Sie sind auf Seite 1von 80

Chapter 4

The Laplace Transform

4.1 Definition of the Laplace Transform

Z Z 1 ∞
1 ∞
 1 1
1. L {f (t)} = −e−st dt + e−st dt = e−st − e−st
0 1 s s
0 1
 
1 −s 1 1 2 1
= e − − 0 − e−s = e−s − , s > 0
s s s s s
Z 2 2
4 −st 4 
2. L {f (t)} = 4e dt = − e = − e−2s − 1 , s > 0
−st
0 s s
0

Z 1 Z   1 ∞

1 1 1 −st
3. L {f (t)} = te−st dt + e−st dt = − te−st − 2 e−st − e
0 1 s s s
0 1
   
1 1 1 1 1
= − e−s − 2 e−s − (0 − e−s ) = 2 (1 − e−s ),
− 0− s>0
s s s s s2
Z 1   1
2 2 1
4. L {f (t)} = (2t + 1)e−st dt = − te−st − 2 e−st − e−st
0 s s s
0
   
2 2 1 1 2 2 1
= − e−s − 2 e−s − e−s = (1 − 3e−s ) + 2 (1 − e−s ), s > 0
− 0− 2

s s s s s s s
Z π 
 π
−st s −st 1 −st
5. L {f (t)} = (sin t)e dt = − 2 e sin t − 2 e cos t
0 s + 1 s + 1
0
   
1 1 1
= 0+ e−πs − 0− = (e−πs + 1), s>0
s2 +1 s2 +1 s2 +1
Z ∞   ∞
s 1
6. L {f (t)} = (cos t)e−st dt = − 2 e−st cos t + 2 e−st sin t
π/2 s +1 s +1
π/2
 
1 1
=0− 0+ e−πs/2 =− e−πs/2 , s>0
s2 +1 s2 +1

319
320 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

(
0, 0 < t < 1
7. f (t) =
t, t>1
Z ∞   ∞
1 1 1 1
L {f (t)} = te−st dt = − te−st − 2 e−st = e−s + 2 e−s , s>0
1 s s s s
1

(
0, 0<t<1
8. f (t) =
2t − 2, t>1
Z ∞   ∞
−st 1 1 2
L {f (t)} = 2 (t − 1)e dt = 2 − (t − 1)e−st − 2 e−st = 2 e−s , s>0
1 s s s
1

(
1 − t, 0 < t < 1
9. f (t) =
0, t>1
Z 1 Z ∞ Z 1
−st −st
L {f (t)} = (1 − t)e dt + 0e dt = (1 − t)e−st dt
0 1 0
  1
1 −st 1 −st 1 1 1
= − (1 − t)e + 2e = 2 e−s + − 2 , s>0
s s s s s
0

(
0, 0 < t < a
10. f (t) =
c, a<t<b
Z b
b
c c
L {f (t)} = ce−st dt = − e−st = (e−sa − e−sb ), s>0
a s s
a

Z ∞ Z ∞
t+7 −st 7
11. L {f (t)} = e e dt = e e(1−s)t dt
0 0

e7 (1−s)t e7 e7
= e =0− = , s>1
1−s 1−s s−1
0

Z ∞ Z ∞
12. L {f (t)} = e−2t−5 e−st dt = e−5 e−(s+2)t dt
0 0

e−5 −(s+2)t e−5
=− e = , s > −2
s+2 s+2
0

Z ∞ Z ∞
4t −st
13. L {f (t)} = te e dt = te(4−s)t dt
0 0
  ∞
1 1 1
te(4−s)t − e(4−s)t

= = , s>4
4−s (4 − s)2 (4 − s)2
0
4.1 Definition of the Laplace Transform 321

Z ∞ Z ∞
2 −2t −st
14. L {f (t)} = t e e dt = t2 e−(s+2)t dt
0 0
  ∞
1 2 −(s+2)t 2 2
= − t e − te−(s+2)t − e−(s+2)t
s+2 (s + 2)2 (s + 2)3
0

2
= , s > −2
(s + 2)3
Z ∞ Z ∞
−t −st
15. L {f (t)} = e (sin t)e dt = (sin t)e−(s+1)t dt
0 0
  ∞
−(s + 1) −(s+1)t 1
= 2
e sin t − e−(s+1)t cos t
(s + 1) + 1 (s + 1)2 + 1
0

1 1
= = 2 , s > −1
(s + 1)2 + 1 s + 2s + 2
Z ∞ Z ∞
t
16. L {f (t)} = −st
e (cos t)e dt = (cos t)e(1−s)t dt
0 0
  ∞
1−s 1
e(1−s)t cos t + e(1−s)t sin t

=
(1 − s)2 + 1 (1 − s)2 + 1
0

1−s s−1
=− 2
= 2 , s>1
(1 − s) + 1 s − 2s + 2
Z ∞
17. L {f (t)} = t(cos t)e−st dt
0
    ∞
st s2 − 1 −st t 2s −st
= − 2 − (cos t)e + + (sin t)e
s + 1 (s2 + 1)2 s + 1 (s2 + 1)2
2
0

s2 − 1
= , s>0
(s2 + 1)2
Z ∞
18. L {f (t)} = t(sin t)e−st dt
0
    ∞
t 2s −st st s2 − 1 −st
= − 2 − (cos t)e − + (sin t)e
s + 1 (s + 1)2
2 s2 + 1 (s2 + 1)2 0

2s
= , s>0
(s2 + 1)2
4! 48 5! 120
19. L {2t4 } = 2 5
= 5 20. L {t5 } = 6
= 6
s s s s
4 10 7 3
21. L {4t − 10} = 2
− 22. L {7t + 3} = 2
+
s s s s
2 6 3 8 16 9
23. L {t2 + 6t − 3} = + − 24. L {−4t2 + 16t + 9} = − + 2 +
s3 s2 s s3 s s
322 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

6 6 3 1
25. L {t3 + 3t2 + 3t + 1} = + + +
s4 s3 s2 s
48 24 6 1
26. L {8t3 − 12t2 + 6t − 1} = 4 − 3 + 2 −
s s s s

1 1 2 1 5
27. L {1 + e4t } = + 28. L {t2 − e−9t + 5} = 3
− +
s s−4 s s+9 s
1 2 1 1 2 1
29. L {1 + 2e2t + e4t } = + + 30. L {e2t − 2 + e−2t } = − +
s s−2 s−4 s−2 s s+2
8 15 s 2
31. L {4t2 − 5 sin 3t} = 3
− 2 32. L {cos 5t + sin 2t} = + 2
s s +9 s2 + 25 s + 4
 
1 kt −kt 1 1 1 k
33. L {sinh kt} = L {e − e } = − = 2
2 2 s−k s+k s − k2
1 s
34. L {cosh kt} = L {ekt + e−kt } = 2
2 s − k2
 t −t
  
t t e −e 1 2t 1 1 1
35. L {e sinh t} = L e =L e − = −
2 2 2 2(s − 2) 2s
   
et + e−t 1 1 −2t 1 1
36. L {e−t cosh t} = L e−t =L + e = +
2 2 2 2s 2(s + 2)
 
1 2
37. L {sin 2t cos 2t} = L sin 4t = 2
2 s + 16
 
1 1 1 1 s
38. L {cos2 t} = L + cos 2t = +
2 2 2s 2 s2 + 4
39. From the addition formula for the sine function, sin (4t + 5) = sin 4t cos 5 + cos 4t sin 5 so

L {sin (4t + 5)} = (cos 5) L {sin 4t} + (sin 5) L {cos 4t}

4 s 4 cos 5 + (sin 5)s


= (cos 5) + (sin 5) 2 = .
s2 + 16 s + 16 s2 + 16
40. From the addition formula for the cosine function,
 √
π π π 3 1
cos t − = cos t cos + sin t sin = cos t + sin t
6 6 6 2 2
so
n  √
π o 3 1
L cos t − = L {cos t} + L {sin t}
6 2 2
√ √
3 s 1 1 1 3s + 1
= + = .
2 s2 + 1 2 s2 + 1 2 s2 + 1
41. Use integration by parts for α > 0 to get
Z ∞ ∞ Z ∞

α −t α −t
Γ(α + 1) = t e dt = −t e + α tα−1 e−t dt = αΓ(α)
0 0
0
4.1 Definition of the Laplace Transform 323

42. Let u = st so that du = s dt and we get


Z ∞ Z ∞  Z ∞
α α −st u α −u 1 1 α −u 1
L {t } = t e dt = e du = α+1
u e du = α+1 Γ(α + 1)
0 0 s s 0 s s

   r
n
−1/2
o 1 1 Γ 21 π
43. L t Γ = − + 1 = 1/2 =
s−1/2+1 2 s s
     √
n
1/2
o 1 1 Γ 32 1
2 Γ 2
1
π
44. L t = 1/2+1 Γ + 1 = 3/2 = 3/2
= 3/2
s 2 s s 2s
  3
 3
     √
2 Γ 2
n o 1 3 3 1 3 1 3 π
3/2
45. L t = 3/2+1 Γ +1 = = 5/2 Γ + 1 = 5/2 Γ = 5/2
s 2 s5/2 2s 2 4s 2 4s
46.
1
 5

n
1/2
o n
5/2
o Γ 2 + 1 Γ 2 + 1
L {f (t)} = 6L t − 24L t =6· − 24 ·
s3/2 s7/2
√   √  
3 π 24 5 5 3 π 24 5 3 3
= 3/2 − 7/2 · Γ = 3/2 − 7/2 · · Γ
s s 2 2 s s 2 2 2
√   √
3 π 24 5 3 1 1 3 π 24 5 3 1 √
= 3/2 − 7/2 · · · Γ = 3/2 − 7/2 · · · π
s s 2 2 2 2 s s 2 2 2
√ √
3 π 45 π
= 3/2 − 7/2
s s

47. The relation will be valid when s is greater than the maximum of c1 and c2 .
2
48. Since et is an increasing function and t2 > ln M + ct for M > 0 we have et > eln M +ct = M ect
2
for t sufficiently large and for any c. Thus, et is not of exponential order.

49. Assuming that (c) of Theorem 4.1 is applicable with a complex exponent, we have

1 1 (s − a) + ib s − a + ib
L {e(a+ib)t } = = = .
s − (a + ib) (s − a) − ib (s − a) + ib (s − a)2 + b2

By Euler’s formula, eiθ = cos θ + i sin θ, so

L {e(a+ib)t } = L {eat eibt } = L {eat (cos bt + i sin bt)}

= L {eat cos bt} + iL {eat sin bt}


s−a b
= +i .
(s − a)2 + b2 (s − a)2 + b2

Equating real and imaginary parts we get

s−a b
L {eat cos bt} = and L {eat sin bt} = .
(s − a)2 + b2 (s − a)2 + b2
324 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

50. We want f (αx + βy) = αf (x) + βf (y) or

m(αx + βy) + b = α(mx + b) + β(my + b) = m(αx + βy) + (α + β)b

for all real numbers α and β. Taking α = β = 1 we see that b = 2b, so b = 0. Thus,
f (x) = mx + b will be a linear transformation when b = 0.

51. Applying the definition of the Laplace transform gives us


n 2 2
o Z ∞ 2 2
L 2tet cos et = e−st 2tet cos et dt
0
∞ Z ∞

t2 2
e−st sin et dt

= e−st sin e + s
0
0
Z ∞
2
= − sin 1 + s e−st sin et dt
0

The last integral exists for s > 0 since it’s piecewise continuous on (0, ∞) and of exponential
order. Alternatively, for s > 0
Z ∞ Z ∞
2 1
e sin et dt ≤ 1 ·
−st
e−st dt =
0 0 s
R∞ 2
The absolute convergence of the integral 0 e−st sin et dt implies the convergence of the
integral.

52. The function f is not bounded on, sat, the interval [3, 5] because it has an infinite discontiunity
at x = 4.
  Z ∞ −st Z 1 −st Z ∞ −st
1 e e e
53. L 2
= 2
dt = 2
dt + dt = I1 + I2 .
t 0 t 0 t 1 t2
Then we use the comparison test in thre three cases: s > 0, s = 0, and s < 0. For s > 0,
Z 2 −st Z 1
e −s 1
I1 = 2
dt > e 2
dt .
0 t 0 t
R1 R 1 −st
Because 0 t12 dt diverges, the integral 0 e t2 dt diverges.
R1
If s = 0, then the integral I1 = 0 t12 dt diverges. If s < 0, then
Z 1 −st Z 1
e 1
I1 = 2
dt > 2
dt .
0 t 0 t
R1 R 1 −st
Again, because 0 t12 dt diverges, the integral 0 e t2 dt diverges.

