping destination for many of


the travellers, besides being the birth place of several world class brands in leather,
pottery, aromatics, fashion and handmade paper. The rich heritage of Puducherry with
a spiritual aura draws tourists from far and wide.

The growing number of weekend tourists and the emergence of Puducherry as


premier weekend destination in South India prompted a systematic enquiry into the
phenomenon.

1.7 Objectives of the Study

The present study aims at achieving the following objectives:


1. To examine the weekend travel phenomenon in Puducherry;
2. To understand the profile of weekend tourists in a systematic way;
3. To examine the expectations and experiences of Puducherry weekend tourists,
4. To measure the weekend tourists satisfaction level; and
5. To develop an operating model for weekend tourism relevant universally.

1.8 Hypotheses

The following are the major hypotheses of the study:

H01: Socio-economic characteristics (such as gender, age, group, educational


qualification and annual income) of tourists do not have any significant
influence on tourists expectations and experiences.

H02: The Tripography characteristics (i.e. Visitor status, purpose of visit,


budget for transport and accommodation, length of stay and tourist
companionship) of tourists do not have any significant influence on tourists
expectation and experience.

9
H03: There is no significant relationship between the tourists expectations and
experiences at the weekend destination.

H04: There is no significant impact caused by tourist expectations on tourist


experiences.

1.9 Research Questions

Based on the above objectives, following research questions have been formulated:

a) Does Puducherry have the potential as weekend tourist destination?


b) What are the expectations and experiences of weekend tourists on the
various tourist amenities and destination specific factors at Puducherry
region?
c) How does the socio-economic characteristics and tripography
characteristics influence those expectations and experiences?
d) Is there any gap between the tourists’ expectations and experiences at the
selected destination?
e) If so, what is the extent of the influence of these gaps on tourist satisfaction
level?

10
Chart-1: Research Framework

11
1.10 Research Instruments

Research instruments consisted of a structured questionnaire and


participatory observations intended to collect primary data from the respondents. The
questionnaire contained Nominal, Ordinal and Interval scales. It consists of four parts.
Part one deals with socio–demographic, weekend tour and weekend travel related
information of the tourists. Part two is drawn with questions on a five point Likert
scale to measure tourist experiences and expectations on tourism facilities. Part three
consists of questions framed on a five point Likert scale to measure tourist
experiences and expectations on destination specific factors and Part four is devoted
to questions on a five point Likert scale used to measure the tourist activities and
overall opinion about Puducherry.

1.11 Secondary Data

Secondary data were collected from both published and unpublished sources
to understand, substantiate and validate the principal facts, concepts, theories, roles,
functions, issues, challenges, problems and prospects of weekend tourism, tourist
expectations and tourist experiences. The main sources of secondary data were of
national and international journals, books, magazines, databases, newspapers,
pamphlets, brochures, State and Central Government Tourism reports, World Travel
and Tourism Council Reports, and United Nations World Tourism Organization
Reports. Information and data related to the origin, evolution, growth and current
developments in tourism industry, domestic tourism, short break, weekend tourism,
tourists expectations, experiences and tourist satisfaction were obtained from these
secondary sources.

1.12 Identification of Population and Sampling Strategies

An average growth rate of Domestic tourist arrivals to Puducherry for last


ten years were ascertained (i.e. 2002 – 2012) and average growth rate is summed up
with last year (i.e.2012-13) tourist arrival data to identify the required population for
the study. Puducherry received 9,81,714 domestic tourists during 2012-13 and last ten
years average growth rate - 6.9% is added with the 2012-13 tourist arrival data to
identify the required population for the study. The required population for the study

12
or expected domestic tourist arrivals to Puducherry in year 2013 is 10, 47,284 tourists.
By adopting Power Sampling method, minimum required sample size for the study is
calculated as

Where

s = required sample size;

X2 = the table value of chi – square for 1 degree of freedom at the desired
confidence level (3.841).

N = the population size.

P = the population proportion (assumed to be 0.50 since this would provide


the maximum sample size).

d = the degree of accuracy expressed as a proportion (0.05).

Sample Size = 384 (approximate)

As per Power Sampling method, minimum sample size required for this study
is 384 at 95 per cent confidence level with 5 per cent level of significance.
Judgemental sampling technique was utilized for the collection of primary data from
the respondents. Though the minimum sample size thus arrived at was 384, the
researcher chose a total sample of 450 for the study.

1.13 Pilot and Main Survey

Pilot study was conducted in the months of August to October 2013 during
weekends (Saturdays and Sundays) and a total of 50 questionnaires were distributed
to the weekend tourists in order to validate and identify the redundancies in the
questionnaire, if any. Based on the pilot study, the questionnaire was modified by
removing few redundant questions and some minor changes were made. The
researcher has proceeded further with the modified questionnaire for the main field

13
study. Field study for data collection was conducted for twelve months from
December 2013 to November 2014 on weekends only. A total of 450 samples were
collected from tourists out of which 423 samples were carried out for further analysis
as 27 samples were found to be incomplete and invalid. Primary data were collected
from the weekend tourists at various tourists attractions of Puducherry like
Promenade beach, Chunnambar beach, Auroville, popular food joints etc.

1.14 Reliability and Validity

The questionnaire used for the pilot study consists of four sections. First
section of the instrument deals with tourist demographics, travel and tour related
information. The overall reliability of pilot study instrument was 0.942 (Cronbach
Alpha Value). Second section of the instrument deals with tourist expectations and
experiences on tourism facilities and the reliability of this section is 0.945 and 0.947.
Third section of the instrument deals with tourist expectations and experiences on
destination specific factors and this section’s reliability is 0.959 and 0.932. Fourth
section of the instrument deals with tourist activities and overall opinion about
Puducherry and this section’s reliability is 0.872 and 0.896.

Based on the insights gained in the pilot study, the questionnaire was
modified wherever necessary. The modified questionnaire used for the study thus had
the following section wise reliability. Section A deals with demographics, travel and
tour related information of the tourists and overall reliability of the instrument is
0.932 (Cronbach Alpha Value). Section B consists of tourist expectation and
experience on tourism facilities and this section’s reliability is 0.937 and 0.906.
Section C encompasses tourist expectation and experience on destination specific
factors and reliability of this section is 0.920 and 0.926. Section D deals with tourist
activities and overall opinion about Puducherry and this section’s reliability is 0.860
and 0.872. Apart from the reliability test, the content analysis of the questions had
also been done to ascertain the validity with experts consisting of academicians,
tourism administrators and professionals from the tourism industry. The researcher
had incorporated pertinent observations and inputs of the content analysis in the
questionnaire appropriately.

14
1.15 Data Analysis

SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) version 21 software was used
to analyse the primary data. Statistical tools, namely, Percentage method, Independent
Sample t test, one way ANOVA, Mean Ranking Technique, Factor Analysis,
Correlations and Multiple Regression were used for primary data analysis.

1.16 Significance of the Study

Tourism is an important revenue earner and many countries pursue vibrant


focussed on tourism for economic development. However, the industry is not without
challenges as the tourists are now well informed about various destinations even
before travelling and have good access to information. Literatures related to factors of
that contribute to satisfaction through the reduction of gap between expectations and
experiences are limited, especially those focussing on weekend destination.
Understanding the dimensions to bridge the gap between expectations and
experiences will provide insights for policy makers with respect to positioning
weekend tourism.

This study attempts to analyse tourist satisfaction of Puducherry weekend


tourists. In other words, the present study will examine the expectations and
experiences gap as a construct to assess the tourists satisfaction in relation to the
destination’s attractions and services offered. Despite the government’s strategic
initiatives to promote tourism as the main income earner of the union territory as well
as the importance of Puducherry as a wonderful weekend destination, there is dearth
of scientific studies examining tourist’s satisfaction.

1.17 Rationale of the Study

A good number of researches were carried out abroad on various types of


tourism and specific issues like tourist expectations, tourist experiences and tourist
satisfaction but similar research in India is less and inadequate. Further, very less
attention was given across the globe by both academics and practitioners to the
increasingly popular “weekend tourism”. Weekend tourism market has grown rapidly

15
in western countries long time back but only in the recent years in India. Therefore,
Puducherry being a major weekend destination in India, a systematic attempt has been
made in the present study to fill the research gap with regard to tourist expectations,
experiences and satisfaction with special reference to Puducherry weekend tourists.
1.18 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study is restricted to an enquiry into the role played by socio-
economic and tripography characteristics of weekend tourism. The study also
identifies the gap between expectations and experiences of weekend tourists to
Puducherry on tourist amenities and destination specific factors. The study contributes
in the following ways. First, it provides insights to the management and policy
makers to minimise the gap between expectations and experiences that will lead to a
satisfactory tour experience as it has a positive effect on tourists who plan to revisit or
to recommend Puducherry to potential tourists. Second, it offers some lessons for
other places promoting weekend tourism on the importance of each dimension that
contributes to tourists satisfaction and offers policy recommendations and institutional
implications.

1.19 Limitations of the study

The present study is a micro level study. The number of objectives examined
is limited due to the vastness of the subject, cost involved and time constraint. Since
the survey was conducted from November 2013 to November 2014, and findings of
this study were limited to weekend tourists who had visited during the said period.
Generally, in sample surveys, random sampling method is used to select the sample
individuals. But this study has adopted judgemental sampling technique to select the
sample respondents from the weekend tourists among the population. The findings,
suggestions and recommendations of the study may not be generalized. The study
focused only on Puducherry weekend tourists and their expectations, experiences and
satisfaction during their trip to Puducherry.

16
1.20 Layout of the Dissertation

Chapter I provides conceptual frame work of the study.

Chapter II contains the review of the literature relating to the research topic.
Published literature on Domestic tourism, Short Breaks, Weekend tourism, tourists
Expectations, Experiences and Satisfactions were examined in detail and major
findings/ observations were analysed.
Chapter III focuses on the Destination Profile of the study area. it gives an
overview of Puducherry’s to historical, geographical, demographic, administrative
and socio-economic issues. Information related to tourism attractions and the various
supporting services of tourism promotion along with power, telecommunication,
banking, etc., have been enumerated in this chapter

Chapter IV presents the findings regarding weekend tourists profile and their
trip characteristics.

Chapter V features the findings of Expectation and Experience of Weekend


tourists to Puducherry.

Chapter VI is the narration of Results and Discussion in this chapter of the


study.

Chapter VII throws light on the Suggestions and Recommendations


emanated from the results and findings of the research.

17
Chapter II
Review of Literature
2.0 Introduction

In the modern world, tourism industry plays a vital role in the World economic
growth and development. Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries globally,
and developing world is no exception. Many developing countries now are fully
conscious of the contribution of tourism industry to economic development.
Employment generation, foreign exchange earnings and community welfare are the
major areas where tourism development has a significant impact .A wide range of
studies have been made on the importance of tourism sector, the analysis of
perceptions of the tourists, both domestic and international, their satisfaction level,
destination image, loyalty etc. Accordingly, an attempt is made to review the
published literature focused on the above specified issues in order to gain insights into
the present study on Weekend tourism, expectations, experiences and satisfaction of
weekend tourists in Puducherry.

2.1 The importance of tourism

Many researchers explored the importance of tourism industry at various time


intervals and it was generally accepted that tourism has a profound impact on the
destinations of the host countries. For example, Doswell (1978) in his summation of
the case studies on tourism concluded that International tourism could provide Third
World countries with much needed foreign exchange. His study further indicated that
tourism industry could also create employment opportunities in the host nation. This
economic impact on the host nation has made tourism an industry mostly sought after
by developing countries.

On the contrary, Chib (1980) argued that tourism is an enclave industry which
excluded the mass of local people from taking part in tourism consumption. In his
opinion, there was also loss of autonomy by the indigenous people who mainly
depend on the leisure time consumption of the advanced countries.

However, supporting the views of Doswell, Eltringham (1984), in his


analysis on the wildlife resources for economic development concluded that there are
several positive aspects offered by tourism and one of such aspects included the

18
 
interaction of different cultures which brings about mutual understanding. However,
he opined that there were also dangers of spreading discontent in the local
community, if tourism is not well planned and thus stressed the scope of tourism.
(Eltringham, 1984, Murphy, 1985 and Husbands 1986)

Murphy (1985) argued in favour of tourism for its benefits. The benefits
proposed by him included foreign exchange earnings, creation of employment,
promotion of understanding and peace between nations, and helps in regional
development especially in rural areas. This view has been backed by statistics
published by the Third National Development Plan, 1979-83.

Similarly, Edington (1986) gave the most comprehensive view of tourism for
it tackles both the good and the bad brought about by tourism. According to him,
tourism was supported for the benefits it brings (such as those mentioned above) and
criticized for its negative aspects. The negative aspects were that it was mainly
foreign controlled, it encourages servility in the workers employed in the tourist
industry; it brings about resentment in the local population because most of the
services enjoyed by the tourists were out of the reach of the local community. In
addition, not as many jobs were created because of leakages in the form of foreign
exchange used to import goods needed by the tourists.

Despite the arguments for and against, it may be acknowledged that


international tourist arrivals and receipts from international tourism have been on the
increase in the recent years. This rapid growth has been a common alternative in the
diversification of the economies and creation of jobs in areas where resources and
market constraints severely limit the capacity for manufacturing industries.

2.2 An Understanding on Weekend Tourism

There is no universally accepted definition for weekend tourism or weekend


tourists. While domestic tourism demand has been addressed by various authors,
(O.P.Ahuja, D.S.Bhardwaj, S.C.Bagri), studies on specific tourists groups, in
particular weekend tourism market that make up this demand is lacking. Weekend
tourism have largely been overlooked in terms of academic enquiry. With a few

19
 
notable exceptions (Radu-Daniel et al.2010, Charlotte Fritz et al.2013), most of the
comments and observations in relation to weekend tourism have come from reports
created by market research firms and by the tourism departments.

Radu Daniel et al. (2010) commented on weekend tourism as all forms of


short tourism carried out especially during weekends. Further, he says weekend
tourism is intervened with main forms of tourism, provided that the period for
conducting it is predominantly the end of the week.

Boerjan,P (1995) in his study on short and long holidays states that, weekend
and a long weekend makes a short trip. The motivation for taking short breaks is for a
temporary rest and relaxation or moderately intense activity related to specific focus
that can be sport, heritage and culture or an event. Weekend trip dominates the short
trip segment which contributes large share in domestic tourism. Charlotte Fritz et al,
(2013) have found that a psychological detachment of employees from work related
pressures during weekend is associated with more positive behaviours of employees
at work in the subsequent work week. Rest or relaxation during weekend seems to
provide some sense of happiness and reduces negative emotions in employees. Their
finding has revealed low level of exhaustion and high level of heartiness after
weekend break. Thus, weekend breaks are used by many working population as a
time to recover from work demands and to regain energy that translates into their well
being,

2.3 Tourists Satisfaction

Customer satisfaction is one of the most investigated topics in the tourism and
hospitality industry due to its role in the sustenance of tourism products and services.
Customer satisfaction considerably impacts the tourists' choice of a holiday
destination (Ahmed, 1991), the consumption of products and services and the decision
to visit the destination in future (Stevens, 1992).

Studies have revealed that customer satisfaction is likely to produce positive


behavioral intentions from customers such as positive word of mouth and repeat
purchases (Bojonic and Rosen, 1994). Other investigations have also revealed that it

20
 
is likely that a dissatisfied customer will not return to a company, and that repeat
purchases influence directly the finances of the business given that obtaining a new
customer costs more than keeping an existing one (Dube, Renaghan and Miller,
1994). Hence, customer satisfaction result in the reduction of marketing costs and
achieving customer satisfaction is a cost-effective way to sustain the business. Due to
the imperative role of customer satisfaction, a great deal of research has focused on
the topic (Yuksel, 2001).

Swan and Combs (1976) claimed satisfaction as a post purchase attitude.


Moreover, Hunt (1977) defined customer satisfaction by customer's post-purchase
evaluation of services received and comparison of customer's expectations and the
actual service experience.

According to Pizam, Neumann and Relchel (1978), tourist satisfaction is


defined as "a collection of tourists' attitudes towards specific domains in the
vacationing experience".

Westbrook (1980) introduced the notion that customer satisfaction involves


cognitive and affective aspects in the pre purchase, purchase, and post purchase
phases of buying goods and/or receiving services. While many other
conceptualizations exist, there is agreement that satisfaction is a judgement a
customer makes following a service encounter in which goods and/or services are
exchanged. This evaluation of satisfaction is highly heterogeneous. It differs from
customer to customer, encounter to encounter, and firm to firm, supporting the need
for new insights into customer satisfaction between and across industries.

Mountiho (1987) included some notes to the definition of Hunt in terms of


travel and reported that tourists' satisfaction is a post purchase construct and is
primarily a function of pre travel expectations and travel experiences.

Woodside, Frey and Daly (1989) have reviewed the definition of satisfaction
and recognized it as a post purchase construct that is related to how much a consumer
likes or dislikes a service or product after experiencing it.

21
 
Leiper (1990) defined satisfaction with travel and tourism services as the total
of travellers' satisfaction with each service aspect like pre trip services, satisfaction
with services at the destination and satisfaction with transit route services.

Tse, Nicosia, and Wilton (1990) emphasized that satisfaction is a process


spanning the consumption period and that research of the post purchase phase is
critical to new knowledge development.

Oliver (1997) defined satisfaction as "a judgment that a product, or service


feature, or the product or service itself, provides a pleasurable level of consumption
related to fulfillment, including levels of under or over fulfillment".

In the tourism field, Tribe and Snaith (1998) defined tourists' satisfaction
with a destination as "the degree to which a tourist's assessment of the attributes of
that destination exceeds his or her expectations for those attributes". Tourist
Satisfaction may be defined as “a person’s feelings of pleasure or disappointment
resulting from comparing a product’s perceived performance (or outcome) in relation
to his or her expectations” Kotler (2000) and Kim et al. (2003), Rajesh (2015)

2.4 Determinants of Tourists' Satisfaction

Trying to understand what comprises tourists' satisfaction is one of the most


relevant areas of research in the tourism sector as satisfied tourists tend to transmit
their positive experience to other persons as well as repeating their visits (Kozak and
Rimmington, 2000). Studies have also revealed that dissatisfaction leads to negative
word of mouth and the resolve not to revisit the destination and choose alternate
destinations (Pizam, 1994).

Oh and Parks (1997) identified at least nine theories while measuring the
customer satisfaction and those include expectancy disconfirmation; assimilation or
cognitive dissonance; contrast; assimilation contrast; equity; attribution; comparison
level; generalized negativity; and value.

22
 
Chen and Hsu (2000) conducted a study on the Korean tourists and
concluded that tourists considered adventure, scenic beauty, environmental
friendliness, availability of tourist information and architectural style, travel cost,
lifestyle, quality restaurants, freedom from language barriers and interesting places to
visit as the main factors while choosing travel destination and these factors mainly
contributed for the visitors' satisfaction.

Kozak and Rimmington (2000) studied satisfaction in Spain and concluded


that overall tourist satisfaction, likelihood to revisit and recommend to others were
influenced by destination attributes such as value for money, accommodation
standards, services at accommodation, safety, hospitality of people, hygiene,
cleanliness, sanitation, quality and variety of cuisine. They suggested that satisfaction
need not necessarily lead to revisit, rather the destination would benefit from word of
mouth itself.

Kozak (2001) compared the satisfaction of tourists across two nationalities in


Turkey. The study employed the principal component analysis and found eight
important destination satisfaction factors, namely, hospitality and customer care,
language of communication, level of prices, local transport services, accommodation
services, hygiene and cleanliness, facilities and activities and destination airport
services. Aspects like security, information and attractions have not been considered
in the study.

Sonmez and Sirakaya (2002) analysed American travellers' perceptions of


Turkey. The study revealed that safety, hospitality, general vacation atmosphere and
mood, relaxation, local attractions, authentic experiences, tourist facilitation, comfort,
communication and the overall appeal of Turkey influenced Americans' perception
and likelihood of traveling to Turkey.

Alampay (2003) analysed four service dimensions in Guam, a territory of the


US, namely, lodging, dining, shopping and attractions. They determined the
satisfaction with each of these components and were hypothesized to have direct
effects on the perceived quality of the destination and an overall satisfaction with the
destination.
23
 
Joaquin Alegre Marin and Jaume Garau Taberner (2006) studied the
impact of satisfaction and dissatisfaction on the tourists overall satisfaction and their
intention to return to Balearic Islands. The attributes measuring satisfaction were
cleanliness and hygiene, inexpensive destination, easy access, sports activities, peace
and quiet and contact with nature. Attributes measuring dissatisfaction were
pollution, expensive, problems at airport, traffic, noise, crowding, too much
development, too much construction and destruction of landscape and lack of natural
environment. The results suggest that the displeasure based evaluations influence
tourists' satisfaction, yet their influence is far lower than the dimensions of
satisfaction. Negative evaluations may not determine the final evaluation of
satisfaction, yet they may make the destination less attractive and reduce the
probability of return. Further, a high degree of satisfaction with the attributes typical
of a sun and sand destination (beach, climate, landscape etc) guarantees a high rate of
return.

Wang and Qu (2006) attempted to identify destination attributes that satisfy


tourists during their holidays at sun and sea destinations, employed measurement
instruments which included 12 items such as accommodation facilities, quality of
accommodation, restaurant facilities, shop/stores offering, personal safety, tourist
information, beach cleanliness, state of the roads, beach promenades, drinkable water,
traffic flow and parking facilities.

Rojas and Camarero (2008) suggested that the perceived past experience
quality is also regarded as a determinant of satisfaction.

Chi and Qu (2008) gave the practical perspective on the factors affecting the
tourist satisfaction level. Their study suggested that tourist satisfaction is affected by:
lodging, food, shopping, attractions, activities and events, environment, accessibility,
price, culture, climate and image, nature, lifestyle, history, service, tourist facility,
sanitation, nightlife, and value for money especially in the destination context.

24
 
Matzler, Fuller, Renzl, Herting and Spath (2008) found that the ease of
access, ticket issue, level and variety of prices, services, safety, and employees were
found to have affected tourist satisfaction with reference to the Alpine Ski areas.

Liu and Jang (2009), in their study on analysing the tourists' perception in the
US on the Chinese restaurants found that service, food, menu diversity, hygiene,
convenience and location, noise, service speed, price and value, facilities, and
atmosphere affected the tourist satisfaction level in general.

In a study on analysing the factors affecting tourist satisfaction, McDowall


(2010) found that convenience and tourism products at destination, quality of
services, safety, previous experience and expectations, tourist activities and
destination image plays a very significant role. His study was, however, confined to
the international visitors at Bangkok, Thailand.

In a recent study, Vetitnev et al. (2013) examined the factors affecting


tourists' satisfaction level within the context of the resort destinations in Russia. The
findings of the study indicated that certain factors, such as purpose of travel, source of
payment for travel, choice of accommodation, holiday organization mode and tourists'
spending affected the tourists' satisfaction.

Based on the above studies and the personal experiences, the attributes
pertaining to the tourist satisfaction were chosen for the present study.

2.5 Measurement of Tourists Satisfaction

Satisfaction is the function of consumer perceptions. Researchers in tourism


have used different perspectives to examine tourist satisfaction.

Latour and Peat (1979) developed the Norms theory that suggests that
norms serve as reference points for evaluating products.

Oliver (1980) developed the expectation disconfirmation model which


suggests that consumers develop expectations about a product before buying it. They

25
 
compare the actual experience at the product with the pre-determined expectation.
Tourists experience positive disconfirmation if the actual performance is better than
their expectations and would repeat purchase of such products. But if the performance
is worse than expectations, then they experience negative disconfirmation and look
for alternate products.

Tse and Wilton (1988) developed the overall performance model and
suggested that customers' satisfaction can be assessed only by examining their
perceptions regarding the actual performance.

Oliver and Swan (1989) adopted the equity theory which suggests that
customer satisfaction is the result of the relationship between cost and reward. If the
rewards exceed the costs, consumers will be satisfied. If travellers perceive that the
rewards from their travel experience outweigh the costs (time, price, effort) they are
satisfied with their travel experience. Many researchers have examined the attributes
that affect the satisfaction level of customers in general (Gengqing, 2005), (Gallarza
and Gil, 2006), (Chi and Qu, 2008), ( Prayag 2012), and (Rajesh 2015).

Among these theories or conceptualizations the model suggested by Oliver,


Tse and Wilton for the measurement of tourists' satisfaction have been considered in
the study due to its relative importance.

2.6 Tourists Satisfaction through Expectation and Experience

There is a strong need to determine visitor expectation levels prior to the tourism
experience and satisfaction because it provides reliable clues to meet the dynamic
needs of targeted segments. Failure to deliver expected quality frequently leads to
poor performance in the tourism industry. From the holidaymaker's perspective,
tourism is a response to felt needs and acquired values within temporal, spatial, social,
and economic parameters. Once needs and/or values have been activated and applied
to a holiday scenario, the generated motivation constitutes a major parameter in
expectation formation. Expectations, in turn, determine performance perceptions of
products and services as well as perceptions of experiences.(Murphy and Smith

26
 
2000), Babu and Bibin (2004), Chi et al., (2008), Lee’s (2009),  Majed et al., (2010),
Prayag and Ryan (2011), Sadeh et al., (2012), Rajesh (2015). 

2.7 Tourists Expectation - An Essential Element of Satisfaction

A sound understanding of the nature, sources and all relevant aspects of


consumer expectations is required for research and marketing practice. The nature of
the expectations of tourists which helps in the decision of the individual to choose an
action, may depend on the nature of the different backgrounds of the individual.
Expectations of the persons may be different, because they have their own ideas and
their needs are different. Expectations of tourists need to be understood and analyzed
in order to design the services appropriately. When visitors' higher expectations of the
service are met, they will be satisfied with that service. In contrast, if tourists do not
get the service that they expect or if the service quality is lower than expected, they
will feel offended and may not come again. A great number of studies have addressed
this issue in the tourism industry, and many researchers have attempted to define it in
different.

Oliver (1980) stated that expectation is a frame of reference to performance


specific expectation and expectancy disconfirmation. Accordingly, the level of
perceived quality and customer satisfaction are directly determined by how many
needs and expectations are to be learned.

Zeithaml, Berry and Parasuraman (1993) examined the nature of


determinants of customer expectation with reference to the tourism industry. The
findings of the study revealed that tourist expectation is a series of proceeding beliefs
that lead to the measurement of performance. They categorised expectations into five
dimensions: reliability, tangibles, responsiveness, assurance and empathy, in order to
provide a model for quality identification and assessment.

Ivancevich and Matteson (1993) define expectation as the perceived


likelihood that a given act will be followed by a particular outcome.

27
 
Vroom (1994) has described the element of expectation in the expectancy
theory. According to the author, expectation consists of three elements called VIE
(Valence, Instrumentality and Expectancy). V or Valence illustrates that each person
is satisfied with the outcome, and if the people feel good, it means that they will get
positive experience. I or Instrumentality is defined as a way that will lead to
satisfaction. E or Expectancy means expectations of people, and they need different
expectations. They will be satisfied when their needs are met. Upon receiving the
response, a person will get the satisfaction and expectations will increase. The main
factors affecting the expectations of the tourists are: (a) what was told to them by
travel recommendations from others who have experienced in the past (b) the travel
needs of an individual; (c) travel experiences in the past; (d) messages from the media
and the service provider; and (e) prices during peak periods.

Oliver (1980) considered expectations as important antecedents of


satisfaction. When a tourist becomes satisfied or dissatisfied with a trip, it is a product
of how the tourist perceives and results obtained result relate to what was expected.

According to McQuilken and Shaw (2000), there is a strong need to


determine visitors' expectation level prior to the tourism experience and whether the
performance of heritage destination attributes actually live up to these expectations.

According to Akama and Keiti (2003), expectation is the estimation made by


consumers by using information from either advertisements or word of mouth
perceptions by other consumers based on their previous trips and experiences. They
further argued that tourists usually have initial expectations on a service before they
consume it. They further added that such expectations are formed through information
from advertisements and word of mouth perceptions from other consumers during
past experience.

Millan and Esteban (2003) consider expectations as needs or desires of the


consumer, identified by what the consumer feels should be delivered by the provider
of the service before receiving it.

28
 
Rodriguez Del Bosque, San Martin and Collado (2006) added four similar
factors to those by Akama and Keiti (2003). They were: past experience, tourist's
level of previous satisfaction with the service, communication from the service
provider such as promises and the tourist's perceived image of the service.

According to Li, Lai, Harrill, Kline and Wang (2011), tourists undertake
travel due to six reasons, which consisted of patience of the staff, privacy need
services, clear marketing communications, reasonable price, word of mouth, and
previous experience of tourist. Expectations show the needs of people from the
present to the future. Personal experience is a measure of what is happening. Rajesh
(2015), states that in a service business, especially in the tourism industry, it is
important to study the expectations of tourists, as this will lead us to understand more
of what travellers want to make use of their experience to meet their expectations and
generate high satisfaction towards all products and services provided.

2.8 Expectations, Experience and Satisfaction

Several researchers have attempted to measure the tourists' satisfaction


through expectations and expectations-met (experience) attributes and these were
categorised as the study of Expectation-Disconfirmation model. Some studies
measured satisfaction through the proposed model while the other just link the
expectations, experience and satisfaction without the framework of EDT. Some of
them are discussed as follows:

Chon (1989) studied tourists' satisfaction and reported that satisfaction is the
result of the relationship between tourists' expectations about the destination and their
experience at the destination. Satisfaction is based on the goodness of fit between the
expectations about the destination and the perceived experience which is the result of
comparing previous images of the destination and what is actually seen and felt at the
destination.

Chon and Olsen (1991) discovered a goodness of fit correlation between the
tourists' expectation about their destination and their satisfaction after the tourists buy
the travel service and products, if the evaluation of their experience of the travel

29
 
product is better than their expectations, they will be satisfied with their travel
experience.

