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1. 1890s-1910s: Ragtime, Dixieland………………………………...4
2. 1920s-1930s: Boogie-Woogie, Swing, Scat………………………8
3. 1940s-1950s: BeBop, Cool, Free Jazz……………………………12
4. 1960s-1970s: Bossa Nova, Jazz/Rock Fusion, Soul jazz………..15
5. 1980s-2000s: Acid Jazz, World Fusion, Modern Creative……..23




Music is a moral law. It gives soul to the universe,
wings to the mind, flight to the imagination, and charm
and gaiety to life and to everything.

I have chosen this theme bearing in mind Plato’s quotation as mentioned above. Jazz music
has always overwhelmed me with its charm and uniqueness. I owe my first encounter with
this music to my father who once told me that jazz, like poetry, has no social or national
borders and it accompanies us on the span of our life. I felt the power and the impact of his
words when I first listened to Louis Armstrong’s “What a Wonderful World”, a song which
was to become the soundtrack of my life.
There is an alchemy in jazz music. According to everyone’s moods, you can find joy or
sorrow in its sound, you can find bliss, excitement and togetherness. There is no bond so
special as that between music and human spirit.
Jazz music was born at the dawns of the 20th century in New Orleans, representing a break
from traditional music alongside with the use of improvisation, and despite racial restricted
freedoms typical of the age, jazz emerged as a free expression of creation of the black
community, playing a major role in the history of arts in the United States of America.
I also approached this subject because I have always been fascinated by negro spirituals,
expressions of religious faith, of spiritual devotion and a yearning for freedom from bondage
originated by enslaved African-Americans in the United States. The spirituals made me
dream of human solidarity and dissolution of racial discrimination, made my heart throb with
emotion and side with the tempests of those enslaved as if an universal grief
Jazz has been called America's classical music, and for good reason. Along with the blues, its
forefather, it is one of the first truly indigenous musics to develop in America, yet its
unpredictable, risky ventures into improvisation gave it critical cache with scholars that the
blues lacked. At the outset, jazz was dance music, performed by swinging big bands.
Soon, the dance elements faded into the background and improvisation became the key
element of the music. As the genre evolved, the music split into a number of different styles,
from the speedy, hard-hitting rhythms of be-bop and the laid-back, mellow harmonies of cool
jazz to the jittery, atonal forays of free jazz and the earthy grooves of soul jazz. What tied it
all together was a foundation in the blues, a reliance on group interplay and unpredictable
improvisation. Throughout the years, and in all the different styles, those are the qualities that
defined jazz.

1. 1890s-1910s: RAGTIME, DIXIELAND

The music that we call jazz was born around the year 1895 in New Orleans. It brought
together the elements of Ragtime, marching band music, and the Blues. What made Jazz
different from the other earlier forms of music was the use of improvisation. Jazz represented
a break from tradition music where a composer wrote an entire piece of music on paper,
leaving the musicians to break their backs playing exactly what was written on the score. In a
Jazz piece, however, the song is simply a starting point, or sort of a starting point for the Jazz
musicians to improvise around. The song being played may have been popular and well-
known that the musicians themselves didn't compose, but once they had finished, the Jazz
Musicians had more or less written a new piece of music that bore little resemblance to the
original piece. Actually, many of these early musicians were bad sight readers and some
couldn't even read music at all. Regardless, their superb playing amazed audiences and the
upbeat music they played was a different but well-liked escape from the traditional music of
that time.
The first Jazz is thought to have been played by African Americans and Creole musicians in
New Orleans. Buddy Bolden, a cornet player, is generally considered to be the first real jazz
musician, possessing an incredible sound. Other early players of the time included Freddie
Keppard, Bunk Johnson, and Clarence Williams. Most of these musicians may seen unknown
to most people, their ideas are still affecting the way Jazz is being played today. Generally
these early musicians could not make very much money and were stuck working menial jobs
to make a living. The second wave of New Orleans Jazz musicians include such players as
Joe Oliver, Kid Ory, and Jelly Roll Morton. These men formed small bands and took the
music of earlier musicians, improved its complexity, and gained greater success. This music
is known as "Hot Jazz" due to the enormously fast speeds.
A young cornet player by the name of Louis Armstrong was discovered by Joe Oliver in New
Orleans. He soon grew to become one of the greatest and most successful musicians of all
time, and later one of the biggest stars in the world. The impact of Armstrong and other early
Jazz musicians changed the way we look at music, and their work will forever be studied and


Piano ragtime began to be published in the late 1890s. It was immediately successful and
subjected to various kinds of popularization, almost all of which have continued. It was (and
is) sometimes played fast and shallow, with deliberately still rhythms, on a jangling prepared
piano -- so much so that it is difficult to convince some listeners that the early ragtime
composers were highly gifted melodists and serious craftsmen who produced an admirable
body of musical art.
Ragtime was basically a piano keyboard music that Gilbert Thomas said was an
"Afro- American version of the Polka." Somewhere in the background of the music is the
Sousa style march, thus the first great ragtime composition, Maple Leaf Rag, by the first great
ragtime composer, Scott Joplin, was built on four melodies, or themes. If we assign a letter to
each theme, the structure of Maple Leaf Rag comes out to ABACD. In ragtime, these themes
were sixteen measures like their European counterparts.
There is every reason to believe that a rich body of Afro-American inspired music preceded
ragtime, although there are no recordings from those years. Certainly the cakewalk, an Afro-
American dance initially based on an elegant, stylized parody of Southern white courtly
manners, preceded it, and there was published cakewalk music, although publishers in those

days were not quite sure how to indicate its rhythms properly. But ragtime introduced, in the
accents of its right-hand melodies, delightful syncopation onto the heavy 2/4 oompah rhythm
of its cakewalk-derived bass line and almost immediately became a kind of national, even
worldwide craze.
The first true ragtime composition was published by William Krell called "The Mississippi
Rag" in 1897. Tom
Turpin, the first published
African American composer
wrote "The Harlem
Rag" the same year. Over
the cores of Ragtime’s
initial popularity, a number
of composers merged as
the voice of this musical
form, namely James
Scott, Louis Chauvin,
Joseph Lamb and Scott
Little is known of the early
development of Ragtime,
however it is clear that it
surfaced after years of
evolution in the latter part
of the nineteenth century.
Billy Strayhorn, Paris (1960)
Ragtime has been traced to minstrel shows and cakewalks as early as 1895. The cakewalk,
originated in the Caribbean’s, arrived in the United States as a syncopated music form based
on a march, the polka and a two-step. Once Ragtime emerged as a unquiet musical form, it
became a strong base for the music that lay ahead of it, jazz.
By the early 1900s, Ragtime was no longer being performed by a solo pianist. Small
orchestras, military bands and piano-banjo combos were among the earliest recordings of
Ragtime, which added elements that alluded to popular dance bands of the Dixieland, New
Orleans and Swing styles yet to be developed. An individual musical voice was being
established in America, it was an exciting era of development and change.