54. Working backwards we get


Z ∞
1 s 1
F = · e−(s/a)t f (t) dt
a a a 0
Z ∞
1
= ·a e−su f (au) du ←− t = at, dt = a du
a 0

= L {f (at)}
4.2 The Inverse Transform and Transforms of Derivatives 325

 1 1 1
55. L eat = · =
a (s/a − 1) s−a
1 s s s
56. L {cos kt} = · 2 2
= 2 2 2 = 2
k k (s /k + 1) k (s /k + 1) s + k2
1 1 1 1
57. L {kt − sin kt} = L {kt} − L {sin kt} = · − ·
k (s/k)2 k (s2 /k2 ) + 1

k 1 k 1 k k
= 2
· 2 − 2· 2 2 = 2− 2
k (s/k) k (s /k ) + 1 s s + k2

k3
=
s2 (s2 + k2 )

1 (s/k)2 − 2 k3 (s/k)2 − 2 k s2 − 2k2
58. L {cos kt sinh kt} = · = · =
k (s/k)4 + 4 k4 (s/k)4 + 4 s4 + 4k4

4.2 The Inverse Transform and Transforms of Derivatives


   
1 1 2 1
1. L −1
= L −1 = t2
s3 2 s3 2
   
1 1 −1 3! 1
2. L −1
= L = t3
s46 s 4 6
   
1 48 1 48 4!
3. L −1
− 5 =L −1
− · = t − 2t4
s2 s s2 24 s5
( 2 )  
2 1 1 4 3! 1 5! 2 1 5
4. L −1
− 3 =L −1
4· 2 − · 4 + · 6 = 4t − t3 + t
s s s 6 s 120 s 3 120
   
(s + 1)3 1 1 3 2 1 3! 3 1
5. L −1
=L −1
+ 3 · 2 + · 3 + · 4 = 1 + 3t + t2 + t3
s4 s s 2 s 6 s 2 6
   
(s + 2)2 1 1 2
6. L −1 3
= L −1 + 4 · 2 + 2 · 3 = 1 + 4t + 2t2
s s s s
 
1 1 1
7. L −1 2
− + = t − 1 + e2t
s s s−2
   
−1 4 6 1 1 1 4! 1 1
8. L + 5− =L −1
4· + · 5 − = 4 + t4 − e−8t
s s s+8 s 4 s s+8 4
   
1 1 1 1
9. L −1 = L −1 = e−t/4
4s + 1 4 s + 1/4 4
   
1 1 1 1
10. L −1 = L −1 · = e2t/5
5s − 2 5 s − 2/5 5
   
5 5 7 5
11. L −1 2
= L −1 · 2 = sin 7t
s + 49 7 s + 49 7
326 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

 
−1 10s
12. L 2
= 10 cos 4t
s + 16
   
−1 4s −1 s 1
13. L =L = cos t
4s2 + 1 s2 + 1/4 2
   
1 −1 1 1/2 1 1
14. L −1 = L · = sin t
4s2 + 1 2 s2 + 1/4 2 2
   
−1 2s − 6 −1 s 3
15. L =L 2· 2 −2· 2 = 2 cos 3t − 2 sin 3t
s2 + 9 s +9 s +9
( √ ) √
 s 1 2 √ 2 √
16. L −1 f racs + 1s2 + 2 = L −1 + √ = cos 2 t + sin 2t
s2 + 2 2 s2 + 2 2
   
−1 1 −1 1 1 1 1 1 1 −3t
17. L =L · − · = − e
s2 + 3s 3 s 3 s+3 3 3
   
s+1 1 1 5 1 1 5
18. L −1 = L −1 − · + · = − + e4t
s2 − 4s 4 s 4 s−4 4 4
   
−1 s −1 1 1 3 1 1 t 3 −3t
19. L 2
=L · + · = e + e
s + 2s − 3 4 s−1 4 s+3 4 4
   
−1 1 −1 1 1 1 1 1 4t 1 −5t
20. L 2
=L · − · = e − e
s + s − 20 9 s−4 9 s+5 9 9
   
0.9s 1 1
21. L −1
=L −1
(0.3) · + (0.6) · = 0.3e0.1t + 0.6e−0.2t
(s − 0.1)(s + 0.2) s − 0.1 s + 0.2
  ( √ )
−1 s−3 −1 s √ 3 √ √ √
22. L √ √ =L − 3 · = cosh 3 t − 3 sinh 3t
(s − 3 )(s + 3 ) s2 − 3 s2 − 3
   
s 1 1 1 1 1 1 2t 1
23. L −1
=L −1
· − + · = e − e3t + e6t
(s − 2)(s − 3)(s − 6) 2 s−2 s−3 2 s−6 2 2
   
−1 s2 + 1 −1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1
24. L =L · − − · + ·
s(s − 1)(s + 1)(s − 2) 2 s s−1 3 s+1 6 s−2
1 1 5
− et − e−t + e2t
=
2 3 6
     
−1 1 −1 1 −1 1 1 1 s 1 1 √
25. L = L = L · − = − cos 5t
s3 + 5s s(s2 + 5) 5 s 5 s2 + 5 5 5
   
−1 s −1 1 s 1 2 1 1
26. L 2
=L · 2 + · 2 − ·
(s + 4)(s + 2) 4 s +4 4 s +4 4 s+2
1 1 1
= cos 2t + sin 2t − e−2t
4 4 4
4.2 The Inverse Transform and Transforms of Derivatives 327

   
−1 2s − 4 −1 2s − 4
27. L =L
(s + s)(s2 + 1)
2 s(s + 1)(s2 + 1)
 
−1 4 3 s 3
=L − + + 2 + 2
s s+1 s +1 s +1

= −4 + 3e−t + cos t + 3 sin t


  √ ( √ )
−1 1 1 −1 3 1 3 1 √ 1 √
28. L =L √ · 2 − √ · 2 = √ sinh 3 t − √ sin 3 t
s4 − 9 6 3 s −3 6 3 s +3 6 3 6 3
   
1 −1 1 1 1 1
29. L −1 = L · − ·
(s2 + 1)(s2 + 4) 3 s2 + 1 3 s2 + 4
 
1 1 1 2 1 1
= L −1 · 2 − · 2 = sin t − sin 2t
3 s +1 6 s +4 3 6
   
6s + 3 s 1 s 1 2
30. L −1 = L −1
2 · + − 2 · − ·
(s2 + 1)(s2 + 4) s2 + 1 s2 + 1 s2 + 4 2 s2 + 4
1
= 2 cos t + sin t − 2 cos 2t − sin 2t
2
31. By linearity and part (d) of Theorem 4.1.1:

b a a3 b − ab3
L {a sin bt − b sin at} = a − b =
s 2 + b2 s 2 + a2 (s2 + a2 ) (s2 + b2 )
ab  
= s 2 + a 2 s 2 + b2
(a2 2
−b )
 
−1 1 a sin bt − b sin at
L =
(s + a ) (s2 + b2 )
2 2 ab (a2 − b2 )

32. By linearity and part (e) of Theorem 4.1.1:



s s s a2 − b2
L {cos bt − cos at} = 2 − = 2
s + b2 s2 + a2 (s + a2 ) (s2 + b2 )
 
−1 s cos bt − cos at
L 2 2 2 2
=
(s + a ) (s + b ) a2 − b2

33. The Laplace transform of the initial-value problem is


1
sL {y} − y(0) − L {y} = .
s

Solving for L {y} we obtain


1 1
L {y} = − + .
s s−1
Thus
y = −1 + et .
328 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

34. The Laplace transform of the initial-value problem is

2sL {y} − 2y(0) + L {y} = 0.

Solving for L {y} we obtain


6 3
L {y} = = .
2s + 1 s + 1/2

Thus
y = 3e−t/2 .

35. The Laplace transform of the initial-value problem is


1
sL {y} − y(0) + 6L {y} = .
s−4

Solving for L {y} we obtain


1 2 1 1 19 1
L {y} = + = · + · .
(s − 4)(s + 6) s + 6 10 s − 4 10 s + 6

Thus
1 4t 19 −6t
y= e + e .
10 10
36. The Laplace transform of the initial-value problem is
2s
sL {y} − L {y} = .
s2 + 25

Solving for L {y} we obtain


2s 1 1 1 s 5 5
L {y} = 2
= · − 2
+ · 2 .
(s − 1)(s + 25) 13 s − 1 13 s + 25 13 s + 25

Thus
1 t 1 5
y= e − cos 5t + sin 5t.
13 13 13
37. The Laplace transform of the initial-value problem is

s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) + 5 [sL {y} − y(0)] + 4L {y} = 0.

Solving for L {y} we obtain


s+5 4 1 1 1
L {y} = = − .
s2 + 5s + 4 3 s+1 3 s+4

Thus
4 1
y = e−t − e−4t .
3 3
4.2 The Inverse Transform and Transforms of Derivatives 329

38. The Laplace transform of the initial-value problem is


6 3
s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) − 4 [sL {y} − y(0)] = − .
s−3 s+1
Solving for L {y} we obtain
6 3 s−5
L {y} = − +
(s − 3)(s2 − 4s) (s + 1)(s2 − 4s) s2 − 4s
5 1 2 3 1 11 1
= · − − · + · .
2 s s − 3 5 s + 1 10 s − 4
Thus
5 3 11
y= − 2e3t − e−t + e4t .
2 5 10
39. The Laplace transform of the initial-value problem is
2
s2 L {y} − sy(0) + L {y} = .
s2 + 2
Solving for L {y} we obtain
2 10s 10s 2 2
L {y} = + 2 = 2 + 2 − 2 .
(s2 2
+ 1)(s + 2) s + 1 s +1 s +1 s +2

Thus
√ √
y = 10 cos t + 2 sin t − 2 sin 2 t.

40. The Laplace transform of the initial-value problem is


1
s2 L {y} + 9L {y} = .
s−1
Solving for L {y} we obtain
1 1 1 1 1 1 s
L {y} = = · − · − · .
(s − 1)(s2 + 9) 10 s − 1 10 s2 + 9 10 s2 + 9

Thus
1 t 1 1
y= e − sin 3t − cos 3t.
10 30 10
41. The Laplace transform of the initial-value problem is
   
2 s3 L {y} − s2 (0) − sy ′ (0) − y ′′ (0) + 3 s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) − 3[sL {y} − y(0)] − 2L {y}
1
= .
s+1
Solving for L {y} we obtain
2s + 3 1 1 5 1 8 1 1 1
L {y} = = + − + .
(s + 1)(s − 1)(2s + 1)(s + 2) 2 s + 1 18 s − 1 9 s + 1/2 9 s + 2

Thus
1 −t 5 8 1
y= e + et − e−t/2 + e−2t .
2 18 9 9
330 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

42. The Laplace transform of the initial-value problem is

 
s3 L {y} − s2 (0) − sy ′ (0) − y ′′ (0) + 2 s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) − [sL {y} − y(0)] − 2L {y}
3
= .
s2 +9

Solving for L {y} we obtain

s2 + 12
L {y} =
(s − 1)(s + 1)(s + 2)(s2 + 9)
13 1 13 1 16 1 3 s 1 3
= − + + 2
− 2
.
60 s − 1 20 s + 1 39 s + 2 130 s + 9 65 s + 9

Thus
13 t 13 −t 16 −2t 3 1
y= e − e + e + cos 3t − sin 3t.
60 20 39 130 65

43.
n o
L y (4) − L {y} = L {0}
s4 Y (s) − s3 y(0) − s2 y ′ (0) − sy ′′ (0) − y ′′′ (0) − Y (s) = 0

s4 − 1 Y (s) = 2
2 2
Y (s) = = 2
s4 − 1 (s − 1) (s2 + 2)

By partial fractions

1 1
Y (s) = −
s2 − 1 s2 + 1
1/2 −1/2 1
= + − 2
s−1 s+1 s +1
     
1 −1 1 1 −1 1 −1 1
y= L − L −L
2 s−1 2 s+1 s2 + 1
1 t 1 −t
y= e − e − sin t
2 2

Alternatively, using (d) and (f) of Theorem 4.2.1,


   
−1 1 −1 1
y=L 2
−L 2
= sinh t − sin t
s −1 s +1
4.2 The Inverse Transform and Transforms of Derivatives 331

44.
n o
L y (4) − 9L {y} = L {0}

1 3
z}|{ z }| {
s Y (s) − s y(0) −s2 y ′ (0) − s y ′′ (0) −y ′′′ (0) − 9Y (s) = 0
4 3

s4 − 9 Y (s) = s3 + 3s
 
s s2 + 3 s s2 + 3 s
Y (s) = 4
= 2 2
= 2
s −9 (s − 3) (s + 3) s −3

From part (g) of Theorem 4.2.1 (or partial fractions),


( )
−1 s √
y=L √ 2 = cosh 3 t
s2 − 3

45. The Laplace transform of the differential equation in the initial-value problem is
 10s
s2 + 4 Y (s) =
s2+ 25
10s
Y (s) =
(s2 + 4) (s2 + 25)

with the identifications a2 = 4 and b2 = 25 or a2 − b2 = −21 we have from Problem 32:


 
−1 s cos bt − cos at
L 2 2 2 2
=
(s + a ) (s + b ) a2 − b2
 
s cos 5t − cos 2t
y(t) = 10L −1 = 10 ·
(s2 + 4) (s2 + 25) −21
10 10
y(t) = cos 2t − cos 5t
21 21

46. The Laplace transform of the differential equation in the initial-value problem is
 1
s2 + 2 Y (s) =
s2 + 1
1
Y (s) =
(s2 + 1) (s2 + 2)

with the identification a2 = 1 and b2 = 2 or a2 − b2 = −1 we ahve from Problem 31:


 
−1 1 a sin bt − b sin at
L 2 2 2 2
=
(s + a ) (s + b ) ab (a2 − b2 )
  √ √
−1 1 sin 2 t − 2 sin t
y(t) = L = p
(s2 + 1) (s2 + 2) (−1)
1 √
y(t) = − √ sin 2 t + sin t
2
332 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

47. The Laplace transform of the initial-value problem is


s+3
sL {y} + L {y} = .
s2 + 6s + 13
Solving for L {y} we obtain
s+3 1 1 1 s+1
L {y} = 2
= · − · 2
(s + 1)(s + 6s + 13) 4 s + 1 4 s + 6s + 13
 
1 1 1 s+3 2
= · − − .
4 s + 1 4 (s + 3)2 + 4 (s + 3)2 + 4

Thus
1 1 1
y = e−t − e−3t cos 2t + e−3t sin 2t.
4 4 4
48. The Laplace transform of the initial-value problem is

s2 L {y} − s · 1 − 3 − 2[sL {y} − 1] + 5L {y} = (s2 − 2s + 5)L {y} − s − 1 = 0.

Solving for L {y} we obtain


s+1 s−1+2 s−1 2
L {y} = = = + .
s2 − 2s + 5 2
(s − 1) + 22 2
(s − 1) + 22 (s − 1)2 + 22

Thus
y = et cos 2t + et sin 2t.