Clemons and Woodruff (1992) adopted the EDT model to measure the
customers' satisfaction and their study propounded that EDT consists of two sub
processes having independent effects on customer satisfaction: the formation of
expectations and the disconfirmation of those expectations through performance
comparisons. According to them, EDT holds that consumers first form expectations of
the products or service performance prior to purchase or use. Subsequently, purchase
and use contribute to the consumer's beliefs about the actual or perceived performance
of the product or service. The consumer then compares the perceived performance to
prior expectations. Thus, consumers' satisfaction is seen as the outcome of this
comparison.

Barsky and Labagh (1992) applied the EDT concept to research on


accommodation sector. The proposed model in their studies showed that the
customers' satisfaction was the function of disconfirmation, measured by nine
'expectation met' factors that were weighted by attribute specific importance. The
model was tested with data collected from random subjects via guest comment cards.
As a result, the customer satisfaction was found to be correlated with the customers'
willingness to revisit.

Patterson (1993) suggests that a consumer's expectations are: (a) confirmed


when the product or service performance fails to match prior expectations, (b)
negatively disconfirmed when the product or service performance fails to match
expectations, and (c) positively disconfirmed when the product or service
performance is perceived to exceed expectations. Dissatisfaction comes about when a
consumer's expectations are negatively disconfirmed; that is, the product performance
is less than expected.

Pizam and Milman (1993) used Oliver's EDT model to improve the
predictive power of travellers' satisfaction. They applied the basic dynamic nature of
the disconfirmation model to tourism research while testing the original model in a
modified form.
30
 
Tribe and Snaith (1998) proposed a tool referred as HOLSAT to measure
tourist satisfaction with the holiday destination. This model compared the tourist
satisfaction through expectations and experiences. The model allows tourists to
express both satisfaction and dissatisfaction by evaluating the positive and negative
attributes of a destination. This model was applied in Cuba and Vietnam. The
negative attributes included too much construction, street prostitution, industrial
pollution, lines and waits for services, shortage of certain foods and drinks, power
failures, crowds at tourist attractions, too many beggars and vendors, no public toilets,
trouble getting money with credit card, having to be careful with food and drinks,
trouble changing money, slow customs clearance. Given that the impact on the
tourists is clearly negative, it is imperative to ask the tourist about his degree of
dissatisfaction with respect to these attributes.

Qu and Ping (1999) argued that tourist satisfaction can be affected by tourists'
initial expectations concerning a destination. In their view, they argued that such
expectations are influenced by several factors. Firstly, the advertising strategy applied
by service providers because, if not well developed, it can create expectations that can
be difficult to satisfy. Advertisements include brochures, media and informal
interactions from friends and relatives (word of mouth advertising). Secondly,
experience with similar services and their personnel can cause tourists to compare and
make judgements regarding quality and satisfaction.

In the study conducted by Reisinger and Turner (2003), it has been found
that the satisfaction in tourism services is based on the differences between
expectation of pre planning activities and travel experiences gained after tourists
visited the destination. If the comparison between the experiences and expectation
results in a feeling of pleasure, the tourist is satisfied; in contrast, the tourists
experiences dissatisfaction if it results in feelings of displeasure.

A similar study was conducted by Hui et al. (2007) on tourist satisfaction,


recommendation and willingness to revisit Singapore. From the study, it was found
that there is a strong need to consider the expectation and experience as a factor to
measure the tourist satisfaction. Further, the study concluded that once the
31
 
expectations are met or experienced, the willingness of the visitors to revisit the
selected destination increases considerably.

Aziz et al. (2011) seeks to determine domestic and international tourists'


expectations of the heritage site of Melaka in Malaysia by measuring their satisfaction
level using eight travel attributes. This study examines the overall satisfaction among
international and domestic tourists who visited Melaka using a conceptual model that
combines the concepts of the Expectancy Disconfirmation Paradigm. A sample of 322
respondents was surveyed with a structured questionnaire. A series of analyses were
performed on both domestic and international tourist groups. The results showed that
two factors namely, Attractions, and Climate & Change as a factor of expectation and
experience appealed to international and domestic tourists.

Malkanthi and Routray (2012) aimed to evaluate visitor satisfaction of


agritourism in the three destinations in Sri Lanka namely, Paradise Farm at Kitulgala,
Tree Top Farm at Buttala, and the Samakanda Ecological Centre at Habaraduwa. The
visitor survey was conducted covering the local and foreign visitors at the selected
destination. Two sample-paired t-tests were applied for the analysis of visitor
satisfaction using the Expectation-Disconfirmation model. The level of satisfaction of
visitors was reflected at a significant level because the visitors were happy with the
nine attributes of agritourism. Furthermore, a significant level of intention to revisit
by the local visitors and a high level of readiness to recommend the destinations to
others by both groups of visitors were positive signs of the sector.

Bindu and Kanagaraj (2013) adopted the 6S framework outlined in India's


National Policy namely Swagat (hospitality), Soochna (information), Suvidha
(facilitation), Suraksha (security), Sahyog (cooperation) and Sanrachna (infrastructure
development) as the key factors and assessed the perceptions of services from 513
international tourists in Kerala. The paper aims at analyzing the gap between
expectations and experience on overall satisfaction with a destination using paired t-
test, ANOVA and regression analysis. The findings of the paper revealed that there is
a strong need to reduce the gap between expectations and experience in order to
improve the tourists' satisfaction in Kerala.

32
 
Meimand et al. (2013) analysed the expectation and experience gap for
Japanese travellers visiting Malaysian homestay using Holsat model for measuring the
tourists' satisfaction. The relevant data was collected through on site survey method in
questionnaire form using wilcoxon signed rank test. The study revealed that there was
a strong need to reduce the gap between the expectations and experiences. The more
the gap was, the less was the tourist dissatisfaction.

Peng et al. (2013) attempted to measure the customer satisfaction through


expectancy disconfirmation model which includes expectation, experience,
disconfirmation and satisfaction to explore Chinese tourists’ satisfaction in Cairns,
Australia. The paired t-test shows that their perceptions generally exceeded
expectations. The study asserts that customers hold expectations toward
product/services; they compare their expectation with their experience. A
confirmation forms when their experience exceeds the expectation. If it does not
exceed, a disconfirmation comes into being.

Sukiman et al. (2013) attempted to measure the tourist satisfaction as the key
to destination survival in Pahang, Malaysia. Holiday Satisfaction Model (HOLSAT)
was used in the study to determine the gap between tourist's expectations and
experiences based on 47 positive and negative attributes that were grouped into six
categories, namely: accessibility, accommodation, tourist amenities, activities,
food/meal and tourism attractions. The result was drawn from questionnaire survey of
389 international visitors and 259 domestic visitors during 2010. The findings of the
study revealed that though there was a difference in the satisfaction attributes between
the foreign visitors and domestic visitors, there was a strong need to reduce the gap
between the expectation level and experience to improve tourists' satisfaction.
(Mohammad et al.,2012), Rajesh(2015).

2.9 Tourists' Satisfaction and Experience

There were many studies on tourist expectations, experiences and satisfaction.


Some researchers (Murphy and Smith 2000), (Javier and Bign 2001), (Babu and
Bibin 2004), (Chi et al., 2008), (Prayag and Ryan 2011), Rajesh (2015) found that
visitors may not have the expectations at all times; especially when the visitors do not

33
 
have any knowledge of the destination or when the selected destination is entirely a
new place of visit to them. In the case of short term visit, like weekend tourism, the
tourists may not have the expectations rather they are excited about the new
experiences that the destination offers. In such a case, experience alone would be
determining the satisfaction level.

2.10 Tourists Experience and its impact on Satisfaction

Earlier, most of the studies indicated that tourist experience is a unique


experience different from daily life, which may be understood through the different
shifts that have taken place in the approaches to the study. The First shift emphasized
the tourist experience as part of the daily consumption experience. The second shift
indicated pluralizing the tourist experience. In the third shift, researchers started
recognizing that tourists’ active interpretation of situations will influence their
experience. Finally, the fourth shift involved relative interpretations. Researchers
began believing that experience is a person’s interpretation of situations in the culture
and times visited. The perspective is extremely similar to the interactive experience
model proposed by Falk and Dierking (1992).

Tourism experience can be in the form of direct experience from tourists' own
travel and indirect experience (listening to the stories from friends, family or
relatives). In terms of tourism business as well as other related businesses, the
services provided, such as tourism information, relaxation and enjoyment
environment, friendly staff, and good advice (which is regarded as indirect
experience), are considered as elements to satisfy tourists' needs and expectations.
The study on visitors or tourists should focus on “being there” and be close to visitors
or tourists instead of observing from a distance.

According to Tinsley and Tinsley (1986), individuals' experience of leisure


varies along two dimensions:

i) Qualitative dimension corresponds to the evaluative component. The


qualitative differences among leisure experiences might be measured by semantic
differential scales using bipolar adjectives such as valuable-worthless and good-bad.

34
 
ii) Quantitative dimension corresponds to the potency component. Potency is
typically measured by semantic differential scales using bipolar adjectives such as
strong-weak. There is no single leisure experience but a continuum of leisure
experiences. Leisure experiences are characterised to some degree by both cognitive
attributes (i.e. thoughts, images) and affective ones (i.e. feelings, sensations).

According to tourists’ involvement, Joseph and Gilmore (1998) divided the


experience into two: namely educational or escapist active participation where the
tourists actively participated and were involved in situations, and they created varied
experiences in the process and passive tourist experiences that includes esthetic or
entertainment experience. These tourists have experiences using the varied esthetic or
entertaining activities provided. However, Joseph and Gilmore indicated that active
and passive experiences could co-exist. In other words, there is interaction between
tourists and various systems. When tourists accept materials provided, they can
actively participate in and form the experience during the visit. Thus, the tourists
would have positive experiences.

For Schmitt (1999) on the other hand, customer experience can be defined in
terms of five dimensions: sensory experiences (sense); affective experiences (feel);
creative cognitive experiences (think); physical experiences, behaviours and lifestyles
(act); and social-identity experiences (relate).

Quan and Wang (2004) described tourism experience as a relationship


between activities and environment and mentioned that the best experience depends
on the best support of related services, such as food services, accommodation,
transport, and travel services. Tourists' experience might typically be different,
depending on their previous experience and information they have as well as the
responses to their expectations. In their view, it was argued that the quality of tourism
products and services is considered as the key element for generating good experience
for tourists as well as fulfilling their expectations.

Larsen and Mossberg (2007) suggested that experience is a kind of


subjective and personalized process, which is related to society, culture and even
35
 
different systems. Since visitors or tourists are diverse in various types of trips, the
content of the tourist experience also changes. Therefore, Larsen and Mossberg
suggested that study on the tourist experience should behave flexible and multiple
perspectives, such as inter-discipline studies upon marketing, psychology, culture and
sociology.

O’ Dell’s (2007) study subscribed to the perspective that cultural sociology, of


the post modern society and opined tourists are no longer pure receivers, observers or
interpreters; instead, they are active experientialists and even meaningful creators and
actors.

In addition to O’ Dell (2007), Larsen (2007) also proposed a multi-stage


experience model similar to the view of Falk and Dierking (1992). From the
perspective of psychology, Larsen suggested that the tourist experience is not simply
the feeling during the trip; instead, it is the accumulated psychological phenomenon,
including mutual influences of the three stages. According to Larsen, tourists tend to
expect possible events during the process because of planning in advance. It will
influence the actual feelings and memories during and after the visit. Noticeably,
Larsen emphasized that tourists’ memories will change the expectation for the next
visit, creating a circular pattern. The points are mentioned but not emphasized in the
research of Falk and Dierking. Although Larsen (2007), and Falk and Dierking (1992)
indicated that the expectations of tourists or visitors for experience is critical, they did
not clarify the content of the experience, or indicate if they could extract common
experience characteristics in multiple visitor experiences.

Wang, Chen, Fan, and Lu (2012) pointed out that the story or experience of
tourism from friends, family members, or relatives has played a vital part in the
decision-making process of people who planned to travel and insisted that most
people will change their decisions after receiving or listening to the unhappy story or
bad experience of friends, family members, or relatives (not to go).

Several studies attempted to find out the relationship of experience with the
tourists' satisfaction; however they are very limited in numbers. For example,
Lounsbury and Hoopes (1985) suggested that tourists may have in their minds what
36
 
they consider ideal products and services, such as package tours, hotels, transport
facilities, recreation and sports facilities. When these are compared with what the
tourists experienced elsewhere and if they are found to be inferior, then the tourists
will have to look elsewhere to get the satisfaction that they want. If, on the other hand,
these constitute what they perceive as the best, then they are likely to be satisfied and
would come back again.

Further, Tinsley and Tinsley (1986) suggested that whenever an individual


experiences leisure, some psychological needs at all five levels of Maslow's hierarchy
(i.e. physiological, safety, belongingness, self-esteem, and self-actualization needs)
may be satisfied by participation in leisure activities or experiencing those leisure
activities.

Tse and Wilton (1988) developed the perceived performance model


established that customers' satisfaction can be assessed only by examining their
perception regarding the actual performance.

In the view of Chaudhary (2000), it has been argued that tourists would be
satisfied if they experience what they needed and would be dissatisfied if they did not
experience what they needed. Blackwell, Minard, and Engel (2001) gave a different
view and argued that if tourists are unhappy with the services provided or if they
experienced bad things, they will not go back to those places again and they will tell
those to their friends, families, and relatives.

Yoon and Uysal (2005) suggest that tourists use past experience to form a
norm to evaluate their experiences at the new destination to determine if they are
satisfied with their new experience at the destination.

Janet D. Neal and Dogan Gursoy (2008) examined how travellers'


satisfaction with the pre-trip services, satisfaction at the destination and satisfaction
with return trip services affects the overall satisfaction with travel and tourism
services in Virginia. The study found that the tourism experience happens in phases
and travellers use services from more than one existing organization. Their
satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the services they receive from each of those
37
 
organizations will determine their overall satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the trip
and therefore it is imperative to manage and control every service encounter to
enhance overall customer satisfaction with travel.

Sadeh et al., (2012), Suzan (2013), Chi (2014), Rajesh (2015) investigated
the differences between first-time and repeat visitors’ assessment of destination
image, tourist attributes, satisfaction and destination loyalty

2.11 Conclusions

This chapter presents the review of earlier studies in the context of tourism
and the tourists' satisfaction attributes. From the discussion, the following points
emerge:

Firstly, the concept of tourists satisfaction has been an important factor in the
literature of tourism;

Secondly, tourists satisfaction has been affected and measured by factors


especially, tourist expectations and experiences;

Thirdly, there are quite a few studies linking expectations, experiences and
satisfaction as against very few studies on experience and satisfaction; and

Finally, the literature on tourists satisfaction with the weekend tourism is


scarcely found.

Hence, this study aims to measure the aspect of tourists satisfaction through
expectations-experiences model as well as through experiences alone with the due
importance given to the weekend tourism at Puducherry Region.

38
 
Chapter III
Destination Profile
3.0 Introduction

Puducherry, a growing capital city of the union territory of Puducherry is


relatively small in size when compared to other cities of India. The union territory of
Puducherry is a composition of four separate regions, namely, Puducherry, Karaikal,
Mahe and Yanam. Each region is isolated and located far away from one another,
Puducherry is the capital of the union territory bearing the same name ‘Puducherry’
and is the largest city of the union territory. Puducherry, the former headquarters of
the French colony in India is also popularly known as ‘India's Little France’ and is
often described as ‘The French Riviera of the East’. Puducherry still exuberates the
French flavor even after the French departed more than half a century ago, as one
could witness by the magnificent colonial mansions, serene promenades, beautiful
boulevards, French spellings on sign boards, roads and buildings, native population
playing petanque and Policemen wearing red kepis in every nook and corner.
Puducherry is split by a partially covered Grand Canal from north to south. The east
side of the town toward the sea is the French part and the west side of the canal is the
tamil quarter. Many streets change names as they go along and may also have French
and Tamil names all at the same time. Puducherry is endowed with plenty of
attractions for tourists with serene beaches, lush green fields, splendid heritage and
historical background and above all, tranquility of this place is a hallmark as glorified
by the abode of Sri Aurobindo. Puducherry is gifted with a fine blend of tourism
attractions and has something to offer to every tourist, be they religious tourists,
leisure tourists, adventure tourists and heritage tourists. (Rajesh 2015)

Puducherry enjoys competitive advantage, mostly due to the endowment of


scenic attractions, pleasant climate, French heritage and architecture, Auroville – an
international village, Sri Aurobindo Ashram, road networks, transport systems, safety
and security, variety of accommodation options and above all an indomitable local
hospitality extended by the receptive and accommodating local community. To cap it
all, the French have left behind an indelible legacy reflected in the art, architecture,
cuisine and language. Puducherry is an easily accessible weekend tourist destination
to nearby states and also from across the country during long weekends. The
convenient transportation and excellent communication facilities attract both domestic

39
and foreign tourists to select Puducherry as their preferred destination for business,
leisure and spiritual pursuits.

Since, the study is focused only on Puducherry region (ie. excluding Karaikal,
Mahe and Yanam region), the following description in this chapter brings out the
historical and socio-cultural landscape of Puducherry region alone.

3.1 Historical Background

After Puducherry was officially annexed with the Indian union in 1963 by the
then French Government, the name of the capital city continued to be Pondicherry, till
it was rechristened in the year 2006 as ‘Puducherry’ meaning new settlements. The
new name symbolizes the origin of the excavations at Arikamedu a place seven kms
away to the south of Puducherry town where ruins of the Roman settlement was found
to have existed between second century BC and second century AD. Ancient Roman
scripts reinforced that one of the trade centres in the Indian coast as ‘Poduca or
Poduke’ and as affirmed by historians these names refer the present Puducherry.
Subsequently, the ‘Bahur Plates’, issued in the 8 century speak of a Sanskrit
University, which existed during the earlier period. Legend has it that the place was
known as Agastiswaram. An inscription found near the Vedhapuriswara Temple lends
credibility to this legend. (Ramasamy 1987)

Thus, history of Pondicherry starts from fourth century AD when Pondicherry


region was part of the Pallava Kingdom of Kanchipuram. During the subsequent
centuries Pondicherry was occupied by different dynasties of the south till the tenth
century AD. As per the historical evidence, the Cholas of Tanjavur took over
Puducherry, and later replaced by the Pandya Kingdom in the thirteenth century. For a
brief period later, Puducherry saw the Muslim rule, consequent to the invasion of the
region by Sultanate of Madurai. Later, the mighty vijayanagar empire took control
over Puducherry and the region continued under vijayanagar dynasty till 1639.
(Rahman 2006)

40
3.1.1 Foreign Trade Relations

The major historical event that occurred during the early days was the
discovery of route to India by Portuguese in 1497, and thus Portuguese were the first
to explore trade options with India, particularly along the coastal towns.

The Portuguese established a factory at Pondicherry in the beginning of


sixteenth century, but were compelled to leave a century later by the ruler of Gingee
who found them unfriendly. Subsequently, the Danes shortly set up an establishment,
and likewise the Dutch, who later, set up trading posts in Port Novo and Cuddalore.
The French, who had trading, centers in the North, Mahe and in the then Madras were
invited to open a trading centre in Puducherry by the new ruler of Gingee to compete
with the Dutch.

However, the water mark in the history of Puducherry was the arrival of
Bellanger a French officer on 4 February, 1673. This French officer’s arrival to
Puducherry and his swift moves marked the beginning of French rule in Puducherry.
(Devabalane 2010)

3.1.2 French Rule in Puducherry

In 1674, Francois Martin, the first french Governor started building


Puducherry and transformed it from a small fishing village into a flourishing port-
town. In 1693, the Dutch took over and fortified the town considerably. But four years
later, Holland and France signed a peace treaty as per of the agreement the French
regained Puducherry in 1699. In the 18 century, the town was laid out on a grid
pattern and grew considerably.

Able Governors like Lenoir (1726-1735) and Dumas (1735-1741) and notably
an ambitious Governor Dupleix (1742-1754) expanded Puducherry and contributed
for the expansion and prosperity of the town. But the French ambition clashed with
the English interests in India and the local kingdoms and a period of squabbles and
political intrigues followed. Under the command of Bussy, Dupleix army successfully
controlled the area between Hyderabad and Cape Comorin. But the arrival of Robert
41
Clive, a very ambitious and courageous British general dashed the hopes of Dupleix
to create a French Colonial India. After the defeat and failed peace talks, Dupleix was
recalled to France.

In spite of a treaty between the English and the French not to interfere in local
politics, the intrigues continued. Subsequently, France sent Lally Tollendal to regain
the French losses and chase the English out of India. After an initial success, they
razed Fort St. David in Cuddalore to the ground, but strategic mistakes by Lally led to
the loss of Hyderabad region and the siege of Puducherry in 1760. In 1761
Puducherry was razed to the ground in revenge and lay in ruins for four years. The
French had lost their hold in South India.

However, in 1765, the town was returned to France after a peace treaty with
England in Europe. Governor Law de Lauriston set to rebuild the town on the old
foundations and after five months, 200 European and 2000 Tamil houses had been
erected. During the next 50 years, Puducherry changed hands between French and
British with intermittent wars and peace treaties.

Only after 1816, the French regained permanent control of


Pondicherry, but the town had lost much of its former glory. Successive Governors
improved infrastructure, industry, law and education over the next 138 years. In 1947,
the English left India for good, but Puducherry remained under French rule until 1st
November 1954 when the de facto transfer of French territories to India occurred.
Puducherry officially became an integral part of India only in 1963 when the French
parliament ratified the treaty with India. (Devabalane 2010)

3.2 Geographic Features

Puducherry is bounded by South Arcot district of Tamil Nadu on three sides


and on the other side by Bay of Bengal. Karaikal lies in the state of Tamilnadu on the
east coast about 150 Kilometers south of Puducherry, while Yanam is located on the
east coast of India neighboring East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. Mahe,
which is the smallest among the regions of the union territory with just 9 Sq.Km in

42
size is situated in the Malabar region of Kerela on the west coast of India. Puducherry,
the capital city of the Union Territory spread across 294 Sq.Km. (Puducherry at a
Glance, 2015). It lies between 11.46° and 12.30° north latitude and between 79.36°
and 79.53° longitude in the east.

The coastal area of Puducherry region stretches to 24 kms in length. This land
is a low lying area with 15 meters average elevation above sea level, intersected by
delta canals of Gingee and Pennaiyar Rivers and other streams. Two important
drainage basins of the Gingee River cross Puducherry region diagonally from
northwest to southeast and the Pennaiyar River forms the southern boundary of the
region. River Gingee splits into two branches at Ariankuppam at 7 kms distance from
its mouth.

Climate of Puducherry is usually hot with an average maximum temperature


of around 34°C and around 24°C as average minimum temperature. Summer season
lasts for four months between March and June. The region receives major share of
rainfall from the northeast monsoon between the month of October and November. It
records approximately 1392.2 mm of rainfall annually. Weather is relatively cool
during December to February in Puducherry region.

3.3 Demography

Puducherry accounts for 75 percentage of the total population of the Union


territory. The population of Puducherry region is 950 289 whereas the total population
of the four regions of the union territory is only 1 247 953. As per 2011 population
census, 69 percent of population of this region lives in urban areas and remaining 31
percent of people live in rural areas of Puducherry, (Puducherry at a Glance 2014-15).
This region spreads to an area of 294 Square Kilometers with density of population
increasing to 3 232 per Square Kilometer in 2011 from 892 per Square Kilometer in
1961, by 337% between 1961 and 2011. The decadal growth rate of population (2001
to 2011) stands at 29 % in Puducherry. The sex ratio has increased from 1001 at 2001
to 1038 at 2011 in the Union Territory of Puducherry. The birth and death rate per
1000 population is 15 and 7 respectively (SRS Bulletin September 2014). The literacy
rate has increased to 86% in 2011 from 81% in 2001. The Tamil origins are

43
indigenous to the Puducherry region but is a home to a whole host of people from
different states of India and European countries as well. Majority of Puducherry
population speak Tamil, French, Telugu, and Malayalam.

3.4 Administration

The Union Territory of Puducherry is administered by a council of ministers


elected by the people of Puducherry. The chief administrator of Puducherry Union
Territory is the Lieutenant Governor. Puducherry has thirty members in the legislative
assembly and is also represented by two members of the parliament, one in the Lok
Sabha and other in the Rajya Sabha. Puducherry consists of five Municipalities and
ten Commune Panchayats. All laws and legislative regulations are subject to the final
ratification by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. (Rajesh 2015)
3.5 Economy

The Gross State Domestic Product of Puducherry in 2013-14 was estimated to


be Rs.21 077.03 Crores at the current prices. The contribution of revenue generated
from tourism and allied activities to the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) is
estimated to be around 20%. Work Participation Rate (WPR) in Puducherry was 35.2
% as per the 2011 census. The Per Capita income for the year 2014-15 has been
estimated at Rs. 175 006 at current and constant prices. There are 61 large scale, 178
medium scale and 6964 small scale Industries with a total investment of Rs. 221 387
Crores. The total land area under agriculture is 31 437 Hectares. Food grains
production was 53 410 metric tons during 2010-11 (Government of Puducherry:
Socio-economic Indicators, 2011).

3.6 Education

Of late, Puducherry has emerged as an educational hub, especially


professional education like medical and engineering. There is a steep increase in the
number of schools, colleges and professional education institutions. The spurt in
quality education facilities helped the state achieve 85 % literacy rate in Puducherry
region (excluding Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam). There are at present 386 preprimary
schools, 178 primary schools, 63 middle schools, 132 high schools, 119 higher

44
secondary schools and one junior college in Puducherry region. Further, 11 arts and
science colleges, 30 professional institutes (offering diploma courses) 41 professional
colleges (graduation and post-graduation level) and a Central University place
Puducherry ahead of other states of India in terms of density of educational
institutions. There are also a number of French institutions such as Lycee Francaise,
Alliance Francaise and French Institute (Directorate of Higher and Technical
Education, Puducherry).

3.7 Health

Healthcare facilities in Puducherry have been widely appreciated and are in


high standard compared to the rest of the country as evidenced by the fact that the
Puducherry government was credited as number one in India in initiating preventive
healthcare mechanisms by the National Population Commission (Puducherry vision
2025). The health care delivery systems functioning during the French rule have made
a good precedence for the current Puducherry’s health infrastructure. Health care
facilities constitute an important indicator of socio-economic development of a
region. It is also an important factor for tourism development as well. The image of
any tourism destination depends to a large extent on the hygiene and sanitation
conditions. Thus, Government of Puducherry ensures proper maintenance of hygiene
and sanitation at all the tourist places of interest. Puducherry has five hospitals in
Puducherry region alone, a dental, chest, physical medicine and rehabilitation center,
two community health centres, 27 primary health centres, 55 sub centers and 12
employee state insurance dispensaries with 4246 beds. (Government of Puducherry:
Health and Family Welfare, 2011). Apart from allopathic treatment, Puducherry
region also provides Indian Systems of Medicines viz. Ayurveda, Siddha and
Homeopathy through three separate clinics in Puducherry region. JIPMER is the
largest super specialty hospital administered by government of India in Puducherry
town and also is one among the largest in India which draws patients from across the
country.

45
3.8 Transport System

Development of transport system by the government of Puducherry is given


high priority as it is the principal requirement for any tourist destination. It has fine
linkages between different modes of transportation so that tourists can reach
Puducherry safely, comfortably and without too many hassles. (Government of
Puducherry: Road and Transport, 2015)

3.8.1 Road Transport

Road network is an important factor that gives fillip especially to weekend


tourism in Puducherry as the tourists from nearby states are offered a wide range of
transport facilities to reach the destination. After the completion of East Coast Road,
popularly known as ECR, a scenic road made the travel even much easier, shorter and
pleasant. Building new roads and maintaining the existing roads in and around
Puducherry is one of the priorities of the government. In order to provide basic
facilities for the residents and tourists, road network is strengthened constantly.
Puducherry is well connected with road and transport network with its neighboring
states. The total length of the roads under the control of Public Works Department is
458 Kilometers consisting of 42 Kilometer national highways, 86 Kilometer state
highways, 13 Kilometer major district roads, 168 Kilometer other district roads and
149 Kilometer rural roads. Total length of the roads under the control of
Municipalities is 615 Kilometers and 929 Kilometers under Commune Panchayats
(Puducherry at a Glance 2014-15). Both Government and private companies operate
bus services to Puducherry from South Indian states like Tamilnadu, Karnataka,
Kerela and Andhra Pradesh.

3.8.2 Rail Transport

Puducherry railway station with three platforms was upgraded to Single


Electrified Broad Gauge in 2004. Previously, Puducherry was connected by rail only
to a few places like Villupuram, Tirupati, and Chennai. It gradually increased its
operations and introduced more trains connecting major cities of India with 15 trains
originating from here. Currently direct trains are being operated to Villupuram,

46
Kanyakumari, Chennai, Bangalore, Tirupathi, Mangalore, Bhubaneshwar, Kolkata,
Mumbai and New Delhi (indiarailinfo.com).

3.8.3 Airport

Puducherry has a medium size airport with 30 meters wide and 1500 meters
long asphalt runway. The airport terminal building is capable of handling about 300
passengers. In spite of having all infrastructure facilities for flight operations,
Puducherry airport is still struggling from sustainability issues. It has been gradually
losing its airline operators over the years with the last of them, Alliance air, a
subsidiary of Air India, pulling out recently citing ‘unviable passenger’ traffic. As of
now, Puducherry Airport cannot operate flights after 4.30 pm due to non availability
of automated night landing facilities. Therefore, in order to operate flights during mid-
day has not worked out to be convenient for the tourists, industry and Government
officials. At present Puducherry airport is used for operating chartered flights and for
flight training purposes. From the perspective of Tourism growth, a well functioning
airport could encourage the tourists especially the weekend and short trip tourists to
visit Puducherry.