Because the Dixieland revival (one could say fad) of the 1950s was eventually overrun by
amateurs, corny trappings (such as straw hats and suspenders), and clichés, many musicians
playing in that idiom grew to dislike the term and wanted it to be changed to "traditional" or
"classic." But rather than blame the term or the style, it seems more justifiable to separate the
professionals from the poor imitators.
Dixieland, a style that overlaps with New Orleans jazz and classic jazz, has also been called
"Chicago jazz" because it developed, to an extent, in Chicago in the 1920s. Most typically,
the framework involves collective improvisation during the first chorus (or, when there are
several themes, for several choruses), individual solos with some riffing by the other horns,
and a closing ensemble or two with a four-bar tag by the drummer (which is answered by the
full group).
Although nearly any song can be turned into Dixieland, there is a consistent repertoire of 40
or so songs that have proven to be reliable. Despite its decline in popularity since the 1950s,
Dixieland (along with the related classic jazz and New Orleans jazz idioms) continues to
flourish as an underground music style.
Dixieland is an umbrella to indicate musical styles of the earliest New Orleans and Chicago
jazz musicians, recorded from 1917 to 1923, as well as its developments and revivals,
beginning during the late 1930s. It refers to collectively improvised small band music. Its
materials are rags, blues, one-steps, two-steps, marches, and pop tunes. Simultaneous
counterlines are supplied by trumpet, clarinet, and trombone, accompanied by combinations
of piano, guitar, banjo, tuba, bass, and drums. Major exponents include; Joe King Oliver,
Jelly Roll Morton, Louis Armstrong, Sidney Bechet, Kid Ory, Johnny Dodds, Paul Mares,
Nick LaRocca, Bix Beiderbecke, and Jimmy McPartland.
Major developers and revivalists include Bob Crosby's Bobcats, Lu Watters Yerba Buena
Jazz Band, Bob Scobey, Bob Wilber, Yank Lawson and Bob Haggart (World's Greatest Jazz
Band), The Dukes of Dixieland, Turk Murphy, and James Dapogny's Chicago Jazz Band.
Aficionados make distinctions between various streams of traditional New Orleans jazz, the
earliest Chicago jazz, and the assorted variations that are performed by revivalist bands.
Some historians reserve Dixieland for white groups playing traditional jazz. Some restrict it
mostly to disciples of the earliest white Chicagoans.

Early New Orleans Dixieland (1900-1917)

The earliest style of jazz, the music played in New Orleans from about the time that Buddy
Bolden formed his first band in 1895 until Storyville was closed in 1917, unfortunately went
totally unrecorded. However with the success of the Original Dixieland Jazz Band in 1917
and the many performances documented in the 1920s, it became possible to hear what this
music sounded like in later years.

Ensemble-oriented with fairly strict roles for each instrument, New Orleans Jazz generally
features a trumpet or cornet providing a melodic lead, harmonies from the trombone,
countermelodies by the clarinet, and a steady rhythm stated by the rhythm section (which
usually consists of piano, banjo or guitar, tuba, or bass and drums).

This music is a direct descendant of marching brass bands and, although overlapping with
Dixieland, tends to de-emphasize solos in favor of ensembles featuring everyone playing and
improvising together. Due to its fairly basic harmonies and the pure joy of the ensembles, it is
consistently the happiest and most accessible style of jazz.

As rural music moved to the city and adopted new instruments, the polyphony typical of the
African- American singing tradition found an expression in the style now identified as Early
New Orleans Dixieland. It differed from the later Chicago Dixieland and the even later
revival Dixieland in its instrumentation and rhythmic feeling. These first groups used a front
line of a cornet, clarinet, and a trombone. The rhythm section was made up of banjo, tuba,
and drums. The origin of these instruments was in the marching bands reflected the need to
move while playing.

The rhythm section accompanied the front line on a flat-four fashion, a rhythmic feeling that
placed equal emphasis on all four beats of the measure. This equal or flat metric feel was later

replaced by Chicago groups with a measure that emphasized the second and fourth beats and
was referred to as 2/4 time (accents on 2 and 4).

Chicago Style Dixieland (The 1920s)

The merger of New Orleans Style Dixieland with ragtime style led to what is now referred to
as Chicago Style Dixieland. This style exemplified the Roaring Twenties, or to quote F. Scott
Fitzgerald, "the jazz age." Chicago was exciting at this time and so was its music. In 1917
with the closing of Storyville in New Orleans, Chicago became the center of jazz activity.
Many workers from the south
migrated to Chicago and brought
with them a continued interest in
the type of entertainment they
had left behind. The New
Orleans instrumentation was
augmented to include a saxophone
and piano and the influence of
ragtime added 2/4 backbeat to the
rhythmic feeling. The banjo
moved to guitar and the tuba
moved to string bass. The
tempos were generally less relaxed
than New Orleans Dixieland,
and the music seemed more
aggressively performed. There was
jazz activity in other cities as well,
mainly New York and Kansas City.
These centers would later claim
center stage as they moved toward a
definition of swing, but during the
1920’s Chicago remained the
hub of jazz. During this time in
Chicago, Louis Armstrong’s

Louis Armstrong

influence as a soloist was influencing the fabric of otherwise democratic ensemble. His
individual style started the trend toward the soloist being the primary spokesperson for jazz.