49. (a) Differentiating f (t) = teat we get f ′ (t) = ateat + eat so L {ateat + eat } = sL {teat }, where
we have used f (0) = 0. Writing the equation as
 
aL {teat } + L eat = sL teat

and solving for L {teat } we get


 1  1
L teat = L eat = .
s−a (s − a)2

(b) Starting with f (t) = t sin kt we have

f ′ (t) = kt cos kt + sin kt


f ′′ (t) = −k2 t sin kt + 2k cos kt.

Then

L −k2 t sin t + 2k cos kt = s2 L {t sin kt}
where we have used f (0) = 0 and f ′ (0) = 0. Writing the above equation as

−k2 L {t sin kt} + 2kL {cos kt} = s2 L {t sin kt}

and solving for L {t sin kt} gives


2k 2k s 2ks
L {t sin kt} = L {cos kt} = 2 = 2 .
s2 +k 2 2 2
s +k s +k 2 (s + k2 )2
4.3 Translation Theorems 333

50. Let f1 (t) = 1 and


(
1, t ≥ 0, t 6= 1
f2 (t) =
0, t=1

Then L {f1 (t)} = L {f2 (t)} = 1/s, but f1 (t) 6= f2 (t).

51. For y ′′ −4y ′ = 6e3t −3e−t the transfer function is W (s) = 1/(s2 −4s). The zero-input response
is    
s−5 −1 5 1 1 1 5 1
y0 (t) = L −1
=L · − · = − e4t ,
s2 − 4s 4 s 4 s−4 4 4
and the zero-state response is
 
−1 6 3
y1 (t) = L −
(s − 3)(s − 4s) (s + 1)(s2 − 4s)
2

 
−1 27 1 2 5 1 3 1
=L · − + · − ·
20 s − 4 s − 3 4 s 5 s + 1
27 4t 5 3
= e − 2e3t + − e−t .
20 4 5

52. From Theorem 4.2.2, if f and f ′ are continuous and of exponential order, L {f ′ (t)} = sF (s)−
f (0). From Theorem 4.2.3, lim L {f ′ (t)} = 0 so
s→∞

lim [sF (s) − f (0)] = 0 and lim F (s) = f (0).


s→∞ s→∞

For f (t) = cos kt,


s
lim sF (s) = lim s = 1 = f (0).
s→∞ s→∞ s2 + k 2

4.3 Translation Theorems

 1
 1 2. L te−6t =
1. L te10t = (s + 6)2
(s − 10)2
 3!  10!
3. L t3 e−2t = 4
4. L t10 e−7t =
(s + 2) (s + 7)11
n 2 o  1 2 1
5. L t et + e2t = L te2t + 2te3t + te4t = 2
+ 2
+
(s − 2) (s − 3) (s − 4)2
  2 2 1
6. L e2t (t − 1)2 = L t2 e2t − 2te2t + e2t = 3
− 2
+
(s − 2) (s − 2) s−2

 3  s+2
7. L et sin 3t = 8. L e−2t cos 4t =
(s − 1)2 + 9 (s + 2)2 + 16
334 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

 
9. L (1 − et + 3e−4t ) cos 5t = L cos 5t − et cos 5t + 3e−4t cos 5t

s s−1 3(s + 4)
= − +
s2
+ 25 (s − 1) + 25 (s + 4)2 + 25
2

    
3t t 3t 3t 3t t
10. L e 9 − 4t + 10 sin = L 9e − 4te + 10e sin
2 2
9 4 5
= − 2
+
s − 3 (s − 3) (s − 3)2 + 1/4
   
1 −1 1 2 1
11. L −1
=L = t2 e−2t
(s + 2)3 2 (s + 2)3 2
   
1 1 −1 3! 1
12. L −1
4
= L 4
= t3 et
(s − 1) 6 (s − 1) 6
   
1 1
13. L −1
=L −1
= e3t sin t
s2 − 6s + 10 (s − 3)2 + 12
   
−1 1 −1 1 2 1
14. L 2
=L 2 2
= e−t sin 2t
s + 2s + 5 2 (s + 1) + 2 2
   
−1 s −1 s+2 1
15. L =L −2 = e−2t cos t − 2e−2t sin t
s2 + 4s + 5 (s + 2)2 + 12 (s + 2)2 + 12
   
−1 2s + 5 −1 (s + 3) 1 5
16. L =L 2 −
s2 + 6s + 34 (s + 3)2 + 52 5 (s + 3)2 + 52
1
= 2e−3t cos 5t − e−3t sin 5t
5
     
−1 s −1 s + 1 − 1 −1 1 1
17. L =L =L − = e−t − te−t
(s + 1)2 (s + 1)2 s + 1 (s + 1)2
     
5s −1 5(s − 2) + 10 5 10
18. L −1
=L =L −1
+ = 5e2t + 10te2t
(s − 2)2 (s − 2)2 s − 2 (s − 2)2
   
−1 2s − 1 −1 5 1 5 4 3 2
19. L =L − − − −
s2 (s + 1)3 s s2 s + 1 (s + 1)2 2 (s + 1)3
3
= 5 − t − 5e−t − 4te−t − t2 e−t
2
 2
  
−1 (s + 1) 1 2 1 3! 1
20. L 4
=L −1
2
− 3
+ 4
= te−2t − t2 e−2t + t3 e−2t
(s + 2) (s + 2) (s + 2) 6 (s + 2) 6
21. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
1
sL {y} − y(0) + 4L {y} = .
s+4

Solving for L {y} we obtain


1 2
L {y} = 2
+ .
(s + 4) s+4
4.3 Translation Theorems 335

Thus
y = te−4t + 2e−4t .

22. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


1 1
sL {y} − L {y} = + .
s (s − 1)2

Solving for L {y} we obtain


1 1 1 1 1
L {y} = + 3
=− + + .
s(s − 1) (s − 1) s s − 1 (s − 1)3

Thus
1
y = −1 + et + t2 et .
2
23. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is

s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) + 2 [sL {y} − y(0)] + L {y} = 0.

Solving for L {y} we obtain


s+3 1 2
L {y} = 2
= + .
(s + 1) s + 1 (s + 1)2

Thus
y = e−t + 2te−t .

24. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


6
s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) − 4 [sL {y} − y(0)] + 4L {y} = .
(s − 2)4

Solving for L {y} we obtain


1 5!
L {y} = .
20 (s − 2)6
1 5 2t
Thus, y = 20 t e .

25. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


1
s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) − 6 [sL {y} − y(0)] + 9L {y} = .
s2

Solving for L {y} we obtain

1 + s2 2 1 1 1 2 1 10 1
L {y} = 2 2
= + 2
− + .
s (s − 3) 27 s 9 s 27 s − 3 9 (s − 3)2

Thus
2 1 2 10
y= + t − e3t + te3t .
27 9 27 9
336 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

26. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


6
s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) − 4 [sL {y} − y(0)] + 4L {y} = .
s4

Solving for L {y} we obtain

s5 − 4s4 + 6 31 9 1 3 2 1 3! 1 1 13 1
L {y} = 4 2
= + 2
+ 3
+ 4
+ − .
s (s − 2) 4 s 8s 4s 4s 4 s−2 8 (s − 2)2

Thus
3 9 3 1 1 13
y= + t + t2 + t3 + e2t − te2t .
4 8 4 4 4 8
27. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is

s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) − 6 [sL {y} − y(0)] + 13L {y} = 0.

Solving for L {y} we obtain


3 3 2
L {y} = − =− .
s2 − 6s + 13 2 (s − 3)2 + 22

Thus
3
y = − e3t sin 2t.
2
28. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
 
2 s2 L {y} − sy(0) + 20 [sL {y} − y(0)] + 51L {y} = 0.

Solving for L {y} we obtain

4s + 40 2s + 20 2(s + 5) 10
L {y} = = = + .
2s2 + 20s + 51 2
(s + 5) + 1/2 (s + 5) + 1/2 (s + 5)2 + 1/2
2

Thus
√ √ √
y = 2e−5t cos (t/ 2 ) + 10 2 e−5t sin (t/ 2 ).

29. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


s−1
s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) − [sL {y} − y(0)] = .
(s − 1)2 + 1

Solving for L {y} we obtain


1 11 1 s−1 1 1
L {y} = = − + .
s(s2 − 2s + 2) 2 s 2 (s − 1) + 1 2 (s − 1)2 + 1
2

Thus
1 1 t 1
y= − e cos t + et sin t.
2 2 2
4.3 Translation Theorems 337

30. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


1 1
s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) − 2 [sL {y} − y(0)] + 5L {y} = + .
s s2
Solving for L {y} we obtain
4s2 + s + 1 7 1 1 1 −7s/25 + 109/25
L {y} = 2 2
= + 2
+
s (s − 2s + 5) 25 s 5 s s2 − 2s + 5
7 1 1 1 7 s−1 51 2
= + − + .
25 s 5 s2 25 (s − 1)2 + 22 25 (s − 1)2 + 22
Thus
7 1 7 51
y= + t − et cos 2t + et sin 2t.
25 5 25 25
31. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation and letting c = y(0)
we obtain

L {y ′′ } + L {2y ′ } + L {y} = 0
s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) + 2sL {y} − 2y(0) + L {y} = 0
s2 L {y} − cs − 2 + 2sL {y} − 2c + L {y} = 0

s2 + 2s + 1 L {y} = cs + 2c + 2
cs 2c + 2
L {y} = +
(s + 1)2 (s + 1)2
s+1−1 2c + 2
=c 2
+
(s + 1) (s + 1)2
c c+2
= + .
s + 1 (s + 1)2
Therefore,
   
−1 1 −1 1
y(t) = cL + (c + 2)L = ce−t + (c + 2)te−t .
s+1 (s + 1)2

To find c we let y(1) = 2. Then 2 = ce−1 + (c + 2)e−1 = 2(c + 1)e−1 and c = e − 1. Thus

y(t) = (e − 1)e−t + (e + 1)te−t .

32. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation and letting c = y ′ (0)
we obtain

L {y ′′ } + L {8y ′ } + L {20y} = 0
s2 L {y} − y ′ (0) + 8sL {y} + 20L {y} = 0
s2 L {y} − c + 8sL {y} + 20L {y} = 0
(s2 + 8s + 20)L {y} = c
c c
L {y} = = .
s2 + 8s + 20 (s + 4)2 + 4
338 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

Therefore,
 
−1 c c −4t
y(t) = L = e sin 2t = c1 e−4t sin 2t.
(s + 4)2 + 4 2

To find c1 we let y ′ (π) = 0. Then 0 = y ′ (π) = c1 e−4π and c1 = 0. Thus, y(t) = 0. (Since
the differential equation is homogeneous and both boundary conditions are 0, we can see
immediately that y(t) = 0 is a solution. We have shown that it is the only solution.)

33. Recall from Section 3.8 that mx′′ = −kx − βx′ . Now β = 7/8, m = W/g = 4/32 = 1/8 slug,
and 4 = 2k so that k = 2 lb/ft. Thus, the differential equation is x′′ + 7x′ + 16x = 0. The
initial conditions are x(0) = −3/2 and x′ (0) = 0. The Laplace transform of the differential
equation is
3 21
s2 L {x} + s + 7sL {x} + + 16L {x} = 0.
2 2

Solving for L {x} we obtain


√ √
−3s/2 − 21/2 3 s + 7/2 7 15 15/2
L {x} = 2 =− √ − √ .
s + 7s + 16 2 (s + 7/2)2 + ( 15/2)2 10 (s + 7/2)2 + ( 15/2)2

Thus √ √ √
3 −7t/2 15 7 15 −7t/2 15
x=− e cos t− e sin t.
2 2 10 2

34. The differential equation is

d2 q dq
+ 20 + 200q = 150, q(0) = q ′ (0) = 0.
dt2 dt

The Laplace transform of this equation is

150
s2 L {q} + 20sL {q} + 200L {q} = .
s

Solving for L {q} we obtain

150 31 3 s + 10 3 10
L {q} = = − − .
s(s2 + 20s + 200) 2
4 s 4 (s + 10) + 102 4 (s + 10)2 + 102

Thus
3 3 −10t 3
q(t) = − e cos 10t − e−10t sin 10t
4 4 4
and
i(t) = q ′ (t) = 15e−10t sin 10t.
4.3 Translation Theorems 339

35. The differential equation is

d2 q E0
2
+ 2λdqdt + ω 2 q = , q(0) = q ′ (0) = 0.
dt L

The Laplace transform of this equation is

E0 1
s2 L {q} + 2λsL {q} + ω 2 L {q} =
L s
or
 E0 1
s2 + 2λs + ω 2 L {q} = .
L s

Solving for L {q} and using partial fractions we obtain


   
E0 1/ω 2 (1/ω 2 )s + 2λ/ω 2 E0 1 s + 2λ
L {q} = − 2 = − 2 .
L s s + 2λs + ω 2 Lω 2 s s + 2λs + ω 2


For λ > ω we write s2 + 2λs + ω 2 = (s + λ)2 − λ2 − ω 2 , so (recalling that ω 2 = 1/LC)
 
1 s+λ λ
L {q} = E0 C − − .
s (s + λ) − (λ − ω ) (s + λ) − (λ2 − ω 2 )
2 2 2 2

Thus for λ > ω,


  
p λ p
q(t) = E0 C 1 − e −λt
cosh λ2 − ω 2 t − √ sinh λ2 − ω 2 t .
λ2 − ω 2

For λ < ω we write s2 + 2λs + ω 2 = (s + λ)2 + ω 2 − λ2 , so
 
1 s+λ λ
L {q} = E0 C − − .
s (s + λ)2 + (ω 2 − λ2 ) (s + λ)2 + (ω 2 − λ2 )

Thus for λ < ω,


  
p λ p
q(t) = E0 C 1 − e −λt
cos ω2 − λ2 t −√ sin ω 2 − λ2 t .
ω 2 − λ2

For λ = ω, s2 + 2λ + ω 2 = (s + λ)2 and


   
E0 1 E0 1/λ2 1/λ2 1/λ E0 1 1 λ
L {q} = = − − = − − .
L s(s + λ)2 L s s + λ (s + λ)2 Lλ2 s s + λ (s + λ)2