3.9 Electricity and Telecommunication

The Union Territory of Puducherry has electrified its 92 villiages in all the
four regions of the Union territory in 1972 itself. Puducherry region obtains Power
from Neyveli Lignite Corporation’s (NLC) power generation and transmission plants
in Tamilnadu. It has purchased 2860.78 Mega units of power from NLC in the year
2014-15 and had consumed 2480.78 Mega units for the same year. There are 7.099
kilometers of High Tension Electric Lines and 38.358 kilometers of Low Tension
Electric Lines in Puducherry region (Electricity department, Puducherry). As far as
Communication facilities are concerned, both public and private telecom companies
are active in operating mobile and fixed telephony with high speed broadband internet
connection facilities. Excellent telecom facilities contributed to the growth of tourism,
travel and hospitality sectors in Puducherry. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL)
and all other major private players like Airtel, Reliance, Aircel, Vodafone, Docommo,
TATA, MTS, etc., have their networks. There are about 1.21 Lakh telephone

47
connections, 31 telephone exchanges and 61 post offices (Government of Puducherry:
Electricity and Telecommunication, 2011).

3.10 Accommodation and Tourism Services

The demand for accommodation arises when people leave home and are on
tour. Puducherry being a popular tourist destination is comfortably positioned with
respect to accommodation facilities. There are different categories and types of hotels
in operation at Puducherry with sophisticated and modern amenities. Puducherry is
home for renowned hotel chains like GRT, Accord, Club Mahindra, Neemrana
Hotels, Saravor Hotels and resorts and Ginger hotels. There are more than 250
accommodation facilities in and around Puducherry region, which include star hotels,
beach resorts, heritage hotels, budget hotels, boutique hotels, business class hotels,
government guest houses, private guest houses, and home stay facilities which cater to
different types of tourists. (Rajesh 2015)

Exhibit 3.1: Hotel De Lorient: A Star Heritage Hotel. (Source: PTDC)

Apart from these accommodation facilities, Auroville and Aurobindo Ashram


operate more than twenty guest houses mainly to cater to their devotees who visit
auroville and ashram. Further, there are more than hundred stand alone restaurants,

48
270 liquor shops and bars from which 66 bars registered under tourism category are in
business in Puducherry (Excise Dept. Puducherry 2014).

Table 3.1: Puducherry’s Hotel Rooms and Beds


No. of AC
No. of AC and
Year Number of and Number of
Non AC Year
Beds Non AC Beds
Rooms
Rooms
1995 1467 2400 2005 2454 4707
1996 1473 2412 2006 2507 5144
1997 1558 2845 2007 2892 5893
1998 1654 2989 2008 3114 6341
1999 2044 3560 2009 3322 6422
2000 2091 3649 2010 3539 6986
2001 2163 3779 2011 3680 7196
2002 2203 3843 2012 3965 7696
2003 2203 3843 2013 3952 8862
2004 2019 3554 2014 Data Not Available
(Source: PTDC Annual Reports and Puducherry at a Glance 2012-14)

Table 3.1 shows the growth of hospitality sector year wise during 1995 and
2014. A threefold increase in hotel rooms and beds could be seen, from 1,467 and
2,400 in 1995 to 5616 and 13,026 in 2014 respectively. There has been a steep
increase in the number of rooms and beds excepting in 2004. The total number of
rooms and beds in 2004 was 2,109 and 3,554 as against 2,203 and 3,843 rooms and
beds in 2003. The drop in the supply of rooms was due to temporary closure of some
hotels for renovation and modernization work in order to reposition their properties.
On the whole, it may be understood that there has been an impressive growth of hotel
rooms and beds during 1995 and 2014.

Given the growth in the tourist arrivals in the recent past and huge demand
during the weekends, there is ample space for the accommodation sector to grow
further. Entrepreneurs are offered incentives and concessions by Puducherry
Government to invest in hotels in order to increase the number of hotel rooms and
beds in Puducherry. The potential growth of tourism industry opens enormous

49
opportunities for investors in the tourism and travel business. While some of the
major hotels have their own travel desks to facilitate guests, small and medium sized
travel agencies and allied services have mushroomed in Puducherry who were
primarily air / rail /bus ticket booking outfits. Over the years, these agencies have
diversified into tour operation business, car rentals and forex.

3.11 Motor Bikes - A boon for Internal Transport for Tourists

Exhibit 3.2: Weekend Tourists on Rental Motor Bikes (Source: Hindu News)

During weekends and holidays there is a huge demand for two wheelers
among the tourists especially young tourists. It is considered to be cheapest and most
convenient transportation among the tourists to move around the city. There are more
than 30 motor bike rental shops and almost 600 motor bikes are available for rent in
the town which is not legally permitted though. Many of these shops started out as
cycle-rental shops, but almost all of them have made the transition to scooters and
motorcycles (News: The Hindu, Puducherry).

New product development and innovative methods of tourism promotion can


further boost up tourism in Puducherry. Puducherrians often travel to visit friends and
relatives in Europe, especially France and hence air ticketing and other associated

50
services have become the core business activity of many travel agency firms. The
package tour operators do have a good time and leading companies like Thomas
Cook, SOTC, Cox and Kings, Makemytrip.com, etc., have their franchisee units and
there are thirty two travel agency outfits and cab operators, eight money exchangers,
twelve travel agency firms and cab operators in and around Puducherry. Twenty
massage centres, fifteen Ayurveda healthcare clinics, and eleven yoga centres in and
around Puducherry cater to the fitness needs of the tourists and residents.

Table 3.2: Puducherry’s Domestic Tourist Arrival Data


Domestic Tourist Domestic Tourist
Year Year
(in Nos.) (in Nos.)
1993 305 490 2004 558 445
1994 324 184 2005 574 011
1995 336 312 2006 652 245
1996 373 128 2007 798 528
1997 401 278 2008 827 799
1998 407 246 2009 851 192
1999 449 429 2010 835 872
2000 527 274 2011 897 896
2001 476 804 2012 981 714
2002 480 522 2013 1 003 477
2003 500 139 2014 1 188 093
(Source: PTDC Annual Reports and Puducherry at a Glance 2015)

3.12 Share of Domestic Tourist Arrivals

It is evident from Table 3.3 that the number of Domestic tourist arrivals to
Puducherry has increased more than threefold from 305 490 in 1993 to 1188 093 in
2014. The steep increase in the domestic tourists arrival to this region is a result of
rising per capita income and social status among the Indian middle class families. The
growth of IT and IT enabled service industry in the metropolitan cities like Bangalore
and Chennai are the influencing factors responsible for the growth of domestic
tourism especially weekend tourism in Puducherry. Travel during weekends to nearby
places has become a necessity for the urban population particularly among youngsters
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for a change from the daily routine life. This could be witnessed in Puducherry as it is
very difficult to get a room in the hotels during weekends. The situation becomes
even worst during long weekends and vacations as the place would be flooded with
tourists and the hotel rooms are sold out a month before at a premium tariff.
Therefore, Government of Puducherry may take necessary steps to tap this market and
improve the quality of tourism products and services.

3.13 Puducherry: A paradise for film shooting

Puducherry is fast becoming a filmmaker’s paradise as the number of films


shot here is increasing every year. The initiative in transforming Puducherry as a
paradise for film shooting by the government of Puducherry is gaining momentum
after the incredible depiction of Puducherry across the globe with the Oscar award
winning movie “Life of Pi” which filmed most of its scenes in Puducherry’s French-
built seafront colonial quarters. Ever since the movie hit the headlines by winning
Oscar awards, film crews from various regional movies and foreign movies started
landing in Puducherry to capture the beautiful beaches, palatial houses, perpendicular
streets, the scenic botanical garden, colonial French structures and exquisite temples
and churches. Tourism promoters see this as an opportunity to showcase Puducherry
to the domestic and international audience. There is a great potential to promote film
shooting in Puducherry, which may fetch more revenue to the government, hotels and
restaurants. The well planned town and the sea make it an ideal location for shooting
films. One cannot stop wondering why filmmakers travel foreign countries for
locations when they have a perfect setting closer home. Puducherry has been ignored
in the past by south Indian film industry, since many producers considered it as a
jinxed location as some early films which were shot here flopped commercially. It
was only after the success of a Hindi movie “Jism” and a Tamil movie “Mounam
Pesiyadhe”, film makers began to look at Puducherry’s charming locations. It has
become such a unique location that Puducherry is being used regularly as a movie
backdrop by Bollywood (Hindi movies) and Kollywood (Tamil movies). Now it has
made it big in Hollywood as well. The most favorite spots for film shoot in
Puducherry were Beach Road, Botanical Garden, Bharathi Park, Ariyankuppam and
Chunnambar boat house, many other new places have been included in the film
crew’s list after the release of Life of Pi shot in more than 18 spots in Puducherry.

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Exhibit 3.3: Promenade Beach Road

The town offers many choices as a location to commercial ads and movie
makers. In fact, the European-styled architecture and lanes with an old world charm
are major factors that prompt many film and commercial ad directors to choose
Puducherry. Puducherry is becoming what Chennai used to be some years ago. The
Puducherry Government has given blanket permission to filmmakers to shoot
anywhere in the town as against Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai and other major cities
where shooting on the city roads during the day is no longer permitted. The rates for
the locations too are cheaper compared to Chennai and other cities. As Puducherry is
a small town, it is easy to manage the crowd during a shoot. Besides, there is a huge
pool of talented supporting actors, thanks to the diversity in the ethnic and cultural
backgrounds of people living here. Thus, Puducherry obtained free publicity through
the movies and commercial ads that were shot in this place. Some of the commercial
ads and feature films shot here have an international audience. The amount of
advertisement value that these movies brought to Puducherry is phenomenal. It has
helped to spread the brand value of Puducherry. (News: The Hindu, Puducherry)

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Exhibit 3.4: Le Café Restaurant at Promenade Beach Road

3.14 Unique Selling Proposition of Puducherry

Puducherry, a Small, serene and silent city, has its fair share of European and
Indian influences. If you look at the photographs of this pristine town, you could
easily mistake them for a town in the south of France. With its scenic promenade,
picturesque locations, an old world French ambience, exquisite temples, churches, Sri
Aurobindo Ashram and Auroville, Puducherry offers the visitor a curious
combination of hedonistic as well as spiritual opportunities. One could soak in its
spiritual glow and get mentally uplifted otherwise could go on a spirited binge and
simply freak out.

The essence of Puducherry is that it is a small town with facilities of a big city.
French culture in its various manifestations can be seen in every nook and corner of
Puducherry. Puducherry is known for cultural assimilation and communal harmony.
During the 280 years of French rule, Puducherry witnessed substantial developments
in the fields of trade, commerce, cultural exchange, art, etc. French language enjoys
unique place in the hearts and minds of the people since people of Puducherry take
pride in learning French. French festivals are celebrated and authentic French cuisine
is on the menu of all the leading hotels. Besides, there are a good number of exclusive
French restaurants which serve wide ranging French delicacies. It is a unique heritage

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city with a range of tourism products on offer to the discerning domestic and foreign
tourists. (Rajesh 2015)

Puducherry is a much sought after destination for weekend tourists, more


specifically young tourists. It is known for spirituality, French heritage and Tamil
culture. The French colonial buildings majestically epitomize the influence of French
art and architecture preserved as a token of love and pride. Besides, the clean streets
and huge mansions embodying French architecture, the French institutions and the Sri
Aurobindo Ashram are some of the premier tourism attractions. The city has a
chequered history of trade relations with Roman Empire. The regional kings contributed
remarkably to the art and architecture of the ancient temples and other monuments of
Puducherry.

Thus, the unique selling proposition of Puducherry is the French culture left
behind by the erstwhile French. With the diversity in tourism attractions, Puducherry
has emerged as a finest tourist destination, largely due to its strategic location,
salubrious climate, friendly and peace loving people.

3.15 Beaches

Puducherry is well known for its Beaches and are the prime attraction of this
region. Paradise beach, Promenade beach and Auro beach are popular among the
beaches of Puducherry. Except Promenade beach all other beaches are located a little
away from the city. In terms of accessibility and location Promenade beach is the
most popular beach among the tourists. No visitor leaves Puducherry without
spending an evening in Promenade beach. All roads which run from west to east lead
to this beach. Vintage looking benches to stretch legs, Colonial French structures,
clean and spacious granite walking trail, few restaurants, and coffee shops dot this 1.5
kilometer stretch of the beach. A Police booth has been set up to provide security and
assistance to the visitors. The beautification and landscaping work of the Promenade
area was recently completed.

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The Serenity beach is on the north of the city and a short drive will reach you
there. This clean and virgin beach is an ideal place for recreation with serene
surroundings.

Exhibit 3.5: Paradise Beach: Popularly known as Island Beach among the Weekend Tourists

Paradise beach is an another important beach located on the lagoons of


Chunnambar River, about eight Kilometers away from Puducherry town along
Puducherry - Cuddalore road.

Auro beach is another new beach that is growing and has become the most
sought after beach among the weekend tourists. It is Located about nine Kilometres
away from Puducherry town along the picturesque East Coast Road (ECR) near
Auroville, This beach is a must visit place of Puducherry. The shallow waters and
moderate waves make this beach an ideal place for relaxation and for other
recreational activities.

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Exhibit 3.6: Auro Beach: Weekend tourists enjoying at beach

Auro beach has vast space on the sea shore in contrast to other beaches of
Puducherry. It has adequate parking place for vehicles. Visitors hang around and
indulge themselves in various leisure activities in this beach.

3.16 Back Waters and Lakes

The Chunnambar backwaters, popularly known as boat house is one of the


favorite places among the tourists to enjoy water sports. This boat house is located 8
Kilometres away from main town along Puducherry - Cuddalore road. The
Chunnambar river boat house draws leisure tourists during weekends in a big way.
Facilities and amenities such as speed mechanized boats with divers, guests rooms,
restaurants, rest rooms, adequate parking area, tourist guards, Children Park, etc., has
made this place a popular family picnic spot. Boating in the Chunnambar River
provides a thrilling experience as the sail takes visitors to the beach and Paradise
Island. It is an ideal beach for beach sports and sun bath. (Rajesh 2015)

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Exhibit 3.7: Chunnambar Back Water
Various kinds of recreational activities are also organised. Different types of
boats are available for tourists on rent such as paddled boats, rowed boats, high speed
motor boats, etc., to sail. Many beach sports facilities are also available for the tourists
at the beach.

3.16.1 Ousudu Lake

Ousudu Lake is the largest among fresh water lake in Puducherry. This lake is
located about 15 Kilometers away from main town. Ousudu Lake is preferred for bird
watching, boating and angling.

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3.17 Sri Aurobindo Ashram

Exhibit 3.8: Sri Aurobindo Ashram

Sri Aurobindo philosophy and discourses have influenced scores of disciples.


His memorial is located in the Ashram where Sri Aurobindo and the Mother worked
relentlessly for creating a society free from violence and prejudice and hence became
the place of salvation. Both of them strove hard for spreading universal peace and
harmony through their philosophies and strived for the refinement of human life.
Besides, there are farms, gardens, cottages industries, educational institutions,
libraries and various other manufacturing units managed by different wings of the
Ashram towards self reliance. Sri Aurobindo’s literary contributions are widely
acknowledged across the world, his magnum opus being ‘Savitri’. (Rajesh 2015)

3.18 Auroville

An international city named Auroville was created in 1968. This international


township houses the world famous Matirmandir. The spiritual collaborator of Sri
Aurobindo, “The Mother”, wanted to create a universal town where people from
different faiths, beliefs and ethnic backgrounds live together. Though, Auroville
Township geographically falls in the jurisdiction of Tamilnadu, it is very close to
Puducherry town just 12 Kilometers distance that makes Auroville an integral part of
Puducherry. (Rajesh 2015)

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Exhibit 3.9: Matrimandir: The soul of Auroville

The foundation for the creation of ‘Auroville Town’ was laid with the
financial, emotional and technical support by disciples from more than 100 countries.
The Matrimandir, a globe shaped structure is the main attraction of Auroville. The
center of the structure has a meditation hall. The globe is covered with gold coated
plates and the gigantic structure is indeed imposing. Ambiance around the
Matrimandir globe is so aesthetic that many a visitor revels at the inspiring and
beautiful structure. It is a modern architectural marvel as high as 30 meters with lotus
shaped foundation like urn.

3.19 Arikamedu

Arikamedu, an archeological site is located four Kilometers south of


Puducherry and on the bank of Ariyankuppam river. It is the seat of ancient Roman
trade centre and the history of Arikamedu dates back to the second century B.C. The
port town was inhabited by Romans in the beginning and subsequently by Cholas and
French. The Roman treasure trail and Arikamedu river cruise can take novelty seekers
down the history lane. Wine and stylish containers of wine were the valuable imports
from Rome during those days. Textile, precious stones, glass and shell bangles were
also exported between 2nd century BC and 14th century AD. The amazing ruins of

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the 18th century French Jesuit Mission House in Arikamedu is an enchanting site
(Puducherry Tourism Development Corporation: Arikamedu, 2012).

Exhibit 3.10: An Aerial View of Boulevard


3.20 Boulevard Town

The heart or core area of Puducherry town, called Boulevard is known for its
unique French heritage buildings and sites. A stroll on any lane of the boulevard
where all the roads crisscross perpendicularly testify the vision and town planning
skills of the French. No other town of India boasts of a boulevard of the type of
Puducherry where an aerial view presents the place in perfect geometrical lines. The
boulevard area of Puducherry geographically consists of two zones, namely the Tamil
and the French towns. Boulevard presents a blend of both French and Tamil
architecture where one could see the houses in a row that share architectural patterns
that repeat themselves in infinite variations. The town, provided a very conducive
atmosphere to Sri Aurobindo’s spiritual and Subramanian Bharathi’s literary pursuits,
besides attracting hordes of people from not only within the country but also from
abroad. A visitor to Puducherry is exposed to the unforgettable experience of style
and elegance of its French influence (The Hindu, June 2012).

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Exhibit 3.11: Franco Tamil Architectural style House

3.20.1 Art and Architectural Styles

A walk along the Puducherry Boulevard is so invigorating that one is greeted


by the imposing French colonial building ̶  Franco Tamil, traditional Tamil and
modern buildings. The street facades are usually characterized by continuous wall to
wall construction. As regard to the residential houses, Puducherry has its own
distinction. The facades are divided into smaller panels with vertical plasters and
horizontal cornices. The windows are usually arched with wooden louvers shutters.
The balconies are built over iron brackets. Parapets are designed with terracotta pot
designs. High ceilings and tall arched doors and windows with louvers dominate the
space inside the houses. Floors are polished and coloured with cement. Belgian
coloured glasses are fitted on the arched wooden frames above doors and porticos.
The entire street stretch is identical as each roof of the house merges with the other
and the connecting elements of the house are lean-to-roofs, cornices (horizontals),
plasters and engaged columns (verticals) and ornamental parapets. The Thinnai,
otherwise called portico marks the transition space through which one enters home.
The open courtyard – Mutram becomes the central space around which the various
other rooms are functionally positioned. The open Mutram is flanked by covered
space on one side with wooden columns usually meant for an interaction among the
family or with intimate guests. The courtyard in the immediate proximity to the
kitchen is reserved for services and utilities. Dravidian architecture is largely found in
the houses and ancient temples of Puducherry. Islamic style of architecture could be
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seen in some of the wealthy Muslim houses and mosques. Interestingly, European
architecture also made its presence in the popular churches of Puducherry (The
Hindu, June 2012).

3.20.2 Gardens and Parks

The Botanical Garden, home to a wide range of plants and trees was
developed in 1826 in an elaborate French style. With pruned trees, beautiful flower
beds and gravel lined paths and fountains; botanical garden is visited by excursionists
and researchers in plant sciences. The ambience of the entrance is reminiscent of
French architecture.

Exhibit 3.12: Botanical Garden: Depicted as zoo in the movie ‘Life of Pie’

The garden has a good collection of many exotic plants from different parts of
the world. It boasts of 1500 species of plants and by all means a prominent place in
the list of the best botanical gardens in South India. In order to entertain the visitors, a
musical fountain has been set up in the garden that enhances the value of visitor
experience. A visit to the garden and a walk on walking trail inside the garden
rejuvenates one’s spirits and energy levels. The Annual Flower Show organized in
this garden is a big draw. Seeds of various ornamental plants, medicinal/herbal plants,

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garden equipments, pesticides, etc., are sold in the garden retail outlet at nominal
prices.

3.20.3 Bharathi Park

Bharathi Park, a well maintained public park is another attraction of


Puducherry for nature lovers. Located in the White city area of Puducherry, flanked
by Raj Nivas (the official residence of the Lieutenant Governor) on the northern side,
the popular museum of Puducherry on the southern side, the stately Legislative
Assembly of Puducherry on the western side, Bharathi Park is a place where one could
relax in the well maintained lawns.

Exhibit 3.13: Aayi Mandapam: Bharathi Park

The main attraction of Bharathi Park is Aayi Mandapam which is the official
emblem/seal of Puducherry Government. Aayi Mandapam is a pure white monument.
It resembles the Greeco-Roman architecture and was built by Napolean III, the
Emperor of France. The monument is believed to have been erected during the 16th
century. Legend has it that a 16th century courtesan razed down her home and
replaced it with a reservoir to appease a passing king angry at having mistaken her
candle-lit residence for a holy place.

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3.21 Monuments and Heritage Buildings

Exhibit 3.14: Lycee Francaise

Puducherry has rich history and spells invaluable heritage. Puducherry


heritage owes to various monuments. Among the several heritage buildings and
monuments: Ayai Mandappam, Ananda Ranga Pillai Mansion, The statue of Dupleix,
Place du Governments, 19th Century Light House, French War Memorial, Ecole
Francaise d’Extreme - Orient, Cluny Embroidery, Alliance Francaise, INTACH
Heritage Center, Lycee Francaise, Art Gallery, State Assembly building, Raj Nivas,
The Statue of Joan of Arc, Town Hall, Notre Dame des Anges Church, Cercle de
Puducherry, Ananda Ranga Pillai Library, French Consulate, French Institute,
Golconde, Maison Colombai, UCO Bank, Calve College, Sushilabai School, Bharathi
Museum, Villa Helena, Hotel de l’ Orient, Hotel de Pondicherry, Le Dupleix, Maison
Perumal, Hotel du Parc, Reve Bleu and Villa Bayound, deserve a special mention.

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Exhibit 3.15: French War Memorial

Exhibit 3.16: Kargil War Memorial

3.21.1 Temples, Churches and Mosques

Puducherry is known for peace. People of various faiths and religious beliefs
coexist and live harmoniously for centuries. Puducherry is also known for its unique
art and architecture. Temples in Puducherry are predominantly influenced by
Dravidian style of architecture. Temples dedicated to different Hindu Gods and
Goddesses are similar to the ancient temples in Tamilnadu. The mosques have been

66
built in different parts of the city as per the Islamic architecture. Many famous
churches have also been constructed around the city during the colonial rule of
French. European architecture could be seen in the churches built in Puducherry, as
elsewhere in the country. The Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus is believed to have
been constructed in 1700 by French Missionaries.

Exhibit 3.17: Immaculate Conception Cathedral

Thus, Churches, Mosques and Temples of Puducherry are some of the


principal attractions for their religious significance as well as architectural splendors.
True to the accommodative spirit of the people, there are 350 temples in and around
Puducherry. Some of the temples were built by the Chola Kings between 10th and
12th centuries. Among the important temples, Sri Gokilambal Thirukameswara
Temple, Varadaraja Perumal Temple, Vedapureeswarar Temple, Ishwaran Temple,
Sithanandha Temple and Manakkula Vinayagar Temple, Kamatchiamman Temple
and Kanniga Parameshwari Temple merit a special mention. (Rajesh 2015)

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Exhibit 3.18: Manakula Vinayagar Temple
3.22 Museums

Puducherry has six important museums viz., Puducherry Museum, Bharathi


Memorial Museum, Ananda Ranga Pillai Museum, Bharathidashan Museum, Jawahar
Toy Museum and Children Museum. These museums represent the history of
Puducherry, conserved and showcased through a rich collection of rare bronze and
stone sculptures of Pallava and Chola dynasties and artifacts recovered from
Arikamedu.

Exhibit 3.19: Museum

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The Geology section exhibits a shell and fossil room and a collection of
handicrafts, church relics, coins and French furniture. The Children Museum presents
the display of a good collection of snail shells. The Jawahar Toy Museum is a place of
great delight for children with a good collection of over 120 dolls, each one dressed in
different ethnic costumes representing the cultural diversity of India (Puducherry
Tourism Development Corporation: Museums, 2012).

3.23 Science Centre and Planetarium

The first Science and Planetarium in the union territory of Puducherry was set
up in May 2015 by National Council of Science Museums (NCSM). The Minisitry of
Culture has spent Rs. 5.5 crore rupees to empower skills and knowledge among
students and youngsters in science and technology. The Planetarium has two main
exhibition halls, Fun Science section and Marine Biology Gallery. The Marine
Biology Gallery comprises five sections ̵ marine ecology, marine diversity, marine
tourism, marine resources and threats to marine resources. There are over 100
interactive exhibits and the digital planetarium with an 8 meter dome and
sophisticated projector system brings to life the night sky with various astronomical
phenomena.

3.24 Fairs and Festivals

Community life and harmony in Puducherry are well pronounced by the


involvement and participation of people in the various fairs and festivals of the region.
These events are marked by huge public gatherings such as, Pongal festival, Maasi
Magam festival, International Yoga Festival, Fete de Puducherry, Summer Music
Festival, Puducherry Shopping festival, Liberation Day and the Independence Day of
Puducherry etc.

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Exhibit 3.20: Puducherry Carnival: Organised by PTDC

Exhibit 3.21: Vinayaka Chaturthi Celebration

Some of the important festivals tourists look forward to are: New Year
celebrations, Sri Aurobindo’s birth anniversary, Mother’s birth anniversary, Bakrid,
Good Friday, Chitrai Kali Vizha, Villianur Temple Car Festival, Vinayaka Chaturthi,
Ayudha Pooja, Vijayadasami, Deepawali, Karthigai and Christmas. The Department
of Tourism organizes festivals like World Tourism Day, National Children’s Festival,
Vintage Car Rally, Kite festival, Food festival, Adventure Festival and Vysial Street

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Festival and much more events are organized by Puducherry Government to promote
tourism.

3.25 Shopping Paradise

Puducherry is a shoppers’ paradise as it offers a large collection of souvenir


articles representing different parts of India and nations across the globe. It is
heartening to note in this connection that ‘Hidesign’- an international brand in leather
products and accessories is born in Puducherry with headquarters and manufacturing
facilities located in Puducherry and retail outlets across the globe. Hidesign caters to
the connoisseurs of quality leather products across the world. Further, Puducherry, of
late, has witnessed the opening of exclusive premium brand outlets of national and
international fame, Viz., Levis, Arrow, Max, Reebok, etc. The various by lanes of the
town are dotted with rows of boutique and souvenir shops dealing with a wide range
of goods. It is a favorite shopping destination which enjoys relatively low tax rates.
That apart, Puducherry has a few traditional doll-making units and textiles factories.

Exhibit 3.22: Vintage Car Rally: This Rally is conducted every year (Source:
PTDC)

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Exhibit 3.23: Sunday Bazaar

Apart from traditional crafts, leather products, wooden and stone carvings,
aromatics, fashion goods, pottery and handmade paper products are some of the
distinguished products usually picked up as souvenirs by tourists. Exquisite decor
boutiques and export quality antique furniture galleries offer a wide range of
collections.

Further, several State and National level handicrafts show rooms, textile and
jewelry exhibitions are organised during the peak tourist season. The commercial
district of Puducherry comprises of Jawaharlal Nehru Street, Mahatma Gandhi Street,
Anna Salai, Mission Street and Romain Rolland Street.

‘Sunday Bazaar’ is the term used in the local parlance which denotes the
setting up of a large number of makeshift shops along the Mahatma Gandhi Road and
Nehru Street every Sunday. The vendors sell almost everything connected with the
day-to-day life and of course the trade on Sunday is a source of income to local small
scale vendors. Tourists flock to this bazaar for an experience and pick up goods at
reasonable prices. Readymade dresses, Textiles, and handicrafts are the most sought
after products in the Sunday Bazaar.

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Exhibit 3.24: Road side stalls

Exhibit 3.25: Sunday Bazaar: Mahatma Gandhi Road

3.26 Puducherry’s Wines and Liquor

Liquor is one of the major revenue contributors of the Union Territory of


Pondicherry. The Territory’s economy largely depends on the income accruing from
taxes on alcoholic beverages. There are six Indian Made Foreign Liquor (IMFL)
blending and bottling units in the union territory selling liquor of different variants to

73
both local market and export to other states. There are 180 arrack and toddy shops, 41
whole sale and 229 retail liquor shops which include 66 tourism category bars in
Puducherry region (Excise Department, Puducherry). Availability of alcoholic
products at lower prices draws a large number of weekend tourists to Puducherry for
fun and frolic. Besides several luxury hotels have discotheques to attract the youth
segment of tourists during the weekend.

3.27 Conclusion

The erstwhile French colony “Puducherry” has emerged as a recreation,


leisure, and weekend destination of India. Puducherry still remains the French flavor
even after the French departed more than half a century ago. Puducherry enjoys
competitive advantage, mostly due to scenic attractions, pleasant climate, French
heritage and architecture, Auroville – an international village, Sri Aurobindo Ashram
Road networks, transport systems, safety and security, variety of accommodation and
above all an indomitable local hospitality extended by the receptive and
accommodating local community. To cap it all, the French have left behind an
indelible legacy reflected in the art, architecture, cuisine and language. These
attractions all together spell what Puducherry is all about from the tourism
perspective. Substantial portion of Puducherry population depends on tourism and its
allied activities. There has been a 60% rise in domestic tourist arrivals over the past
decade. Puducherry is an easily accessible weekend tourist destination to nearby states
and also across the country during long weekends. The convenient transportation and
excellent communication facilities attract both domestic and foreign tourists to select
Puducherry as their preferred destination for business, leisure and spiritual pursuits.