2. 1920s-1930s: Boogie-Woogie, Swing, Scat

Boogie Woogie, or "barrelhouse" is a blues-based piano style in which the right hand plays an
accompaniment figure that resembles a strummed rhythm, such as is typically played on the
guitar or banjo in rural blues dances.
This could be expressed as a walking octave, an open-fifth pounded out with a blue third
thrown in, or even a simple figure such as falling triad (as in the work of Jimmy Yancey); the
approach varies to the pianist. The style probably evolved in the American Midwest alongside
that of ragtime, to which it is closely related.
The earliest description of the style occurs in print circa 1880. Elements of boogie-woogie
can be found prior to 1910 in piano works by such disparate figures such as Blind Boone,
Luckey Roberts and the classical composer Charles Ives. The earliest recorded examples of
boogie woogie are found on piano rolls made in 1922 by Cow Cow Davenport, and by the
end of the 1920s dozens of boogie woogie pianists had recorded ranging geographically from
Texas to Chicago.
Boogie-woogie practically disappeared from records during the depression. However, it
returned with a vengeance
in the late '30s, popularized
by a smart Deane Kincaide
arrangement for Tommy
Dorsey’s band of the 1929
composition "Boogie
Woogie" written by
Clarence "Pine Top" Smith,
a Chicago pianist who is
also credited with coining
the term. Boogie-woogie
enjoyed its heyday in the
early '40s, and as a result,
one-time Chicago
barrelhouse pianists such as
Albert Ammons, Meade
Lux Lewis and Pete
Johnson found themselves
feted as celebrities in New
York’s exclusive café
society circles.
Nat King Cole, NYC [Quartet] 1949

After the Second World War interest in the style subsided, but elements of the sound were
absorbed into the playing of early rock & roll artists such as Little Richard and Jerry Lee
Lewis. It also remains an important component to New Orleans pop music, as in the work of
Professor Longhair and Dr. John. Among living pianists working in nightclubs and cocktail
bars, it can be said that boogie-woogie has never truly lost its popularity even today.
During the 1930s, the strict blues form was being used more in jazz recordings as the tempos
were speeding up. In the years just before 1940, the primitive blues form of boogie woogie
became a popular fad. Music historians have credited Meade Lux Lewis for the boogie
woogie craze. All during the 40s boogie influenced a number of arrangements within the big
bands. The swing bands found great success when they added the element of boogie, such as
the case of Will Bradley’s "Beat Me Daddy, Eight To The Bar," and Tommy Dorsey’s
"Boogie Woogie."
Of the boogie woogie players who came to promeinence during the boogie fad; seven stand
out as the major contributors and influences: Pine Top Smith, Albert Ammons, Jimmy
Yancey, Joe Sullivan, Clarence Lofton, Pete Johnson and Meade Lux Lewis. In later years
Freddie Slack, Cleo Brown and Bob Zurke came to promidence as the younger generation of
boogie woogie players.
The blues based boogie would later merge with the stride style to became the main line of
development of jazz piano playing, a form that would lead to a major movement in jazz, led
by the "Fatha," Earl Hines.


While New Orleans jazz has improvised ensembles, when jazz started becoming popular in
the 1920s and demand was growing for larger dance bands, it became necessary for
ensembles to be written down, particularly when a group included more than three or four
Although swing largely began when Louis Armstrong joined Fletcher Henderson's Orchestra
in 1924 and Don Redman began writing arrangements for the band that echoed the cornetist's
relaxed phrases, the swing era officially
started in 1935 when Benny
Goodman's Orchestra caught
Swing was a major force in American
popular music until the big-band era
largely ended in 1946. Swing differs
from New Orleans jazz and
Dixieland in that the ensembles
(even for small groups) are simpler
and generally filled with repetitious
riffs, while in contrast the solos are
more sophisticated. Individual
improvisations still paid close
attention to the melody but due
to the advance in musicianship, the
solo flights were more adventurous.
The swing-oriented musicians who
continued performing in the
Billie Holiday, NYC [Angel with Smoke] (1949)

style after the end of the big band era (along with later generations who adopted this
approach) were also playing "mainstream."
The many stars of swing during the big-band era included trumpeters Louis Armstrong,
Bunny Berigan, Harry James, and Roy Eldridge; trombonists Tommy Dorsey and Jack
Teagarden; clarinetists Benny Goodman and Artie Shaw; tenor saxophonists Coleman
Hawkins, Lester Young, and Ben Webster; altoists Johnny Hodges and Benny Carter; pianists
Teddy Wilson, Art Tatum, Earl Hines, Count Basie, and Nat King Cole; guitarist Charlie
Christian; drummers Gene Krupa and Chick Webb; vibraphonist Lionel Hampton; bandleader
Glenn Miller; and singers Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, and Jimmy Rushing..
Most swing-style groups had at least 10 musicians and featured at least three or four
saxophones, two or three trumpets, two or three trombones, piano, guitar, bass violin, and
drums. Guitarists, bassists and drummers offered repeating rhythms that were sufficiently
simple, buoyant, and lilting to inspire social dancers, the style's largest audience. Musicians
strove for large, rich tone qualities on their instruments. Solo improvisers did not seek
intricacy in their lines so much as lyricism and a hot, confident feeling that was rhythmically
compelling. For these reasons, the musical period of the 1930s and 1940s has been called the
swing era and big-band era. Not all dance music played by big bands of the 1930s and 1940s
was jazz. A large segment of the public, however considered almost any lively, syncopated
popular music to be jazz.
Journalists and jazz fans drew distinctions between bands that conveyed the most hard-
driving rhythmic qualities and extensive solo improvisations and those that conveyed less
swing feeling and improvisation. The former were called swing bands or hot bands (for
example, the bands of Count Basie, Jimmie Lunceford, Andy Kirk and Duke Ellington).
The latter were called sweet bands (for example the bands of Glenn Miller, Wayne King,
Freddy Martin, and Guy Lombardo). Many listeners, however, did not make such
distinctions. They considered all the big dance bands to be swing bands. This is not surprising
because all the bands (even Guy Lombardo's) did play some jazz and even the honest of
swing bands (like Duke Ellington's) featured some sweet numbers.
Conversely, some of the biggest hits by Glenn Miller's sweet band contained brief jazz
improvisations and conveyed quite danceable swing feeling. An instructive illustration for
this confusion regards Tommy Dorsey's immensely popular bands of the 1940s. The groups
had first-rate jazz oriented accompanists, swinging arrangements, and a number of top-notch
jazz improvisers. Yet huge portions of their repertory were composed of ballads and vocal
features. Therefore, though jazz historians don't usually give Dorsey's bands much attention,
jazz musicians generally confer high respect upon them.


