Sie sind auf Seite 1von 8

International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture

STUDY OF SKIZOFRENIA DISORDERS IN THE FIGURE


IN NOVEL BULAN NARARYA BY SINTA YUDISIA
THE RELEVANCE WITH CHARACTER EDUCATION

Amalda Alif Zabita (S.Pd)


Nurul Zuriah (Dr., M.Si)
Tri Ratna Wulandari (S.Pd)
Muhammadiyah University of Malang

Abstract:
Literary work is one of the media to see and describe a problem that
occurs like schizophrenia, not to mention the Bulan Nararya novel by Sinta
Yudisia. Schizophrenia is a psychiatric problem by showing very strong
hallucinations. The problems in this research are (1) how is the shape, cause
and cure of schizophrenic disorders experienced by the characters in Bulan
Nararya novel by Sinta Yudisia, (2) how the value of character education is
relevant in Bulan Nararya novel by Sinta Yudisia's. The method used in this
study is a qualitative descriptive method using a psychology literary approach.
The data in this study are in the form of unit stories, monologues of figures
and fragments of sentences in the dialogue of characters related to
schizophrenic disorders. The data source in this study is the Bulan Nararya
novel by Sinta Yudisia. Data analysis techniques in this study include (1) data
reduction, (2) data presentation and (3) data verification.

Key Words: schizophrenic disorders, Bulan Nararya novels, descriptive


analysis.

Introduction:
Literary works are the work of fiction from authors who produce works
with amazing imaginations. Literary works are not entirely the result of mere
imagination, but also the results of real events experienced by the author.
These events were expressly stated, some were conveyed implicitly. A
combination of imagination and the reality of life of the writer to beautify and
sharpen the story.
International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture

Selden (in Siswanto, 2008) reveals that literary works are children of the
creative life of an author in expressing the person of the author. The existence
of such things, an author in his work describes the phenomena of life that exist
so that arises conflict or inner tension.
Happiness is something that is desired by all living things, especially
humans are created perfect with reason, thoughts and feelings. Happiness
comes along with thinking about the role of humans living in the world.
Humans think that humans live in a world not determined by higher powers.
Humans have the right to determine their own life choices with
consideration of their minds, thoughts and feelings. Humans with their minds
will try to develop the potential that is often blocked by the people who reject
it. This is done by a particular community group that can be related to rules,
customs, religion and government at that time.
The problems contained in literary works are not only about social
problems, but also concerning the psychiatric problems of the author (Sukada,
2013). Indirectly the author in creating literary works also inserts the state of
his soul in every work. It cannot be denied that literary works and authors have
intimate inner relations. Inner relations which are intended here are not only
in the sense of the relationship which is the cause of the emergence of literary
works of an author, but also the relationship in the sense reflects aspects of
personality, aspects of education, social views, even philosophy of life and
religious views. These psychiatric symptoms are not directly told by the
author, but are told through the character's figures.
A literary work, a character is a very important element because it is a
person who really takes a role in a story. Although human characteristics in
literary works are imaginary, but in describing their character and soul, the
author makes humans who live in the real world as a model in their creation
(Emzir and Rohman, 2015). The presence of the characters in the story, have
and play their respective roles so as to make literature become more alive.
Through the characters, the author conveys an idea or idea that is in his mind
into a complete story form that can be understood and has meaning.
The study of the characters studied with psychological issues is one form
of study from literary psychology. Literary psychology is one branch of
literature that studies literary works with the help of psychology. In simple
terms, according to Ratna (2011) literary psychology can be interpreted as a
combination of psychological and literary disciplines. The definition of
literary psychology is the understanding of literary works by considering
psychological aspects, which reshape the mental processes of literature in
various problems that are closely related to psychiatric symptoms.
Personality is something real in an individual that leads to behavioral
characteristics (Hidayat, 2011). Humans normally have a personality inside
themselves consciously. With that personality, humans are able to form
International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture

distinctive characters that distinguish them from other humans, especially


when socializing with others (Wiramihardja, 2007). Likewise with the
characters in a literary work who have a very important role. In this study,
researchers will discuss schizophrenic disorders that occur in characters in the
Bulan Nararya novel.
Literally, Schizophrenia means split mind. This disease is a group of
disorders characterized by delusions, hallucinations, speech disorder, and
decreased or deterioration of adaptive behavior abilities. There are many
symptoms that accompany this disease. Schizophrenia is a complex mental
disorder that makes it difficult for people to distinguish reality and illusion,
cannot think logically, is unable to control emotions and has difficulty
interacting with others. People with schizophrenia can hear voices that others
don't hear or they can believe that other people read their minds, control their
thoughts or plan to hurt them. These experiences are terrible and can cause
extreme fear, addiction or anger. People with schizophrenia can speak
unreasonably, can sit for hours without moving or talking much, or can look
fine until they say what they really think.
Schizophrenia has always been an interesting disorder to review, there
are increasingly obvious indications that Schizophrenia is a disorder that
occurs in brain function. Disorders of thinking, irrational thinking are real
symptoms of people with schizophrenia. Failure to think leads to the problem
of people with schizophrenia who are unable to process and regulate their
minds (Sadock, 2003: 152). Most sufferers are unable to understand the
relationship between reality and logic. The second symptom is deterioration,
which is a setback in terms of the quality of a person's routine functions in
work, social relationships, and attention to oneself, including lack of attention
to his health.
The general symptom is hallucinations, hearing something that actually
doesn't have a sound in reality (Davison, 2006). Often they say that they hear
the real voice no one is talking to them. The voices they heard were usually
negative about them.
Researchers feel it is very necessary for the public to know that someone
with schizophrenia is generally a patient who shows flat emotions, giving only
a slight emotional response to something. In addition, they can also show
inappropriate emotional responses, so that they do not connect with the
situation or what they say.
This Bulan Nararya novel invites the reader to understand one's psyche
through problems in the character. The conflicts in the novel always give the
reader their own attraction. In the of the novel Bulan Nararya the author is
able to raise a person's psychological conflicts very unique. The uniqueness is
in the form of a person's psychological problems which is a reflection of the
real world, namely schizophrenia.
International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture

Trauma from things that are not liked will certainly have a negative
impact on someone. A person with schizophrenic disorder is usually born
because he experiences a dark past, both in the form of violence, the treatment
of people around him who is uncomfortable and conditions that he does not
like.
In addition, this novel tries to provide an understanding to the reader that
healing by pharmacological methods is not the only way in the healing phase
of someone with schizophrenic disorder. Another healing method that is trying
to be applied is the transpersonal method. The transpersonal method aims at
the client not to depend on drugs which will certainly have side effects if taken
regularly. The workings of the transpersonal method actually require the
patient's family to grow. Familiarize patients to live within the scope of society
and restore the patient's personality as before.
According to the Ministry of National Education (2010) character
education is interpreted as education that develops and characterizes the
students so that they have values and character as their character, apply those
values in their lives, as members of society, and citizens who are religious,
nationalist productive and creative. Meanwhile, according to Koesoema
character education is basic values that must be lived out if a society wants to
live and work together peacefully. Values such as wisdom, respect for others,
personal responsibility, shared feelings, misery, peaceful conflict resolution
are values that should be prioritized in character education (2007).
According to the Ministry of National Education (2010) the function of
character education is development: developing potential students to become
well-behaved individuals. This is for students who have attitudes and
behaviors that reflect the culture and character of the nation. Furthermore, as
a fix, strengthening the national education gait to be responsible for
developing the potential of more dignified students. The last is a filter, this is
to filter out the culture of one's own nation and other national cultures that are
not in accordance with cultural values and dignified national character.
The aim of character education is to develop the
heart/conscience/affective potential of students as human beings and citizens
who have cultural values and national character. Another goal is to develop
the habits and behavior of students who are commendable and in line with
universal values and religious cultural traditions. Next is to instill leadership
and responsibility of students as the next generation of the nation. In addition,
another goal of character education is to develop the ability of students to be
human beings who are independent, creative, nationally-minded. The final
goal of character education is nothing but developing a school life
environment as a safe, honest learning environment, full of creativity and
friendship, as well as a high and full sense of nationalism (Ibid, 2010).
International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture

According to the Ministry of National Education (2010) values


developed in cultural education and national character are identified from
religious sources, Pancasila, culture and national education goals. Based on
the four sources of values, identified a number of values for cultural education
and national character among are religious, honest, tolerance, responsibility,
caring for the environment and social care.
This study uses a literary psychology approach because this study deals
with the study of psychology in literature. The method used in this study is a
qualitative descriptive method. Qualitative descriptive methods are used to
describe and interpret written data in the form of a unit of story that is
manifested in monologue and dialogue figures, all of which are contained in
data sources, so this research is not in the form of numbers but a description
of language. The data obtained in this study is the unit of story contained in
the novel Bulan Nararya by Sinta Yudisia relating to the shape, causes,
healing of schizophrenic disorders and their relevance to the value of character
education. The steps of data analysis include: (1) critically reading Sinta
Yudisia's novel Bulan Nararya, (2) data collection, (3) data presentation, (4)
data reduction, (5) data interpretation, and finally (6) withdrawal conclusion.