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Chapter IV
Profile and Trip
characteristics of the
weekend tourists
4.0 Introduction

This chapter highlights the profile and trip characteristics of the weekend
tourists of Puducherry. The findings of the primary data were obtained from a
questionnaire based survey conducted during weekends over a period of twelve
months. A total number of 423 respondents were approached at various tourists
destinations in Puducherry during weekends. The main objective of this finding is to
gain a better understanding of the weekend tourist market and more precisely to
develop a profile of weekend tourists of Puducherry, to examine the distinctiveness of
weekend trips, and to throw light on some important aspects of the weekend travel
decision and weekend tourist behavior.

4.1 Statistical Analysis

In order to identify the profile of weekend tourists and their trip


characteristics, the primary data were analyzed by percentages method. Percentage
Technique is used to analyze the demographic profile of the tourists such as gender,
age, educational qualification, employment status, occupation, annual income, source
of information, trip planning, type of tour, purpose of visit, choice of transport,
visitor domicile status, choice of accommodation, length of stay, companionship
information and tour budget.

4.1.1 Demographic Profile of the Sample Respondents

Weekend breaks/tourism is quite popular among younger generation of


tourists. Hence, age plays a vital role in determining weekend tourism. Table-4.1
shows the demographic profile of the sample respondents.

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Table - 4.1: Demographic Profile of the Sample Respondents

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


A. Sex
Male 257 61
Female 166 39
Total 423 100
B. Age distribution
Below 20 12 3
21– 30 328 77
31 – 40 72 17
41 – 50 11 3
Total 423 100
C. Marital status
Married 137 32
Unmarried 286 68
Total 423 100

A gender distribution of sample respondents shows that 61 per cent of males


and 39 per cent of females are weekend tourists. This shows that women either single
or in group is less in number than male tourists in taking weekend trips. Even though,
Indian women are economically independent, a woman travelling alone or in group
for leisure is yet to gain social acceptance and the important decision making vests
mostly with the males given the patriarchal nature of many Indian families. But this
situation is gradually changing as education and economic freedom has increased the
mobility among the women travelers. Therefore, tourists destinations should be made
safer and women friendly.

Age distribution of weekend tourists sample shows that a vast majority (78%)
of them belongs to the age group of 21-30 years, followed by the age group of 31-40
years (16%). A very meager proportion (i.e., 3 % each) of the sample found to be in
the lower age band (below 20 years) and higher age band (41 – 50 years).

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Unlike other tourist destinations, Puducherry has distinct characteristics which
attract a large number of young tourists. The data shows that unmarried individuals
(68 %) at their early years of employment are outnumbered the married individuals
(32%). Thus, this table clearly shows that young unmarried males dominate the total
weekend tourists population.

Educational qualification of the weekend tourists is shown in Table - 4.2.


More than 50 per cent of sample respondents are graduates and 30 per cent are post-
graduates. Thus, the data indicates that majority of weekend tourists are highly
educated.

Table - 4.2: Educational Qualification of the Sample Respondents

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. Up to Higher secondary 11 3
2. Diploma 53 12
3. Graduate 234 55
4. Post-graduate 125 30
Total 423 100

Since a tourist requires some awareness and knowledge about destinations that
he/she visits, education helps them to gain the perspective and destination specific
knowledge. Higher education levels enable individuals to take up well paid jobs in
Information Technology and Information Technology Enabled Services (IT & ITES).
The spurt of Information Technology and the phenomenal growth of employment
opportunities in the sector, thanks to liberalization policies pursued by the government
since 1991, facilitated large number of young engineering / management graduates to
land in plum jobs in Information Technology industries. The nature of these jobs
demands the employees for a break or an escape from the daily work stress to regain
energy after the fatigue accumulated during the work week. Therefore, it is natural for
them to look for a weekend to spend leisurely in a destination as pleasant as possible.

Table – 4.3 shows the occupational profile of the sample respondents. More
than 76 percent of the weekend tourist respondents are employees of private corporate
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sector, followed by 16 percent unemployed respondents which may include Students
and Housewives.

Table – 4.3: Occupational Profile of the Sample Respondents

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


A. Employment Sector
i Public sector 30 7
ii Private sector 324 77
iii Unemployed 69 16
Total 423 100
B. Occupation
i Doctors 8 2
ii Engineers 136 32
iii Managers 118 28
iv Executives 92 12
v Students 51 22
vi Housewives 18 4
Total 423 100
C. Industry
i IT & ITES 178 50.28
ii Banking & Insurance 57 16.10
iii Retail Trade 37 10.45
iv Manufacturing 54 15.25
v Tele communication 13 3.67
vi Education 15 4.23
Total 354 100.00

Further, only 7 percent of the respondents are from public sector. This reveals
the increased employment opportunities created in the private corporate sector in
India in the past couple of decades in the Information, Communication and
Technology (ICT) front.With regard to the industry in which the respondents are
employed, Information Technology and IT Enabled Services dominated the scene
with more than 50 percent of the respondents, followed by Banking and Insurance,

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Manufacturing, and Retail Trade with 16 percent, 15 percent, and 10 percent
respectively. The finding reveals that majority of the weekend tourist respondents are
from IT&ITES industry as Puducherry is located and accessible to the two most
popular IT hubs, Chennai and Bengaluru (Bangalore). The uniqueness of Puducherry
destination is that it attracts tourists from these nearby cities heavily from private
corporate sectors in weekends and other cities across the country during long
weekends.As could be seen in the table with regard to respondents occupation,
industry/sector wise, overwhelming majority of the respondents are engaged in the
ICT segments.

Two main factors are essential for Leisure travel to occur viz. availability of
free time and disposable income. Table - 4.4 presents the economic status of the
respondents of weekend tourists.

Table - 4.4: Annual Income Distribution of the Sample Respondents


Sl. No. Particulars (in Rupees) Frequency Percentage
1. Below 2,00,000 39 9
2. 2,00,001 – 5,00,000 178 42
3. 5,00,001 – 10,00,000 93 22
4. Above 10,00,000 44 10
Unemployed
5. 69 17
( Housewives and Students)
Total 423 100

Money and time considered to be the major constraints for leisure trips for a

long time have been, of late, demystified. This has changed significantly due to the
development in transport facilities and telecommunication coupled with a phenomenal
growth in the accommodation sector predominantly in the budget and mid range
categories of hotels across India. These developments facilitated the common people
with lower income also to engage in leisure tour activities.Weekend tourism perfectly
suites all segments of society to indulge in leisure travel during weekends, as the
traveler requires less time and financial resources compared to other types of
holidays. Therefore, an attempt is made to determine the economic status of the
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weekend tourists in Puducherry. Of the total 423 respondents, 354 respondents are
employed and 69 respondents are unemployed which may include housewives and
students, who do not have any income earned by them. Among the employed
respondents more than 40 percent of the respondents’ annual income is between 2-5
Lakh rupees followed by 22 percent of the respondent in the range of 5-10 lakh
rupees. Further, 10 percent of the respondents found to be in the higher income
category, whose annual income is more than 10 Lakh rupees. About 17 percent of the
respondents fall in the low income category with below two Lakh rupees. Therefore,
Weekend trips seem to be preferred by tourists of varying incomes alike.

The results shown in Table – 4.5 reveal that vast majority of weekend tourists
to Puducherry has originated mainly from two cities Bengaluru (43.26%) and Chennai
(36.17%), followed by Coimbatore (6, 14%) and Cochin (5.91%). Remaining 8.5
percent of the respondents are from other places across the country.

Table - 4.5: Current Place of Residence of the Sample Respondents

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. Bengaluru 183 43
2. Chennai 153 36
3. Coimbatore 26 6
4. Cochin 25 6
5. Others 36 9
Total 423 100

This finding proves that Puducherry is an extremely convenient destination in


terms of access, especially for short discretionary trips such as weekend holiday
seekers from nearby cities.

4.1.2 Weekend Tourist and their Trip Characteristics

Table – 4.6 reveals that about 96 per cent of weekend tourists prefer to travel
in group rather than travelling alone. A very little of 3 percent of the weekend tourists
travel alone and they are mostly backpackers.

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Table - 4.6: Tourist Status

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. Alone 15 3
2. Group 408 97
Total 423 100

The key factor for weekend tourists is the ease of mobility since most of them
are single and not tied to family commitments. Table - 4.7 analyse the sample
weekend tourists companionship.
Table - 4.7: Tourist Companionship

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. Spouse 37 9
2. Family/Relatives 76 19
3. Friends 241 59
4. Work Place Colleagues 54 13
Total 408 100

It is evident from Table–4.7 that Weekend tourists groups are dominated by


the friends groups constituting 59 percent of the total weekend respondents. The
group consists of single or unmarried people travelling together as friends group.
Further, as weekend trips do not require intensive planning and as such, this category
of tourists decides quickly and spontaneously. Thus, weekend break travel is found to
be a more popular leisure choice among unmarried friends group. Puducherry is also
visited by families, groups of office colleagues, Couples and single backpackers
during weekends.

4.1.2.1 Trip description

Table–4.8 shows the travel pattern and the nature of the current trip of the
respondents. About 74 percent of the respondents consider the current trip as weekend
break. This category of tourist is a habitual weekend travelers who take weekend trips
very often. 13 percent of the respondents considered this trip as an additional or
secondary trip to main vacation or holidays. Remaining 12.5 percent respondents

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considers the current trip as the main holiday of the year. These respondents seem to
travel very rarely for leisure purpose.

Table - 4.8: Nature of the Trip

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. Weekend Break 314 74
2. Secondary/Additional holiday 56 13
3. Main Holiday this year 53 13
Total 423 100

4.1.2.2 Duration of trip

Needless to say that weekend break is generally short in nature mostly of 1-2
days. However, public or national holidays that precede or succeed weekend makes a
long weekend. A long weekend usually three or more than three days is still ideal for
short breaks. In the event of such long weekends, it is common for many tourists
visiting Puducherry to include nearby places also in their itinerary.

Table - 4.9: Total Nights Spent Away From Home on This Trip

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. One Night 52 12
2. Two Nights 257 61
3. Three Nights 89 21
4. Four Nights 25 6
Total 423 100

The data presented in the Table–4.9 show that about 60 percent of the
respondents have spent two nights away from their home, followed by three nights
with 21 percent and 12 percent of the respondents have spent just one night in
Puducherry. A very little, about 5 percent of the respondents have spent 4 nights away
from home. These tourists might have visited during long weekends. The respondents
who have spent just one night in Puducherry are mostly from Chennai as it takes just
few hours to reach Puducherry.

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Table - 4.10 shows the exact number of nights spent by the weekend tourist
respondents in Puducherry. Where 64 percent of the respondents have spent two
nights in Puducherry, followed by 26 percent respondents have spent one night.

Table – 4.10: No. of Nights Spent in Puducherry

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. One Night 111 26
2. Two Nights 272 65
3. Three Nights 35 8
4. Four Nights 05 1
Total 423 100
 
This proves that of late Puducherry attracts more tourists during weekends and
is an ideal place for short breaks. However, the finding also shows that more than 8
percent of the respondents have stayed in Puducherry for more than three days.

4.1.2.3 Frequency of Weekend Visits

Table–4.11 presents data relating to frequency of weekend trips to Puducherry


by the sample respondents.

Table – 4.11: Frequency of Weekend Trips

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. Every Weekend 13 3
2. At least one trip in a month 74 17
3. 2 Trips in a month 29 7
4. At least 1 trip in every 3 Months 150 36
5. At least one trip in 6 months 157 37
Total 423 100

The data shows that 37 percent of the respondents take at least one trip in
every six months, and 35 percent of the respondents go for at least one trip every three
months. One trip at least in a month is made by 17 percent respondents, two trips in a
month by 6 percent and 3 percent of the respondents travel almost every weekend.
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This data amply indicates that weekend tourists travel throughout the year. Therefore,
Weekend tourism can help destinations in offsetting the seasonality problems
considered largely as an enemy of the tourism industry.

4.1.2.4 Main Purpose of weekend Trips

Majority of the respondents (55%) have agreed that the purpose of weekend
trip is to take a break from the routine and the same was strongly agreed upon by 24
percent of the respondents.

Table - 4.12: Need Break From Work Stress

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. Strongly Disagree 15 3
2. Neutral 68 16
3. Agree 236 56
4. Strongly agree 104 25
Total 423 100

It is evident by the data in Table - 4.12 that working population mainly in


private corporate needs break mostly during weekend. Many employees use weekend
or weekend trips to recover from work stress and rejuvenate themselves.

It would be nice to take a break from work when one begins to feel mentally
burned out or requires energy for recovery, It is widely believed that ‘a good
weekend’ can transform into higher well being of the employee and his/her better
performance in the work week that follows.

In line with this statement, Table – 4.13 highlights that 53 percent respondents
have agreed that weekend trip helps them to relax and rejuvenate their body and soul.
24 percent of the respondents have strongly agreed to the same statement, whereas, 17
percent of the respondents are not travelling for rest and relaxation, and remaining 5
percent found to be neutral in their judgement.

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Table – 4.13: Help to Relax/Rejuvenate

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. Strongly Disagree 15 3
2. Disagree 59 14
3. Neutral 21 5
4. Agree 224 53
5. Strongly agree 104 25
Total 423 100

With respect to availability of long holidays for the respondents, as could be


seen in Table – 4.14, majority of the respondents (52%) have agreed that long
holidays are not possible, followed by 18 percent of the respondents strongly agree
and 10 percent stand by neutral for the same question.

Table – 4.14: Can't Take Long Holidays

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. Strongly Disagree 26 6
2. Disagree 54 13
3. Neutral 44 10
4. Agree 223 53
5. Strongly agree 76 18
Total 423 100

Hence, weekend break is more convenient and affordable for the majority of
the weekend respondents.

4.1.3 The Travel Decision

4.1.3.1 Source of information

Table – 4.15 indicates that traditional sources such as tour operators, travel
agents and brochures were given no importance by the weekend tourists. It is obvious
that internet has become the convenient method for collecting information for travel
especially for short breaks as a source of information tops the various sources of

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information as 41 percent of the respondents relied upon internet as a primary source
of information, 39 percent of the respondents are guided by friends and relatives while
19 percent are influenced by the experiences in the earlier visits to Puducherry.

Table – 4.15: Source of Information about Pondicherry

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. Earlier visit 82 19
2. Internet 174 41
3. Friends/Relatives 167 40
Total 423 100

. On the whole, as they are educated and tech savvy, Weekend tourists have
strong preference for information on internet and consultation with friends and
relatives than other sources.Thus, as large numbers of tourists are dependent on Web
sources for information, it is high time that travel companies and destination
managers improve their respective websites.

4.1.3.2 Factors Prompted To Choose Puducherry for the Weekend Trip

A Destination is chosen by different people for different purposes. Friends


and relatives recommendations are the major factor that prompted the respondents to
choose Puducherry for their weekend break.

Table – 4.16: Factors Prompted To Choose Puducherry for the Weekend Trip

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. Proximity 72 17
2. Congenial Climate 39 9
3. Low cost 40 9
4. Attractions 41 10
5. Family Interest 74 18
6. Recommended by Friends/Relatives 122 29
7. Easy Accessibility 35 8
Total 423 100
 
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As could be seen in Table – 4.16 about 28 percent of the respondents have
opted Puducherry for weekend break on the recommendations of friends and relatives.
It is heartening to note that Puducherry destination is being promoted through a
positive word of mouth by tourists themselves. While, family interest (17.5%) was
second major factor for choosing Puducherry for weekend break. Further, 17 percent
of the respondents visited Puducherry because of closer Proximity. Puducherry
incidentally is located at a striking distance for both the metropolitan cities Bangalore
and Chennai that generate the highest number of weekend tourists. The other factors
like attraction, low cost and congenial climate contribute almost equally at 9 % each.
Unfortunately, easy accessibility (8.3%) remains less influencing factor among the
respondents in choosing Puducherry for the weekend trip. This may be due to poor air
connectivity and inadequate rail connectivity, leaving many a tourist to depend largely
on road transport. Therefore, it is high time that a few loose ends with regard to
connectivity are addressed by the tourism policy makers of Puducherry.

4.1.4 Planning of the Trip to Puducherry

Comfortable and hassle free trip to any destination needs adequate planning
well in advance. It is all the more important for a destination like Puducherry where it
is difficult to get hotel room or a comfortable transport option during weekends

Table – 4.17: Planning of the Trip to Puducherry

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. 2 Months ago 52 12
2. 2-3 Weeks ago 125 27
3. A week ago 90 21
4. Didn`t plan 101 24
5. Last Minute decision 55 13
Total 423 100
 
Table – 4.17 displays the difference among the tourists or tourist groups with
respect to planning ahead of the trip. More than 85 percent of the respondents have
planned their trip less than a monthin advance. Among these 85 percent of

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respondents 29 percent have planned their trip just 2-3 weeks in advance. Followed
by21 percent of the respondents have planned the trip even ata very short notice of
just a week before the date of departure. The finding reveals that weekend tourists do
not usually plan the trip much in advance like other tourists. Surprisingly, 23 percent
of the respondents did not even plan this trip in advance and a very impulsive and
spontaneous in hitting the road to Puducherry. It is just 12 percent of the respondents
who planned their trip before one month. It may be observed from the data that
weekend tourists perception of risk which warrants hectic planning is very low which
is a welcome sign. It amply conveys the fact that Puducherry is a safe destination.
Tourists are confident of arranging travel related facilities at ease. Another interesting
factor is weekend tourists do not usually depend on the services of travel agents and
other intermediaries for fixing accommodation and transport facilities. Tourists by
and large themselves take care of the needed facilities to reach and stay in
Puducherry. Internet sources play a significant role in helping the tourists take
decisions and confirm the bookings in a fool proof manner. The increasing ability of
tourists in accessing information and booking their travel needs through internet had
definitely reduced the time and effort spent by tourists in planning and making
important decisions related to their trip.

4.1.5 Choice of Transport Used To Reach Puducherry

Any Destination that is easily accessible receives maximum number of tourists.


The economic status of the tourists has a bearing on the type of transport they choose for
the trip. The finding shows that tourists to Puducherry rely more on road and rail
transport as currently there is no air connectivity. Puducherry is well connected by rail
and four lane roads to major cities and towns in the country. Table – 4.18 shows,
majority of the respondents have travelled by bus (35.9%) followed by tourists travelled
by their own car (33.8). Frequent and luxury bus services, four lane and scenic roads are
the major factors that make tourist to opt for road transportation. Increase in the number
of personal cars among the middle class is the result of large number of tourists travelling
in their own cars to Puducherry. Further, a substantial number of tourists even chose to
travel by motor bike (15.3) to Puducherry.

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Table – 4. 18: Choice of Transport Used To Reach Puducherry

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. Train 52 12
2. Bus 152 36
3. Taxi 11 3
4. Own Car 143 34
5. Motor Bike 65 15
Total 423 100.0
 
Preference of the tourists to take road option shows that Puducherry is endowed
with good road connectivity, however, train travel also contributes to 2.4% while 2.6
percent of the respondents used taxi to reach Puducherry.

4.1.6 Choice of Accommodation

Over the years, there is a significant growth in accommodation sector of all


hues in Puducherry. It has a wide range of accommodation facilities, viz., star hotels,
heritage hotels, beach resorts, residential hotels, youth hostels and government guest
houses etc, The availability of various types of accommodations and easy access to
these facilities in addition to a host of guest houses owned and operated by Sri
Aurobindo Ashram have contributed significantly to the growing number of tourists,
of late.

Table – 4.19: Choice of Accommodation

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. Luxury/Star category hotel 95 23
2. Service Apartment 13 3
3. Beach resort 120 28
4. Tourists home 12 3
5. Guest house 82 19
6. Staying with friends/relatives 12 3
7. Ashram Guest house 15 4
8. Auroville Guest house 74 17
Total 423 100

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The findings of the study presented in Table – 4.19 reveal that 28 percent of
the respondents have chosen beach resorts, followed by luxury and star hotels (22.5%)
and 19 percent of the respondents stayed in various guest houses. 17 percent of the
weekend tourists have stayed in the guest houses in and around auroville which is 10
Kilometers away from Puducherry. Aurobindo ashram owned guest houses and
service apartment shares 3 percent each in accommodating weekend tourists.
Remaining 2 percent of the respondents have stayed at their friends and relatives
places.

4.1.7 Booking Behaviour

Table – 4.20: Booking of Accommodation

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. Travel Agents 23 5
2. Through Friends and Relatives 76 18
3. Online 152 36
4. Directly with Hotel 93 22
5. Did not book in advance 79 19
Total 423 100

Table – 4.20 presents the booking behavior of the weekend tourists in relation
to accommodation facilities at Puducherry. Internet has again topped the list with 35
percent of the respondents who booked their accommodation through online portals.
Followed by 22 percent of the respondents who booked directly with hotels. It is
surprising to note that about 18 percent of the respondents are quite relaxed anddid
not book in advance until they arrived at Puducherry. This may be due to low
involvement behavior in planning, or might be under perception of low risks involved
in getting accommodation. While similar numbers of respondents have booked
through their friends and relatives (18%). However, a few of the respondents (5.4%)
have got the bookings done through travel agents.

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Table – 4.21: Reservation of Transportation for the Trip

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. Travel Agents 23 5
2. Through Friends and Relatives 17 4
3. Online 212 50
4. Didn’t book in advance 171 41
Total 423 100

As mentioned earlier in the previous table, internet connectivity and the


various web sources come in handy to the weekend tourists for collecting information
and for planning the trips. The search on the web and the information thus collected
eventually took the respondents to the next stage of purchasing the products with
regard to hotel rooms and transport options online. The finding reveals that the tech
savvy tourists are comfortable in making online booking. The nature of the weekend
trip as mentioned earlier is uncomplicated and involves low risk making the tourists
draw the necessary comfort in booking online. Of late, the mobile apps in the cell
phones further simplified the task.

The data in Table – 4.21 shows that, 50 percent of the respondents have
booked transportation through online followed by 40 percent who did not book in
advance.Most of the respondentsreach Puducherry in their own cars, leaving just 5
percent of tourists dependent ontravel agent and 4 percent through friends and
relatives.

It is a pleasant sight during the weekend to see cars of various models ranging
from small hatchbacks to luxury sedans bearing registration numbers of Karnataka
and Tamilnadu states in a large number crisscrossing the roads of Puducherry.

4.1.8 Cost attributes

4.1.8.1 Transportation Cost

Table – 4.22 explains the cost of transport incurred per person during
weekend trip to Puducherry. It is evident by the data that almost all segments of
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tourists from low budget to high end tourists visit Puducherry during weekends.
Needless to say that economic status as could be gauged by the transport option has a
commendable positive impact on local economy.

Table – 4.22: Transportation Cost Per Person

Sl. No. Particulars(in Rupees) Frequency Percentage


1. Less than 500 16 4
2. Rs.501 - 1000 76 18
3. Rs. 1001-2000 131 32
4. Rs.2001-3000 121 29
5. Rs. 3001-5000 67 17
Total 411 100

The figures of the weekend tourists budget as shown in Table ̵ 22 reveal that
31 percent of the respondents are moderate tourists who spend between 1001-2000
rupees per person. Followed by 29 percent with a per person expenditure spent
between 2001-3000 rupees. About 22 percent of the tourists found to be low budget
tourists who have spent less than 1000 Rs. High end tourists constitute 16 percent of
respondents who spend more than 3001 Rs. Per person.

4.1.8.2 Accommodation Costs

The data in Table – 4.23 reveals that expenditure incurred by the weekend
tourists with respect to accommodation facilities. The figures in the table reveal the
accommodation cost per person and per night in rupees. Traditionally, leisure travel has
been the past time of the affluent section of the tourist. However in recent times,
increased availability of budget hotels and mid range accommodation facilities across the
country has changed this scenario and facilitated tourists of relatively low too to make a
few trips now and then.

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Table – 4.23: Accommodation Costs (Per Night and Per Person)

Sl. No. Particulars (in Rupees) Frequency Percentage


1. Less than 1000 170 40
2. 1001-2000 159 38
3. .2001-3000 58 14
4. 3001-4000 25 6
5. Stayed with friends/relatives 12 2
Total 423 100

The data reveals that 40 percent of the respondents have spent less than 1000 Rs.
per night, followed by 37 percent who stayed in hotel rooms costing between Rs.1000-
2000 per night. Further, 13 percent of the respondents have chosen accommodation with
tariff ranging from Rs. 2001-3000. Just 5.9 percent of the respondents have spent on high
end hotel rooms with Rs. 3001-4000 per night per person. The data witnesses all
segments of people taking weekend trips to Puducherry.

4.1.9 Repeated Visitor

Repeat visits of tourists to any destination obviously show the strengths of a


destination, viewed in the context. It is heartening to see that 40 percent of the weekend
tourists to Puducherry are repeat visitors.

Table – 4.24: Repeated Visitor

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. Yes 170 40
2. No 253 60
Total 423 100
 
This is evident by the data in Table – 4.24 that Puducherry is emerging as a
popular destination among the weekend tourists. About 59 percent of weekend tourists
are new comers or first time visitors. The data further demonstrates that the purpose of
leisure trips among tourists is changing as it is now perceived more as an option to
rejuvenate among from the work place.

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4.1.10 Transport to Move around the City

Table – 4.25 highlights the findings of internal transport used by weekend


tourists to move around the city or for sightseeing purpose. Majority of the
respondents have used their own vehicle (43.3%) by which they reached Puducherry.
The important finding is that about 31 percent of the respondent use rental motor bike
for internal transport. According to section 192A of Motor Vehicles Act, renting
vehicles without a permit is illegal. The government of Puducherry has not given
permit to use two wheelers for commercial purpose. It may be noted that bike rental
shops are and operated illegally in Puducherry and riding such motor bikes are against
the law.

Table – 4.25: Transport to Move around the City (Internal Transport)

Sl. No. Particulars Frequency Percentage


1. Public Transport 13 3
2. Auto Rickshaw 58 14
3. Local Taxi 37 9
4. Own Vehicle 183 43
5. Rental Bike 132 31
Total 423 100

But still there is an increased demand for rental bikes among tourists
especially among young weekend tourists to Puducherry. The local auto rickshaw was
used by 13 percent of the respondents while local taxi services are used by 8 percent.
Local public transport is the last option for internal transport for many tourists as
could be seen by a meager 3 percent opting for local town bus service for internal
movement. It is, of course, natural that the bus routes and timings of local public
transport buses are not familiar with the tourists. Further, since for many tourists it is
a short stay of one or two days, they do not prefer to wait for the buses for internal
transport and loose much of their time in the process.As such, public transport
facilities need to be strengthened with clear display of routes, bus numbers and
timings at all the vantage prints of the city.

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4.2 Conclusion

The main objective of the findings discussed in this chapter to gain a better
understanding of the weekend tourist market and more precisely to develop a profile
of weekend tourists of Puducherry, to examine the distinctiveness of weekend trips,
and to throw light on some important aspects of the weekend travel decision and
weekend tourists behavior. Percentage Technique is used to analyze the demographic
profile of the tourists such as gender, age, educational qualification, employment
status, occupation, annual income, source of information, trip planning, type of tour,
purpose of visit, choice of transport, visitor domicile status, choice of
accommodation, length of stay, companionship information and tour budget. The
findings revealed some interesting facts about Weekend tourism and weekend
tourists. Almost 75 percent of weekend tourists have agreed that weekend break helps
to relax or rejuvenate. Weekend trip is more popular among younger generation of
tourists aged between 21-30 years and are well educated and majority of them are
graduates. Bangalore and Chennai are the two cities which generates almost 80
percent weekend tourists to Puducherry destination. More than 95 percent of weekend
tourists travel in groups (on average 3 persons per group) mainly with friends.
Further, weekend tourists are more dependent on internet for booking their travel
needs as well as to collect travel information than travel agents and tour operators.

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Chapter V
Expectations,
Experiences and
Satisfaction of
Weekend Tourists
5.0 Introduction

Primary data were analyzed using statistical tools such as Independent Sample
t test, Paired Sample t-test , one way ANOVA, Mean Ranking Technique, Factor
Analysis, Correlations and Multiple Regression to find appropriate solutions for the
research questions.

5.1 Independent Sample T Test

The independent samples t-Test compares the means of two independent


groups in order to determine whether there is statistical evidence that the associated
population are significantly different or not.

To reject the null hypothesis, the computed t-value should be greater than the
critical t-value.

To obtain the critical t-value, refer to the t distribution table, where the
respective column (5 percent level of significance) and degrees of freedom (N1+ N2 –
2) row intersect each other.

5.1.1 Mean Difference between Gender Vs Tourist Expectations and Tourism


Experiences.

H0: There is no significant difference in the mean factor score of tourists


expectations and tourists experiences across the gender.