"Anyone who attempts to sing extemporaneously, that is scat, will tell you that the hardest
aspect of that kind of singing is to stay in tune. You are wondering all over the scales, the
notes coming out of your mouth a millisecond after you think of them." ---Mel Torme.
Scat is the art of creating an instrumental-style improvisation vocally. This requires a
vocabulary of vowels and consonants related less to identifiable words and more to the tone
and articulation of jazz instrumentalists such as in the trumpet-like "Oop-Pop-a-Da" by Babs
Gonzales or Sarah Vaughan's saxophonic "Shulie-abop." first done on records by Louis
Scat is most closely associated by the general public with Ella Fitzgerald and her many
imitators. Brought to an early peak of perfection by Leo Watson who, by introducing
occasional real words inspired the development of a vocal-orchestra.

Louis Armstrong’s improvisational approach to written lyrics, mixing, jumbling, and
reinventing the words along expressive musical lines, echoed new directions in jazz. As early
as 1926, Armstrong dropped the lyrics to "The Hebbie Jeebies" and spontaneously substituted
scatting for the words. The technique was copied so often that an actual jazz form develpoed.
Paul Whiteman’s Rhythm Boys, featuring Bing Crosby, were thought to be the first white
group to use the scat style. Whiteman’s national radio programs promoted scat, however, it
wasn’t until Ella Fitzgerald adopted the styles that scat became a house-hold word.
Ella seemed to add dazzle to scatting and clearly defined it as a vocal improvisation using
phonetic sounds similar to the instrumental sounds of jazz. To paraphrase a popular song, if
Louis named scat, Ella claimed it! With her recording of "Flying Home" (thought to be her
first scat based song, released in
1947) she introduced variations
of scat which showcased a segment
of songs made famous by other
performers. These sampling,
variations included the works
of Lionel Hampton, Chick
Webb, Slam Stewart and Dizzy
Gillespie. In fact the recording also
showed that Ella was already educated
on the fast emerging bebop

Other singers added to the early

ideas of scat including Fletcher
Henderson’s Orchestra. During
the bebop era, Sarah Vaughan was
able to vocalize much of the notes
that Charlie Parker was playing.
Vaughan was also key in bringing
jazz, and scat into the American
home, with a number of radio and
TV programs beginning in the late
1960s. In more recent years, Mel

Sarah Vaughan, NYC [Singing in Black Dress] (1949)

Torme gained fame as a scat singer, again keeping the style alive, thanks to his recordings
and world tours. Today scat has scaled new heights of virtuosity with such performers as
Bobby McFerrin, who was even able to put a few scat songs on the Top 40 Charts during the
late 1980s and early 90s.

3. 1940s-1950s: BeBop, Cool, Free Jazz


Also known as Bop, BeBop was a radical new music that developed gradually in the early
'40s and exploded in 1945. The main difference between bop and swing is that the soloists
engaged in chordal (rather than melodic) improvisation, often discarding the melody
altogether after the first chorus and using the chords as the basis for the solo.
Ensembles tended to be unisons, most jazz groups were under seven pieces, and the soloist
was free to get as adventurous as possible as long as the overall improvisation fit into the
chord structure. Since the virtuoso musicians were getting away from using the melodies as
the basis for their solos (leading some listeners to ask "Where's the melody?") and some of
the tempos were very fast, bop divorced itself from popular music and a dancing audience,
uplifting jazz to an art music but cutting deeply into its potential commercial success.
Ironically the once-radical bebop style has become the foundation for all of the innovations
that followed and now can be almost thought of as establishment music. Among its key
innovators were altoist Charlie Parker, trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie, pianist Bud Powell,
drummer Max Roach, and pianist/composer Thelonious Monk.
Although the swing style may have
launched the art status of jazz by
placing it in the ears and the minds of
the world, it was its successor, bop,
which claimed mainstream status.
More significant changes, both
musical and nonmusical, occurred
in jazz with the advent of bop than at
any other time in jazz history. The
military service draft of World War
II brought about the dissolution of the
big bands and the rise of small
combos. The country was nervous,
and the music was nervous and
agitated. Because many well-
known players were in the military,
new, young players and their
ideas were able to get exposure.
There were considerable changes
in techniques and attitudes toward
performances. There also were
changes of attitude toward
audiences. Bop became the first jazz
Dexter Gordon, NYC (1948)
style that was not used for dancing. Consequently, there were great changes in the repertoire.
There was also a shift away from the popularity that swing enjoyed to a more elite listening
audience. The elitism also expanded to the players. If you were an accomplished swing
player, there was no guarantee that you would be able to survive the expectations of the bop
musical world. The music’s complexity required players to extend their former playing
knowledge. A theoretical underpinning began to emerge as players stretched the harmonic
boundaries of early jazz styles. Players had to have a greater and more immediate sense of
chord recognition, as well as their extensions and possible substitutions. The music was
generally fast, demanding execution on individual instruments seldom required by previous
styles. It is interesting that bop is today considered the mainstream of jazz style, yet it was not
enthusiastically accepted by the jazz community at the time of its emergence.

BeBop Era

The BeBop era, 1944-1955, represents for many the most significant period in jazz history;
several consider it the time when musicians began stressing artistic rather than commercial
concerns, put innovation ahead of convention, and looked toward the future instead of paying
homage to the past.
Others view bebop as jazz's ultimate dead end, the style that instituted solemnity and elitism
among the fraternity stripped jazz of its connection with dance, and made it im- possible for
anyone except hard-core collectors, academics, and other musicians to enjoy and appreciate
the music. Each assessment contains enough grains of truth to merit closer, more extensive
examination, and there have been many studies, dissertations and essays, devoted to
addressing and evaluating these contentions. But it's undeniable jazz changed forever during
the bebop years. This chapter looks at the musicians who made these sweeping changes and
what they were.