Thus for λ = ω,
 
q(t) = E0 C 1 − e−λt − λte−λt .
340 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

36. The differential equation is

dq 1
R + q = E0 e−kt , q(0) = 0.
dt C

The Laplace transform of this equation is

1 1
RsL {q} + L {q} = E0 .
C s+k

Solving for L {q} we obtain

E0 C E0 /R
L {q} = = .
(s + k)(RCs + 1) (s + k)(s + 1/RC)

When 1/RC 6= k we have by partial fractions


   
E0 1/(1/RC − k) 1/(1/RC − k) E0 1 1 1
L {q} = − = − .
R s+k s + 1/RC R 1/RC − k s + k s + 1/RC

Thus
E0 C  −kt 
q(t) = e − e−t/RC .
1 − kRC
When 1/RC = k we have
E0 1
L {q} = .
R (s + k)2

Thus
E0 −kt E0 −t/RC
q(t) = te = te .
R R

e−s
37. L {(t − 1)U (t − 1)} =
s2
 n o e−2s
38. L e2−t U (t − 2) = L e−(t−2) U (t − 2) =
s+1
e−2s 2e−2s
39. L {tU (t − 2)} = L {(t − 2)U (t − 2) + 2U (t − 2)} = +
s2 s
Alternatively, (16) of this section could be used:
 
−2s −2s 1 2
L {tU (t − 2)} = e L {t + 2} = e 2
+ .
s s

3e−s 4e−s
40. L {(3t + 1)U (t − 1)} = 3L {(t − 1)U (t − 1)} + 4L {U (t − 1)} = +
s2 s
Alternatively, (16) of this section could be used:
 
−s −s 3 4
L {(3t + 1)U (t − 1)} = e L {3t + 4} = e 2
+ .
s s
4.3 Translation Theorems 341

se−πs
41. L {cos 2tU (t − π)} = L {cos 2(t − π)U (t − π)} =
s2 + 4
Alternatively, (16) of this section could be used:
s
L {cos 2tU (t − π)} = e−πs L {cos 2(t + π)} = e−πs L {cos 2t} = e−πs .
s2 +4

n  π o n  π  π o se−πs/2
42. L sin tU
t− = L cos t − U t− = 2
2 2 2 s +1
Alternatively, (16) of this section could be used:
n  π o n  π o s
L sin t U t − = e−πs/2 L sin t + = e−πs/2 L {cos t} = e−πs/2 2 .
2 2 s +1
   
e−2s −1 1 2 −2s 1
43. L −1
3
=L · 3e = (t − 2)2 U (t − 2)
s 2 s 2
 −2s )2   
−1 (1 + e −1 1 2e−2s e−4s
44. L =L + +
s+2 s+2 s+2 s+2

= e−2t + 2e−2(t−2) U (t − 2) + e−2(t−4) U (t − 4)


 
−1 e−πs
45. L = sin (t − π)U (t − π) = − sin tU (t − π)
s2 + 1
( )
−1 se−πs/2  π  π  π
46. L = cos 2 t − U t− = − cos 2tU t −
s2 + 4 2 2 2
   −s 
−1 e−s −1 e e−s
47. L =L − = U (t − 1) − e−(t−1) U (t − 1)
s(s + 1) s s+1
   −2s 
−1 e−2s −1 e e−2s e−2s
48. L =L − − 2 +
s2 (s − 1) s s s−1

= −U (t − 2) − (t − 2)U (t − 2) + et−2 U (t − 2)

49. (c) 50. (e) 51. (f ) 52. (b) 53. (a) 54. (d)
2 4 −3s
55. L {2 − 4U (t − 3)} = − e
s s
1 e−4s e−5s
56. L {1 − U (t − 4) + U (t − 5)} =
− +
s s s
2  
57. L t U (t − 1) = L (t − 1)2 + 2t − 1 U (t − 1)
 
 2
 2 2 1
=L (t − 1) + 2(t − 1) − 1 U (t − 1) = 3
+ 2+ e−s
s s s
Alternatively, by (16) of this section,
 
2 −s 2 −s 2 2 1
L {t U (t − 1)} = e L {t + 2t + 1} = e 3
+ 2+ .
s s s
342 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

       
3π 3π 3π se−3πs/2
58. L sin tU t − = L − cos t − U t− =− 2
2 2 2 s +1
1 e−2s 2e−2s
59. L {t − tU (t − 2)} = L {t − (t − 2)U (t − 2) − 2U (t − 2)} = − −
s2 s2 s
1 e−2πs
60. L {sin t − sin tU (t − 2π)} = L {sin t − sin (t − 2π)U (t − 2π)} = − 2
s2 +1 s +1
e−as e−bs
61. L {f (t)} = L {U (t − a) − U (t − b)} = −
s s
e−s e−2s e−3s
62. L {f (t)} = L {U (t − 1) + U (t − 2) + U (t − 3) + · · · } = + + + ···
s s s
1 e−s
=
s 1 − e−s
63. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
5
sL {y} − y(0) + L {y} = e−s .
s
Solving for L {y} we obtain
 
5e−s −s 1 1
L {y} = = 5e − .
s(s + 1) s s+1

Thus
y = 5U (t − 1) − 5e−(t−1) U (t − 1).

64. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


1 2 −s
sL {y} − y(0) + L {y} = − e .
s s
Solving for L {y} we obtain
 
1 2e−s 1 1 −s 1 1
L {y} = − = − − 2e − .
s(s + 1) s(s + 1) s s+1 s s+1

Thus h i
y = 1 − e−t − 2 1 − e−(t−1) U (t − 1).

65. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


1 s+1
sL {y} − y(0) + 2L {y} = 2
− e−s 2 .
s s
Solving for L {y} we obtain
 
1 −s s + 1 11 1 1 1 1 −s 1 1 1 1 1 1
L {y} = 2 −e =− + + −e + − .
s (s + 2) s2 (s + 2) 4 s 2 s2 4 s + 2 4 s 2 s2 4 s + 2

Thus  
1 1 1 −2t 1 1 1 −2(t−1)
y =− + t+ e − + (t − 1) − e U (t − 1).
4 2 4 4 2 4
4.3 Translation Theorems 343

66. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


1 e−s
s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) + 4L {y} = − .
s s
Solving for L {y} we obtain
 
1−s −s 1 11 1 s 1 2 −s 1 1 1 s
L {y} = −e = − − −e − .
s(s2 + 4) s(s2 + 4) 4 s 4 s2 + 4 2 s2 + 4 4 s 4 s2 + 4

Thus  
1 1 1 1 1
y = − cos 2t − sin 2t − − cos 2(t − 1) U (t − 1).
4 4 2 4 4
67. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
1
s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) + 4L {y} = e−2πs .
s2 +1

Solving for L {y} we obtain


 
s −2πs 1 1 1 2
L {y} = 2 +e − .
s +4 3 s2 + 1 6 s2 + 4

Thus  
1 1
y = cos 2t + sin (t − 2π) − sin 2(t − 2π) U (t − 2π).
3 6
68. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
e−s
s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) − 5 [sL {y} − y(0)] + 6L {y} = .
s
Solving for L {y} we obtain
1 1
L {y} = e−s +
s(s − 2)(s − 3) (s − 2)(s − 3)
 
−s 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
=e − + − + .
6 s 2 s−2 3 s−3 s−2 s−3

Thus  
1 1 2(t−1) 1 3(t−1)
y= − e + e U (t − 1) − e2t + e3t .
6 2 3
69. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
e−πs e−2πs
s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) + L {y} = − .
s s
Solving for L {y} we obtain
   
−πs 1 s −2πs 1 s 1
L {y} = e − 2 −e − 2 + 2 .
s s +1 s s +1 s +1

Thus
y = [1 − cos (t − π)]U (t − π) − [1 − cos (t − 2π)]U (t − 2π) + sin t.
344 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

70. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is

1 e−2s e−4s e−6s


s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) + 4 [sL {y} − y(0)] + 3L {y} = − − + .
s s s s

Solving for L {y} we obtain


 
11 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1
L {y} = − + − e−2s − +
3 s 2 s+1 6 s+3 3 s 2 s+1 6 s+3
   
11 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1
− e−4s − + + e−6s − + .
3 s 2 s+1 6 s+3 3 s 2 s+1 6 s+3

Thus
 
1 1 −t 1 −3t 1 1 −(t−2) 1 −3(t−2)
y= − e + e − − e + e U (t − 2)
3 2 6 3 2 6
   
1 1 −(t−4) 1 −3(t−4) 1 1 −(t−6) 1 −3(t−6)
− − e + e U (t − 4) + − e + e U (t − 6).
3 2 6 3 2 6

71. Recall from Section 3.8 that mx′′ = −kx + f (t). Now m = W/g = 32/32 = 1 slug, and
32 = 2k so that k = 16 lb/ft. Thus, the differential equation is x′′ + 16x = f (t). The initial
conditions are x(0) = 0, x′ (0) = 0. Also, since
(
20t, 0 ≤ t < 5
f (t) =
0, t≥5

and 20t = 20(t − 5) + 100 we can write

f (t) = 20t − 20tU (t − 5) = 20t − 20(t − 5)U (t − 5) − 100U (t − 5).

The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


20 20 −5s 100 −5s
s2 L {x} + 16L {x} = − 2e − e .
s2 s s

Solving for L {x} we obtain


20 20 100
L {x} = − e−5s − e−5s
s2 (s2 + 16) s2 (s2 + 16) s(s2 + 16)
   
5 1 5 4 −5s
 25 1 25 s
= · − · 1−e − · − · e−5s .
4 s2 16 s2 + 16 4 s 4 s2 + 16

Thus
   
5 5 5 5 25 25
x(t) = t − sin 4t − (t − 5) − sin 4(t − 5) U (t − 5) − − cos 4(t − 5) U (t − 5)
4 16 4 16 4 4
5 5 5 5 25
= t− sin 4t − tU (t − 5) + sin 4(t − 5)U (t − 5) + cos 4(t − 5)U (t − 5).
4 16 4 16 4
4.3 Translation Theorems 345

72. Recall from Section 3.8 that mx′′ = −kx + f (t). Now m = W/g = 32/32 = 1 slug, and
32 = 2k so that k = 16 lb/ft. Thus, the differential equation is x′′ + 16x = f (t). The initial
conditions are x(0) = 0, x′ (0) = 0. Also, since
(
sin t, 0 ≤ t < 2π
f (t) =
0, t ≥ 2π

and sin t = sin (t − 2π) we can write

f (t) = sin t − sin (t − 2π)U (t − 2π).

The Laplace transform of the differential equation is

1 1
s2 L {x} + 16L {x} = − 2 e−2πs .
s2 +1 s +1

Solving for L {x} we obtain

1 1
L {x} = − 2 e−2πs
(s2
+ 16) (s + 1) (s + 16) (s2 + 1)
2

 
−1/15 1/15 −1/15 1/15
= 2 + − 2 + e−2πs .
s + 16 s2 + 1 s + 16 s2 + 1

Thus
1 1 1 1
x(t) = − sin 4t + sin t + sin 4(t − 2π)U (t − 2π) − sin (t − 2π)U (t − 2π)
60 15 60 15

 1 1
− sin 4t + sin t, 0 ≤ t < 2π
= 60 15


0, t ≥ 2π.

73. The differential equation is


dq
2.5 + 12.5q = 5U (t − 3).
dt
The Laplace transform of this equation is

2 −3s
sL {q} + 5L {q} = e .
s

Solving for L {q} we obtain


 
2 2 1 2 1
L {q} = e−3s = · − · e−3s .
s(s + 5) 5 s 5 s+5

Thus
2 2
q(t) = U (t − 3) − e−5(t−3) U (t − 3).
5 5
346 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

74. The differential equation is


dq
10 + 10q = 30et − 30et U (t − 1.5).
dt

The Laplace transform of this equation is

3 3e1.5 −1.5s
sL {q} − q0 + L {q} = − e .
s − 1 s − 1.5

Solving for L {q} we obtain


   
3 1 3 1 1.5 −2/5 2/5
L {q} = q0 − · + · − 3e + e−1.5s .
2 s+1 2 s−1 s + 1 s − 1.5

Thus  
3 −t 3 t 6 1.5  −(t−1.5) 1.5(t−1.5)

q(t) = q0 − e + e + e e −e U (t − 1.5).
2 2 5

75. (a) The differential equation is


   
di 3π 3π
+ 10i = sin t + cos t − U t− , i(0) = 0.
dt 2 2

The Laplace transform of this equation is

1 se−3πs/2
sL {i} + 10L {i} = + .
s2 + 1 s2 + 1

Solving for L {i} we obtain


1 s
L {i} = + 2 e−3πs/2
(s2
+ 1)(s + 10) (s + 1)(s + 10)
   
1 1 s 10 1 −10 10s 1
= − + + + + e−3πs/2 .
101 s + 10 s2 + 1 s2 + 1 101 s + 10 s2 + 1 s2 + 1

Thus
1 
i(t) = e−10t − cos t + 10 sin t
101
      
1 −10(t−3π/2) 3π 3π 3π
+ −10e + 10 cos t − + sin t − U t− .
101 2 2 2

(b) x i
0.2

t
1 2 3 4 5 6

–0.2

The maximum value of i(t) is approximately 0.1 at t = 1.7, the minimum is approxi-
mately −0.1 at 4.7.
4.3 Translation Theorems 347

76. (a) The differential equation is


dq 1
50 + q = E0 [U (t − 1) − U (t − 3)], q(0) = 0
dt 0.01
or
dq
50+ 100q = E0 [U (t − 1) − U (t − 3)], q(0) = 0.
dt
The Laplace transform of this equation is
 
1 −s 1 −3s
50sL {q} + 100L {q} = E0 e − e .
s s
Solving for L {q} we obtain
       
E0 e−s e−3s E0 1 1 1 −s 1 1 1 −3s
L {q} = − = − e − − e .
50 s(s + 2) s(s + 2) 50 2 s s + 2 2 s s+2
Thus
E0 h    i
q(t) = 1 − e−2(t−1) U (t − 1) − 1 − e−2(t−3) U (t − 3) .
100
(b) x q
1

t
1 2 3 4 5 6

The maximum value of q(t) is approximately 1 at t = 3.