5.1.1.1 Tourists’ Expectations on Tourism Facilities

Table-5.1 shows that there is statistically significant difference in the scores of


male (Mean = 110.75, Standard Deviation = 19.08) and female tourists (Mean =
111.70, Standard Deviation = 19.22; t (358) = 1.328, p = 0.05, two tailed) expectation
on tourism facilities. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence
level. It may be interpreted that there is a significant difference between the male and

96
female tourists with respect to expectations on tourism facilities. It seems that gender
has significant differences on expectations on tourism facilities.
Table – 5.1
Mean difference between Gender Vs Tourist Expectations and Experiences

Gender Size Mean S.D t value df p value Decision


Tourist Expectation on Tourism Facilities
Male 253 110.75 19.08
1.328 358 0.05 Reject
Female 166 111.70 19.22
Tourist Experience on Tourism Facilities
Male 253 102.04 12.03
2.20 367 0.03 Reject
Female 166 105.10 12.87
Tourist Expectation on Destination Specific Factors
Male 253 97.09 18.06
3.04 386 0.00 Reject
Female 166 99.06 18.36
Tourist Experience on Destination Specific Factors
Male 253 106.23 8.85
3.89 380 0.07 Reject
Female 166 106.35 9.60

5.1.1.2 Tourist Experiences on Tourism Facilities

Statistically significant difference in the scores between male tourists (Mean =


102.04, Standard Deviation = 12.03) and female tourists (Mean = 105.10, Standard
Deviation = 12.87; t (367) = 2.20, p = 0.03, two tailed). Therefore, the null hypothesis
is rejected at 95% confidence level. It may be interpreted that there is a significant
difference between the male and female tourist experience on tourism facilities. It
seems that gender has significant difference in tourist experience on tourism facilities.

5.1.1.3 Tourist Expectations on Destination Specific Factors

As regards tourist expectations about the destination specific factors, there is a


statistically significant difference in the scores of male tourists (Mean = 97.09,
Standard Deviation = 18.06) and female tourists (Mean = 99.06, Standard Deviation =
18.36; t (386) = 3.04, p = 0.00, two tailed). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected
at 95% confidence level. It may be interpreted that the difference between the male
and female tourist expectations on destination specific factors is significant.

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5.1.1.4 Tourist Experience on Destination Specific Factors

The scores of male tourists (Mean = 106.23, Standard Deviation = 8.85) and
female tourists (Mean = 106.35, Standard Deviation = 9.60; t (380) = -3.89, p = 0.07,
two tailed) with regard to tourist experiences on destination specific factors. Hence,
the null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level.

On the whole, the independent sample t-test results presented in Table -5.1,
shows that tourists’ expectations and experiences on tourism facilities and
expectations and experiences on destination specific factors significantly vary across
gender. Therefore, null hypotheses are rejected.

5.1.2 Mean difference between Visitor Status Vs Tourist Expectations and


Experiences.

H0: There is no significant difference in the mean tourist expectations and


experiences factor scores of visitor status (i.e. group and alone foreign tourists).

Table – 5.2
Mean difference between Visitor Status Vs Tourist Expectations and
Experiences
Place of Origin Size Mean S.D t value df p value Decision
Tourist Expectation on Tourism Facilities
Alone 24 113.05 17.92
2.86 322 0.05 Reject
Group 399 110.74 19.16
Tourist Experience on Tourism Facilities
Alone 24 111.31 23.52
3.86 386 0.03 Reject
Group 399 110.26 22.98
Tourist Expectation on Destination Specific Factors
Alone 24 113.05 17.92
2.86 328 0.01 Reject
Group 399 110.74 19.16
Tourist Experience on Destination Specific Factors
Alone 24 96.20 23.35
3.80 316 0.04 Reject
Group 399 98.20 20.01

98
Independent sample t-test is conducted to examine whether there is significant
difference in the mean factor scores of tourists expectations and experiences on
tourism facilities and destination specific factors of visitor status (i.e. alone and in
group).

5.1.2.1 Tourist Expectations on Tourism Facilities

There is a statistically significant difference in the scores of a lone tourist


(Mean = 111.05, Standard Deviation = 17.92) as compared to tourists in groups
(Mean = 110.74, Standard Deviation = 19.16; t (322) = 2.86, p = 0.05, two tailed).
Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level. It is evident that
there is a significant difference between the lone and group tourists expectation on
tourism facilities.

5.1.2.2 Tourist Experience on Tourism Facilities

The scores of alone tourists (Mean = 111.31, Standard Deviation = 23.52) and
group tourists (Mean = 110.26, Standard Deviation = 22.98; t (386) = 3.86, p = 0.03,
two tailed). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level. It
results show a significant difference in the tourist experience on tourism facilities
between alone and group tourists.

5.1.2.3 Tourist Expectations on Destination Specific Factors

The scores of lone tourists (Mean = 113.05, Standard Deviation = 17.92) and
group tourists (Mean = 110.74, Standard Deviation = 19.16; t (386) = 2.86, p = 0.01,
two tailed). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level. It may
be seen that there is a significant difference between the lone and group tourists with
respect to expectations on destination specific factors. Therefore, the visitor status has
significant difference on expectation about destination specific factors.

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5.1.2.4 Tourist Experience on Destination Specific Factors

The scores of alone tourists (Mean = 96.20, Standard Deviation = 23.35) and
group tourists (Mean =98.20, Standard Deviation = 20.01; t (328) = 3.86, p = 0.04,
two tailed) were found with regard to tourist experience on destination specific
factors. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level.

5.2 Paired Samples t-test

Paired sample t-test is a statistical technique that is used to compare means


between two related groups on the same continuous dependent variable. Paired
sample t-test is also known as dependent sample t-test.

5.2.1 Mean difference between Tourist Expectations and Experiences on


Tourism Facilities

H0: There is no significant difference between tourist expectations and


experiences on Tourism Facilities

Table – 5.3: Tourist Expectations and Experiences on Tourism Facilities

Indicators T Df Sig
Tourism Facilities:
3.123 422 .002
Tourist Expectation Vs. Experience

The pretest score of tourists expectations of tourism facilities is 32.25 and the
post-test score of tourists experiences of tourism facilities is 35.50 and the difference
between their mean is 3.25. t=3.123 and significant value is 0.002 which is less than
0.05. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected.

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5.2.2 Mean difference between Tourist Expectation and Experience on
Destination Specific Factors

H0: There is no significant difference between tourist expectation and


experience on Destination Specific Factors

Table – 5.4: Tourist Expectations and Experiences on Destination Specific


Factors

Indicators t df Sig
Destination Specific Factors:
8.327 422 .000
Tourist Expectation Vs. Experience

The pre-test score of tourist expectation of destination specific factors is 22.20


and the post test score of tourism experience of destination specific factors is 25.30
and the difference between their mean is 3.10. t=8.327 and significant value is 0.002
which is less than 0.05. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected.

5.3 One way ANOVA

The one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to determine whether


there are any significant differences between the means of three or more independent
(unrelated) groups. The one-way ANOVA compares the means between the groups
that are interrelated and determines whether any of those means are significantly
different from each other.

5.3.1 Variance between Age of Tourists, their Expectation and Experience on


Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

H0: There is no significant difference between age of tourists and their


expectation and experience on tourism facilities and destination specific factors.

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Table – 5.5: Age of Tourists and Tourist Expectation and Experience on Tourism
Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific Factors (DSF)

Variables F Sig. Decision


Age of Tourists Vs Tourist Expectation on TF 9.43 0.00 Reject
Age of Tourists Vs Tourist Experience on TF 7.36 0.02 Reject
Age of Tourists Vs Tourist Expectation on DSF 6.30 0.04 Reject
Age of Tourists Vs Tourist Experience on DSF 8.45 0.01 Reject

The F-value is 9.43 and P-value is given as 0.00. Hence, null hypothesis is
rejected. Therefore, a significant difference between age categories with regard to
tourist expectations on tourism facilities is evident. Likewise, one way ANOVA is
used to check whether significant difference exists between age tourists and tourist
experience on tourism facilities. The F-value is 7.36 and p-value is 0.02. Therefore,
null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level. Similarly, one way ANOVA is
conducted to find out existing differences between age category and tourist
expectations on destination specific factors. The F-value is 6.30 and p-value is given
as 0.04. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected at 5% significant level and it may be
concluded that there is a significant difference between age category and tourist
expectations on destination specific factors. Subsequently, one way ANOVA is
conducted to find out existing differences between age category and tourist
experiences on destination specific factors. The F-value is 8.45 and p-value is 0.01.
Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected at 5% significant level and it may be concluded
that there is a significant difference between age category and tourist experiences on
destination specific factors. On the whole, a significant difference between age of
tourists and tourist expectations and experiences on tourism facilities and destination
specific factors is observed.

5.3.2 Variance between Educational Qualification of Tourists, their Expectation


and Experience on Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

H0: There is no significant difference between educational qualification of


tourists and tourist expectation and experience on tourism facilities and destination
specific factors.
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Table – 5.6: Educational Qualification of Tourists and Tourist Expectation and
Experience on Tourism Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific Factors (DSF)

Variables F Sig. Decision


Educational Qualification Vs Tourist Expectation on TF 10.73 0.00 Reject
Educational Qualification Vs Tourist Experience on TF 9.22 0.00 Reject
Educational Qualification Vs Tourist Expectation on DSF 9.38 0.00 Reject
Educational Qualification Vs Tourist Experience on DSF 10.87 0.00 Reject

The F-value is 10.73 and P-value is given as 0.00. Hence, null hypothesis is
safely rejected. Therefore, a significant difference between educational qualifications
with regard to tourist expectations on tourism facilities is evident. Likewise, one way
ANOVA is used to check whether significant difference exists between educational
qualification and tourist experience on tourism facilities. The F-value is 9.22 and p-
value is 0.00. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level.
Similarly, one way ANOVA is conducted to find out existing difference between
educational qualification and tourist expectation on destination specific factors. The
F-value is 9.38 and p-value is given as 0.00. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected at
5% significant level and it may be concluded that there is a significant difference
between educational qualification and tourist expectations on destination specific
factors. Subsequently, one way ANOVA is conducted to find out existing difference
between educational qualification and tourist experience on destination specific
factors. The F-value is 10.87 and p-value is given as 0.00. Therefore, null hypothesis
is rejected at 5% significant level and it may be concluded that there is a significant
difference between educational qualification and tourist experience on destination
specific factors. On the whole, a significant difference between educational
qualification and tourist expectations and experiences on tourism facilities and
destination specific factors is observed.

5.3.3 Variance between Annual Income and Tourist Expectation and Experience
on Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

H0: There is no significant difference between annual income and tourist


expectation and experience on tourism facilities and Destination Specific Factors.
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Table – 5.7: Annual Income and Tourist Expectation and Experience on Tourism
Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific Factors (DSF)

Variables F Sig. Decision


Annual Income Vs Tourist Expectation on TF 8.12 0.00 Reject
Annual Income Vs Tourist Experience on TF 9.06 0.00 Reject
Annual Income Vs Tourist Expectation on DSF 9.75 0.00 Reject
Annual Income Vs Tourist Experience on DSF 7.86 0.02 Reject

Table-7 shows that the F-value is 8.12 and p-value is 0.00. Therefore, null
hypothesis is rejected since significant difference exists between tourists annual
income and expectations on tourism facilities. Similarly, one way ANOVA is
performed to check whether significant differences exist between tourists annual
income and tourist experience on tourism facilities. The F-value is 9.06 and p-value is
<0.05. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level and as such
it may be concluded that there is a significant difference between tourists annual
income and tourist experience on tourism facilities. Subsequently, one way ANOVA
is carried out to find the difference between tourists annual income and expectations
on destination specific factors. The F-value is 9.75 and p-value is 0.00. Null
hypothesis is rejected at 5 % significant level. It shows that there is a significant
difference between tourist annual income and destination specific factors. Likewise,
one way ANOVA is performed to check whether significant differences exist between
tourists’ annual income and tourist experience on destination specific factors. The F-
value is 7.86 and p-value is <0.05. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected at 95%
confidence level and as such may be concluded that there is a significant difference
between tourists annual income and tourist experience on destination specific factors.
In essence, it goes to show that there is a significant difference between annual
income and tourists’ expectations and experiences on tourism facilities and
destination specific factors.

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5.3.4 Variance between Source of Information and Tourist Expectation and
Experience on Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

H0: There is no significant difference between source of information and


Tourist Expectation and Experience on Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific
Factors

Table – 5.8: Source of Information and Tourist Expectation and Experience on


Tourism Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific Factors (DSF)

Variables F Sig. Decision


Source of Information Vs Tourist Expectation on TF 7.66 0.00 Reject
Source of Information Vs Tourist Experience on TF 6.20 0.00 Reject
Source of Information Vs Tourist Expectation on DSF 5.09 0.00 Reject
Source of Information Vs Tourist Experience on DSF 6.89 0.00 Reject

Based on the results shown in Table- 5.8, it could be seen that F value is 7.66
and p value is 0.00. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected. It is evident that there is a
significant difference between source of information and tourist expectations on
tourism facilities. Similarly, one way ANOVA is performed to check whether
significant differences exist between source of information and tourist experience on
tourism facilities. The F-value is 6.20 and p-value is < 0.05. Hence, null hypothesis is
rejected at 95% confidence level and could be concluded that there is a significant
difference between source of information and tourist experience on tourism facilities.
Subsequently, one way ANOVA is carried out to find the existing difference between
source of information and destination specific factors. The F-value is 5.09 and p-value
is given as 0.00. Thus, null hypothesis is rejected at 5 % significant level lending
credence to infer that there is a significant difference between sources of information
and destination specific factors. Likewise, one way ANOVA is performed to check
whether significant differences exist between source of information and tourist
experience on tourism facilities. The F-value is 6.89 and p-value is < 0.05. Hence,
null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level and could be concluded that there
is a significant difference between source of information and tourist experience on
destination specific factors. On the whole, it is found that there is a significant
105
difference between source of information and tourist expectation and experience on
tourism facilities and destination specific factors.

5.3.5 Variance between Purpose of Visit and Tourist Expectation and Experience
on Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

H0: There is no significant difference between Purpose of Visit and Tourist


expectation and experience on tourism facilities and destination specific factors.

Table – 5.9: Purpose of Visit and Tourist Expectation and Experience on


Tourism Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific Factors (DSF)

Variables F Sig. Decision


Purpose of Visit Vs Tourist Expectation on TF 6.75 0.00 Reject
Purpose of Visit Vs Tourist Experience on TF 7.77 0.00 Reject
Purpose of Visit Vs Tourist Expectation on DSF 4.11 0.05 Reject
Purpose of Visit Vs Tourist Experience on DSF 8.11 0.00 Reject

Table-5.9 shows F-value is 6.75 and p-value is 0.00. Therefore, null


hypothesis is rejected as there is a significant difference between purpose of visit and
tourist expectation on tourism facilities. Similarly, one way ANOVA is performed to
check whether significant difference exists between purpose of visit and tourist
experience on tourism facilities. The F-value is 7.77 and p-value is < 0.05. Therefore,
null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level. As such, there is a significant
difference between purpose of visit and tourist experience on tourism facilities.
Subsequently, one way ANOVA is conducted to find out existing difference between
purpose of visit and tourist experience on destination specific factors. The F-value is
4.11 and p-value is given as 0.05. Thus, null hypothesis is rejected at 5 % significant
level as there is significant difference between purpose of visit and tourist expectation
on destination specific factors. Further, the F-value is 8.11 and p-value is < 0.05.
Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level. As such, there is a
significant difference between purpose of visit and tourist experience on destination
specific factors. On the whole, it is found that there is significant difference between

106
purpose of visit and tourist expectation and experience on tourism facilities and
destination specific factors.

5.3.6 Variance between Choice of Transport and Tourist Expectation and


Experience on Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

H0: There is no significant difference between choice of transport and tourist


expectation and experience on tourism facilities and destination specific factors

Table – 5.10: Choice of Transport and Tourist Expectation and Experience on


Tourism Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific Factors (DSF)

Variables F Sig. Decision


Choice of Transport Vs Tourist Expectation on TF 9.65 0.00 Reject
Choice of Transport Vs Tourist Experience on TF 7.45 0.03 Reject
Choice of Transport Vs Tourist Expectation on DSF 9.23 0.01 Reject
Choice of Transport Vs Tourist Experience on DSF 10.34 0.00 Reject

Based on the results shown in Table- 5.10, it may be observed that the F-value
is 9.65 and p-value is 0.00. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. As such there is
a significant difference between choice of transport and tourist expectation on tourism
facilities. Similarly, one way ANOVA is performed to check whether significant
differences exist between choice of transport and tourist experience on tourism
facilities. The F-value is 7.45 and p-value is < 0.05.Therefore, null hypothesis is
rejected at 95% confidence level and it may be concluded that there is a significant
difference between choice of transport and tourist experience on tourism facilities.
Subsequently, one way ANOVA is carried out to find the difference between choice
of transport and tourists expectation on destination specific factors. The F-value is
9.23 and p-value is 0.01. Thus, null hypothesis is rejected at 5% significant level. It
may be concluded that there is a significant difference between choice of transport
and tourist expectation on destination specific factors. The F-value is 10.34 and p-
value is < 0.05.Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level and it
may be concluded that is there is a significant difference between choice of transport
and tourist experience on destination specific factors. On the whole, it is found that
107
there is a significant difference between choice of transport and tourist expectation
and experience on tourism facilities and destination specific factors.

5.3.7 Variance between Choice of Accommodation and Tourist Expectation and


Experience on Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

H0: There is no significant difference between choice of accommodation and


tourist Expectation and Experience on tourism facilities and destination specific
factors.

Table – 5.11: Choice of Accommodation and Tourist Expectation and Experience


on Tourism Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific Factors (DSF)

Variables F Sig. Decision


Choice of Accommodation Vs Tourist Expectation on TF 10.14 0.00 Reject
Choice of Accommodation Vs Tourist Experience on TF 12.41 0.00 Reject
Choice of Accommodation Vs Tourist Expectation on DSF 8.90 0.00 Reject
Choice of Accommodation Vs Tourist Experience on DSF 9.89 0.00 Reject

Table-5.11 shows that the F-value is 10.14 and p-value is 0.00. Therefore, null
hypothesis is rejected since significant difference emerges between the choice of
accommodation and tourist expectation on tourism facilities. Similarly, one way
ANOVA is performed to check whether significant difference exists between choice
of accommodation and tourist experience on tourism facilities. The F-value is 12.41
and p-value is < 0.05. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence
level and it may be concluded that there is a significant difference between choice of
accommodation and tourist experience on tourism facilities. Subsequently, one way
ANOVA is conducted to find out existing difference between accommodation choice
and tourist expectation on destination specific factors. The F-value is 8.90 and p-value
is 0.00. Thus, null hypothesis is rejected at 5% significant level and it may be
concluded that there is a significant difference between choice of accommodation and
tourist expectation on destination specific factors. The F-value is 9.89 and p-value is <
0.05. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level and it may be

108
concluded that there is a significant difference between choice of accommodation and
tourist experience on tourism destination specific factors.

5.3.8 Variance between Length of Stay and Tourist Expectation and Experience
on Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

H0: There is no significant difference between length of stay and tourist


expectation and experience on tourism facilities and destination specific factors

Table – 5.12: Length of Stay and Tourist Expectation and Experience on


Tourism Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific Factors (DSF)

Variables F Sig. Decision


Length of Stay Vs Tourist Expectation on TF 8.45 0.00 Reject
Length of Stay Vs Tourist Experience on TF 8.90 0.00 Reject
Length of Stay Vs Tourist Expectation on DSF 9.56 0.00 Reject
Length of Stay Vs Tourist Experience on DSF 10.76 0.00 Reject

It may be seen from the data presented in Table-5.12 it could be seen that F-
value is 8.45 and p-value is 0.00.Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected. It is evident
that there is a significant difference between length of stay and tourist expectation on
tourism facilities. Similarly, one way ANOVA is performed to check whether
significant difference exists between length of stay and tourist experience on tourism
facilities. The F-value is 8.90 and p-value is < 0.05. Hence, null hypothesis is rejected
at 95% confidence level and it may be concluded that there is a significant difference
between length of stay and tourist experience on tourism facilities. Subsequently, one
way ANOVA is conducted to find out existing difference between length of stay and
tourist experience on destination specific factors. The F-value is 9.56 and p-value is
0.00. Thus, null hypothesis is accepted at 5 % significant level. It is found that there is
no significant difference between length of stay and tourist expectation on destination
specific factors. The F-value is 10.76 and p-value is < 0.05. Hence, null hypothesis is
rejected at 95% confidence level and it may be concluded that is there is a significant
difference between length of stay and tourist experience on destination specific
factors. On the whole, it is found that there is a significant difference between length
109
of stay and tourist expectation and experience on tourism facilities and destination
specific factors.

5.3.9 Variance between Tourist Companionship and Tourist Expectation and


Experience on Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

H0: There is no significant difference between tourist companionship and


tourist expectation and experience on tourism facilities and destination specific
factors.

Table – 5.13: Tourist Companionship and Tourist Expectation and Experience


on Tourism Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific Factors (DSF)

Variables F Sig. Decision


Tourist Companionship Vs Tourist Expectation on TF 9.07 0.00 Reject
Tourist Companionship Vs Tourist Experience on TF 7.05 0.00 Reject
Tourist Companionship Vs Tourist Expectation on DSF 6.84 0.05 Reject
Tourist Companionship Vs Tourist Experience on DSF 8.65 0.04 Reject

Table-5.13 shows F-value is 9.07 and p-value is 0.00. Therefore, null


hypothesis is rejected as there is a significant difference between tourist
companionship and tourist expectation on tourism facilities. Similarly, one way
ANOVA is performed to check whether significant difference exists between tourist
companionship and tourist experience on tourism facilities. The F-value is 7.05 and p-
value is < 0.05. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level. As
such, there is a significant difference between tourist companionship and tourist
experience on tourism facilities. Subsequently, one way ANOVA is conducted to find
out existing difference between tourist companionship and tourist expectation on
destination specific factors. The F-value is 6.84 and p-value is 0.05. Thus, null
hypothesis is rejected at 5 % significant level as there is a significant difference
between tourist companionship and tourist expectation on destination specific factors.
The F-value is 8.65 and p-value is < 0.05. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected at
95% confidence level. As such there is a significant difference between tourist
companionship and tourist experience on destination specific factors. On the whole, it
110
is found that there is significant difference between tourist companionship and tourist
expectation and experience on tourism facilities and destination specific factors.

5.3.10 Variance between Tour Budget and Tourist Expectation and Experience
on Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

H0: There is no significant difference between tour budget and tourist


expectation and experience on tourism facilities and destination specific factors.

Table – 5.14: Tour Budget and Tourist Expectation and Experience on Tourism
Facilities (TF) and Destination Specific Factors (DSF)

Variables F Sig. Decision


Tour Budget Vs Tourist Expectation on TF 9.76 0.00 Reject
Tour Budget Vs Tourist Experience on TF 7.22 0.01 Reject
Tour Budget Vs Tourist Expectation on DSF 12.98 0.00 Reject
Tour Budget Vs Tourist Experience on DSF 13.89 0.00 Reject

Based on the results of the data shown in Table-5.14 it may be observed that
the F-value is 9.76 and p-value is 0.00. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected. As such,
there is a significant difference between tour budget and tourist expectation on
tourism facilities. Similarly, one way ANOVA is performed to check whether
significant difference exists between tour budget and tourist experience on tourism
facilities. The F-value is 7.22 p-value is < 0.05. Hence, null hypothesis is rejected at
95% confidence level leading to the conclusion that there is a significant difference
between tour budget and tourist experience on tourism facilities. Further, one way
ANOVA is conducted to find out the difference between tour budget and tourist
expectation on destination specific factors. The F-value is 12.98 and p-value is 0.00.
Thus, null hypothesis is rejected at 5 % significant level. It may be concluded that
there is a significant difference between tour budget and tourist expectation on
destination specific factors. The F-value is 12.89 and p-value is < 0.05. Hence, null
hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level and leading to the conclusion that there
is a significant difference between tour budget and tourist experience on destination
specific factors. On the whole, it is found that there is a significant difference between
111
tour budget and tourist expectation and experience on tourism facilities and
destination specific factors.

5.4 Exploratory Factor Analysis

Factor analysis is a statistical method used to describe variability among


observed and correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of
unobserved variables called factors. Factor analysis is a method of data reduction. It is
a technique that requires a large sample size.

Factor analysis usually proceeds in two stages. In the first stage one set of
loadings is calculated which yields theoretical variances and covariances that fit the
observed ones as closely as possible according to a certain criterion. These loadings,
however, may not agree with the prior expectations, or may not lend themselves to a
reasonable interpretation. Thus, in the second stage, the first loadings are rotated in an
effort to arrive at another set of loadings that fit equally well the observed variances
and co-variances, which are more consistent with prior expectations or more easily
interpreted.

A method widely used for determining the first set of loadings is the principal
component method. This method seeks values of the loadings that bring the estimate
of the total communality as close as possible to the total of the observed variances.

The second method is called Variance Rotation Method. When the variables
are not measured in the same units, it is customary to standardize them prior to
subjecting them to the principal component method so that all variables have mean
equal to zero and variance equal to one. The Varimax Rotation Method encourages
the detection of factors each of which is related to few variables. It discourages the
detection of factors influencing all variables.

112
5.4.1 Tourist Expectations on Tourism Facilities

Table – 5.15: KMO and Bartlett’s Test – Tourist Expectations

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .930

9207.695
Bartlett's Test of Sphericity 352
.000

Table-5.15 presents the Kaiser Meyer Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy


(KMO) value 0.930 > 0.06 which indicates that factor analysis is useful for
appropriate data analysis. The value for Bartlett’s test of Sphericity is p = 0.000 is less
than 0.05 with 352 degree of freedom which indicates that there exists a significant
relationship among the variables.

Table – 5.16: Total Variance Explained – Tourist Expectations

Extraction Sums of Squared


Initial Eigenvalues
Loadings
Component Percentage Percentage
Cumulative Cumulative
Total of Total of
Percentage Percentage
Variance Variance
1 16.06 50.187 50.187 16.06 50.187 50.187
2 4.666 14.581 64.767 4.666 14.581 64.767
3 3.643 11.385 76.152 3.643 11.385 76.152

In order to determine how many components or factors meet this criterion, the
results shown in Table-5.16 regarding total Variance need to be examined. Principal
Component Analysis (PCA) Method revealed that the first six components recorded
Eigen values: 16.06, 4.66, and 3.64. These three components or factors explain a total
of 76.15 % of the variance. The Component Matrix so formed is further rotated
orthogonally using Varimax Rotation Algorithm which is the standard rotation
method. All these variables are loaded on these three factors.

113
Table-5.17 shows that the total variance accounted for all the three factors
with Eigen value is greater than 1 at 76.15 % and remaining variance is explained by
other variables. Among the three factors, the first factor explains 50.18 % variance,
second factor explains 14.58% variance and third factor explains 11.38 % variance.
The Statements are converted into three factors using factor analysis i.e.
Transportation, Accommodation, and Destination facilities.

Transportation: A total of 15 items related to tourist expectation are loaded in this


factor. They include transportation services such as, Train Timings, Train
Connectivity, Train Frequency, Train Safety, Bus Timing, Bus Connectivity, Bus
Frequency, Road Condition, Swift rescue operations, Restroom & food outlets, Road
Conditions, Road Signage, Traffic Management, Safety & Security and Restroom
facilities. This factor has an Eigen value of 10.45 and accounted for 50.18 %. Larger
portion of variance explained by this factor.

Accommodation: A total of 6 items related to tourist expectation on accommodation


are loaded in this factor related to tourist expectation on Puducherry’s accommodation
facilities. This factor includes variables like Availability of rooms, Room Tariff,
Hygiene & Sanitation, Staff Behavior, Safety & Security and Location of the
accommodation. The factor has an Eigen value of 4.66 and accounted for 14.58 %
variance explained by this factor.

114
Table – 5.17: Rotated Component Matrix – Tourist Expectations
Components
Variables
1 2 3
Transportation
Train Timings .921 - -
Train Connectivity .900 - -
Train Frequency .900 - -
Train Safety .818 - -
Bus Timing .961 - -
Bus Connectivity .967 - -
Bus Frequency .961 - -
Road Condition .691 - -
Swift rescue operations .573 - -
Restroom & food outlets .785 - -
Road Conditions .529 - -
Road Signage .529 - -
Traffic Management .609 - -
Safety & Security .446 - -
Restroom facilities .472 - -
Accommodation
Availability of rooms - 0.843 -
Room Tariff - 0.807 -
Hygiene & Sanitation - 0.746 -
Staff Behavior - 0.743 -
Safety & Security - 0.648 -
Location of the accommodation - 0.587 -
Destination Facilities
Visitor Management - - 0.929
Entry fee - - 0.917
Parking Facility - - 0.888
Quality of Food - - 0.872
Hygiene & Sanitation - - 0.871
Staff Behavior - - 0.845
Tourist guide facilities - - 0.78
Safety & Security - - 0.743
Tourist information - - 0.733
Enclaves to sit and relax - - 0.612
Emergency Medical Facility - - 0.519

115
Destination Facilities: Third factor consists of 5 items with loading range of 0.92 to
0.51. The Eigen value of the factor is 3.64 and accounted for 11.38 % variance
explained. This factor includes variables like Visitor Management, Entry fee, Parking
Facility, Quality of Food, Hygiene & Sanitation, Staff Behavior, Tourist guide
facilities, Safety & Security, Tourist information, Enclaves to sit and relax and
Emergency Medical Facility. This is the third important factor used to ascertain
tourist expectation about Puducherry’s destination facilities.

5.4.2 Tourist Experiences on Tourism Facilities

Table – 5.18: KMO and Bartlett’s Test – Tourist Experiences

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .960

Approx. Chi-Square 9507.695


Bartlett's Test of
Degree of Freedom 366
Sphericity
Sig. .000

Table-5.18 explains the Kaiser Meyer Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy


(KMO) value 0.960 > 0.06 which indicates that factor analysis is useful for
appropriate data analysis. The significant value for Bartlett’s test of Sphericity is p=
0.000 is less than 0.05 with 366 degree freedom which indicates that there exists
significant relationship among the variables.