Cool jazz followed bop but was entirely different in mood, in its approach to arranging, and
even in its choices of instruments. World War II was over-the country was relaxed and jazz
In this era, which began in 1947, many instruments were used in jazz for the first time.
Softer-sounding instruments, unamplified, created a different mood from that expressed
earlier. The G.I. Bill made schooling possible for many jazz players, which encouraged
experimentation in jazz that had been previously ignored: new meters, longer forms, and
explorations in orchestration. Longer forms were also made possibly by the introduction of
long-playing records.
Although Lester Young came primarily out of the swing style and Miles Davis out of the bop
style, they are two of the players associated with the development of the cool style. Young’s
contribution was the relaxed sound and style of his playing. Davis’s work with Gil Evans that
led to the recording of the "Birth of the Cool" signaled the beginning of that period. Although
these first recordings appeared in New York, many of he later cool groups worked out of Los
Angeles and were former members of the Stan Kenton band. Players like Gerry Mulligan,
Shelly Manne, and Stan Getz were often associated with this "West Coast" style. Listen to
Young’s style on "Lester Leaps In" and Davis’s "Boplicity" to hear examples of the cool
sound. Also listen to Miles Davis on "Summertime" to hear sonorous sounds typical of Gil
Evans’s arrangements.

The cool sound was exemplified by players like Paul Desmond on alto saxophone, Chet
Baker on trumpet, and George Shearing on piano. These players all typified the relaxed sound
and manner of performance associated with cool.
Cool Jazz evolved directly from bop in the late '40s and '50s. Essentially, it was a mixture of
bop with certain aspects of swing that had been overlooked or temporarily discarded.
Dissonances were smoothed out, tones were softened, arrangements became important again,
and the rhythm section's accents were less jarring.
Because some of the key pacesetters of the style many of whom were studio musicians were
centered in Los Angeles, it was nicknamed "West Coast jazz." Some of the recordings were
experimental in nature hinting at classical music and some overarranged sessions were bland,
but in general this was a viable and popular style.
By the late '50s, hard bop from the East Coast had succeeded cool jazz, although many of the
style's top players
had long and productive careers. Among the many top artists who were important in the
development of cool jazz were Lester Young, Miles Davis, Gerry Mulligan, Stan Getz,
Shorty Rogers, and Howard Rumsey leader of the Lighthouse All-Stars.

Free Jazz
Free jazz is one name for the music of Ornette Coleman, Cecil Taylor, Albert Ayler, and
their colleagues and disciples. Though Coleman and Taylor had recorded before the '60s, the
free jazz term was not common until then. The free designation derives from Coleman's
decision to offer performances that were not always organized according to preset melody,
tempo, or progression of accompaniment chords. Freedom from these guidelines allows
improvisers a greater degree of spontaneity than was available in previous jazz styles.
Though nonmusicians find much of Coleman's music indistinguishable from bebop,
musicians make distinctions according to the methods used (lack of preset chords) and the
melodic vocabulary (original not bebop-derived). Much of Cecil Taylor's music is extremely
active. It is densely packed with rapidly shifting layers of complex harmonies and rhythms.
And some recordings of Albert Ayler, Pharoah Sanders, and Ornette Coleman include loud
screeches and shrieks from trumpets and saxophones, combined with nonrepetitive, highly
complex sounds from basses and drums. For these reasons, some listeners equate the term
"free jazz" with high-energy, seemingly chaotic group improvisations, even though freedom
from adhering to preset chord progressions does not necessitate high "energy" playing or any
particular tone qualities or ways of organizing tones for melodic lines. For example, some of
John Coltrane's music of the middle 1960s is often classified with "free" jazz, probably
because of its collectively improvised turbulence, despite its using preset arrangements of the
harmonies guiding the improvisers.

4. 1960s-1970s: Bossa Nova, Jazz/Rock Fusion, Soul Jazz

Bossa Nova

Bossa Nova is a style of Brazilian popular song that was most successful in the early 1960s.
Strangely cool by comparison with other exportable by the harmonic language of West Coast
Jazz, it soon acquired a permanent place in international middle of the road music.
It has also repaid its debt to the West Coast by entering the repertoire of all easy listening jazz
players everywhere. The performers who played Bossa Nova gained almost a cult following
in the decades that followed, thanks in large part to Jazz Festivals.
Influenced by West coast jazz, in the 1950s composer Antonio Carlos Jobim helped to form
Bossa Nova, a new music that blended together gentle Brazilian rhythms and melodies with
cool-toned improvising; the
rhythms are usually played
lightly as 3-3-4- 3-3 with beats 1, 4,
7, 11, and 14 being accented
during every two-bars (played in
8/4 time).
Joao Gilberto's soothing voice
perfectly communicated the
beauty of Jobim's music. The
late '50s film Black Orpheus
helped introduce Jobim's
compositions to an American
audience. Other important early
exponents of bossa nova were
guitarist Charlie Byrd, tenor
saxophonist Stan Getz (Byrd and Getz
teamed up for the highly
influential Jazz/Samba), and
housewife- turned-singer Astrud
Gilberto -- who, along with her husband (Joao) and Getz, made "The Girl From Ipanema" a
huge hit. The very appealing bossa nova's popularity peaked in the mid-'60s, but it has
remained a viable music style.

Jazz/Rock Fusion

The word Fusion has been so liberally used since the late '60s that it's become almost
meaningless. Fusion's original definition was best: a mixture of jazz improvisation with the
power and rhythms of rock. Up until around 1967, the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly
completely separate. But as rock became more creative and its musicianship improved, and as
some in the jazz world became bored with hard bop and did not want to play strictly avant-
garde music, the two different idioms began to trade ideas and occasionally combine forces.
By the early '70s, fusion had its own separate identity as a creative jazz style (although
snubbed by many purists) and such major groups as Return to Forever, Weather Report, the
Mahavishnu Orchestra, and Miles Davis' various bands were playing high-quality fusion that
mixed some of the best qualities of jazz and rock. Unfortunately, as it became a money-maker
and as rock declined artistically from the mid-'70s on, much of what was labeled fusion was
actually a combination of jazz with easy-listening pop music and lightweight R&B. The
promise of fusion went unfulfilled to an extent, although it continued to exist in groups such
as Tribal Tech and Chick Corea's Elektric Band.
As jazz developed its cannon and rock and roll filled its role as America’s popular music, a
new crossover began between the two musical styles. This musical crossover eventually
became known as fusion in the jazz community beginning around 1965. Jazz began to import
rock’s instruments, volume, and stylistic delivery.
Like bop, fusion did not occur without controversy. As jazz was establishing its legitimacy, it
was taking a risk by fusing with rock. Rock also represented a generational division in the
American profile. It accompanied the emergence of the post- World War II baby boom to
adolescence. It was the first associated exclusively with the young generation and worked as a
banner distinction.
Its further
with the social and
political polarity of
the 1960s tended
to reinforce the
lines. Jazz
criticism at that time
was founded in
the swing and,
to a lesser extent,
the bop traditions.
Rock fusion
represented a

Miles Davis

commercialization of an emerging American art form. As the popularity of rock was carried
by the baby boom into the adult listening market, its possible fusion seemed guaranteed.
The earliest notable fusion experiments happened again under the guidance of Miles Davis in
his albums In a Silent Way and Bitches Brew. This later album included players who later
form the most popular fusion groups.
The most prominent later fusion groups belonged to former Davis players, John McLaughlin,
Chick Corea, Joe Zawinul, and Wayne Shorter. At the time, this style offered a new virtuosity
which, like earlier technical approaches, has become a part of common practice.