Main Text:
In this chapter we will explain some data relating to the shape, causes,
healing of schizophrenic disorders in the Bulan Nararya novel and their
relevance to the value of education. the four problems that are the result of the
theme are described along with excerpts from the Bulan Nararya novel so that
the findings of the research findings can be shown.
"Raised by a poor and like grandmother who gave a slice of rattan,
an angry mother and a drunken father; I can hardly believe a
smoker who likes to mate with couples and heavy drinkers is still
able to meet, producing biological offspring! Sania curses his
parents, who are on the basis of what promises to bind themselves
in a silly marriage relationship”.
The author of the above quote wants to describe how bleak Sania's past
life was. In childhood Sania often got unpleasant treatment. Always ignored
and never get attention. Sania's parents who could not take care of a child
properly eventually caused Sania to lack compassion. All of these factors
eventually made Sania a schizophrenic disorder patient. Some theories related
to schizophrenic disorders reveal that trauma in childhood can make the
person experience schizophrenia. The violence that Sania obtained from her
grandmother eventually made Sania traumatized and suffered from
schizophrenia.
"He is a prisoner who was arrested on charges of prosecution. The
exact story is that not many know. Later it was realized that
International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture

detention centers not only produced recidivism, but also increased


the prevalence of patients with mental disorders. Isolated,
excluded, deprived of the bond of affection, lack of nutritional
intake, lack of additional knowledge, make the ability of the mind
drop dramatically"
In the above quotation the author explains the past life of Pak Bulan. Pak
Bulan had been held at a penitentiary for theft. The accusation was not based
on strong evidence that made Pak Bulan experience such a strong internal
conflict. Based on the theory related to the causes of schizophrenia disorders,
it is explained that the inner conflict experienced by a person continuously can
make the person experience psychiatric disorders. In addition to the inner
conflicts experienced by Pak Bulan, the feeling of isolation, exclusion and loss
of compassion exacerbated the psychological state of Pak Bulan.
"Yudistira always gets a defense and protection, as well as
oppression. Never had a voice, never had a chance. Marriage with
Diana which also led to happiness, made the introverted Yudistira
increasingly lose control"
This quote describes the state of Yudhistira in the past. In the past
Yudhistira was accustomed to the treatment which made her always in a safe
and protected situation. A sense of security and protection is actually good in
psychological development. But in this case the sense of security and
protection became a bad thing that Yudhistira got. A sense of security and
always being defended made Yudhistira unable to do everything according to
her will. Everything is limited and regulated by his family. This situation was
exacerbated by the poor quality of his marriage to Diana. This is the reason he
has schizophrenia. Always depressed and oppressed makes his psychological
condition vulnerable and fragile.
"Insane old men who often accompany people with unnatural
chatter"
The author of this quote describes the figure of the Pak Bulan in
Nararya's eyes. Nararya always sees Pak Bulan with people always behaving
abnormally both in terms of attitude and speech. This behavioral disorder
shows that Pak Bulan has schizophrenia in disorganized forms. Schizophrenia
disorders in this form usually show chaotic conversations from the patient. In
addition, schizophrenic patients in this form usually also exhibit chaotic
behavior and flat affect.
"Not talking, as usual. His face tightened stiffly with his eyes
sliding down, not wanting to stare at the other person at all. He
took out spray disinfectants and tissues. I opened my hands,
preparing to receive the ritual of purification”
In the quotation above, it describes Yudhistira's behavior towards those
around him. Yudhistira is a person who doesn't talk much. After experiencing
International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture

schizophrenia, he could only quietly pay attention to his interlocutor. Every


now and then he cleans the hands of his interlocutor to just remind him that he
cares about that person. Yudhistira's pattern of behavior in this quote shows
that she had a schizophrenic disorder in an undifferentiated form.
Schizophrenic patients in this form are usually characterized by complicated
indications in themselves. In addition, patients with this form of disorder
usually experience enormous delusions and irregularities.
"If a travel companion doesn't understand, their nerves are more
fragile, cracked and completely destroyed. Can Diana? Can Pak
Robin and Pak Bulan? Can the people around Yudhis and Sania
understand, help them remain intact as humans?"
The above quote illustrates Nararya's belief in the healing process of
schizophrenic patients. Nararya believes that returning a patient to a previous
life can make the patient heal permanently. This leads to the transpersonal
theory of healing schizophrenia disorders. This theory believes that not
considering patients as different from other normal people can provide
psychological comfort. In short, this theory aims to humanize humans.
Restoring the dignity of humanity that has been lost to be present again in the
patient.
"I won the book. At the door, Yudistira held my steps. He likes to
touch my elbows if he wants to communicate. A way that made
me realize, behind its severe hallucinations, he still tried to respect
women"
In this quote the author describes the figure of Yudhistira who always
respects the other person, especially women. In an abnormal psychological
state Yudhistira always tries not to hurt the feelings of the other person and
still maintain a normal human attitude. This provides lessons related to
character education in respect of respect for others. Character education in this
case is very concerned about the other person. Not arbitrary and at will.
Characters with this form are more directed at mutual respect for one another.
"I want to keep in touch with him and say that if he is not
permitted to use the transpersonal approach, I will do what is a
mental health center or rehabilitation center decision."
The quotation above illustrates the Nararya situation which can no
longer be said to have been suggested by the head of leave. This happened
because Nararya tried other alternatives in the healing process of
schizophrenic patients. Behind all the problems related to alternative fertilizers
used by Nararya still want to be given a place to treat patients in the center of
the rehabilitation. This shows that Nararya has a very high sense of
responsibility. Putting aside his ego for things that have become his duty. This
is related to character education in the form of a sense of responsibility. This
International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture

sense of responsibility must be shared by everyone in carrying out their duties


both as people in the community and students in the learning process.

Conclusion:
The Bulan Nararya novel is a novel filled with problems that often occur
in the surrounding environment. Lifting themes that are conditional on a
person's mental problems with conflict that are very relevant. Schizophrenia
is a disorder that causes patients to experience unnatural hallucinations. Often
doing things in an excessive way doesn't even respond to the life around.
The causes of schizophrenia disorders in this novel are mostly due to
trauma in childhood. In addition, a lack of compassion and the lack of
opportunities to decide on things that are believed to be true can also be a cause
of schizophrenic disorders. The form of schizophrenic disorder in the Bulan
Nararya novel is divided into three forms, namely, disorganized, paranoid and
undifferentiated forms. The alternative cure of schizophrenic disorders in the
Bulan Nararya novel uses the transpersonal and pharmacological approach. In
this section the values of character education in the novel are indicated by the
amount of character education in the form of responsibility and respect.

References:
1. Davison, Gerald C dkk. (2006). Psikologi Abnormal. Jakarta: PT
Rajagrafindo Persada.
2. Emzir dan Saifur Rohman. (2015). Teori dan Pengajaran Sastra.
Jakarta: PT Rajagrafindo Persada.
3. Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. (2010). Pendidikan Karakter Teori
& Aplikasi. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Manajemen Pendidikan dan
Menengah Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional.
4. Hidayat, Dede Rahmat. (2011). Teori dan Aplikasi Psikologi
Kepribadian dalam Konseling. Bogor: Ghalia Indonesia.
5. Koesoema, A. Doni. (2007). Pendidikan Karakter: Mendidik Anak di
Zaman Global. Jakarta: Grasindo.
6. Ratna, Nyoman Kutha. (2013). Teori, Metode, dan Teknik Penelitian
Sastra. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Belajar.
7. Sadock dan Kaplan. (2003). Sinopsis Psikiatri Jilid 2 (Edisi 7). Jakarta:
Binarupa Aksara.
8. Siswanto, Wahyudi. (2008). Pengantar Teori Sastra. Jakarta: PT
Grasindo.
9. Sukada, Made. (2013). Pembinaan Kritik Sastra. Bandung: CV
Angkasa.
10. Wiramihardja, Sutardjo A. (2007). Pengantar Psikologi Abnormal.
Bandung: PT Refika Aditama.