Table – 5.19: Total Variance Explained – Tourist Experiences

Extraction Sums of Squared


Initial Eigen values
Loadings
Component Percentage Percentage
Cumulative Cumulative
Total of Total of
Percentage Percentage
Variance Variance
1 20.316 63.487 63.487 20.316 63.487 63.487
2 3.388 10.588 74.074 3.388 10.588 74.074
3 2.960 9.249 83.323 2.960 9.249 83.323

116
Information related to how many components or factors meet this criterion is
presented in the Total Variance Table-5.19. The first three components recorded
Eigen values above 1 (20.31, 3.38 and 2.96) as per the Principal Component Analysis
(PCA) Method. These three components or factors explain a total of 83.32 % of the
variance. The Component Matrix so formed is further rotated orthogonally using
Varimax rotation algorithm. All these variables are loaded on the three factors.

The results show that the total variance accounted for all the three factors with
Eigen value is greater than 1 at 83.32 % and remaining variance is explained by other
variables. Among the three factors, the first factor explains 63.48 % variance, second
factor explains 10.58% variance and third factor explains 9.24 % variance. The
Statements are converted into three factors using factor analysis.

Transportation: A total of 15 items related to tourist experiences are loaded in this


factor. They include transportation services such as Train Timings, Train
Connectivity, Train Frequency, Train Safety, Bus Timing, Bus Connectivity, Bus
Frequency, Road Condition, Swift rescue operations, Restroom & food outlets, Road
Conditions, Road Signage, Traffic Management, Safety & Security and Restroom
facilities. This factor has an Eigen value of 20.31 and accounted for 63.48 %. Larger
portion of variance explained by this factor.

Accommodation: A total of 6 items related to tourist experience on accommodation


are loaded in this factor concerning tourist expectation on Puducherry’s
accommodation facilities. This factor includes variables like Availability of rooms,
Room Tariff, Hygiene & Sanitation, Staff Behavior, Safety & Security and Location
of the accommodation. The factor has an Eigen value of 3.33 and accounted for 10.58
% variance explained by this factor.

117
Table –5.20: Rotated Component Matrix – Tourist Experiences
Components
Variables
1 2 3
Transportation
Train Timings 0.939 - -
Train Connectivity 0.935 - -
Train Frequency 0.933 - -
Train Safety 0.913 - -
Bus Timing 0.910 - -
Bus Connectivity 0.907 - -
Bus Frequency 0.823 - -
Road Condition 0.791 - -
Swift rescue operations 0.741 - -
Restroom & food outlets 0.709 - -
Road Conditions 0.691 - -
Road Signage 0.688 - -
Traffic Management 0.660 - -
Safety & Security 0.613 - -
Restroom facilities 0.607 - -
Accommodation
Availability of rooms - 0.899 -
Room Tariff - 0.896 -
Hygiene & Sanitation - 0.889 -
Staff Behavior - 0.789 -
Safety & Security - 0.639 -
Location of the accommodation - 0.634 -
Destination Facilities
Visitor Management - - 0.808
Entry fee - - 0.792
Parking Facility - - 0.785
Quality of Food - - 0.761
Hygiene & Sanitation - - 0.695
Staff Behavior - - 0.687
Tourist guide facilities - - 0.655
Safety & Security - - 0.627
Tourist information - - 0.624
Enclaves to sit and relax - - 0.621
Emergency Medical Facility - - 0.608

118
Destination Facilities: Third factor consists of 5 items with loading range of 0.80 to
0.60. The Eigen value of the factor is 2.96 and accounted for 9.24 % variance
explained. This factor includes variables like Visitor Management, Entry fee, Parking
Facility, Quality of Food, Hygiene & Sanitation, Staff Behavior, Tourist guide
facilities, Safety & Security, Tourist information, Enclaves to sit and relax and
Emergency Medical Facility. This is the third important factor used to ascertain
tourist experience about Puducherry’s destination facilities.

5.4.3 Tourist Expectations on Destination Specific Factors

Table – 5.21: KMO and Bartlett’s Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy .930


Approx. Chi-Square 9207.354
Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Df 361
Sig. .000

Table-5.21 explains the Kaiser Meyer Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy


(KMO) value 0.930 > 0.06 which indicates that factor analysis is useful for
appropriate data analysis. The significant value for Bartlett’s test of Sphericity is p=
0.000 is less than 0.05 with 361 degree freedom which indicates that there exists
significant relationship among the variables.

Information related to how many components or factors meet this criterion is


presented in the Total Variance Table-5.22. The first five components recorded Eigen
values above 1 (19.395, 4.842, 2.696, 2.252 and 1.237) as per the Principal
Component Analysis (PCA) Method. These five components or factors explain a total
of 83.32 % of the variance. The Component Matrix so formed is further rotated
orthogonally using Varimax Rotation Algorithm. All these variables are loaded on the
three factors.

119
Table – 5.22: Total Variance Explained- Tourist Expectations on Destination
Specific-Factors

Extraction Sums of Squared


Initial Eigenvalues
Loadings
Component
% of Cumulative % of Cumulative
Total Total
Variance % Variance %
1 19.395 60.610 60.610 19.395 60.610 60.610
2 4.842 15.133 75.742 4.842 15.133 75.742
3 2.696 8.424 84.166 2.696 8.424 84.166
4 2.252 7.038 91.204 2.252 7.038 91.204
5 1.237 3.865 95.070 1.237 3.865 95.070

The results show that the total variance accounted for all the three factors with
Eigen value is greater than 1 at 95.07 % and remaining variance is explained by other
variables. Among the five factors, the first factor explains 60.61 % variance, second
factor explains 15.13% variance, third factor explains 8.24 % variance, fourth factor
explains 7.03% and fifth factor explains 3.86% variance. The Statements are
converted into five factors using factor analysis.

Cultural and Spiritual Attractions: A total of 8 items related to tourist expectation


on destination specific factors are loaded in this factor. They include French Culture,
French Cuisine, French Architecture, French Wine / Perfume, Temples / Churches /
Mosques, Auroville, Aurobindo Ashram and International Yoga Festival. This factor
has an Eigen value of 19.39 and accounted for 60.61 %. Larger portion of variance
explained by this factor.

Shopping: A total of 6 items related to tourist expectation on shopping are loaded in


this factor related to tourist expectation on destination specific factors. This factor
includes variables like Attractive Indigenous Artifacts, Sunday Bazaar, Souvenir Shop
and Liquor at low prices. The factor has an Eigen value of 4.84 and accounted for
15.13 % variance explained by this factor.

120
Table – 5.23: Rotated Component Matrix - Tourist Expectations on
Destination Specific Factors
Components
1 2 3 4 5
Cultural and Spiritual Attractions
French Culture .946 - - - -
French Cuisine .926 - - - -
French Architecture .916 - - - -
French Wine / Perfume .885 - - - -
Temples / Churches / Mosques .868 - - - -
Auroville .814 - - - -
Aurobindo Ashram .768 - - - -
International Yoga Festival .705 - - - -
Shopping
Attractive Indigenous Artifacts - .947 - - -
Sunday Bazaar - .898 - - -
Souvenir Shop - .871 - - -
Liquor at low prices - .855 - - -
Entertainment
Pleasant Climate - - . 947 - -
Night Life - - .885 - -
Casinos / Game shows - - .809 - -
Cultural Events - - .572 - -
Exhibitions - - .555 - -
Water Sports
Access to take bath / Dip in the sea - - - .915 -
Sun bath / Water Sports - - - .887 -
Fresh water bath facilities in the beach - - - .683 -
Backwater cruise / Boat house raid - - - .535 -
Tourist Amenities
Rest room facilities - - - - .898
Tourist guide facilities - - - - .885
Safety & Security - - - - .871
Hygiene & sanitation - - - - .855
Tourist Information - - - - .572
Enclaves to sit & relax - - - - .555
Emergency medical facilities - - - - .407
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
Rotation converged in 6 iterations.

121
Entertainment: Third factor consists of 5 items with loading range of 0.947 to 0.555.
The Eigen value of the factor is 2.69 and accounted for 8.42 % variance explained.
This factor includes variables like Pleasant Climate, Night Life, Casinos / Game
shows, Cultural Events and Exhibitions. This is the third important factor used to
ascertain tourist expectation on destination specific factors.

Water Sports: Fourth factor consists of 4 items with loading range of 0.915 to 0.535.
The Eigen value of the factor is 2.25 and accounted for 7.038% variance explained.
This factor includes variables like Access to take bath / dip in the sea , Sun bath /
Water Sports, Fresh water bath facilities in the beach and Backwater cruise / Boat
house raid. This is the fourth important factor used to ascertain tourist expectation on
destination specific factors

Tourist Amenities: Fifth factor consists of 7 items with loading range of 0. 898 to
0.407. The Eigen value of the factor is 1.237 and accounted for 3.86% variance
explained. This factor includes variables like Rest room facilities, Tourist guide
facilities, Safety & Security, Hygiene & sanitation, Tourist Information, Enclaves to
sit and relax and Emergency medical facilities. This is the fifth important factor used
to ascertain tourist expectation on destination specific factors.

5.4.4 Tourist Experience On Destination Specific Factors

Table – 5.24: KMO and Bartlett’s Test - Tourist Experiences on Destination


Specific Factors

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy .950


Approx. Chi-Square 9407.354
Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Df 340
Sig. .000

Table-5.24 explains the Kaiser Meyer Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy


(KMO) value 0.950 > 0.06 which indicates that factor analysis is useful for
appropriate data analysis. The significant value for Bartlett’s test of Sphericity is p=

122
0.000 is less than 0.05 with 340 degree freedom which indicates that there exists
significant relationship among the variables.

Information related to how many components or factors meet this criterion is


presented in the Total Variance Table-5.25. The first four components recorded Eigen
values above 1 (14.78, 5.184, 3.767 and 1.499) as per the Principal Component
Analysis (PCA) Method. These five components or factors explain a total of 90.11 %
of the variance. The Component Matrix so formed is further rotated orthogonally
using Varimax rotation algorithm. All these variables are loaded on the three factors.

Table – 5.25: Total Variance Explained - Tourist Experiences on Destination


Specific-Factors

Extraction Sums of Squared


Initial Eigenvalues
Loadings
Component
% of Cumulative % of Cumulative
Total Total
Variance % Variance %
1. 14.781 52.790 52.790 14.781 52.790 52.790
2. 5.184 18.515 71.304 5.184 18.515 71.304
3. 3.767 13.455 84.760 3.767 13.455 84.760
4. 1.499 5.353 90.112 1.499 5.353 90.112

The results show that the total variance accounted for all the four factors with
Eigen value is greater than 1 at 90.11 % and remaining variance is explained by other
variables. Among the four factors, the first factor explains 52.79 % variance, second
factor explains 18.51% variance, third factor explains 13.45 % variance and fourth
factor explains 5.35%. The Statements are converted into five factors using factor
analysis.

123
Table – 5.26 Rotated Component Matrix- Tourist Experience on
Destination Specific Factors
Components
1 2 3 4
Cultural and Spiritual Attractions
French Culture 0.943 - - -
French Cuisine 0.943 - - -
French Architecture 0.875 - - -
French Wine / Perfume 0.856 - - -
Temples / Churches / Mosques 0.817 - - -
Auroville 0.767 - - -
Aurobindo Ashram 0.761 - - -
International Yoga Festival 0.688 - - -
Shopping
Attractive Indigenous Artifacts - 0.876 - -
Sunday Bazaar - 0.847 - -
Souvenir Shop - 0.841 - -
Liquor at low prices - 0.783 - -
Entertainment
Pleasant Climate - - 0.957 -
Night Life - - 0.922 -
Casinos / Game shows - - 0.896 -
Cultural Events - - 0.738 -
Exhibitions - - 0.720 -
Tourist Amenities
Access to take bath / Dip in the sea - - - 0.932
Sun bath / Water Sports - - - 0.87
Fresh water bath facilities in the beach - - - 0.826
Backwater cruise / Boat house raid - - - 0.823
Rest room facilities - - - 0.791
Tourist guide facilities - - - 0.728
Safety & Security - - - 0.692
Hygiene & sanitation - - - 0.667
Tourist Information - - - 0.666
Enclaves to sit & relax - - - 0.654
Emergency medical facilities - - - 0.627
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
Rotation converged in 6 iterations.

124
Cultural and Spiritual Attractions: A total of 8 items related to tourist expectations
on destination specific factors are loaded in this factor. They include French Culture,
French Cuisine, French Architecture, French Wine / Perfume, Temples / Churches /
Mosques, Auroville, Aurobindo Ashram and International Yoga Festival. This factor
has an Eigen value of 14.78 and accounted for 52.790 %. A significant portion of
variance is explained by this factor.

Shopping: A total of 4 items related to tourist expectation on shopping are loaded in


this factor related to tourist experience on destination specific factors. This factor
includes variables like Attractive Indigenous Artifacts, Sunday Bazaar, Souvenir Shop
and Liquor at low prices. The factor has an Eigen value of 5.18 and accounted for
18.51% variance explained by this factor.

Entertainment: Third factor consists of 5 items with loading range of 0.95 to 0.72.
The Eigen value of the factor is 3.76 and accounted for 13.455 % variance explained.
This factor includes variables like Pleasant Climate, Night Life, Casinos / Game
shows, Cultural Events and Exhibitions. This is the third important factor used to
ascertain tourist expectation on destination specific factors.

Tourist Amenities: Fourth factor consists of 11 items with loading range of 0. 93 to


0.62. The Eigen value of the factor is 1.49 and accounted for 5.35% variance
explained. This factor includes variables like Access to take bath / Dip in the sea , Sun
bath / Water Sports, Fresh water bath facilities in the beach, Backwater cruise / Boat
house raid Rest room facilities, Tourist guide facilities, Safety & Security, Hygiene &
sanitation, Tourist Information, Enclaves to sit & relax and Emergency medical
facilities. This is the fourth important factor used to ascertain tourist experience on
destination specific factors.

125
5.5 Mean Ranking

5.5.1 Tourist Satisfaction Indicators

Table – 5.27: Tourist Satisfaction Indicators

Indicators Mean Value Ranking


Rest & Relaxation 3.8629 1
Walk around the town 3.8582 2
Visit to Auroville 3.8530 3
Pub/bar or restaurant in the evening 3.8487 4
Beach activities 3.8073 5
Boating at Chunnambar 3.7991 6
Aurobindo Ashram visit 3.6780 7
Temple, churches, Mosques visit 3.6400 8
Visit to Ousteri lake 3.5829 9
Visit to Botanical garden 3.5768 10

Mean ranking technique was performed on a five point Likert Scale. Scores
from 1 to 5 have been assigned: ‘highly satisfied’, ‘partially satisfied ’, ‘neither
satisfied nor dissatisfied’, ‘partially dissatisfied’ and ‘highly dissatisfied’
respectively. The results highlighted that rest and relaxation ranked first with a
highest mean score of (3.862). Walk around the town ranked second with a mean
score of (3.858). Visit to Auroville ranked third with a mean score of (3.853). Visiting
Pub/bar and restaurant in the evening ranked fourth with a mean score of (3.848).
Beach activities ranked fifth with a mean score of (3.807). Boating ranked sixth with a
mean score of (3.799). Visit Aurobindo Ashram ranked seventh with a mean score of
(3.678). Visit to religious places ranked eighth with a mean score of (3.640). Visit to
Ousteri ranked ninth with a mean score of (3.582). Visiting botanical garden and park
ranked tenth with a low mean score of (3.576).

126
5.6 Correlation

Correlation analysis deals with the association or co-variation between two or


more variables and helps to determine the degree of relationship between two or more
variables. But correlation does not indicate a cause and effect relationship between
two or more variables. It explains only co-variation.

Karl pearson’s method for measuring the magnitude of linear relationship


between two variables is the most widely used method and is known as Pearsonian
Coefficient of Correlation.

The value of the co-efficient of Correlation shall always lie between +1 and -1.
When r = +1, there exists perfect positive correlation between the variables, r = -1
indicates a perfect negative Correlation and 4=0 indicates that there is no relationship
between the variables.

5.6.1 The relationship between the tourist expectation and tourist experience on
destination specific factors

H0: There is no significant relationship between tourist expectation and


tourist experience of destination specific factors.

Table – 5.28: Relationship between Tourist Expectation and Tourist Experience


on Destination Specific Factors
Tourist Tourist
Expectation of Experience
DSF of DSF
Pearson Correlation 1 .920**
Tourist Expectation
on Destination Specific Sig. (2-tailed) - .000
Factors (DSF)
N 423 423
Pearson Correlation .920** 1
Tourist Experience on
Destination Specific Sig. (2-tailed) .000 -
Factors (DSF)
N 423 423
** Correlation is significant at 0.01 level (2 – tailed)

127
The relationship between the tourist expectation and tourist experience of
destination specific factors is positive. The Correlation value is 0.920 and level of
significant value is less than 0.01. So there is a significant relationship between tourist
expectation and experience of destination specific factors.

5.6.2 The relationship between the tourist expectation and tourist experience of
Tourism Facilities

H0: There is no significant relationship between tourist expectation and


tourist experience of tourism facilities.

Table – 5.29: Relationship between the Tourist Expectations and Tourist


Experiences on Tourism Facilities

Tourist Tourist
Expectation Experience of
of TF TF
Pearson Correlation 1 .860**
Tourist Expectation
of Tourism Facilities Sig. (2-tailed) - .000
(TF)
N 423 423
Pearson Correlation .860** 1
Tourist Experience
of Tourism Facilities Sig. (2-tailed) .000 -
(TF)
N 423 423
** Correlation is significant at 0.01 level (2 – Tailed)

The relationship between the tourist expectation and tourist experience of


tourism facilities is positive. The Correlation value is 0.860 and level of significant
value is less than 0.01 so there is a significant relationship exists between tourist
expectation and experience of tourism facilities.

5.7 Multiple Regression:

Multiple regression analysis is a powerful technique used for predicting the


unknown value of a variable from the known value of two or more variables called

128
the predictors. More precisely, multiple regression analysis helps us to predict the
value of Y for given values of x1,x2,…..xk. In other words, it can be said that by
multiple regression, the models with just one dependent and two or more independent
(explanatory) variables are meant. The variable whose value is to be predicted is
known as the dependent variable and the ones whose known values are used for
prediction are known as independent (explanatory) variables.

5.7.1 Impact of Tourist Expectations on Tourist Experience of Tourism


Facilities

H0: There is no significant impact of tourist expectation on tourist experience


of tourism facilities.

Table – 5.30: Model Summary – Impact of Tourist Expectations on Tourist


Experience of Tourism Facilities

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square


1. .920 .910 .910

The above Table-5.30 presents model summary where R is the correlation,


with a value of 0.920 and R square is degree of determination of a variables included
in the model with a value of 0.910. Adjusted R Square value is 0.910.

The degree of determination shows the extent to which tourist expectation of


tourism facilities influence tourist experience of tourism facilities. Tourist experience
of tourism facilities is determined to an extent of 91 % by tourist expectation of
tourism facilities.
Table – 5.31: ANOVA - Impact of Tourist Expectations on Tourist Experience of
Tourism Facilities

Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.


Regression 5.040E8 3 8.400E7 743.036 .000

Residual 565251.275 419 113050.255 - -

Total 5.046E8 422

129
Table-5.31 highlights ANOVA value (p = 0.00) is significant, which means
dependent variable ‘tourist experience of tourism facilities’ is significantly predicted
by independent variable viz., tourist expectation of tourism facilities at 95%
confidence level. Using enter method a significant model evolved (F 3,422 = 743.036,
p < = 0.05 R Square value = 0.910. Statistically significant variables are given below.

Table-5.32: Coefficients - Impact of Tourist Expectation on Tourist Experience


of Tourism Facilities

Unstandardized
Standardized Coefficients
Model Coefficients
B Std. Error β t Sig.
(Constant) 13.343 2.434 - 5.481 .000
Transportation 11.616 1.727 .832 6.726 .001
Accommodation 13.496 1.902 .635 4.474 .007
Destination Facilities 11.810 .902 .482 13.092 .000

Using enter method a significant model evolved (F 3,422 = 743.063, p < =


0.05. R Square value = 0.910).

Significant predicator variables of this model are transportation,


accommodation and destination facilities. The p-value of these variables is <= 0.05.

According to this model, the impact of tourist expectation on tourist experience


is statistically significant. Thus, the model establishes that impact of tourist
expectation on tourist experience is significant.

5.7.2 Impact of Tourist Expectations of Destination Specific Factors on Tourist


Experience of Destination Specific Factors

H0: There is no significant impact of tourist expectation on tourist experience


of destination specific factors.

130
Table – 5.33: Model Summary – Impact of Tourist Expectations on Tourist
Experience of Destination Specific Factors

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square


1 .969 .928 .928

Table-5.33 presents model summary where R is the correlation, with a value


of 0.969 and R square is degree of determination of a variables included in the model
with a value of 0.928. Adjusted R Square value is 0.928.

The degree of determination shows the extent to which tourist expectation of


destination specific factors influence tourist experience of destination specific factors.
Tourist experience of destination specific factors is determined to an extent of 92.8 %
by tourist expectation of destination specific factors.

Table – 5.34: ANOVA - Impact of Tourist Expectations on Tourist Experience of


Destination Specific Factors

Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.


Regression 2.909E9 5 2.909E9 107.138 .000
Residual 1.493E10 417 2.715E7 - -
Total 1.784E10 422

Table-5.34 highlights ANOVA value (p = 0.00) is significant, which means


dependent variable ‘tourist experience of destination specific factors’ is significantly
predicted by independent variable viz., tourist expectation of destination specific
factors at 95% confidence level. Using enter method a significant model evolved (F

5,417 = 107.138, p < = 0.05 R Square value = 0.928. Statistically significant variables
are given below.

131
Table – 5.35: Coefficients - Impact of Tourist Expectations on Tourist
Experience of Destination Specific factors

Unstandardized
Standardized Coefficients
Model Coefficients
β Std. Error Β t Sig.
(Constant) -3.359 .293 - -11.471 .000
Cultural and Spiritual
1.083 .011 .292 100.639 .000
Attractions
Shopping 1.578 .040 .190 39.023 .000
Entertainment 1.412 .028 .283 50.028 .000
Water Sports .520 .033 .091 15.555 .000
Tourist Amenities 1.192 .020 .328 60.001 .000

Using enter method a significant model evolved (F 5,417 = 107.138, p < =


0.05. R Square value = 0.928).

Significant predicator variables of this model are Shopping, entertainment,


water sports and tourist amenities. The p-value of these variables is <= 0.05.

According to this model, the impact of tourist expectation of destination


specific factors on tourist experience of destination specific factors is statistically
significant. Thus, the model establishes that impact of tourist expectation on tourist
experience of destination specific factors is significant.

132
Transportation
Tourism Facilities
Accommodation

Destination Facilities
Weekend Tourist
Expectations Cultural and Spiritual
Attractions

Destination Specific Shopping


Factors
Entertainment
Facilities
Water Sports
Weekend Tourist
Tourist Amenities Satisfaction

Transportation
Tourism Facilities
Accommodation
Weekend Destination Facilities
Tourist
experience Cultural and Spiritual
Attractions
Destination Specific Factors
Shopping
Chart – 5.1: Operating Model for Weekend Tourism
Entertainment
Facilities
Water Sports
133
Tourist Amenities
Chapter VI
Results & Discussions
 

6.0 Introduction

This chapter discusses the most relevant findings from the previous two
chapters addressed to the research objectives. The discussion encompasses the
important findings from the data analysis chapter, review of literature and information
collected from the secondary data. Therefore, it is appropriate to mention the
objectives of the study once again;

1. To examine the weekend travel phenomenon in Puducherry;


2. To understand the profile of weekend tourists in a systematic way;
3. To examine the expectations and experiences of Puducherry weekend tourists,
4. To measure the weekend tourists satisfaction level; and
5. To develop an operating model for weekend tourism relevant universally.

The above objectives were examined in the context of Puducherry region


through which the weekend tourism phenomenon was examined.

6.1 Weekend Travel Phenomenon

The weekend tourism market is increasing and growing faster than other forms
of tourism. The weekend travel in the recent years has a significant effect on the
changing travel pattern of Indian tourists. In spite of the increased demand and growth
in weekend travel market, our knowledge of this specific market is relatively poor. It
is surprising that currently very little data relating to weekend tourism market exists.
In most of the cases, the weekend market is considered as part of the domestic tourist
market as a whole. This research considered only weekend tourists who visit
Puducherry for tourism purpose. Hence, people working outside Puducherry returning
home or to visit their family were not considered.

6.2 Focus on Weekend breaks

The emergence of MNCs in India, which followed the work culture of 40 to


44 hours work week resulted in five day work a week and the same was adopted
broadly by Indian companies which gave rise to the concept of Weekend tourism.
134

 
 

Travelling for leisure during weekend is quite a new trend in the Indian context. This
trend has restored and rejuvenated many tourism destinations in India which were
affected by seasonal fluctuations in the tourist traffic. Weekend tourism has become
more popular among youngsters working in urban areas. Primary factors for the
growth of Weekend tourism are increase in middle class income, availability of
weekend holidays, lack of provision for long holidays, increased desire to seek
pleasure, improvements in transport and telecommunication facilities, growing
internet usage among tourists, etc.

6.3 Weekend Tourists Demographic Characteristics

6.3.1 Gender

Gender distribution of sample respondents shows that 61 per cent of males


and 39 per cent of females are weekend tourists. This shows that women either single
or in group is less in number than male tourists in taking weekend trips. Even though
Indian women are economically independent, a women travelling alone or in a group
for leisure is yet to get wider social acceptance and the important decision making
role in most of the families vests with males given the patriarchal nature of many
Indian families. But this situation is gradually changing as education and economic
freedom has increased the mobility among women travelers. Hence, tourist
destinations may be made safer and women friendly.

6.3.2 Age

Age distribution of weekend tourists shows that a vast majority (78%) of


tourists belongs to the age group of 21-30 years, followed by the tourists in the age
group of 31-40 years (16%). A very meager proportion (i.e., 3 % each) of the sample
respondents were found to be in the lower age band (below 20 years) and higher age
band (41 – 50 years). Unlike other tourist destinations, Puducherry has distinct
characteristics which attract a large number of young tourists.

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6.3.3 Marital Status

Unmarried individuals who are in their early years of employment constituting


69% outnumbered the married individuals (32%). Therefore, it may be inferred that
young unmarried males dominate Puducherry’s weekend tourist population.

6.3.4 Education

More than 50 per cent of the weekend tourists are graduates and 30 per cent
are post-graduates. This indicates that majority of weekend tourists are highly
educated. Since a tourist needs to be aware of the destinations that he/she visits,
education helps them to gain the perspective about destination specific information.
Higher education levels enable individuals to take up well paid jobs in IT & ITES.
The spurt of Information Technology and the phenomenal growth of employment
opportunities in this sector, thanks to the liberalization policies pursued by the
government since 1991, facilitated large number of young engineering / management
graduates to land in plum jobs in Information Technology industries. The nature of
these jobs demands the employees for a break or an escape from the daily work stress
to regain energy. Consequently, it is natural that they would look for the weekend to
spend leisurely at a destination as pleasant as possible.

6.3.5 Employment and Occupation

More than 76 percent of the weekend tourists are employees of private


corporate sector, followed by 16 percent unemployed respondents which may include
students and housewives. Further, only 7 percent of the respondents are from public
sector. This reveals the increased employment opportunities created in the private
corporate sector in India in the past couple of decades in the Information,
Communication and Technology (ICT) front. With regard to the industry in which the
respondents are employed, Information Technology and IT Enabled Services
dominated the scene with more than 50 percent of the respondents, followed by
Banking and Insurance, Manufacturing, and Retail Trade with 16 percent, 15 percent,
and 10 percent respectively. The finding reveals that majority of the weekend tourists
respondents are from IT&ITES industry as Puducherry is located and accessible to the
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two most popular IT hubs, Chennai and Bengaluru (Bangalore). The uniqueness of
Puducherry destination is that it attracts tourists from these nearby cities heavily from
private corporate sectors during weekends and other cities across the country during
long weekends.

6.3.6 Economic status

Two main factors are essential for Leisure travel to occur, viz., availability of
free time and disposable income. Money and time considered to be the major
constraints for leisure trips for a long time have been, of late, demystified. This has
changed significantly due to the development in transport facilities and
telecommunication facilities coupled with a phenomenal growth in the
accommodation sector predominantly in the budget and mid range categories of hotels
across India. These developments facilitated people with lower income also
participate in leisure tour activities. Weekend tourism perfectly suites all segments of
society to indulge in leisure travel during weekends as the traveler requires less time
and financial resources compared to other types of holidays. Therefore, an attempt is
made to determine the economic status of the weekend tourists in Puducherry.

6.3.7 Income

Among weekend tourists, more than 40 percent are employed with an annual
income between 2 ̵ 5 Lakh rupees followed by 22 percent of the respondent in the
range of 5-10 Lakh rupees. Further, 10 percent of the respondents were found to be in
the higher income category whose annual income is more than 10 Lakh rupees. About
17 percent of the respondents fall in the low income category with below two Lakh
rupees annual income. Therefore, weekend trips seem to be preferred by tourists of
varying incomes alike.

6.3.8 Place of residence

A vast majority of weekend tourists to Puducherry has originated mainly from


two cities Bengaluru (43.26%) and Chennai (36.17%), followed by Coimbatore
(6.14%) and Cochin (5.91%). Remaining 8.5 percent of the respondents are from
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other places across the country. This finding proves that Puducherry is an extremely
convenient destination in terms of access, especially for short discretionary trips such
as weekend holiday seekers from nearby cities.