Soul Jazz

Soul Jazz came partly from the funky subcategory of hard bop. Its earthy, bluesy melodic
concept and the repetitive, dance-like rhythmic aspects stood as higher priorities than the
invention of complex harmonies and intricate solo improvisations jazz swing feeling was
foremost. Considerably simplified-often only a hint of bebop harmony or rhythmic
complexity remained--soul-jazz became the form of hard bop known to the largest audience,
particularly in the music of Jimmy Smith, Shirley Scott, Jack McDuff, Richard "Groove"
Holmes, Jimmy McGriff, Ramsey Lewis, Les McCann, Hank Crawford, Stanley Turrentine
and Houston Person. Soul Jazz combined the urban, electrified Chicago harp style with that
of California swing bands and added a touch of Philadelphia tenor sax jazz from the 1960s.
Note that some listeners make no distinction between soul-jazz, and funky hard bop, and
many musicians don't consider soul-jazz to be continuous with hard bop They consider it
more an extension of the jazz-influenced popular music called rhythm and blues (as
exemplified by Earl Bostic, King Curtis, Clifford Scott, Junior Walker, Bill Doggett). Also
remember that many bebop musicians chose to play simply and with bluesy vocabularies for
selected contexts: for
instance, Kenny
Burrell, Stanley
J.J. Johnson,
Grant Green,
David "Fathead"
Gene Ammons,
and Ray Bryant.
Their overall
output is not funky,
though a few pieces
on isolated
meet all the above
criteria for soul-
jazz. The term, Soul
Jazz, has also been
linked to the soul
singing sound that
brought Motown to
in the 1960s.
When these vocals
were added to
jazz it often took
Nina Simone

on the flavor of popular soul music and funk. Artists such as Nina Simone and Lou Rawls
added to the vocal expressions of this jazz form, which gave newer audiences an appreciation
for jazz.

Soul-Jazz, which was the most popular jazz style of the 1960s, differs from bebop and hard
bop ,from which it originally developed, in that the emphasis is on the rhythmic groove.
Although soloists follow the chords as in bop, the basslines often played by an organist if not
a string bassist dance rather than stick strictly to a four-to-the bar walking pattern.
The musicians build their accompaniment around the bassline and, although there are often
strong melodies, it is the catchiness of the groove and the amount of heat generated by the
soloists that determine whether the performance is successful. Soul-jazz's roots trace back to
pianist Horace Silver, whose funky style infused bop with the influence of church and gospel
music, along with the blues.
Other pianists who followed and used similar approaches were Bobby Timmons, Junior
Mance, Les McCann, Gene Harris with his Three Sounds, and Ramsey Lewis. With the
emergence of organist Jimmy Smith in 1956 who has dominated his instrument ever sinc),
soul-jazz organ combos usually also including a tenor, guitarist, drummer, and an occasional
bassist caught on, and soulful players became stars, including Brother Jack McDuff, Shirley
Scott, Jimmy McGriff, Charles Earland, and Richard "Groove" Holmes, along with such
other musicians as guitarists Grant Green, George Benson and Kenny Burrell; tenors Stanley
Turrentine, Willis "Gator" Jackson, Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis, David "Fathead" Newman, Gene
"Jug" Ammons, Houston Person, Jimmy Forrest, King Curtis, Red Holloway, and Eddie
Harris; and altoist Hank Crawford. Despite its eclipse by fusion and synthesizers in the 1970s,
soul-jazz has stayed alive and made a healthy comeback in recent years.

5. 1980s-2000s: Acid Jazz, World Fusion, Modern Creative

Acid Jazz

The phrase acid jazz was the first jazz term to be coined by a disc jockey rather than by a
musician. It is much more a marketing phenomenon than a coherent musical style, even more
so than tradition and as with traditional. Acid jazz is very much the commer- cialization of a
revival movement. Just like earlier revivals, it was inspired initially by listening to records
rather than to live musicians. In this case the original style is that of late-1960s' and early
1970s’ jazz-funk. The sort of music that wasn't heavy enough to be free jazz or early fusion
but was more jazz-oriented than the average soul record.
At the time, this found a ready response among black listeners and a few white aficionados.
After the usual twenty-year gap, a new generation of fans succeeded in promoting the music
to a much wider crossover audience. Most of the creative musicians who have flirted with the
acid-jazz market have found it too restricting and have moved on, exactly as with other
revivals and they have taken some of their listeners with them.
The music played by a generation raised on jazz as well as funk and hip-hop, Acid Jazz used
elements of all three. Its existence as a percussion-heavy, primarily live music placed it closer
to jazz and Afro-Cuban than any other dance style, but its insistence on keeping the groove
allied it with funk, hip-hop, and dance music.
The term itself first appeared in 1988 as both a record label and the title of a compilation
series that reissued jazz-funk music from the '70s -- often called "rare groove" during a major
mid-'80s resurgence.
A variety of acid jazz artists emerged during the late '80s and early '90s, including either
primarily live bands such as Stereo MC's, James Taylor Quartet, the Brand New Heavies,
Groove Collective, Galliano, and Jamiroquai or studio projects like Palm Skin Productions,
Mondo Grosso, Outside, and United Future Organization.

World Fusion

World fusion refers to a fusion of Third

World music or just world music with
jazz, specifically:
(1) Ethnic music that has incorporated
jazz improvisations (for example, Latin
jazz). Frequently, only the solos are
improvised jazz. The
accompaniments and compositions
are essentially the same as in the ethnic
(2) Jazz that has incorporated
limited aspects of a particular non-
Western music.