77. The differential equation is


 
d4 y L
EI 4 = w0 [1 − U x− ].
dx 2

Taking the Laplace transform of both sides and using y(0) = y ′ (0) = 0 we obtain
w0 1  
s4 L {y} − sy ′′ (0) − y ′′′ (0) = 1 − e−Ls/2 .
EI s
Letting y ′′ (0) = c1 and y ′′′ (0) = c2 we have
c1 c2 w0 1  −Ls/2

+
L {y} = + 1 − e
s3 s4 EI s5
so that "    #
1 2 1 3 1 w0 4 L 4 L
y(x) = c1 x + c2 x + x − x− U x− .
2 6 24 EI 2 2

To find c1 and c2 we compute


"  2  #
1 w0 L L
y ′′ (x) = c1 + c2 x + x2 − x − U x−
2 EI 2 2
and     
′′′ w0 L L
y (x) = c2 + x− x− U x− .
EI 2 2
Then y ′′ (L) = y ′′′ (L) = 0 yields the system
348 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

"  2 #
1 w0 2 L 3 w0 L2
c1 + c2 L + L − =0 c1 + c2 L + =0
2 EI 2 8 EI
or
  1 w0 L
w0 L c2 + = 0.
c2 + = 0. 2 EI
EI 2

Solving for c1 and c2 we obtain c1 = w0 L2 /8EI and c2 = −w0 L/2EI. Thus


"  4  #
w0 1 2 2 1 1 1 L L
y(x) = L x − Lx3 + x4 − x− U x− .
EI 16 12 24 24 2 2

78. The differential equation is


    
d4 y L 2L
EI 4 = w0 U x − −U x− .
dx 3 3

Taking the Laplace transform of both sides and using y(0) = y ′ (0) = 0 we obtain
w0 1  −Ls/3 
s4 L {y} − sy ′′ (0) − y ′′′ (0) = e − e−2Ls/3 .
EI s

Letting y ′′ (0) = c1 and y ′′′ (0) = c2 we have


c1 c2 w0 1  −Ls/3 −2Ls/3

L {y} = 3 + + e − e
s s4 EI s5
so that
" 4    4  #
1 1 1 w0 L L 2L 2L
y(x) = c1 x2 + c2 x3 + x− U x− − x− U x− .
2 6 24 EI 3 3 3 3

To find c1 and c2 we compute


" 2    2  #
′′ 1 w0 L L 2L 2L
y (x) = c1 + c2 x + x− U x− − x− U x−
2 EI 3 3 3 3

and        
w0 L L 2L 2L
y ′′′ (x) = c2 + x− U x− − x− U x− .
EI 3 3 3 3

Then y ′′ (L) = y ′′′ (L) = 0 yields the system

" 2  2 #
1 w0 2L L 1 w0 L2
c1 + c2 L + − =0 c1 + c2 L + =0
2 EI 3 3 6 EI
or
  1 w0 L
w0 2L L c2 + = 0.
c2 + − = 0. 3 EI
EI 3 3
4.3 Translation Theorems 349

Solving for c1 and c2 we obtain c1 = w0 L2 /6EI and c2 = −w0 L/3EI. Thus



w0 1 2 2 1
y(x) = L x − Lx3
EI 12 18
"       #!
1 L 4 L 2L 4 2L
+ x− U x− − x− U x− .
24 3 3 3 3

79. The differential equation is


    
d4 y 2w0 L L L
EI 4 = −x+ x− U x− .
dx L 2 2 2

Taking the Laplace transform of both sides and using y(0) = y ′ (0) = 0 we obtain
 
4 ′′ ′′′ 2w0 L 1 1 −Ls/2
s L {y} − sy (0) − y (0) = − + e .
EIL 2s s2 s2

Letting y ′′ (0) = c1 and y ′′′ (0) = c2 we have


 
c1 c2 2w0 L 1 1 −Ls/2
L {y} = 3 + 4 + − + e
s s EIL 2s5 s6 s6

so that
"    #
1 2 1 3 2w0 L 4 1 5 1 L 5 L
y(x) = c1 x + c2 x + x − x + x− U x−
2 6 EIL 48 120 120 2 2
"  5  #
1 1 w0 5L L L
= c1 x2 + c2 x3 + x4 − x5 + x − U x− .
2 6 60EIL 2 2 2

To find c1 and c2 we compute


"    #
′′ w0 2 3 L 3 L
y (x) = c1 + c2 x + 30Lx − 20x + 20 x − U x−
60EIL 2 2

and "  2  #
w0 L L
y ′′′ (x) = c2 + 60Lx − 60x2 + 60 x − U x− .
60EIL 2 2

Then y ′′ (L) = y ′′′ (L) = 0 yields the system

 
w0 5 5w0 L2
c1 + c2 L + 30L3 − 20L3 + L3 = 0 c1 + c2 L + =0
60EIL 2 24EI
or
w0 w0 L
c2 + [60L2 − 60L2 + 15L2 ] = 0. c2 + = 0.
60EIL 4EI
350 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

Solving for c1 and c2 we obtain c1 = w0 L2 /24EI and c2 = −w0 L/4EI. Thus


"  5  #
w0 L2 2 w0 L 3 w0 5L 4 L L
y(x) = x − x + x − x5 + x − U x− .
48EI 24EI 60EIL 2 2 2

80. The differential equation is


  
d4 y L
EI 4 = w0 1 − U x − .
dx 2

Taking the Laplace transform of both sides and using y(0) = y ′ (0) = 0 we obtain

w0 1  
s4 L {y} − sy ′′ (0) − y ′′′ (0) = 1 − e−Ls/2 .
EI s

Letting y ′′ (0) = c1 and y ′′′ (0) = c2 we have

c1 c2 w0 1  −Ls/2

L {y} = + + 1 − e
s3 s4 EI s5

so that "  4  #
1 1 1 w0 L L
y(x) = c1 x2 + c2 x3 + x4 − x − U x− .
2 6 24 EI 2 2

To find c1 and c2 we compute


"    #
′′ 1 w0 2 L 2 L
y (x) = c1 + c2 x + x − x− U x− .
2 EI 2 2

Then y(L) = y ′′ (L) = 0 yields the system

"  4 #
1 2 1 3 1 w0 4 L
c1 L + c2 L + L − =0 1 1 5w0
2 6 24 EI 2 c1 L2 + c2 L3 + L4 = 0
2 6 128EI
" or
 2 # 3w0 2
1 w0 2 L c1 + c2 L + L = 0.
c1 + c2 L + L − = 0. 8EI
2 EI 2

9 57
Solving for c1 and c2 we obtain c1 = 128 w0 L2 /EI and c2 = − 128 w0 L/EI. Thus
"  4  #
w0 9 2 2 19 1 1 L L
y(x) = L x − Lx3 + x4 − x− U x− .
EI 256 256 24 24 2 2
4.3 Translation Theorems 351

81. (a) The temperature T of the cake inside the oven is modeled by
dT
= k(T − Tm )
dt
where Tm is the ambient temperature of the oven. For 0 ≤ t ≤ 4, we have
300 − 70
Tm = 70 + t = 70 + 57.5t.
4−0
Hence for t ≥ 0,
(
70 + 57.5t, 0≤t<4
Tm =
300, t ≥ 4.
In terms of the unit step function,

Tm = (70 + 57.5t)[1 − U (t − 4)] + 300U (t − 4) = 70 + 57.5t + (230 − 57.5t)U (t − 4).

The initial-value problem is then


dT
= k[T − 70 − 57.5t − (230 − 57.5t)U (t − 4)], T (0) = 70.
dt
(b) Let t(s) = L {T (t)}. Transforming the equation, using 230 − 57.5t = −57.5(t − 4) and
Theorem 4.3.2, gives
 
70 57.5 57.5 −4s
st(s) − 70 = k t(s) − − 2 + 2 e
s s s
or
70 70k 57.5k 57.5k
t(s) = − − 2 + 2 e−4s .
s − k s(s − k) s (s − k) s (s − k)
After using partial functions, the inverse transform is then
   
1 1 kt 1 1 k(t−4)
T (t) = 70 + 57.5 +t− e − 57.5 +t−4− e U (t − 4).
k k k k
Of course, the obvious question is: What is k? If the cake is supposed to bake for, say,
20 minutes, then T (20) = 300. That is,
   
1 1 20k 1 1 16k
300 = 70 + 57.5 + 20 − e − 57.5 + 16 − e .
k k k k
But this equation has no physically meaningful solution. This should be no surprise
since the model predicts the asymptotic behavior T (t) → 300 as t increases. Using
T (20) = 299 instead, we find, with the help of a CAS, that k ≈ −0.3.

82. In order to apply Theorem 4.3.2 we need the function to have the form f (t − a)U (t − a). To
accomplish this rewrite the functions given in the forms shown below.

(a) 2t + 1 = 2(t − 1 + 1) + 1 = 2(t − 1) + 3 (b) et = et−5+5 = e5 et−5

(c) cos t = − cos(t − π) (d) t2 − 3t = (t − 2)2 + (t − 2) − 2


352 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

83. (a) From Theorem 4.3.1 we have L {tekti } = 1/(s − ki)2 . Then, using Euler’s formula,

L {tekti } = L {t cos kt + it sin kt} = L {t cos kt} + iL {t sin kt}

1 (s + ki)2 s2 − k 2 2ks
= 2
= 2 2 2
= 2 2 2
+i 2 .
(s − ki) (s + k ) (s + k ) (s + k2 )2

Equating real and imaginary parts we have

s2 − k 2 2ks
L {t cos kt} = and L {t sin kt} = .
(s2 + k2 )2 (s2 + k2 )2

(b) The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


s
s2 L {x} + ω 2 L {x} = .
s2 + ω2

Solving for L {x} we obtain L {x} = s/(s2 + ω 2 )2 . Thus x = (1/2ω)t sin ωt.

4.4 Additional Operational Properties

   
−10t d 1 1 3 t d3 3 1 6
1. L {te }=− = 2. L {t e } = (−1) =
ds s + 10 (s + 10)2 ds3 s−1 (s − 1)4
   
d s s2 − 4 d 3 6s
3. L {t cos 2t} = − = 4. L {t sinh 3t} = − =
ds 2
s +4 (s2 + 4) 2 ds 2
s −9 (s2 − 9)2
 
2 d2 1 6s2 + 2
5. L {t sinh t} = 2 =
ds 2
(s2 − 1)3
s −1
    
2 d2 s d 1 − s2 2s s2 − 3
6. L {t cos t} = 2 = =
ds s2 + 1 ds (s2 + 1)2 (s2 + 1)3
 
 2t d 6 12(s − 2)
7. L te sin 6t = − =
ds (s − 2)2 + 36 [(s − 2)2 + 36]2
 
 d s+3 (s + 3)2 − 9
8. L te−3t cos 3t = − =
2
ds (s + 3) + 9 [(s + 3)2 + 9]2
9. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is

2s
sL {y} + L {y} = .
(s2 + 1)2

Solving for L {y} we obtain

2s 1 1 1 1 1 s 1 s
L {y} = 2 2
=− − 2
+ 2
+ 2 2
+ 2 .
(s + 1)(s + 1) 2 s + 1 2 s + 1 2 s + 1 (s + 1) (s + 1)2
4.4 Additional Operational Properties 353

Thus

1 1 1 1 1
y(t) = − e−t − sin t + cos t + (sin t − t cos t) + t sin t
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
= − e−t + cos t − t cos t + t sin t.
2 2 2 2

10. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is

2(s − 1)
sL {y} − L {y} = .
((s − 1)2 + 1)2

Solving for L {y} we obtain


2
L {y} = .
((s − 1)2 + 1)2

Thus
y = et sin t − tet cos t.

11. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is

s
s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) + 9L {y} = .
s2 +9

Letting y(0) = 2 and y ′ (0) = 5 and solving for L {y} we obtain

2s3 + 5s2 + 19s − 45 2s 5 s


L {y} = = 2 + + .
(s2 + 9)2 s + 9 s2 + 9 (s2 + 9)2

Thus
5 1
y = 2 cos 3t + sin 3t + t sin 3t.
3 6

12. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is

1
s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) + L {y} = .
s2 +1

Solving for L {y} we obtain

s3 − s2 + s s 1 1
L {y} = 2 2
= 2 − 2 + 2 .
(s + 1) s + 1 s + 1 (s + 1)2

Thus  
1 1 1 1
y = cos t − sin t + sin t − t cos t = cos t − sin t − t cos t.
2 2 2 2
354 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

13. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is

s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) + 16L {y} = L {cos 4t − cos 4tU (t − π)}

or by (16) of Section 4.3 in the text,


s
(s2 + 16)L {y} = 1 + − e−πs L {cos 4(t + π)}
s2 + 16
s s s
=1+ 2 − e−πs L {cos 4t} = 1 + 2 − 2 e−πs .
s + 16 s + 16 s + 16

Thus
1 s s
L {y} = + − 2 e−πs
s2 + 16 (s2 + 16)2 (s + 16)2
and
1 1 1
y= sin 4t + t sin 4t − (t − π) sin 4(t − π)U (t − π).
4 8 8

14. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


n  π  π o
s2 L {y} − sy(0) − y ′ (0) + L {y} = L 1−U t− + sin tU t −
2 2
or
1 1 −πs/2 n  π o
(s2 + 1)L {y} = s + − e + e−πs/2 L sin t +
s s 2
1 1 −πs/2
= s+ − e + e−πs/2 L {cos t}
s s
1 1 −πs/2 s
= s+ − e + 2 e−πs/2 .
s s s +1

Thus
s 1 1 s
L {y} = + − e−πs/2 + 2 e−πs/2
s2 2 2
+ 1 s(s + 1) s(s + 1) (s + 1)2
 
s 1 s 1 s s
= 2 + − 2 − − 2 e−πs/2 + 2 e−πs/2
s +1 s s +1 s s +1 (s + 1)2
 
1 1 s s
= − − 2 e−πs/2 + 2 e−πs/2
s s s +1 (s + 1)2

and
h  π i  π 1  π  π  π
y = 1 − 1 − cos t − U t− + t− sin t − U t−
2 2 2 2 2 2
 π  1  π   π 
= 1 − (1 − sin t)U t − − t− cos tU t − .
2 2 2 2
4.4 Additional Operational Properties 355

15. x y 16. x y
1
4
0.5 2
t t
1 2 3 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
–0.5 –2

–1 –4

17. From (7) of Section 4.2 in the text along with Theorem 4.4.1,
d d dY
L {ty ′′ } = − L {y ′′ } = − [s2 Y (s) − sy(0) − y ′ (0)] = −s2 − 2sY + y(0),
ds ds ds
so that the transform of the given second-order differential equation is the linear first-order
differential equation in Y (s):
4 3 4
s2 Y ′ + 3sY = − or Y′+ Y =− 5.
s3 s s

The solution of the latter equation is Y (s) = 4/s4 + c/s3 , so


2 3 c 2
y(t) = L −1 {Y (s)} = t + t .
3 2
18. From Theorem 4.4.1 in the text
d d dY
L {ty ′ } = − L {y ′ } = − [sY (s) − y(0)] = −s −Y
ds ds ds
so that the transform of the given second-order differential equation is the linear first-order
differential equation in Y (s):
 
′ 3 10
Y + − 2s Y = − .
s s
2
Using the integrating factor s3 e−s , the last equation yields
5 c 2
Y (s) = 3
+ 3 es .
s s
But if Y (s) is the Laplace transform of a piecewise-continuous function of exponential order,
we must have, in view of Theorem 4.2.3, lim Y (s) = 0. In order to obtain this condition we
s→∞
require c = 0. Hence  
5 5
y(t) = L −1
3
= t2 .
s 2

19. Identify f (τ ) = 4τ and g(t − τ ) = 3 (t − τ )2 . Therefore,


Z t Z t  
2 1 2 1 3 1 4
2 
f ∗g = (4τ ) 3 (t − τ ) dτ = 12 2 2 3
t τ − 2tτ + τ dτ = 12 t · t − 2t · t + t = t4
0 0 2 3 4

Then
 4! 24
L {f ∗ g} = L t4 = 5 = 5
s s
356 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

20. Identify f (τ ) = τ and g(t − τ ) = e−t+τ . Therefore,


Z t Z t 
f ∗g = −t+τ
τe dτ = e −t
τ eτ dτ = e−t tet − et + 1 = t − 2 + e−t
0 0

Then
 1 1 1 1
L {f ∗ g} = L t − 1 + e−t = 2 − + = 2
s 2 s+1 s (s + 1)

21. Identify f (τ ) = e−τ and g(t − τ ) = et−τ . Therefore,


Z t Z t  
1 1 1 1
f ∗g = e−τ et−τ dτ = et e−2τ dτ = et · − e−2t + = − e−t + et
0 0 2 2 2 2

Then  
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
L {f ∗ g} = L − e−t + et = − + = 2
2 2 2 s+1 2 s−1 s −1

22. Identify f (τ ) = cos 2τ and g(t − τ ) = et−τ . Therefore,


Z t Z t  
t−τ t −τ t 1 1 2
f ∗g = (cos 2τ ) e dτ = e e cos 2τ dτ = e · − e−t cos 2t + + e−t sin 2t
0 0 5 5 5
1 2 1
= − cos 2t + sin 2t + et
5 5 5

Then
 
1 2 1 t
L {f ∗ g} = L − cos 2t + sin 2t + e
5 5 5
1 s 2 2 1 1 s
=− 2
+ 2
+ =
5 s +4 5 s +4 5 s−1 (s − 1) (s2 + 4)

1 3!s4 6  2
24. L t2 ∗ tet =

23. L 1 ∗ t3 = s3 (s − 1)2
s = s5
 s−1  2t 1
25. L e−t ∗ et cos t = 26. L e ∗ sin t =
(s + 1) [(s − 1)2 + 1] (s − 2)(s2 + 1)
Z t 
τ 1 1
27. L = L {et } =
e dτ
0 s s(s − 1)
Z t 
1 s 1
28. L cos τ dτ = L {cos t} = 2 + 1)
= 2
0 s s(s s +1
Z t 
1  1 s+1 s+1
29. L −τ
e cos τ dτ = L e−t cos t = 2
= 2
0 s s (s + 1) + 1 s (s + 2s + 2)
Z t   
1 1 d 1 1 −2s 2
30. L τ sin τ dτ = L {t sin t} = − =− 2 =
0 s s 2
ds s + 1 s (s2 + 1) (s2 + 1)2
4.4 Additional Operational Properties 357

Z t 
t−τ 1
31. L τe dτ = L {t}L {et } =
0 s2 (s − 1)
Z t 
s
32. L sin τ cos (t − τ ) dτ = L {sin t}L {cos t} =
0 (s2 + 1)2
 Z t  Z t   
d d 1 1 3s2 + 1
33. L t sin τ dτ = − L sin τ dτ = − =
0 ds 0 ds s s2 + 1 s2 (s2 + 1)2
 Z t  Z t   
d d 1 1 3s + 1
34. L t τ e−τ dτ = − L τ e−τ dτ = − 2
= 2
0 ds 0 ds s (s + 1) s (s + 1)3
    Z t
1 −1 1/(s − 1)
35. L −1
=L = eτ dτ = et − 1
s(s − 1) s 0
    Z t
1 −1 1/s(s − 1)
36. L −1
=L = (eτ − 1) dτ = et − t − 1
s2 (s − 1) s 0
   2
 Z t
1 −1 1/s (s − 1) 1
37. L −1
3
=L = (eτ − τ − 1) dτ = et − t2 − t − 1
s (s − 1) s 0 2
 
1
38. Using L −1 = teat , (8) in the text gives
(s − a)2
  Z t
1 1
L −1
2
= τ eaτ dτ = 2 (ateat − eat + 1).
s(s − a) 0 a

39. (a) The result in (4) in the text is L −1 {F (s)G(s)} = f ∗ g, so identify

2k3 4s
F (s) = and G(s) = .
(s2 + k2 )2 s2 + k2

Then
f (t) = sin kt − kt cos kt and g(t) = 4 cos kt

so
  Z t
−1 8k3 s −1
L =L {F (s)G(s)} = f ∗ g = 4 f (τ )g(t − τ ) dt
(s2 + k2 )3 0
Z t
=4 (sin kτ − kτ cos kτ ) cos k(t − τ ) dτ.
0

Using a CAS to evaluate the integral we get


 
8k3 s
L −1
= t sin kt − kt2 cos kt.
(s2 + k2 )3

(b) Observe from part (a) that

8k3 s
L {t(sin kt − kt cos kt)} = ,
(s2 + k2 )3
358 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

and from Theorem 4.4.1 that L {tf (t)} = −F ′ (s). We saw in (5) in the text that

L {sin kt − kt cos kt} = 2k3 /(s2 + k2 )2 ,

so
d 2k3 8k3 s
L {t(sin kt − kt cos kt)} = − = .
ds (s2 + k2 )2 (s2 + k2 )3

40. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


y
1 2s
s2 L {y} + L {y} = + 2 .
(s2 + 1) (s + 1)2 50

Thus
1 2s 5 10 15 t
L {y} = + 2
(s2 + 1)2 (s + 1)3 –50

and, using Problem 39 with k = 1,


1 1
y = (sin t − t cos t) + (t sin t − t2 cos t).
2 4
41. The Laplace transform of the given equation is

L {f } + L {t}L {f } = L {t}.

1
Solving for L {f } we obtain L {f } = . Thus, f (t) = sin t.
s2 +1
42. The Laplace transform of the given equation is

L {f } = L {2t} − 4L {sin t}L {f }.

Solving for L {f } we obtain



2s2 + 2 2 1 8 5
L {f } = 2 2 = 2
+ √ 2 .
s (s + 5) 5s 5 5 s +5

Thus
2 8 √
f (t) = t + √ sin 5 t.
5 5 5
43. The Laplace transform of the given equation is

L {f } = L tet + L {t}L {f }.

Solving for L {f } we obtain


s2 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 1
L {f } = = + + − .
(s − 1)3 (s + 1) 8 s − 1 4 (s − 1)2 4 (s − 1)3 8 s+1

Thus
1 3 1 1
f (t) = et + tet + t2 et − e−t
8 4 4 8
4.4 Additional Operational Properties 359

44. The Laplace transform of the given equation is



L {f } + 2L {cos t}L {f } = 4L e−t + L {sin t}.

Solving for L {f } we obtain

4s2 + s + 5 4 7 2
L {f } = 3
= − 2
+4 .
(s + 1) s + 1 (s + 1) (s + 1)3

Thus
f (t) = 4e−t − 7te−t + 4t2 e−t .

45. The Laplace transform of the given equation is

L {f } + L {1}L {f } = L {1}.

1
Solving for L {f } we obtain L {f } = . Thus, f (t) = e−t .
s+1
46. The Laplace transform of the given equation is

L {f } = L {cos t} + L e−t L {f }.

Solving for L {f } we obtain


s 1
L {f } = + .
s2 + 1 s2 + 1

Thus
f (t) = cos t + sin t.

47. The Laplace transform of the given equation is


 Z t 
8 3
L {f } = L {1} + L {t} − L (t − τ ) f (τ ) dτ
3 0
1 1 8 1 1 16
= + 2 + L {t3 }L {f } = + 2 + 4 L {f }.
s s 3 s s s

Solving for L {f } we obtain

s2 (s + 1) 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 s
L {f } = 4
= + + + .
s − 16 8 s + 2 8 s − 2 4 s + 4 2 s2 + 4
2

Thus
1 −2t 3 2t 1 1
f (t) = e + e + sin 2t + cos 2t.
8 8 4 2
360 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

48. The Laplace transform of the given equation is



L {t} − 2L {f } = L et − e−t L {f }.

Solving for L {f } we obtain


s2 − 1 1 1 1 3!
L {f } = = − .
2s4 2 s2 12 s4
Thus
1 1
f (t) = t − t3 .
2 12
49. The Laplace transform of the given equation is

sL {y} − y(0) = L {1} − L {sin t} − L {1}L {y}.

Solving for L {y} we obtain


s2 − s + 1 1 1 2s
L {y} = 2 2
= 2 − .
(s + 1) s + 1 2 (s + 1)2
2

Thus
1
y = sin t − t sin t.
2
50. The Laplace transform of the given equation is

sL {y} − y(0) + 6L {y} + 9L {1}L {y} = L {1}.


1
Solving for L {y} we obtain L {y} = . Thus, y = te−3t .
(s + 3)2
51. The differential equation is
i
Z t 30
di 1
0.1 + 3i + i(τ ) dτ = 100 [U (t − 1) − U (t − 2)] 20
dt 0.05 0
10
or
Z t t
di 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
+ 30i + 200 i(τ ) dτ = 1000 [U (t − 1) − U (t − 2)] ,
dt 0
–10

–20
where i(0) = 0. The Laplace transform of the differential
equation is –30

200 1000 −s
sL {i} − y(0) + 30L {i} + L {i} = (e − e−2s ).
s s

Solving for L {i} we obtain


 
1000e−s − 1000e−2s 100 100
L {i} = = − (e−s − e−2s ).
s2 + 30s + 200 s + 10 s + 20

Thus
   
i(t) = 100 e−10(t−1) − e−20(t−1) U (t − 1) − 100 e−10(t−2) − e−20(t−2) U (t − 2).
4.4 Additional Operational Properties 361

52. The differential equation is


i
Z t
di 1 2
0.005 +i+ i(τ ) dτ = 100 [t − (t − 1)U (t − 1)]
dt 0.02 0
1.5
or
Z t 1
di
+ 200i + 10,000 i(τ ) dτ = 20,000 [t − (t − 1)U (t − 1)] ,
dt 0
0.5
where i(0) = 0. The Laplace transform of the differential
equation is t
0.5 1 1.5 2
 
10,000 1 1 −s
sL {i} + 200L {i} + L {i} = 20,000 − e .
s s2 s2

Solving for L {i} we obtain

 
20,000 −s 2 2 200
L {i} = (1 − e ) = − − (1 − e−s ).
s(s + 100)2 s s + 100 (s + 100)2

Thus

i(t) = 2− 2e−100t − 200te−100t − 2U (t − 1)+ 2e−100(t−1) U (t − 1)+ 200(t − 1)e−100(t−1) U (t − 1).

n 2
o
53. Let L e−t = F (s) then

 n 2o
L y ′′ + 9L {y} = 3L e−t

s2 Y (s) + 9Y (s) = 3F (s)


3
Y (s) = · F (s)
s2 +9

Now take the inverse transform and use the inverse form of the convolution theorem to get

  Z t
3 −t2 2
y(t) = L −1 · F (s) = sin 3t ∗ e = sin 3τ e−(t−τ ) dτ
s2 + 9 0

or
  Z t
−1 3 −t2 2
y(t) = L F (s) · 2
=e ∗ sin 3t = e−τ sin 3 (t − τ ) dτ
s +9 0
362 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

54. Take the transform of both sides of the equation to get


 Z t 

L {f (t)} = L et + L t
e · −τ
f (τ )e dτ
0

1   
F (s) = + L f (t)e−t L {1} s→s−1
s−1
1   
F (s) = + L f (t)e−t s→s−1 · [L {1}]s→s−1
s−1
 
1
F (s) = f rac1s − 1 + [F (s + 1)]s→s−1 ·
s s→s−1
1 1
F (s) = + F (s) ·
s−1 s−1

Solve the last equation for F (s) to get F (s) = 1/ (s − 2) therefore f (t) = e2t .
Z a Z 2a 
1 −st −st (1 − e−as )2 1 − e−as
55. L {f (t)} = e dt − e dt = =
1 − e−2as 0 a s(1 − e−2as ) s(1 + e−as )
Z a
1 1
56. L {f (t)} = e−st dt =
1 − e−2as 0 s(1 + e−as )

57. Using integration by parts,


Z b  
1 a −st a 1 1
L {f (t)} = te dt = − bs .
1 − e−bs 0 b s bs e − 1

Z 1 Z 2 
1 −st −st 1 − e−s
58. L {f (t)} = te dt + (2 − t)e dt =
1 − e−2s 0 1 s2 (1 − e−2s )
Z π
1 1 eπs/2 + e−πs/2 1 πs
59. L {f (t)} = e−st sin t dt = 2
· πs/2
= 2 coth
1 − e−πs 0 s +1 e −e −πs/2 s +1 2
Z π
1 1 1
60. L {f (t)} = e−st sin t dt = ·
1 − e−2πs 0 s2 + 1 1 − e−πs

61. The differential equation is L di/dt + Ri = E(t), where i(0) = 0. The Laplace transform of
the equation is
LsL {i} + RL {i} = L {E(t)}.