6.4 Weekend Tourist and their Trip Characteristics

6.4.1 Group Composition

About 96 per cent of weekend tourists prefer to travel in group rather than
travelling alone. As little as three percent of the weekend tourists travel alone and
they are mostly backpackers. Weekend tourism is dominated by the friends groups.
The group consists of single or unmarried people travelling together in a group. The
key factor for this group taking a weekend break is the ease of mobility as they are
single and not tied to family commitments. Further, as weekend trips do not require
intensive planning and as such, these categories of tourists decide quickly and
spontaneously. Thus, weekend travel is found to be a more popular leisure choice
among unmarried friends. Puducherry is also visited by families, groups of office
colleagues, Couples and single backpackers during weekends.

6.4.2 Nature of the Trip

About 74 percent of the tourists consider the current trip as weekend break.
These categories of tourists are habitual weekend travelers who take weekend trips
very often. 13 percent of the tourists considered this trip as an additional or secondary
trip to main vacation or holidays. Some also consider the current trip as the main
holiday of the year. This last category of tourists very rarely travels for leisure
purpose.

6.4.3 Trip Duration

Needless to say that weekend break is generally short in nature mostly of 1-2
days. However, public or national holidays, that precede or succeed weekend makes a
long weekend. A long weekend usually three or more than three days is still ideal for

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short breaks. In the event of such long weekends, it is common for many tourists
visiting Puducherry also going around other nearby place of Puducherry.

About 60 percent of the respondents have spent two nights away from their
home, followed by three nights with 21 percent and 12 percent of the respondents
have spent just one night in Puducherry. A very little, about 5 percent of the
respondents have spent 4 nights away from home. These tourists might have visited
during long weekends. The respondents who have spent just one night in Puducherry
are mostly from Chennai as it takes just few hours to reach Puducherry.

6.4.4 Number of Nights spent in Puducherry

The exact number of nights spent by the weekend tourists in Puducherry


shows 64 percent of the respondents have spent two nights in Puducherry, followed
by 26 percent respondents have spent one night. This proves that of late, Puducherry
attracts more tourists during weekends and has emerged as an ideal place for short
breaks. However, the finding also shows that more than 8 percent of the respondents
have stayed in Puducherry for more than three days.

6.4.5 Trip frequency

Frequency of weekend trips to Puducherry by the sample respondents shows


that 37 percent of the respondents take at least one trip in every six months, and 35
percent of the respondents go for at least one trip every three months. One trip at least
in a month is made by 17 percent respondents, two trips in a month by 6 percent and 3
percent of the respondents travel almost every weekend. This data amply indicates
that weekend tourists travel throughout the year. Therefore, weekend tourism can help
destinations in offsetting the seasonality problems considered largely as an enemy of
the tourism industry.

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6.4.6 Need for weekend Trips

Majority of the respondents (55%) have agreed that the purpose of weekend
trip is to take a break from the routine and the same was strongly agreed upon by 24
percent of the respondents. It is evident that working people mainly in private
corporate companies long for a break mostly during weekend. Many employees use
weekend or weekend trips to recover from work stress and rejuvenate themselves.

6.4.7 Relax and Rejuvenate

It would be nice to take a break from work when one begins to feel mentally
burned out or requires energy for recovery. It is widely believed that ‘a good
weekend’ can transform into higher well being of the employee and his/her better
performance in the work week that follows. In line with this statement, 53 percent
respondents have agreed that weekend trip helps them to relax and rejuvenate their
body and soul. 24 percent of the respondents have strongly opined the same
statement, whereas, 18 percent of the respondents are found to be neutral in their
judgment.

6.4.8 Cannot take long holidays

With respect to the availability of long holidays for the respondents, majority
of the respondents (52%) have agreed that long holidays are not possible, followed by
18 percent of the respondents holding the same view and 10 percent stand by neutral
for the same question. Hence, weekend break is more convenient and affordable for
the majority of the working population.

6.5 Travel Decision

6.5.1 Information sources

The traditional sources of information such as tour operators, travel agents and
brochures were given no importance by the weekend tourists. It is obvious that
internet has emerged as the convenient method for collecting information for travel

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especially for short breaks. As a source of information internet tops the various other
sources of information, as 41 percent of the respondents relied upon internet as a
primary source of information, 39 percent of the respondents are guided by friends
and relatives while 19 percent are influenced by the experiences in the earlier visits to
Puducherry. On the whole, as many respondents are educated and tech savvy,
weekend tourists displayed strong preference for information on internet and
consultation with friends and relatives than other sources. Thus, as large number of
tourists are dependent on web sources for information, it is high time that travel
companies and destination managers improve their respective websites.

6.5.2 Influential factors for destination selection

A particular destination to visit is chosen by different people for different


purposes. Friends and relatives recommendations are the major factor that prompted
the respondents to choose Puducherry for the weekend break. It is heartening to note
that Puducherry as a destination is promoted through a positive word of mouth by
tourists themselves. While, family interest (17.5%) was second major factor for
choosing Puducherry for a weekend break. Further, 17 percent of the respondents
visited Puducherry because of closer Proximity. Puducherry incidentally is located at
a striking distance for both the metropolitan cities Bangalore and Chennai that
generate the highest number of weekend tourists. The other factors like attraction of
the place, low cost and congenial climate contribute almost equally at 9 % each.
Unfortunately, easy accessibility (8.3%) remains less influencing factor among the
respondents in choosing Puducherry for the weekend trip. This may be due to poor air
connectivity and inadequate rail connectivity, leaving many a tourist to depend largely
on road transport.

Therefore, it is high time that a few loose ends with regard to connectivity are
addressed by the tourism policy makers of Puducherry. As such comfortable and
hassle free trip to Puducherry needs adequate planning well in advance. It is all the
more important for a destination like Puducherry where it is difficult to get hotel room
or a comfortable transport option during weekends.

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6.5.3 Advance Planning of the trip

More than 85 percent of the respondents have planned their trip less than a
month in advance. Among these 85 percent of respondents, 29 percent have planned
their trip just 2-3 weeks in advance, followed by 21 percent of the respondents who
planned the trip at a very short notice of just a week before the date of departure. The
finding reveals that weekend tourists do not usually plan the trip much in advance like
other tourists. Surprisingly, 23 percent of the respondents did not even plan the trip in
advance and are very impulsive and spontaneous in hitting the road to Puducherry. It
is just 12 percent of the respondents have planned their trip before one month. It may
be observed from the data that weekend tourists perception of risk which warrants
hectic planning is very low which is a welcome sign. It amply conveys the fact that
Puducherry is a safe destination. Tourists are confident of arranging travel related
facilities at ease.

Another interesting factor is weekend tourists do not usually depend on the


services of travel agents and other intermediaries for booking hotel rooms and
transport facilities. Tourists by and large themselves take care of the needed facilities
to reach and stay in Puducherry. Internet sources play a significant role in helping the
tourists take decisions and confirm the bookings in a fool proof manner. The
increasing ability of tourists in accessing information and booking their travel needs
through internet had definitely reduced the time and effort spent by tourists in
planning and making important decisions related to their trip.

6.5.4 Transport Facilities used to reach Puducherry

Any destination that is easily accessible receives maximum number of tourists.


The economic status of the tourists has a bearing on the type of transport they choose for
the trip. The finding shows that tourists to Puducherry rely more on road and rail
transport as currently there is no air connectivity. Puducherry is well connected by rail
and four lane roads to major cities and towns in the country. Majority of the respondents
have travelled by bus (35.9%) followed by tourists who travelled by their own car (33.8).
Frequent and luxury bus services, wide roads running through well landscaped
surroundings en route are the major factors that make tourists to opt for road travel.
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Increase in the number of personal cars among the middle class is another reason for a
large number of tourists travelling in their own cars to Puducherry. Further, a substantial
number of tourists even chose to travel by motor bike (15.3) to Puducherry. Preference of
the tourists to take road option shows that Puducherry is endowed with good road
connectivity. However, train travel also constitutes 2.4 percent, while 2.6 percent of the
respondents used taxi/cab to reach Puducherry.

6.5.5 Type of Accommodation

Over the years, there is a significant growth in accommodation sector of all


hues in Puducherry. It has a wide range of accommodation facilities, viz., star hotels,
heritage hotels, beach resorts, residential hotels, youth hostels and government guest
houses, etc. The availability of various types of accommodation facilities and easy
access to these facilities in addition to a host of guest houses owned and operated by
Sri Aurobindo Ashram have contributed significantly to the growing number of
tourists.

The findings of the study reveal that 28 percent of the respondents have
chosen beach resorts, followed by luxury and star hotels (22.5%) and 19 percent of
the respondents stayed in various guest houses. 17 percent of the weekend tourists
have stayed in the guest houses in and around Auroville which is 10 Kilometers away
from Puducherry. Aurobindo ashram owned guest houses and service apartments
share three percent each in accommodating weekend tourists. Remaining two percent
of the respondents have stayed at their friends and relatives places.

6.6 Weekend Tourist Behaviour

6.6.1 Booking of Accommodation

The booking behavior of the weekend tourists in relation to accommodation


facilities at Puducherry shows that Internet has again topped the list with 35 percent
of the respondents who booked their accommodation through online portals. Followed
by 22 per of the respondents who booked directly with hotels. It is surprising to note
that about 18 percent of the respondents are quite relaxed and did not book in advance
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until they arrived at Puducherry. This may be due to low involvement behavior in
planning, or might be due to the perception of low risks involved in getting
accommodation. While similar number of respondents have booked through their
friends and relatives (18%). However, a few of the respondents (5.4%) have got the
bookings done through travel agents.

As mentioned earlier internet connectivity and the various web sources come
in handy to the weekend tourists for collecting information and for planning the trips.
The search on the web and the information thus collected eventually took the
respondents to the next stage of purchasing the products, namely booking the hotel
rooms and transport options online. The finding reveals that the tech savvy tourists are
comfortable in making online booking. The nature of the weekend trip as mentioned
earlier is uncomplicated and involves low risk, facilitating the tourists to book online.
Of late, the mobile apps in the cell phones further simplified the task.

6.6.2 Booking of Transport Facilities

The data shows that 50 percent of the respondents have booked transport
through online, followed by 40 percent who did not book in advance. Most of the
respondents reach Puducherry in their own cars, leaving just five percent of tourists
dependent on travel agent and 4 percent through friends and relatives.It is a pleasant
sight during the weekend to see cars of various models ranging from small hatchbacks
to luxury sedans bearing registration numbers of Karnataka and Tamilnadu states in a
large number crisscrossing the roads of Puducherry.

6.6.3 Travel Expenses

It is evident by the data that almost all segments of tourists from low budget to
high end tourists visit Puducherry during weekends. Needless to say that economic
status as could be gauged by the transport option has a commendable positive impact
on local economy. The weekend tourist budget reveals that 31 percent of the
respondents are moderate tourists who spend between 1000-2000 rupees per person.
Followed by 29 percent with a per person expenditure between 2001-3000 rupees.

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About 22 percent of the tourists found to be low budget tourists who have spent less
than 1000 Rs. High end tourists constitute 16 percent of respondents who spend more
than 3001 Rs. Per person.

6.6.4 Cost of Accommodation

Traditionally, leisure travel has been the pastime of the affluent sections of the
tourists. However, in recent times, increased availability of budget hotels and mid range
accommodation facilities across the country have changed this scenario and facilitated
tourists of relatively low income too to make a few trips now and then. The finding
reveals that 40 percent of the respondents have spent less than 1000 Rs. per night,
followed by 37 percent, who stayed in hotel costing between rupees 1000 to 2000 per
night. Further, 13 percent of the respondents have chosen accommodation with tariff
ranging from Rs. 2001-3000. Just 5.9 percent of the respondents have spent on high end
hotel rooms with Rs. 3001-4000 per night per person. The finding witnesses all segments
of people taking weekend trips to Puducherry.

6.6.5 Repeated visitor

Repeat visits of tourists to any destination obviously show the strengths of a


destination. Viewed in this context, it is heartening to see that 40 percent of the weekend
tourists to Puducherry are repeat visitors. This is evident by the data that Puducherry is
emerging as a popular destination among the weekend tourists. About 59 percent of
weekend tourists are new comers or first time visitors. The data further demonstrates that
the purpose of leisure trips among tourists is changing as it is now perceived more as an
option to rejuvenate themselves from the work place routine during the work week.

6.6.6 Internal Transport

Majority of the respondents have used their own vehicle (43.3%) to move
around the city or for sightseeing. Another interesting finding specific to Puducherry
tourism is that about 31 percent of the respondent use rental motor bike for internal
transport. It may be noted that bike rental shops are operated illegally in Puducherry
and riding such motor bikes are against the law. But still there is an increased demand
for rental bikes among tourists especially among young weekend tourists to
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Puducherry. The local auto rickshaw was used by 13 percent of the respondents while
local taxi services are used by 8 percent. Local public transport is the last option for
internal transport for many tourists as could be seen by a meager 3 percent opting for
local town bus service for internal movement. It is, of course, natural that the bus
routes and timings of local public transport buses are not familiar with the tourists.
Further, since for many tourists it is a short stay of one or two days, they do not prefer
to wait for the buses for internal transport and loose much of their time in the process.
As such, public transport network needs to be strengthened with clear display of
routes, bus numbers and timings at all the vantage prints of the city.

6.7 Puducherry as a Weekend Destination

 Puducherry domestic tourist arrivals have doubled in the last fifteen years. The
steep increase in the domestic tourists arrivals to this region is a result of rising
per capita income and social status among the Indian middle class families.

 The growth of IT and IT enabled service industry in the metropolitan cities


like Bangalore and Chennai are the influencing factors responsible for the
growth of domestic tourism, especially weekend tourism in Puducherry. Travel
during weekends to nearby places has become a necessity for the urban
population particularly among youngsters for a change from the daily routine
life.

 Almost 50 percent of Puducherry domestic tourists are weekenders (R.Rajesh,


2015). This could be witnessed in puducherry as it is very difficult to get a
room in the hotels during weekends. The situation becomes even complex
during long weekends and vacations as the place would be flooded with
tourists and the hotel rooms would be sold-out a month before at a premium
tariff.

6.7.1 Puducherry’s Accommodation Sector

 The demand for accommodation arises when people leave home and are on
tour. Puducherry being a popular weekend tourist destination is equipped with
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various types of accommodation facilities. There are different categories and


various types of hotels in operation at Puducherry with sophisticated and
modern amenities.

 Puducherry is home for renowned hotel chains like GRT, Accord, Club
Mahindra, Neemrana Hotels, Saravor Hotels and resorts and Ginger hotel.
There are more than 250 accommodation facilities in and around Puducherry
region which include star hotels, beach resorts, heritage hotels, budget hotels,
boutique hotels, business class hotels, government guest houses, private guest
houses, and home stay facilities which cater to different types of tourists.
Apart from these accommodation facilities, Auroville and Aurobindo Ashram
operate more than twenty guest houses mainly to cater to their devotees who
visit Auroville and Aurobindo ashram.

 The number of hotel rooms and beds available for tourists had increased
tremendously in Puducherry in last twenty years. From 1,467 hotel rooms in
1995and 2,400 beds to 3,965 rooms and 7,696 beds in 2012, excepting in 2004
where it was 2,109 rooms and 3,554 beds as against 2,203 and 3,843 rooms
and beds respectively in 2003. The fall in the total number of rooms during
2003-04 was due to closure of some hotels for renovation and modernization
work carried out by some hoteliers to reposition their Hotels. On the whole,
the growth in the number of hotel rooms and beds was impressive during the
year 1995 to 2012.

6.8 Independent Sample T Test

6.8.1 Gender Vs Tourist Expectations and Tourism Experiences

The p value of tourist expectations and experiences with respect to tourism


facilities and destination specific factors are 0.05, 0.03, 0.00 and 0.07 respectively.
The null hypothesis, therefore, is rejected. The result reveals that both male and
female tourist expectations and experiences on tourism facilities and destination
specific factors are more or less common or same. It is identified that gender plays a

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significant role in tourist expectations and experiences on tourism facilities and


destination specific factors.

6.8.2 Visitor Status Vs Tourist Expectations and Experiences

The p value of tourist expectations and experiences such as tourism facilities


and destination specific factors are 0.05, 0.03, 0.01 and 0.04 respectively. The null
hypothesis, therefore, is rejected. The result reveals that both first-time and repeat
tourists expectations and experiences on tourism facilities and destination specific
factors are more or less common or same It is identified that visitor status plays a
significant role in tourist expectations and experience on tourism facilities and
destination specific factors.

6.9 Paired Samples t-test

6.9.1 Tourist Expectations and Experiences on Tourism Facilities

The pretest score of tourists’ expectation of tourism facilities is 32.25 and the
post-test score of tourism experience of tourism facilities is 35.50 and the difference
between their mean is 3.25. t=3.123 and significant value is 0.002 which is less than
0.05. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected.

6.9.2 Tourist Expectations and Experiences on Destination Specific Factors

The pretest score of tourist expectation of destination specific factors is 22.20


and the post test score of tourism experience of destination specific factors is 25.30
and the difference between their mean is 3.10. t=8.327 and significant value is 0.002
which is less than 0.05. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected.

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6.10 One Way ANOVA

6.10.1 Age of Tourists Vs Tourist Expectations and Experiences on Tourism


Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

The F-value is 9.43 and P-value is given as 0.00. Hence, null hypothesis is
safely rejected. Therefore, a significant difference between age categories with regard
to tourist expectations on tourism facilities is evident. Likewise, one way ANOVA is
used to check whether significant difference exists between age of tourists and tourist
experience on tourism facilities. The F-value is 7.36 and p-value is 0.02. Therefore,
null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level. Similarly, one way ANOVA is
conducted to find out existing differences between age category and tourist
expectations on destination specific factors. The F-value is 6.30 and p-value is 0.04.
Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected at 5% significant level and it may be concluded
that there is a significant difference between age category and tourist expectations on
destination specific factors. Subsequently, one way ANOVA is conducted to find out
existing differences between age and tourist experience on destination specific
factors. The F-value is 8.45 and p-value is 0.01. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected
at 5% significant level and it may be concluded that there is a significant difference
between age category and tourist experience on destination specific factors. On the
whole, a significant difference between age of tourists and tourist expectations and
experiences on tourism facilities and destination specific factors is observed.

6.10.2 Educational Qualification of Tourists Vs Expectation and Experience on


Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

The F-value is 10.73 and P-value is given as 0.00. Hence, null hypothesis is safely
rejected. Therefore, a significant difference between educational qualification with
regard to tourist expectation on tourism facilities is evident. Likewise, one way
ANOVA is used to check whether significant difference exists between educational
qualification and tourist experience on tourism facilities. The F-value is 9.22 and p-
value is 0.00. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level.
Similarly, one way ANOVA is conducted to find out existing difference between

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educational qualification and tourist expectation on destination specific factors. The


F-value is 9.38 and p-value is given as 0.00. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected at
5% significant level and it may be concluded that there is a significant difference
between educational qualification and tourist expectation on destination specific
factors. Subsequently, one way ANOVA is conducted to find out existing difference
between educational qualification and tourist experience on destination specific
factors. The F-value is 10.87 and p-value is given as 0.00. Therefore, null hypothesis
is rejected at 5% significant level and it may be concluded that there is a significant
difference between educational qualification and tourist experience on destination
specific factors. On the whole, a significant difference between educational
qualification and tourist expectation and experience on tourism facilities and
destination specific factors is observed.

6.10.3 Annual Income Vs Tourist Expectation and Experience on Tourism


Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

F-value is 8.12 and p-value is 0.00. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected since
significant difference exists between tourists annual income and expectation on
tourism facilities. Similarly, one way ANOVA is performed to check whether
significant differences exist between tourists annual income and tourist experience on
tourism facilities. The F-value is 9.06 and p-value is <0.05. Therefore, the null
hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level and as such it may be concluded that
there is a significant difference between tourists annual income and tourist experience
on tourism facilities. Subsequently, one way ANOVA is carried out to find the
difference between tourists annual income and tourist expectation on destination
specific factors. The F-value is 9.75 and p-value is 0.00. Null hypothesis is rejected at
5 % significant level. It shows that there is a significant difference between tourist
annual income and destination specific factors. Likewise, one way ANOVA is
performed to check whether significant differences exist between tourists’ annual
income and experience on destination specific factors. The F-value is 7.86 and p-
value is <0.05. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level and
as such may be concluded that there is a significant difference between tourists annual
income and tourist experience on destination specific factors. In essence, it goes to
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show that there is a significant difference between annual income and tourists’
expectations and experiences on tourism facilities and destination specific factors.

6.10.4 Source of Information Vs Tourist Expectation and Experience on


Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

F-value is 7.66 and p-value is 0.00. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected. It is


evident that there is a significant difference between source of information and tourist
expectation on tourism facilities. Similarly, one way ANOVA is performed to check
whether significant differences exist between source of information and tourist
experience on tourism facilities. The F-value is 6.20 and p-value is < 0.05. Hence,
null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level and could be concluded that there
is a significant difference between source of information and tourist experience on
tourism facilities. Subsequently, one way ANOVA is carried out to find the existing
difference between source of information and destination specific factors. The F-value
is 5.09 and p-value is given as 0.00. Thus, null hypothesis is rejected at 5 %
significant level lending credence to the fact there is a significant difference between
sources of information and destination specific factors. Likewise, one way ANOVA is
performed to check whether significant differences exist between source of
information and tourist experience on tourism facilities. The F-value is 6.89 and p-
value is < 0.05. Hence, null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level and could
be concluded that there is a significant difference between source of information and
tourist experience on destination specific factors. On the whole, it is found that there
is a significant difference between source of information and tourist expectation and
experience on tourism facilities and destination specific factors.

6.10.5 Purpose of Visit Vs Tourist Expectations and Experiences on Tourism


Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

F-value is 6.75 and p-value is 0.00. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected as


there is a significant difference between purpose of visit and tourist expectation on
tourism facilities. Similarly, one way ANOVA is performed to check whether
significant difference exists between purpose of visit and tourist experience on

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tourism facilities. The F-value is 7.77 and p-value is < 0.05. Therefore, null
hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level. As such, there is a significant
difference between purpose of visit and tourist experience on tourism facilities.
Subsequently, one way ANOVA is conducted to find out difference between purpose
of visit and tourist experience on destination specific factors. The F-value is 4.11 and
p-value is given as 0.05. Thus, null hypothesis is rejected at 5 % significant level as
there is significant difference between purpose of visit and tourist expectation on
destination specific factors. Further, the F-value is 8.11 and p-value is < 0.05.
Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level. As such, there is a
significant difference between purpose of visit and tourist experience on destination
specific factors. On the whole, it is found that there is significant difference between
purpose of visit and tourist expectation and experience on tourism facilities and
destination specific factors.

6.10.6 Choice of Transport Vs Tourist Expectations and Experiences on


Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

F-value is 9.65 and p-value is 0.00. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected.
As such there is a significant difference between choice of transport and tourist
expectations on tourism facilities. Similarly, one way ANOVA is performed to check
whether significant differences exist between choice of transport and experience on
tourism facilities. The F-value is 7.45 and p-value is < 0.05.Therefore, null hypothesis
is rejected at 95% confidence level and it may be concluded that there is a significant
difference between choice of transport and tourist experience on tourism facilities.
Subsequently, one way ANOVA is carried out to find the difference between choice
of transport and tourists expectations on destination specific factors. The F-value is
9.23 and p-value is 0.01. Thus, null hypothesis is rejected at 5% significant level. It
may be concluded that there is a significant difference between choice of transport
and tourist expectation on destination specific factors. The F-value is 10.34 and p-
value is < 0.05.Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level and it
may be concluded that is there is a significant difference between choice of transport
and tourist experience on destination specific factors. On the whole, it is found that

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there is a significant difference between choice of transport and tourist expectations


and experience on tourism facilities and destination specific factors.

6.10.7 Choice of Accommodation Vs Tourist Expectations and Experiences on


Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

F-value is 10.14 and p-value is 0.00. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected


since significant difference exists between the choice of accommodation and tourist
expectation on tourism facilities. Similarly, one way ANOVA is performed to check
whether significant difference exists between choice of accommodation and tourist
experience on tourism facilities. The F-value is 12.41 and p-value is < 0.05.
Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level and it may be
concluded that there is a significant difference between choice of accommodation and
tourist experience on tourism facilities. Subsequently, one way ANOVA is conducted
to find out existing difference between accommodation choice and tourist expectation
on destination specific factors. The F-value is 8.90 and p-value is 0.00. Thus, null
hypothesis is rejected at 5% significant level and it may be concluded that there is a
significant difference between choice of accommodation and tourist expectation on
destination specific factors. The F-value is 9.89 and p-value is < 0.05. Therefore, null
hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level and it may be concluded that there is a
significant difference between choice of accommodation and tourist experience on
tourism destination specific factors.

6.10.8 Length of Stay Vs Tourist Expectations and Experiences on Tourism


Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

F-value is 8.45 and p-value is 0.00.Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected. It is


evident that there is a significant difference between length of stay and tourist
expectation on tourism facilities. Similarly, one way ANOVA is performed to check
whether significant difference exists between length of stay and tourist experience on
tourism facilities. The F-value is 8.90 and p-value is < 0.05. Hence, null hypothesis is
rejected at 95% confidence level and it may be concluded that there is a significant
difference between length of stay and tourist experience on tourism facilities.
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Subsequently, one way ANOVA is conducted to find out existing difference between
length of stay and tourist experience on destination specific factors. The F-value is
9.56 and p-value is 0.00. Thus, null hypothesis is accepted at 5 % significant level. It
is found that there is no significant difference between length of stay and tourist
expectation on destination specific factors. The F-value is 10.76 and p-value is < 0.05.
Hence, null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level and it may be concluded
that there is significant difference between length of stay and tourist experience on
destination specific factors. On the whole, it is found that there is a significant
difference between length of stay and tourist expectation and experience on tourism
facilities and destination specific factors.

6.10.9 Tourist Companionship Vs Tourist Expectations and Experiences on


Tourism Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

F-value is 9.07 and p-value is 0.00. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected as


there is significant difference between tourist companionship and tourist expectation
on tourism facilities. Similarly, one way ANOVA is performed to check whether
significant difference exists between tourist companionship and tourist experience on
tourism facilities. The F-value is 7.05 and p-value is < 0.05. Therefore, null
hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level. As such, there is a significant
difference between tourist companionship and tourist experience on tourism facilities.
Subsequently, one way ANOVA is conducted to find out existing difference between
tourist companionship and tourist expectation on destination specific factors. The F-
value is 6.84 and p-value is 0.05. Thus, null hypothesis is rejected at 5 % significant
level as there is a significant difference between tourist companionship and tourist
expectation on destination specific factors. The F-value is 8.65 and p-value is < 0.05.
Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level. As such there is
significant difference between tourist companionship and tourist experience on
destination specific factors. On the whole, it is found that there is significant
difference between tourist companionship and tourist expectation and experience on
tourism facilities and destination specific factors.

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6.10.10 Tour Budget Vs Tourist Expectations and Experiences on Tourism


Facilities and Destination Specific Factors

F-value is 9.76 and p-value is 0.00. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected. As


such, there is significant difference between tour budget and tourist expectations on
tourism facilities. Similarly, one way ANOVA is performed to check whether
significant difference exists between tour budget and tourist experience on tourism
facilities. The F-value is 7.22 p-value is < 0.05. Hence, null hypothesis is rejected at
95% confidence level leading to the conclusion that there is significant difference
between tour budget and tourist experience on tourism facilities. Further, one way
ANOVA is conducted to find out the difference between tour budget and tourist
expectations on destination specific factors. The F-value is 12.98 and p-value is 0.00.
Thus, null hypothesis is rejected at 5 % significant level. It may be concluded that
there is a significant difference between tour budget and tourist expectations on
destination specific factors. The F-value is 12.89 and p-value is < 0.05. Hence, null
hypothesis is rejected at 95% confidence level leading to the conclusion that there is
significant difference between tour budget and tourist experience on destination
specific factors. On the whole, it is found that there is significant difference between
tour budget and tourist expectation and experience on tourism facilities and
destination specific factors.

6.11 Exploratory Factor Analysis

6.11.1 Tourist Expectations on Tourism Facilities

Kaiser Meyer Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy (KMO) value 0.930 >
0.06 which indicates that factor analysis is useful for appropriate data analysis. The
value for Bartlett’s test of Sphericity is p = 0.000 is less than 0.05 with 352 degree of
freedom which indicates that there exists a significant relationship among the
variables.

In order to determine how many components or factors meet this criterion of


total variance need to be examined. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Method

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revealed that the first six components recorded Eigen values: 16.06, 4.66, and 3.64.
These three components or factors explain a total of 76.15 % of the variance. The
Component Matrix so formed is further rotated orthogonally using Varimax Rotation
Algorithm which is the standard rotation method. All these variables are loaded on
these three factors.

The total variance accounted for all the three factors with Eigen value is
greater than 1 at 76.15 % and remaining variance is explained by other variables.
Among the three factors, the first factor explains 50.18 % variance, second factor
explains 14.58% variance and third factor explains 11.38 % variance. The Statements
are converted into three factors using factor analysis i.e. Transportation,
Accommodation, and Destination facilities.

6.11.2 Tourist Experience on Tourism Facilities

Kaiser Meyer Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy (KMO) value 0.960 >
0.06 which indicates that factor analysis is useful for appropriate data analysis. The
significant value for Bartlett’s test of Sphericity is p= 0.000 is less than 0.05 with 366
degree freedom which indicates that there exists significant relationship among the
variables.

The first three components recorded Eigen values above 1 (20.31, 3.38 and
2.96) as per the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Method. These three
components or factors explain a total of 83.32 % of the variance. The Component
Matrix so formed is further rotated orthogonally using Varimax rotation algorithm.
All these variables are loaded on the three factors.

The results show that the total variance accounted for all the three factors with
Eigen value is greater than 1 at 83.32 % and remaining variance is explained by other
variables. Among the three factors, the first factor explains 63.48 % variance, second
factor explains 10.58% variance and third factor explains 9.24 % variance. The
statements are converted into three factors using factor analysis.