Dizzy Gillespie, NYC [Playing] (1948)

Examples include performances of Dizzy Gillespie’s "A Night in Tunisia" music on some of
the 1970s quartet recordings by Keith Jarrett's quartet and quintet on Impulse, in which
Middle Eastern instruments and harmonic methods are modified and used; and some of Sun
Ra's music from the 1950s into the l990s, in which African rhythms are incorporated; some of
Yusef Lateers recordings that feature traditional Islamic instruments and methods.
(3) New musical styles that result from distinctly original ways of combining jazz
improvisation with original ideas and the instruments, harmonies, compositional practices,
and rhythms of an existing ethnic tradition. The product is original but its flavor still reflects
some aspects of a non-jazz ethnic tradition. Examples include Don Cherry's bands; some of
John McLaughlin's music from the 1970s and the l990s that drew heavily on the traditions of
India; some of Don Ellis's music of the 1970s that drew upon the music of India and Bulgaria;
and work by Andy Narell in the 1990s that melds the music and instruments of Trinidad with
jazz improvisations and funk styles.
World fusion jazz did not first occur with modern jazz and its trends are not exclusive to
American jazz. For instance, Polynesian music was fusing with Western pop styles at the
beginning of the twentieth century, and its feeling attracted some of the earliest jazz
musicians. Caribbean dance rhythms have been a significant part of American pop culture
throughout the twentieth century, and, since jazz musicians frequently improvised when
performing in pop music contexts, blends have been occurring almost continuously. Django
Reinhardt was melding the traditions of Gyps music with French impressionist concert music
and jazz improvisation during the 1930s in France.

Modern Creative

Although partly influenced by the great improvisational masters of the past, modern creative
continues to forge ahead by combining older jazz styles such as bop, free, fusion, with newer
comtemporary musical styles such as pop music, funk, and rock to create a full body meduim
with which to present jazz in a new modern light.
Modern jazz makes great use of new
technologies in the form of modern electronic
instrumentation and recording devices/mediums
to bring compostional and improvisational forms
to a new level. Modern creative forms tend
to be softer than earlier bop derivatives while
still maintaing an edge through the incorporation of
more diverse, often ethnic, rhythmic approaches
to the music. Coming into light in the mid 80’s
and being of a predominately
improvisational nature, modern creative is
greatly a product of its environment - society.
Though the players each have unique voices,
society blends them to reflect its modern sound and
feeling. Molly Johnson

If, as many in the music industry believe, the future of jazz singing depends on finding the
perfect balance between jazz and pop, Molly Johnson seems to have been born for the job.
Sounding like Billie Holiday reborn, Canadian jazz vocalist Molly Johnson has a voice that
melts an audience in a second:warm and natural, bittersweet and earthy.
Molly Johnson has rocked standing-room only audiences in nightclubs and bars from coast-
to-coast as a pop artist, seduced the patrons of salons and lounges with her luscious
interpretations of jazz and blues standards and even regaled royalty with her unique and
charming presence.
On November 11th, 2008 Molly released her fourth full length album: LUCKY which won
the 2009 JUNO Award for Best Vocal Jazz Album. Molly also received the 2009 National
Jazz Award for Best Female Vocalist.
Another popular contemporary jazz and jazz-influenced singers of our time is Norah
Jones.Her debut album Come Away With Me was released in 2002 and sold 22 million
copies worldwide. It won 5 Grammy Awards in 2003.She doesn’t closely follow any
particular genre, rather she brings her unique jazzy flavor to songs with roots in country, folk,
Americana, and modern light jazz, pop and rock.
Also Erykah Badu is well-known for her
sophisticated style of singing , which drew
many comparisons to Billie Holiday. She
weaves unusual musical influences together
creating a rich texture of sound and crossing over
into jazz. Baduizm, Badu’s highly
acclaimed debut album, was released in early
1997 and debuted at #2 on the Billboard charts.
Lead single “ On & On” reached #12 on the
singles charts in both the U.S. and UK. Badu
received notice for her introspective lyrics and
jazzy, bass-heavy sound, and was hailed
as one of the leading lights of the burgeoning
neo soul genre. Baduizm eventually
went triple platinum and, along with “On &
On,” won Grammy Awards at the 1998
Erykah Badu
Bebel Gilberto (born Isabel Gilberto de Oliveira on May 12, 1966 in New York City) is an
American-born Grammy Award-nominated Brazilian popular singer often associated with
bossa nova. At the age of seven, Bebel made an appearance on her mother’s first solo album
Miúcha. At age nine, Bebel performed with her mother and jazz saxophonist Stan Getz at a
jazz festival in New York’s Carnegie Hall.
In 2000, Bebel’s Tanto Tempo album was released on Ziriguiboom (Crammed Discs sub-
label) and has sold over one million copies worldwide. The album was also nominated for
two Latin Grammy Awards. Her second album, Bebel Gilberto (2004), was also released to
great critical acclaim, receiving a MOBO Award in the UK and also a World Music Grammy
The daughter of celebrated crooner Nat King Cole, she was exposed to the greats of jazz, soul
and blues at an early age and began performing at the age of 11. Her debut album in 1975,
Inseparable, won her immediate praise, with the smash single This Will Be (An Everlasting
Love) (#1 R&B, #6 Pop) winning her a Grammy for Best R&B Vocal Performance, Female,

a category that had been monopolized by Aretha Franklin. She also was named the Grammys’
Best New Artist of 1975.
It was her 1991 album, Unforgettable… with Love, featuring her own arrangements of her
father’s greatest hits, that gave her the most success. Ironically, when Natalie began her
career, she was determined not to capitalize on her father’s name and wanted to forge her own
identity by going after the soul market in earnest.
For many years, she also found the prospect of recording her late father’s songs too painful
on a personal level. But Unforgettable… With Love certainly paid off. The set sold over 5
million copies in the United States alone, and won Cole several Grammy Awards, including
Album of the Year, Record of the Year, and Best Traditional Pop Vocal Performance.
The album featured a duet, the title track, with her father, created by splicing a recording of
his vocals into the track. As a single, it reached #14 on Billboard Magazine’s Hot 100 chart,
and went gold. The one sour spot in the album’s success was that it strained Natalie’s
already-tumultuous relationship with her mother, Maria, who said in interviews at the time
that she couldn’t listen to the album or attend any of her daughter’s concerts because she felt
that the music really belonged to her late husband.
Jane Monheit (born November 3, 1977) is considered to be one of the most promising
American jazz vocalists of her generation.She earned a Bachelor’s degree in music in 1999.
At the age of 20, as a senior, she won the first runner-up prize at the 1998 Thelonious Monk
Institute Vocal Competition.Jane Monheit’s voice has been compared to that of Ella
Fitzgerald, whom she lists as one of her influences.
Her recorded tracks range from jazz to MGM/RKO 1930s-1950s musicals and Brazilian
rhythms such as the song “Comecar De Novo.” Her debut album Never Never Land was
released in October 2000 and became an instant success. Her second CD album, Come Dream
With Me, was released in May 2001. Her third album In The Sun was released in October
Karrin Allyson is a Grammy-nominated jazz vocalist on Concord Records.Allyson projects
an instantly recognizable tonal personality, illuminating hidden layers of emotion within
songs that are drawn from a vast well of styles and genres—from the blues, contemporary
pop, and the Great American Songbook, to the bossa nova, chanson, and the more specialized
jazz and bebop repertoire.
One of the most appealing things about her singing is its lack of mannerism. There are no
dopey melismas, nothing of that afflicted gospel soul feel that a lot of younger singers depend
on. She doesn’t try anything foolishly acrobatic.
Yet in her way, she’s an ambitious and adventurous performer. She sometimes puts in a scat
chorus which is done almost diffidently, without showoff contours. She’ll take over a familiar
lyric and make it sound fresh by use of quiet touches—sitting back on certain beats, turning
away from a big line and highlighting a different one.
Sade (pronounced “shah-day”) is a Grammy-winning, world-famous English group, which
achieved success in the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. Their music features elements of jazz, funk,
soul and rnb. Sade was formed in 1982, when members of a Latino-soul band Pride — Sade
Adu, (real name Helen Folasade Adu - born 16 January 1959 in Ibadan, Nigeria) Stuart
Matthewman and Paul Spencer Denman — together with Paul Cook formed a splinter group
and began to write their own material. Later, in 1983, Andrew Hale joined Sade. In 1984 Paul
Cook left the band.

Her debut album, Diamond Life (with overall production by Robin Millar), went Top Ten in
the U.K. in late 1984. January 1985 saw the album released on CBS’ Portrait label and by
spring it went platinum off the strength of the Top Ten singles “Smooth Operator” and “Hang
on to Your Love.”
Her second album, Promise (November 1985), featured “Never As Good As the First Time”
and arguably her signature song, “The
Sweetest Taboo,” which stayed on the U.S.
pop charts for six months. Sade was so
popular that some radio stations reinstated the
’70s practice of playing album tracks,
adding “Is It a Crime” and “Tar Baby” to their
play lists.
In 1986, Sade won a Grammy for Best New
Artist. Sade made a great contribution to
development of modern music. They
dismantled many of the old music business ways
and quite promptly became a fully functioning
autonomous unit with a firm grip on every aspect
of the recording process.

Cassandra Wilson (born December 4, 1955) is an American jazz singer-songwriter and two-
time Grammy Award winner from Jackson, Mississippi. Two of her albums, Blue Skies
(1988) and New Moon Daughter (1996), have topped the US jazz charts, and the latter also
won her a Grammy for Best Jazz Vocal Performance in 1997. More recently, Wilson’s latest
album Loverly (2008) also won the Grammy for Best Jazz Vocal Album at the 51st Grammy
Awards in 2009.

Wilson’s repertoire includes both jazz and blues standards and renditions of pop and rock
songs. Her contralto voice has been described as bluesy and sultry, and the style of her music
ranges from swing to funk to bossa nova. Many of the songs she covers are by artists who
usually record in other genres.

Wilson counts the late Miles Davis as one of her greatest influences. In 1989 she performed
as the opening act for Davis at the JVC Jazz Festival in Chicago. In 1999 she produced
Traveling Miles as a tribute to Davis. The album developed from a series of jazz concerts that
she performed at Lincoln Center in November 1997 in Davis’ honor and includes three
selections based on Davis’ own compositions, in which Wilson adapted the original themes.


Jazz music was born out of the segregated south from a culture based on struggle and
oppression. African Americans brought with them a strong music background grounded on
feeling and emotion. As jazz grew from feelings and emotions that evolved into a culture that
became more accepting of African American’s background and struggles. The fusion of
African American music into a dominantly white society brought more struggles. However,
with that struggle came a much needed respect and admiration from society.

Jazz illustrates the wind of change in the evolution of mankind, it acted like a social
instrument which pointed out the revolutionary changes society was cast in. For example, in
the years during the war swing took off to the world. Glenn Miller, Artie Shaw, and Bob
Crosby pushed swing to new levels when they made the ultimate sacrifice, to give up their
lucrative careers in the U.S. and enlist into the military. Each joined and contributed to
military orchestras that brought swing right to the soldiers. For the first time radios were
installed into bunkers for the soldiers to hear live broadcasts.

Roosevelt believed that music could " inspire a fervor for the spiritual values in our way of
life and thus to strengthen democracy against these forces which subjugate and enthrall
mankind." Swing brought together the idea that the U.S. was the land of opportunity. Swing
gave soldiers confidence in the democracy they were fighting for.When swing fused together
with military marching bands they began to help create an image of America as culture free
of segregation and bigotry. The Office of War Information used Glenn Miller’s band as
propaganda to fight the fascist ideology in broadcasts heard all over Europe. Popular swing
music from home became inspiration to the war effort.

Some of the remaining popular musicians like Benny Goodman, Cab Calloway, Duke
Ellington, and Louis Armstrong did their part for the war effort by promoting bond rallies and
concerts at military bases and hospitals in the U.S.


Derek Bailey- Improvisation: Its Nature And Practice In Music- Da Capo


Peretti Burton - The Creation of Jazz: Music, Race, and Culture in Urban
America - University of Illinois Press-1994

Keepnews Orrin- A Pictorial History of Jazz - Hamlyn –1968

Gottlieb William- The Golden Age of Jazz - Simon and Schuster-1979