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6.11.3 Tourist Expectations on Destination Specific Factors

Kaiser Meyer Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy (KMO) value 0.930 >
0.06 which indicates that factor analysis is useful for appropriate data analysis. The
significant value for Bartlett’s test of Sphericity is p= 0.000 is less than 0.05 with 361
degree freedom which indicates that there exists significant relationship among the
variables.

The first five components recorded Eigen values above 1 (19.395, 4.842,
2.696, 2.252 and 1.237) as per the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Method.
These five components or factors explain a total of 83.32 % of the variance. The
Component Matrix so formed is further rotated orthogonally using Varimax Rotation
Algorithm. All these variables are loaded on the three factors.

The results show that total variance accounted for all the three factors with
Eigen value is greater than 1 at 95.07 % and remaining variance is explained by other
variables. Among the five factors, the first factor explains 60.61 % variance, second
factor explains 15.13% variance, third factor explains 8.24 % variance, fourth factor
explains 7.03% and fifth factor explains 3.86% variance. The Statements are
converted into five factors using factor analysis.

6.11.4 Tourist Experiences on Destination Specific Factors

Kaiser Meyer Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy (KMO) value 0.950 >
0.06 which indicates that factor analysis is useful for appropriate data analysis. The
significant value for Bartlett’s test of Sphericity is p= 0.000 is less than 0.05 with 340
degree freedom which indicates that there exists significant relationship among the
variables.

The first four components recorded Eigen values above 1 (14.78, 5.184, 3.767
and 1.499) as per the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Method. These five
components or factors explain a total of 90.11 % of the variance. The Component

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Matrix so formed is further rotated orthogonally using Varimax rotation algorithm.


All these variables are loaded on the three factors.

The results show that the total variance accounted for all the four factors with
Eigen value is greater than 1 at 90.11 % and remaining variance is explained by other
variables. Among the four factors, the first factor explains 52.79 % variance, second
factor explains 18.51% variance, third factor explains 13.45 % variance and fourth
factor explains 5.35%. The Statements are converted into five factors using factor
analysis.

6.12 Mean Ranking

Mean ranking technique was performed on a five point Likert Scale. Scores
from 1 to 5 have been assigned: ‘highly satisfied’, ‘partially satisfied ’, ‘neither
satisfied nor dissatisfied’, ‘partially dissatisfied’ and ‘highly dissatisfied’
respectively. The results highlighted that rest and relaxation ranked first with a
highest mean score of (3.862). Walk around the town ranked second with a mean
score of (3.858). Visit to Auroville ranked third with a mean score of (3.853). Visiting
Pub/bar and restaurant in the evening ranked fourth with a mean score of (3.848).
Beach activities ranked fifth with a mean score of (3.807). Boating ranked sixth with a
mean score of (3.799). Visit Aurobindo Ashram ranked seventh with a mean score of
(3.678). Visit to religious places ranked eighth with a mean score of (3.640). Visit to
Ousteri ranked ninth with a mean score of (3.582). Visiting botanical garden and park
ranked tenth with a low mean score of (3.576).

6.13 Correlations

6.13.1 Tourist Expectations and Tourist Experiences on Destination Specific


Factors

The relationship between the tourist expectations and tourist experiences of


destination specific factors is positive. The Correlation value is 0.920 and level of

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significant value is less than 0.01. So there is a significant relationship between tourist
expectation and experience of destination specific factors.

6.13.2 Tourist Expectations and Experiences of Tourism Facilities

The relationship between the tourist expectation and experience of tourism


facilities is positive. The Correlation value is 0.860 and level of significant value is
less than 0.01. So there exists a significant relationship between tourist expectations
and experiences of tourism facilities.

6.14 Multiple Regression- Results

6.14.1 Impact of Tourist Expectations on Tourist Experiences of Tourism


Facilities

Regression on impact of tourist expectations on tourist experiences of tourism


facilities shows that variables transportation, accommodation and destination facilities
are the significant predictors.

Thus, the model establishes that impact of tourist expectations on tourist


experience of tourism facilities is significant.

6.14.2 Impact of Tourist Expectations on Experiences of Destination Specific


Factors

Regression model on impact of tourist expectations on experiences of


destination specific factors shows that variables shopping, entertainment, water sports
and tourist amenities are the significant predictors

Thus, the model establishes that impact of tourist expectation on tourist


experience of destination specific factors is significant.

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Chapter VII
Suggestions,
Recommendations
&Conclusions
7.0 Introduction

Present study on weekend tourism has analyzed the characteristics of weekend


tourists and in particular, the expectations and experiences of weekend tourists
visiting Puducherry. Weekend tourists expectations and experiences on tourism
facilities and destination specific factors at Puducherry were analyzed. This study
facilitated better understanding and gain good insights on weekend travel market,
given the importance that weekend tourism has assumed in the present day tourism.
The need for a comprehensive and indepth examination of weekend tourism segment
of modern tourism arose due to the growth potential of this segment. There are more
anecdotal information on weekend tourism but empirical studies on the phenomenon
are few and far between. In the contemporary tourism research, weekend tourism has
not received the attention that it deserves. Therefore, this piece of study aimed at
filling the gap in the research with respect to weekend tourism.

7.1 Suggestions

 Puducherry Tourism Development Corporation (PTDC) should be more


aggressive in partnering with various stakeholders who are directly or directly
involved with tourism.

 As the PTDC website currently lacks updated information, a professional team


trained in tourism with expertise in information technology may be entrusted
with the responsibility of managing the tourism related sites and tourism
websites.

 Majority of the weekend tourists are dependent on internet for obtaining travel
information or for booking travel needs. The government should take
appropriate steps to keep PTDC website updated and live.

 PTDC should take efforts to work closely with all the stakeholders of
Puducherry tourism to streamline tourism activities in the union territory of
Puducherry.

 PTDC has to monitor the growth of weekend tourism, for which a foolproof
mechanism may be set up.

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 An interactive website may be developed so that event organizers at
Puducherry could post information about their upcoming events in
Puducherry.

 It is high time that PTDC and Puducherry tourism stakeholders understood the
expectations and experiences of weekend tourists such that the needs of the
tourists are met effectively. Weekend tourist expectations regarding the
tourism facilities like transportation, accommodation, safety and security,
hygienic factors, etc. need to be analyzed periodically in the light of the ever
changing expectations of the tourists.

 Weekend tourist satisfaction factors such as attractions, accessibility,


accommodation, entertainment activities, service quality and shopping
facilities need to be addressed more steadily and systematically.

 PTDC has to embark on a massive awareness campaign about the potential of


Puducherry for weekend breaks. However, appropriate care may be taken in
instilling the tourists consciousness about respecting local ethos and culture.
Through circulation of information brochures and leaflets or notifications at
the hotels about Dos and Don’ts during their visit.

 PTDC and service providers should work hand in hand in identifying and
marketing new tourism products and new market segments.

 Puducherry Tourism needs to concentrate more on promoting weekend


tourism as it reduces seasonal issues of the destination and keeps the tourism
business live and active throughout the year.

 Majority of the Weekend tourists are youngsters and hence, adventure tourism
activities like windsurfing, parasailing, water skiing, Scuba diving, kayaking,
deep sea fishing, banana boat rides and sea cruise, etc., may be introduced to
entertain the weekend tourists.

 More number of tourism activities during weekends like cultural activities,


exhibitions, live concerts may be introduced in order to attract the local
community besides the tourists.

 Beach and water sports such as beach volley ball, water surfing, sunbath, and
beach cycle ride may be introduced in Puducherry as most of the weekend
tourists are attracted by beaches.

 Tourist amenities such as clean wash rooms at various tourist service centres,
treated and safe drinking water, sit outs, sign boards, rest places, adequate
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parking space, street lights, tourist friendly information centers, trained
guides, deployment of adequate security personnel to ensure the safety of the
tourists need to be strengthened.

 Destination Management teams may be formed to promote attractions which


are not exploited properly, for instance, Serenity beach, Ousteri Lake, Bahour
lake, Arikamedu and Ariyankuppam river.

 INTACH has highlighted 1100 heritage buildings in the white town of


Puducherry in 2002. It is high time that these heritage buildings are renovated
as these heritage buildings constitute the USP of Puducherry. In this context, it
is disheartening to note that in 2014, a 144 year old historic Building,
popularly known as Marie Building (earlier known as Town Hall or Hotel de
Ville) on the beach road was collapsed due to heavy rain. Thus, Puducherry
lost one of the biggest administrative landmarks due to poor maintenance.
Therefore, immediate renovation and restoration works may be initiated to
preserve the other heritage buildings.

 The botanical garden where the famous Oscar winning Hollywood movie
“Life of pie” was shot richly deserves a facelift and good maintenance. This
garden has shot into fame across the world after the movie “Life of pie” won
several Oscar awards. As such, the Botanical garden has all the potential to be
positioned as a major tourist attraction of Puducherry similar to Kodaikanal
and Ooty of neighboring Tamilnadu state.

 Few more beach resorts need to be developed as the weekend tourists to


Puducherry prefer to stay in beach resorts.

 To reduce traffic congestion during weekends in the city, convenient and


comfortable tourist friendly public transportation systems may be introduced
for the weekend tourists so as to move around the town.

 Tourists usually love to take home with them a souvenir from the destination
they visit. Hence, destination specific artifacts such as pottery, leather crafts,
handmade paper crafts, glass ware, woodcarvings, jute craft, clay & terracotta,
candles and incense sticks could be made available under one roof or at major
tourists spots.

 Tourist information kiosks may be set up at vantage points to enable the


tourists to find locations easily, status of room availability and transport
facilities, etc.

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7.2 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this research, following recommendations are made


in order to increase the number of tourist arrivals and to make their trips memorable.
Recommendations are made with respect to four important components of tourism
such as Attractions, Transport, Accommodation and other Tourist facilities.

7.2.1 Destination Attractions

Puducherry is famous for its beaches and it remains the most preferred
attraction among the weekend tourists to Puducherry. Puducherry has four well
known beaches such as Paradise beach, Promenade beach, Auro beach and serenity
beach. Based on the research findings, the following recommendations are made:

7.2.1.1 Promenade Beach

Puducherry Tourism Development Corporation (PTDC) may focus on the


below listed recommendations to promote Paradise beach:

 Provide beach furniture to sit and relax along the beach.

 Repair the inactive water fountains and lay attractive gardens at this spot.

 Setting up of heritage huts along the beach to provide shaded seating place for
the tourists to sit and relax in the day time.

 This beach may be made out of reach of beggars and touts.

 Quality food outlets may be established.

 Cultural events like sound and light shows may be organised every weekend at
this spot during evening time to entertain the tourists.

 Basic tourist facilities such as tourist information centres, safe drinking water
facilities, seating arrangements, kiosks, clean and hygienic rest rooms, and
adequate parking place need to be provided.

 Adequate safety and security measures may be provided to tourists from


antisocial elements by deploying extra police force during weekends.

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7.2.1.2 Paradise Beach and Serenity Beach Development

Puducherry Tourism Development Corporation (PTDC) needs to consider the


following to develop these two beaches, which are fast emerging as favorite location
for weekend tourists.

 The approach road to these beaches needs to be improved.

 Setting up of beach furniture along the beach for the tourists to sit and relax.

 Beach activities like beach volley ball, children parks, etc., can be developed.

 Improve and strengthen the public transportation systems to reach these


beaches.

 Basic amenities such as clean and hygienic wash rooms, safe drinking water
facilities, street lights, seating arrangements, sign boards, tourist information
centre and parking facilities.

 Quality and hygiene food outlets can be put up.

 Strengthening of safety and security systems for tourist safety.

7.2.1.3 Auro Beach Development

A joint initiative by Puducherry and Tamilnadu Tourism Development


Corporation may help develop this beach:

 Laying down wide and all weather road to improve access to this beach.

 Frequency of public transport facilities must be increased.

 Good landscaping and beautification of the beach is required.

 Basic tourist amenities such as hygiene rest room facilities, safe drinking
water facilities, parking facilities, road and information signage, street lights
and seating arrangements need to be improved and developed.

 Quality food outlets must be made available for the tourists.

 More number of standard beach resorts and cottages near Auroville beach may
be developed.

 Adequate Police patrol should be deployed to ensure tourist safety.

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 Beach activities such as sunbath, swimming, beach volley ball, water surfing,
parasailing angling, and etc. may be introduced at this beach.

7.2.2 Backwaters, Lakes, Gardens and Parks

7.2.2.1 Chunnambar Backwaters

The following recommendations are made for further development of


Chunnambar Boat house.

 Water front areas need to be developed at Chunnambar boat house.

 More modern boats, rowing and pedal boats should be made available for
tourist usage.

 Cruise facilities in the evening with cultural shows like in Goa may be
introduced at the backwater.

 A resort can be developed at paradise beach to accommodate tourists.

 More lamp posts and lights needed to illuminate this beach.

7.2.2.2 Ousteri Lake

The following measures need to be taken to promote Ousteri lake:

 Approach road to Ousteri lake need to be improved.

 Transport to this lake need to be increased streamlined.

 Bird sanctuary may be developed at Ousteri lake area.

 Beautification of the lake with gardens and fountains is needed.

 Clean and Hygiene rest room facilities are required.

 More quality food outlets can be opened.

 Resorts, cottages or SPA can be set up at Ousteri.

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7.2.2.3 Bahour Lake

Bahour Lake can be developed as a better tourism spot by implementing the


following recommendations,
 Make it accessible to weekend tourists by improving the approach road to the
lake.

 Transport connectivity needs to be improved to this lake from major places in


and around Puducherry.

 Water front areas need to be developed at Bahour Lake.

 Boating facilities can be provided to attract weekend tourists.

 Tourists amenities such as safe drinking water facilities, information signage,


parking facilities, and tourist information centre can be set up.

 Quality food outlets can be developed.

 Resorts and cottage could be developed at the lake.

 Safety and security of tourists must be strengthened.

7.2.3 Development of Garden and Park

Necessary initiatives may be taken to renovate and develop the gardens and parks
in Puducherry:

 Existing gardens of Puducherry need to be upgraded with different Plant


species.

 Proper maintenance and improvement is required to manage the aquariums in


botanical garden.

 A quality restaurant or cafeteria can be operated at botanical garden and


Bharathi Park.

 Drinking and smoking should be prohibited inside the park and garden.
Adequate security should be provided to restrict antisocial elements in
entering the parks and gardens.

 Light and sound shows can be organised during weekends or on special


occasions.

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7.2.4 Transportation

Transportation is an important element of tourism. An easily accessible


destination receives maximum number of tourists. Hence, following recommendations
will help to increase the foot falls.

 Train connectivity needs to be improved to nearby cities like Bangalore,


Chennai and other cities which generate more weekend tourists. the arrival and
departure timings of the few trains to Puducherry are not convenient and as
such most of the weekend tourists are not availing rail transport,. They either
arrive too early in the morning or depart from Puducherry at inconvenient
time.

 It is difficult to get buses to Puducherry from weekend tourist generating cities


like Bangalore during weekends. Touts take advantage of this situation and
fleece passengers. Special bus services are required towards Puducherry from
nearby places like Bangalore, Chennai, etc on Fridays and Saturdays. In return
more buses are required on Sundays.

 Though Puducherry has a civil airport, it is not functioning currently. Flight


services are required to nearby cities of Bangalore, Hyderabad, Cochin,
Mumbai etc with convenient timings. At least on weekends, flights that arrive
in the morning (before 10.00 AM) at Puducherry and in return should have
convenient late evening departures. Connectivity to different places across the
country may be provided through connecting flights from Bengaluru/
Hyderabad.

 Ferry services may be tried out between Chennai and Puducherry on the
weekends to attract more experience seekers. Ferry service with some
entertainment options or small cruise boats can be operated to attract more
tourists.

 Internal transport facilities need to be developed in Puducherry. More number


of intra-city PRTC buses may ply connecting prominent tourist attractions
with good frequency. This would make sure that tourists have a cheap and
comfortable transport.

 The tariff of auto rickshaws and taxis must be strictly governed by the
Government to avoid fleecing of tourists. Improved Tourist friendly auto
services are needed.

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 Hop on Hop off buses operated by PTDC/ PRTC are required to make local
sightseeing trips a pleasant exercise. If these services are not possible, at least
One Day tickets (that include unlimited travel for a day) at nominal costs may
be tried out.

7.2.5 Accommodation

 It is difficult to get rooms during weekends. Taking advantage of this, some of


the hoteliers overcharge the customers. In order to overcome this menace,
room tariff at the hotels may be published on weekends at all hotels. Care
should be taken to see that hotels do not overcharge the customers.

 More number of home stays/ service apartments/ alternate accommodation, etc


are needed to cater to the weekenders.

 Standard beach resorts are limited in Puducherry. More number of beach


resorts are required as majority of the tourists visit Puducherry to sit back and
relax in the beaches.

7.2.6 Other Tourists Facilities

 Police patrolling needs to be intensified in the town and the surroundings


during weekends.

 Clean and Hygiene rest room facilities need to be provided at all major spots.

 Special care may be taken to manage road traffic during weekends as the town
is overcrowded with weekend tourists.

 Toll free numbers and emergency contact numbers may be displayed in hotels
and at important public places prominently to keep tourists feel more secured
and comfortable.

 Adequate police force needs to be deployed at all tourism spots during


weekends in order to avoid untoward incidents and to provide security to
tourists from antisocial elements.

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7.3 Conclusions

The main objective of this research is to develop a profile and an operating


model for weekend tourists and to examine the gaps in expectations and experiences
of weekend tourists on tourism facilities and destination specific factors of
Puducherry destination. The study found that majority of the weekend tourists are
satisfied with the available tourism facilities and destination specific factors.
Weekend tourists expectations and experiences depend on two main factors such as
tourism facilities and destination specific factors. Further, satisfaction of Puducherry
weekend tourists was influenced by factors such as transportation, accommodation,
destination facilities, cultural and spiritual attractions, shopping, entertainment,
water sports and other tourist amenities. The study has shed light on the primary
characteristics of the weekend tourists. The research findings have facilitated to
explain the purpose for taking weekend breaks and also brought out weekend tourists
travel behavior. Majority of weekend tourists to Puducherry arrived from Bangalore
and Chennai. These findings should provide sufficient information or knowledge for
better marketing strategies to attract this tourist segment.

7.4 Limitations of the study

The present study is a micro level study. The number of objectives examined
is limited due to the vastness of the subject, cost involved and time constraint. Since,
the survey was conducted from November 2013 to November 2014, findings of this
study were relevant to weekend tourists who had visited during the said period.
Generally, in sample surveys, random sampling method is used to select the sample
individuals. But this study has adopted Judgmental sampling technique to select the
sample respondents so as to identify the weekend tourists among the population. The
research focused on Puducherry region alone and hence the findings, suggestions and
recommendations of the study may not be generalized. All the respondents are
domestic tourists as the short term nature of weekend trip makes the tourists to opt for
short journey destination or destinations that consumes less travel time. Therefore,
foreign tourists choosing Puducherry for weekend breaks seem to be unfeasible and
the researcher did not come across any foreign weekend tourists at Puducherry during

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the survey. But this may not be the case for all weekend destinations. The study
focused only on Puducherry weekend tourists and their expectations, experiences and
satisfaction during their trip to Puducherry.

7.5 Scope for Further Researches

The main aim of this study is to gain knowledge and understanding of


weekend travel phenomenon and travel characteristics of the weekend tourists.
Further this research has also examined the expectations and experiences of weekend
tourists on tourism facilities and destination specific factors of Puducherry. The
present study helped to gain a few insights which may pave the way for further
research in the area of weekend tourism.

1. A Comparative study on weekend tourists and general holiday tourists may be


carried out.

2. Negative impact of weekend tourism may be studied on existing weekend


tourist destinations.

3. A comparative study on satisfaction of weekend tourists between two weekend


tourism destinations may be conducted.

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Blackwell, D., Minard, W., and Engel, F. (2001), Customer Behaviour, The Dryden
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Appendix
Questionnaire
SECTION – A
1. Name :

2. Nationality : i) Indian ii) Foreigner

3. If you are an Indian, which state do you belong to : ______________

4. If you are a foreign national, which country do you belong to : _______

5. Current Place of Residence : ____________________

6. Age :
i) Below 20 yrs ii) 21-30yrs iii) 31-40 yrs
iv) 41-50 v) above 50 yrs

7. Gender : i) Male ii) Female iii) Transgender

8. Educational Qualification:
i) up to higher secondary iv) Professional Degree
ii)Diploma v) Post Graduate
iii) Graduate vi) Doctorate

9. Annual Income : ______________________

10. Marital Status: i) Married ii) Unmarried iii) Separated

11. Employed in :
i) Public Sector ii) Private Sector
iii) Government iv) NGO v) Unemployed
If you are employed, which sector does your company belong to?
i) IT&ITES ii) Banking iii) Insurance
iv) Retail Trade v) Manufacturing vi) Tele-communication

1
12. Occupation :
i) Agriculturist ix) Engineer
ii) Own Business x) Manager
iii) Self-employed xi) Executive
iv) Teacher xii) Student
v) Doctor xiii) currently without work
vi) Lawyer xiv) Housewife
vii) Agriculturist xv) Own Business
viii) Self-employed xvi) Teacher

13. Are you alone or in a group in this trip:


i) Alone ii) Group
If you are in group who are the members of this group:
i) Spouse iv) Work place Colleagues
ii)Friends/ Relatives v) Neighbors
iii) Spouse & children vi) Reunion of old
vii) friends

14. What is the duration of your stay in Puducherry?


i) One Night iv) More than 3 Nights
ii)2 Nights v) No stay
iii) 3 Nights

15. How do you describe this Puducherry visit?


i) This is an exclusive trip
ii) Puducherry is my main destination, but I shall visit other places
on my way back.
iii) I shall also visit a few places in and around Puducherry.
iv) I am visiting Puducherry en route to and from some other
destination.

16. Have you visited this place before? i) Yes ii) No


If yes, how many times?
i) Every weekend iv) Twice in an year
ii) once in a month v) once in every year
iii) Once in every quarter of the vi) Visit Puducherry whenever I
year get time.

2
17. Which of the following prompt you to make weekend trips?
Please give your opinion on the 1 to 5 point scale given below

5 – Strongly Agree; 4 –Agree; 3–Neutral; 2–Disagree; 1–Strongly


Disagree
Sl.No Statement 1 2 3 4 5
Weekend Trips give me the needed break from
i) 1 2 3 4 5
work stress
Weekend trips help to relax / rejuvenate in
ii) 1 2 3 4 5
pleasant places of senic beauty
Weekend trips facilitate arranging / attracting
iii) 1 2 3 4 5
business meets
I make weekend trip to visit a particular
iv) destination / tourist spot / town / region / 1 2 3 4 5
hotel, etc
I make weekend trips because I can't take long
v) 1 2 3 4 5
holidays

18. What is the main purpose of your visit to Puducherry?


i) Leisure vii) Educational Purpose
ii) On a day out/ day trip viii) Medical/Health Purpose
iii) Visiting ix) Spiritual/ Religious
Friends/Relatives x) Attending a Conference
iv) Shopping /Exhibition
v) Business/official xi) others (specify)
vi) A Conference/Exhibition ___________

19. Which of these factors prompted you to choose Puducherry to spend


your weekend?
i) Proximity (nearer) vi) Recommended by
ii) Climate friends/relatives
iii) Low cost vii) Easy accessibility
iv) Attractions viii) others __________
v) Family interest

20. How do you describe this trip as?


i)A Weekend Break iii) Main holiday this year
ii)A Secondary/Additional- iv) Any other please
holiday specify_________

3
21. How many nights will you be spending away from home on this trip?
i) One ii) Two iii) Three iv) more than 3 nights

22. How many of these nights will you be spending in?


i) Puducherry __________ ii) other place, if any ___________

23. What type of accommodation have you chosen for this trip?

i) Luxury/Star Heritage
v) ix) Home stay
category hotel hotels
ii) Service vi) Youth hostel x)
Staying with
Apartment friends/relatives
iii) Govt. Guest vii)
Tourists
xi)
Ashram Guest
house home House
iv) Beach Resort Auroville Guest
viii) Guest House xii)
House

24. How did you book accommodation and transport for this trip?
(Tick the relevant one)
Items Accommodation Transport
1. Travel Agent
2. Tour Operator
3. Part of an organized group
4. Directly with Pondicherry Tourism Dept.
5. Through Friends and relatives
6. Online( airline/railways/bus companies, etc.,)
7. Through Travel Portals
8. Directly with hotel
9. Did not book in advance
Any other (specify)

25. What is your source of information about Puducherry as a tourist


destination?
i) My own earlier visit v) Books & Travel Guides
ii) Internet vi) Media, Travel
iii) Friends/Relatives Agency/Tour-Operator
iv) Travel Mart/Fairs vii) Tourist information centre
/Exhibitions

26. How did you plan the visit?


i) Myself through online services
ii) With the help of Friends/ Relatives in Puducherry
iii) Tourists Information Centre at Puducherry
iv) Travel Agent/Tour Operator
v) My office has planned
4
vi) I just joined a group
27. How did you arrive here?
i) Flight v) Motorbike
ii) Train vi) Own Vehicle
iii) Bus vii) Combination of these
iv) Taxi

28. How much did you spend for Transportation (Rs. per person)?
i) Less than 500 Rs v) Rs 3001-5000
ii) Rs.501-1000 vi) More than Rs.5000
iii) Rs 1001-2000 vii) Complimentary
iv) Rs 2001-3000

29. How much did you spend for Accommodation (Rs. per night)?
i) Less than Rs.500 v) Rs 3001- 4000
ii) Rs 501-1000 vi) Rs 4001-5000
iii) Rs 1001-2000 vii) More than Rs. 5000
iv) Rs 2001-3000 viii) Complimentary

30. When did you plan your trip?


i) 3 month ago iv) A week ago
ii) 2 months ago v) Didn’t plan
iii) 2-3 weeks ago vi) Last minute decision

5
31. Based on your experience in the present visit, please indicate your
opinion on the following on a scale of 1 to 5.
1 – Very Poor; 2 – Poor; 3 – Average; 4 – Good; 5 – Very Good
TRANSPORTATION
My
Experience
expectation
Statement after visit
before Visit
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
i. Train Timings
ii. Train Connectivity
iii. Train Frequency
iv. Safety
v. Bus Timing
vi. Bus Connectivity
vii. Bus Frequency
viii. Road Condition
ix. Swift rescue operations
x. Restroom facility & food outlets
At Puducherry
i. Road Condition
ii. Road Signage
iii. Traffic Management
iv. Safety & Security
v. Restroom facilities
ACCOMMODATION
My expectation Experience
Statement before Visit after visit

i. Availability of rooms
ii. Room Tariff
iii. Hygiene & Sanitation
iv. Staff Behavior
v. Safety & Security
vi. Location of the accommodation

6
AT THE TOURIST SPOTS
i. Visitor Management
ii. Entry fee
iii. Parking Facility
iv. Quality of Food
v. Hygiene & Sanitation
vi. Staff Behavior
vii. Tourist guide facilities
viii. Safety & security
ix. Tourists information
x. Enclaves to sit & relax
xi. Emergency medical facility

32. Based on your experience in the present visit, please indicate your
opinion on the following on the scale of 1 to 5.
DESTINATION SPECIFIC FACTORS
My expectation Experience
Statement
before Visit after visit
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
1. Rich French Culture
2. Authentic Cuisine
3. Unique Architecture
4. French Wine / Perfume
5. Famous Temples /
Churches / Mosques
6. The international
township - Auroville
7. The renowned
Aurobindo Ashram
8. International yoga
festival
9. Attractive indigenous
artifacts
10. Sunday Bazaar
experience
11. Souvenir Shops
12. Availability of liquor at
low prices
13. Pleasant Climate
14. Night Life
15. Casinos / Game shows
16. Cultural Events

7
17. Exhibitions
18. Access to take bath /
dip in the sea
19. Sun bath / Water
Sports
20. Fresh water bath
facilities in the beach
21. Backwater cruise /
Boathouse ride
22. Rest room facility
23. Tourist guide facility
24. Safety & Security
25. Hygiene & sanitation
26. Tourist Information
27. Enclaves to sit & relax
28. Emergency medical
29. facility
1 –Strongly Disagree; 2 – Disagree; 3 – Neutral; 4 – Agree; 5 –
Strongly Agree

33. How often do you make weekend trips?


i. Every weekend
ii. At least one trip in a month
iii. 2 trips in a month
iv. At least 1 trip in every 3 months
v. At least one trip in 6 months

34. How do you rate your experience in the following activities, if you
have participated?
1 –Highly Dissatisfied; 2 – Dissatisfied; 3 – Neither satisfied nor
Dissatisfied; 4 – Satisfied; 5 – Highly Satisfied

Activities 1 2 3 4 5
i. Rest & Relaxation
ii. Temple, churches, Mosques visit
iii. Boating at Chunnambar
iv. Walk around the town
v. pub/bar or restaurant in the evening
vi. Visit to Auroville
vii. Aurobindo Ashram visit
viii. Visit to Botanical garden
ix. Visit to Ousteri lake
x. Beach activities
8
35. What is the mode of transport used for internal movement (local site
seeing)
i) Own Vehicle ii) Rental Motorbike iii) Taxi
iv) Auto rickshaw v)Public transport vi) Other if any specify________

36. What are the other destinations you have visited during weekends in
the recent past?
a) __________________ b) __________________ c) _________________

37. Which is your most preferred weekend destination in the recent


past?
Please name it ___________________

38. What will be your overall rating of the Puducherry visit on a scale of
1-7?
1– Extremely Bad
2- Very Bad
3- Bad
4- Unsure
5 - Good
6 – Very Good
7 – Extremely Good

THANK YOU VERY MUCH