From Problem 55 we have L {E(t)} = (1 − e−s )/s(1 + e−s ). Thus

1 − e−s
(Ls + R)L {i} =
s(1 + e−s )
4.4 Additional Operational Properties 363

and
1 1 − e−s 1 1 − e−s 1
L {i} = =
L s(s + R/L)(1 + e )
−s L s(s + R/L) 1 + e−s
 
1 1 1
= − (1 − e−s )(1 − e−s + e−2s − e−3s + e−4s − · · · )
R s s + R/L
 
1 1 1
= − (1 − 2e−s + 2e−2s − 2e−3s + 2e−4s − · · · ).
R s s + R/L

Therefore,
1   2  
i(t) = 1 − e−Rt/L − 1 − e−R(t−1)/L U (t − 1)
R R
2   2  
+ 1 − e−R(t−2)/L U (t − 2) − 1 − e−R(t−3)/L U (t − 3) + · · ·
R R
∞ 
1   2 X 
= 1 − e−Rt/L + 1 − e−R(t−n)/L U (t − n).
R R
n=1

The graph of i(t) with L = 1 and R = 1 is shown below.

i
1

0.5

t
1 2 3 4
–0.5

–1

62. The differential equation is L di/dt + Ri = E(t), where i(0) = 0. The Laplace transform of
the equation is
LsL {i} + RL {i} = L {E(t)}.

From Problem 57 we have


 
1 1 1 1 1 1
L {E(t)} = − s = 2
− .
s s e −1 s s es − 1

Thus
1 1 1
(Ls + R)L {i} = 2

s s es − 1
and
1 1 1 1 1
L {i} = 2
− s
L s (s + R/L) L s(s + R/L) e − 1
   
1 1 L 1 L 1 1 1 1 
= 2
− + − − e−s + e−2s + e−3s + · · · .
R s R s R s + R/L R s s + R/L
364 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

Therefore
 
1 L L −Rt/L 1  
i(t) = t− + e − 1 − e−R(t−1)/L U (t − 1)
R R R R
1   1  
−R(t−2)/L −R(t−3)/L
− 1−e U (t − 2) − 1−e U (t − 3) − · · ·
R R
  ∞
1 L L 1 X 
= t − + e−Rt/L − 1 − e−R(t−n)/L U (t − n).
R R R R n=1

The graph of i(t) with L = 1 and R = 1 is shown below.

i
1

0.5

t
1 2 3 4
–0.5

–1

63. The differential equation is x′′ + 2x′ + 10x = 20f (t), where f (t) is the meander function in
Problem 55 with a = π. Using the initial conditions x(0) = x′ (0) = 0 and taking the Laplace
transform we obtain
20 1
(s2 + 2s + 10)L {x(t)} = (1 − e−πs )
s 1 + e−πs
20
= (1 − e−πs )(1 − e−πs + e−2πs − e−3πs + · · · )
s
20
= (1 − 2e−πs + 2e−2πs − 2e−3πs + · · · )
s

20 40 X
= + (−1)n e−nπs .
s s
n=1

Then

20 40 X
L {x(t)} = 2
+ 2
(−1)n e−nπs
s(s + 2s + 10) s(s + 2s + 10)
n=1
∞  
2 2s + 4 X
n 4 4s + 8
= − 2 + (−1) − e−nπs
s s + 2s + 10 n=1 s s2 + 2s + 10
∞  
2 2(s + 1) + 2 X
n 1 (s + 1) + 1 −nπs
= − +4 (−1) − e
s (s + 1)2 + 9 s (s + 1)2 + 9
n=1
4.4 Additional Operational Properties 365

and
 
−t 1 −t
x(t) = 2 1 − e cos 3t − e sin 3t
3
∞  
X
n −(t−nπ) 1 −(t−nπ)
+4 (−1) 1 − e cos 3(t − nπ) − e sin 3(t − nπ) U (t − nπ).
n=1
3

The graph of x(t) is shown below.

π 2π t

–3

64. The differential equation is x′′ + 2x′ + x = 5f (t), where f (t) is the square wave function with
a = π. Using the initial conditions x(0) = x′ (0) = 0 and taking the Laplace transform, we
obtain

5 1 5 
(s2 + 2s + 1)L {x(t)} = = 1 − e−πs + e−2πs − e−3πs + e−4πs − · · ·
s 1+e −πs s

5X
= (−1)n e−nπs .
s
n=0

Then

∞ ∞  
5 X
n −nπs
X
n 1 1 1
L {x(t)} = (−1) e =5 (−1) − − e−nπs
s(s + 1)2 s s + 1 (s + 1)2
n=0 n=0

and

X
x(t) = 5 (−1)n (1 − e−(t−nπ) − (t − nπ)e−(t−nπ) )U (t − nπ).
n=0

The graph of x(t) is shown below.


366 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

2π 4π t

–5

R∞
65. By definition of the Laplace transform, L {f (t)} = 0 f (t)e−st dt. By rearranging factors in
R∞
the given integral, we get 0 (t sin 4t)e−2t dt which suggests we take f (t) = t sin 4t and get

Z ∞
8s
L {t sin 4t} = (t sin 4t)e−st dt = = F (s)
0 (s2 + 16)2

Now take s = 2 to get


Z ∞
8s
F (s) = (t sin 4t)e−st dt =
0 (s2 + 16)2
Z ∞
8(2) 1
F (2) = (t sin 4t)e−2t dt = 2 =
0 (22 + 16) 25

2
66. (a) Substitute y = e−t into the differential equation to get

d  −t2  2 2 2
e + 2te−t = −2te−t + 2te−t = 0
dt

Note also that y(0) = e0 = 1.

(b) Take the transform of the differential equation to get

dY (s)
sY (s) − 1 − 2 =0
ds
 
dY (s) −s 1
+ Y (s) = −
ds 2 2

n 2
o R∞ 2 √
where Y (s) = L e−t . Note that Y (0) = 0 e−t · 1 dt = π/2. Now the transformed
2 /4
equation is a linear first-order equation in Y (s) with integrating factor e−s therefore
4.4 Additional Operational Properties 367

we have
 
dY (s) −s 1
+ Y (s) = −
ds 2 2
dY (s)
2 /4 2 1 2
e−s + (−s2) e−s /4 Y (s) = − e−s /4
ds 2
d  2
 1 2
e−s /4 Y (s) = − e−s /4
ds 2
Z
−s2 /4 1 s −u2 /4
e Y (s) = − e du + C
2 0
Z
1 s2 /4 s −u2 /4 2
Y (s) = − e e du + Ces /4
2 0

From the last equation we have√Y (0) = C = π/2 therefore
R s
Y (s) = − 21 es /4 0 e−u /4 du + 2π es /4 . Now use the substitution v = s/2 to get
2 2 2

Z √
1 s2 /4 s −u2 /4 π s2 /4
Y (s) = − e e du + e
2 0 2
Z √
1 s2 /4 s/2 −v2 π s2 /4
=− e e · 2 dv + e
2 0 2
Z s/2 √
s2 /4 −v2 π s2 /4
= −e e dv + e
0 2
√  s  √π 2
s2 /4 π
= −e · erf + es /4
2 2 2
√ s
π s2 /4
= e · erfc
2 2
n 2 o √π 2 s
That is, Y (s) = L e−t = es /4 · erfc .
2 2
   
1 −1 d 1 −1 1 1
67. f (t) = − L [ln(s − 3) − ln(s + 1)] = − L −
t ds t s−3 s+1
1 3t 
=− e − e−t
t
68. The transform of Bessel’s equation is
d 2 d
− [s Y (s) − sy(0) − y ′ (0)] + sY (s) − y(0) − Y (s) = 0
ds ds
or, after simplifying and using the initial condition, (s2 + 1)Y ′ + sY = 0. This equation is

both separable and linear. Solving gives Y (s) = c/ s2 + 1 . Now Y (s) = L {J0 (t)}, where
J0 has a derivative that is continuous and of exponential order, implies by Problem 46 of
Exercises 4.2 that
s
1 = J0 (0) = lim sY (s) = c lim √ =c
s→∞ s→∞ s + k2
2
368 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

so c = 1 and
1 1
Y (s) = √ or L {J0 (t)} = √ .
s2+1 2
s +1

69. (a) Using Theorem 4.4.1, the Laplace transform of the differential equation is

d  2  d
− s Y − sy(0) − y ′ (0) + sY − y(0) + [sY − y(0)] + nY
ds ds
d  2  d
=− s Y + sY + [sY ] + nY
ds ds
   
2 dY dY
= −s − 2sY + sY + s + Y + nY
ds ds
 
2 dY
= (s − s ) + (1 + n − s)Y = 0.
ds

Separating variables, we find


 
dY 1+n−s n 1+n
= ds = − ds
Y s2 − s s−1 s

ln Y = n ln (s − 1) − (1 + n) ln s + c

(s − 1)n
Y = c1 .
s1+n

Since the differential equation is homogeneous, any constant multiple of a solution will
still be a solution, so for convenience we take c1 = 1. The following polynomials are
solutions of Laguerre’s differential equation:
 
−1 1
n=0: L0 (t) = L =1
s
   
−1 s − 1 −1 1 1
n=1: L1 (t) = L =L − =1−t
s2 s s2
 2
  
−1 (s − 1) −1 1 2 1 1
n=2: L2 (t) = L 3
=L − 2 + 3 = 1 − 2t + t2
s s s s 2
   
(s − 1)3 1 3 3 1 3 1
n=3: L3 (t) = L −1 4
= L −1 − 2 + 3 − 4 = 1 − 3t + t2 − t3
s s s s s 2 6
   
(s − 1)4 1 4 6 4 1
n=4: L4 (t) = L −1 5
= L −1 − 2+ 3− 4+ 5
s s s s s s
2 1
= 1 − 4t + 3t2 − t3 + t4 .
3 24
4.4 Additional Operational Properties 369

(b) Letting f (t) = tn e−t we note that f (k) (0) = 0 for k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n − 1 and f (n) (0) = n!.
Now, by the first translation theorem,
 
et dn n −t 1 1
= L {et f (n) (t)} = L {f (n) (t)}

L t e
n! dtn n! n!
s→s−1

1 h n i
= s L {tn e−t } − sn−1 f (0) − sn−2 f ′ (0) − · · · − f (n−1) (0)
n! s→s−1

1  n 
= s L {tn e−t } s→s−1
n!
 
1 n n! (s − 1)n
= s = = Y,
n! (s + 1)n+1 s→s−1 sn+1

where Y = L {Ln (t)}. Thus

et dn n −t
Ln (t) = (t e ), n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .
n! dtn

70. The output for the first three lines of the program are

9y[t] + 6y ′ [t] + y ′′ [t] == t sin[t]


2s
1 − 2s + 9Y + s2 Y + 6(−2 + sY ) ==
(1 + s2 )2
 
−11 − 4s − 22s2 − 4s3 − 11s4 − 2s5
Y →−
(1 + s2 )2 (9 + 6s + s2 )

The fourth line is the same as the third line with Y → removed. The final line of output
shows a solution involving complex coefficients of eit and e−it . To get the solution in more
standard form write the last line as two lines:

euler={Eˆ(It)−>Cos[t] + I Sin[t], Eˆ(-It)−>Cos[t] - I Sin[t]}


InverseLaplaceTransform[Y, s, t]/.euler//Expand

We see that the solution is


 
487 247 1
y(t) = + t e−3t + (13 cos t − 15t cos t − 9 sin t + 20t sin t) .
250 50 250

71. The solution is


p
1 1 √ 3/5 −t/2 √
y(t) = et − e−t/2 cos 15 t − e sin 15 t.
6 6 6
370 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

72. The solution is

q(t) = 1 − cos t + (6 − 6 cos t)U (t − 3π) − (4 + 4 cos t)U (t − π).

t
π 3π 5π
–5

4.5 The Dirac Delta Function

1. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields


1 −2s
L {y} = e
s−3
so that
y = e3(t−2) U (t − 2).

2. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields

2 e−s
L {y} = +
s+1 s+1
so that
y = 2e−t + e−(t−1) U (t − 1).

3. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields


1 
L {y} = 1 + e−2πs
s2 +1
so that
y = sin t + sin tU (t − 2π).

4. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields


1 4
L {y} = 2
e−2πs
4 s + 16
so that
1 1
y= sin 4(t − 2π)U (t − 2π) = sin 4tU (t − 2π).
4 4
5. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields
1  −πs/2 −3πs/2

L {y} = e + e
s2 + 1
4.5 The Dirac Delta Function 371

so that
    
π  π 3π 3π
y = sin t − U t− + sin t − U t−
2 2 2 2
 π   π 
= − cos tU t − + cos tU t − .
2 2

6. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields

s 1
L {y} = + 2 (e−2πs + e−4πs )
s2 +1 s +1

so that
y = cos t + sin t[U (t − 2π) + U (t − 4π)].

7. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields


 
1 −s 11 1 1
L {y} = 2 (1 + e ) = − (1 + e−s )
s + 2s 2 s 2 s+2

so that  
1 1 −2t 1 1 −2(t−1)
y= − e + − e U (t − 1).
2 2 2 2

8. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields


 
s+1 1 −2s 3 1 31 1 1 1 1 1 1 −2s
L {y} = 2 + e = − − + − e
s (s − 2) s(s − 2) 4 s − 2 4 s 2 s2 2 s−2 2 s

so that  
3 2t 3 1 1 2(t−2) 1
y = e − − t+ e − U (t − 2).
4 4 2 2 2

9. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields

1
L {y} = e−2πs
(s + 2)2 + 1

so that
y = e−2(t−2π) sin tU (t − 2π).

10. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields

1
L {y} = e−s
(s + 1)2

so that
y = (t − 1)e−(t−1) U (t − 1).
372 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

11. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields

4+s e−πs + e−3πs


L {y} = +
s2 + 4s + 13 s2 + 4s + 13
2 3 s+2 1 3 
= 2 2
+ 2 2
+ 2 2
e−πs + e−3πs
3 (s + 2) + 3 (s + 2) + 3 3 (s + 2) + 3

so that

2 −2t 1
y= e sin 3t + e−2t cos 3t + e−2(t−π) sin 3(t − π)U (t − π)
3 3
1
+ e−2(t−3π) sin 3(t − 3π)U (t − 3π).
3

12. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields

1 e−2s + e−4s
L {y} = +
(s − 1)2 (s − 6) (s − 1)(s − 6)
 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 −2s −4s

=− − + + − + e + e
25 s − 1 5 (s − 1)2 25 s − 6 5 s−1 5 s−6

so that
   
1 t 1 t 1 6t 1 t−2 1 6(t−2) 1 t−4 1 6(t−4)
y = − e − te + e + − e + e U (t − 2) + − e + e U (t − 4).
25 5 25 5 5 5 5

13. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields


X
L {y ′′ } + L {y} = L {δ (t − kπ)}
k=1
 X
s2 + 1 Y (s) = 1 + k = 1∞ e−kπs

X e−kπs ∞
1
Y (s) = 2 +
s +1 s2 + 1
k=1

so that

X
y(t) = sin t + sin (t − kπ)U (t − kπ)
k=1

X
= sin t + sin t (−1)k U (t − kπ) ←− sin (t − kπ) = (−1)k sin t
k=1

= sin t − sin tU (t − π) + sin tU (t − 2π) − sin tU (t − 3π) + sin tU (t − 4π) − · · ·


4.5 The Dirac Delta Function 373



 sin t, 0≤t<π





 0, π ≤ t < 2π



 sin t, 2π ≤ t < 3π

 y



 0, 3π ≤ t < 4π


 1
= sin t, 4π ≤ t < 5π




 0, 5π ≤ t < 6π

 t



 sin t, 6π ≤ t < 7π Π 2Π 3Π 4Π 5Π 6Π 7Π 8Π



 0, 7π ≤ t < 8π



...

The graph of y(t) given on the right is the half-wave rectification of sin t. Also, see Figure
4.4.11 in Exercises 4.4.

14. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields



X
L {y ′′ } + L {y} = L {δ (t − 2kπ)}
k=1
 X
s2 + 1 Y (s) = 1 + k = 1∞ e−2kπs

X e−2kπs ∞
1
Y (s) = 2 +
s +1 s2 + 1
k=1

so that

X
y(t) = sin t + sin (t − 2kπ)U (t − 2kπ)
k=1

X
= sin t + sin t (−1)k U (t − 2kπ) ←− sin (t − 2kπ) = sin t
k=1

= sin t + sin tU (t − 2π) + sin tU (t − 4π) + sin tU (t − 6π) + sin tU (t − 8π) + · · ·

y


 sin t, 0≤t<π

 4

2 sin t,

 2π ≤ t < 4π 3
 2
= 3 sin t, 4π ≤ t < 6π 1

 t
4 sin t,

 6π ≤ t < 8π -1 Π 2Π 3Π 4Π 5Π 6Π 7Π 8Π


..
 -2
. -3
-4
The graph of y(t) given on the right.
374 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

 
(4) w0 L
15. Take the transform of the equation y = δ x− and solve for Y (s) to get
EI 2
w0 (−L/2)s
s2 Y (s) − s3 y(0) − s2 y ′ (0) − sy ′′ (0) − y ′′′ (0) = e
EI
w0 (−L/2)s
s4 Y (s) − sy ′′ (0) − y ′′′ (0) = e
EI
1 ′′ 1 w0 1 (−L/2)s
Y (s) = 3
y (0) + 4 y ′′′ (0) + e
s s EI s4
   
1 ′′ 2 1 ′′′ 3 w0 L 3 L
The inverse transform is then y(x) = y (0)x + y (0)x + x− U x− .
2 6 6EI 2 2
Using the conditions y ′′ (L) = y ′′′ (L) = 0 to find y ′′ (0) and y ′′′ (0) we get
     
1 w0 L 2 1  w0  3 w0 L 3 L
y(x) = x − x + x− U x−
2 2EI 6 EI 6EI 2 2

We could also write the solution as


   w 
w0 L 2 0 L
x3 ,


 x − 0≤x<
 4EI
 6EI 2
y(x) =    


 w0 L 2
 w 
0 3 w0 L 3 L

 x − x + x − , ≤x≤L
4EI 6EI 6EI 2 2
   
1 ′′ 2 1 ′′′ 3 w0 L 3 L
16. From Problem 15 we have y(x) = y (0)x + y (0)x + x− U x− . Using
2 6 6EI 2 2
the conditions y(L) = y ′ (L) = 0 to find y ′′ (0) and y ′′′ (0) we get the system of equations

 2 ′′ 3 ′′′ w0 L3
(24L )y (0) + (8L )y (0) = − EI


 w L2
(8L)y ′′ (0) + (4L2 )y ′′′ (0) = − 0

EI

Solving the system leads to the solution


     
1 w0 L 2 1  w0  3 w0 L 3 L
y(x) = x + − x + x− U x−
2 8EI 6 2EI 6EI 2 2

We could also write the solution as


   w 
w0 L 2 0 L
x3 ,


 x − 0≤x<
 16EI
 12EI 2
y(x) = 
 w L
  w  w0
 
L 3 L
 0 2 0 3

 x − x + x− , ≤x≤L
16EI 12EI 6EI 2 2

17. You should disagree. Although formal manipulations of the Laplace transform lead to
y(t) = 31 e−t sin 3t in both cases, this function does not satisfy the initial condition y ′ (0) = 0
of the second initial-value problem.
4.6 Systems of Linear Differential Equations 375

18. From (7) in (i) of the Remarks it follows with the identifications f (t) = et e−st = e(1−s)t and
t0 = 1 that
Z ∞

L et δ (t − 1) = e(1−s)t δ (t − 1) dt = f (1) = e1−s = ee−s .
0

Using the initial conditions y(0) = 0 and y ′ (0) = 2 we then have


  
L y ′′ + 4L y ′ + 3L {y} = L et δ (t − 1)

(s + 1) (s + 3) Y (s) = 2 + ee−s

2 ee−s
Y (s) = +
(s + 1) (s + 3) (s + 1) (s + 3)
 
1 1 e 1 1
= − + − e−s
s+1 s+3 2 s+1 s+3
e  −(t−1) 
y(t) = e−t − e−3t + e − e−3(t−1) U (t − 1) .
2

The graph of y(t) is given on the right.


y

0.5

1 t

4.6 Systems of Linear Differential Equations

1. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives

sL {x} = −L {x} + L {y}


sL {y} − 1 = 2L {x}

so that
1 1 1 1 1
L {x} = = −
(s − 1)(s + 2) 3 s−1 3 s+2
and
1 2 2 1 1 1
L {y} = + = + .
s s(s − 1)(s + 2) 3 s−1 3 s+2

Then
1 1 2 t 1 −2t
x = et − e−2t and y= e + e .
3 3 3 3
376 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

2. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives

1
sL {x} − 1 = 2L {y} +
s−1
1
sL {y} − 1 = 8L {x} − 2
s
so that

s3 + 7s2 − s + 1 1 1 8 1 173 1 53 1
L {y} = 2
= − + −
s(s − 1)(s − 16) 16 s 15 s − 1 96 s − 4 160 s + 4

and
1 8 173 4t 53 −4t
y= − et + e − e .
6 15 96 160
Then
1 1 1 1 173 4t 53 −4t
x = y ′ + t = t − et + e + e .
8 8 8 15 192 320
3. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives

sL {x} + 1 = L {x} − 2L {y}


sL {y} − 2 = 5L {x} − L {y}

so that
−s − 5 s 5 3
L {x} = =− 2 −
s2 + 9 s + 9 3 s2 + 9
and
5
x = − cos 3t − sin 3t.
3
Then
1 1 7
y= x − x′ = 2 cos 3t − sin 3t.
2 2 3
4. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives

1
(s + 3)L {x} + sL {y} =
s
1
(s − 1)L {x} + (s − 1)L {y} =
s−1
so that
5s − 1 11 1 1 4 1
L {y} = 2
=− + +
3s(s − 1) 3 s 3 s − 1 3 (s − 1)2
and
1 − 2s 11 1 1 1 1
L {x} = = − − .
3s(s − 1)2 3 s 3 s − 1 3 (s − 1)2

Then
1 1 t 1 t 1 1 4
x= − e − te and y = − + et + tet .
3 3 3 3 3 3
4.6 Systems of Linear Differential Equations 377

5. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives

1
(2s − 2)L {x} + sL {y} =
s
2
(s − 3)L {x} + (s − 3)L {y} =
s
so that
−s − 3 11 5 1 2
L {x} = =− + −
s(s − 2)(s − 3) 2 s 2 s−2 s−3
and
3s − 1 11 5 1 8 1
L {y} = =− − + .
s(s − 2)(s − 3) 6 s 2 s−2 3 s−3

Then
1 5 1 5 8
x = − + e2t − 2e3t and y = − − e2t + e3t .
2 2 6 2 3
6. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives

(s + 1)L {x} − (s − 1)L {y} = −1


sL {x} + (s + 2)L {y} = 1

so that
s + 1/2 s + 1/2
L {y} = = √
s2 + s + 1 (s + 1/2)2 + ( 3/2)2
and √
−3/2 √ 3/2
L {x} = 2 =− 3 √ .
s +s+1 (s + 1/2)2 + ( 3/2)2

Then √ √
−t/2 3 √ 3
y=e cos t and x = − 3 e−t/2 sin t.
2 2
7. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives

(s2 + 1)L {x} − L {y} = −2


−L {x} + (s2 + 1)L {y} = 1

so that
−2s2 − 1 1 1 3 1
L {x} = 4 2
=− 2 −
s + 2s 2s 2 s2 + 2
and
1 3 √
x = − t − √ sin 2 t.
2 2 2

Then
1 3 √
y = x′′ + x = − t + √ sin 2 t.
2 2 2
378 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

8. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives

(s + 1)L {x} + L {y} = 1


4L {x} − (s + 1)L {y} = 1

so that
s+2 s+1 1 2
L {x} = = +
s2 + 2s + 5 2
(s + 1) + 22 2 (s + 1)2 + 22
and
−s + 3 s+1 2
L {y} = =− +2 .
s2 + 2s + 5 2
(s + 1) + 22 (s + 1)2 + 22
Then
1
x = e−t cos 2t + e−t sin 2t and y = −e−t cos 2t + 2e−t sin 2t.
2
9. Adding the equations and then subtracting them gives
d2 x 1
= t2 + 2t
dt2 2
d2 y 1
2
= t2 − 2t.
dt 2
Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
1 1 4! 1 3!
L {x} = 8 + +
s 24 s5 3 s4
and
1 4! 1 3!
L {y} = −
24 s5 3 s4
so that
1 4 1 3 1 4 1 3
x=8+ t + t and y= t − t .
24 3 24 3
10. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
6
(s − 4)L {x} + s3 L {y} =
s2 + 1
(s + 2)L {x} − 2s3 L {y} = 0

so that
4 4 1 4 s 8 1
L {x} = = − −
(s − 2)(s2 + 1) 5 s − 2 5 s2 + 1 5 s2 + 1
and
2s + 4 1 2 2 1 1 6 s 8 1
L {y} = = − 2 −2 3 + − + .
s3 (s − 2)(s2 + 1) s s s 5 s − 2 5 s2 + 1 5 s2 + 1

Then
4 4 8
x = e2t − cos t − sin t
5 5 5
and
1 6 8
y = 1 − 2t − 2t2 + e2t − cos t + sin t.
5 5 5
4.6 Systems of Linear Differential Equations 379

11. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives

s2 L {x} + 3(s + 1)L {y} = 2


1
s2 L {x} + 3L {y} =
(s + 1)2
so that
2s + 1 1 1 1 2 1
L {x} = − = + 2+ − .
s3 (s
+ 1) s s 2s 3 s+1
Then
1
x = 1 + t + t2 − e−t
2
and
1 1 1 1 1
y = te−t − x′′ = te−t + e−t − .
3 3 3 3 3
12. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
2e−s
(s − 4)L {x} + 2L {y} =
s
1 e−s
−3L {x} + (s + 1)L {y} = +
2 s
so that
−1/2 1
L {x} = + e−s
(s − 1)(s − 2) (s − 1)(s − 2)
 
1 1 1 1 −s 1 1
= − +e − +
2 s−1 2 s−2 s−1 s−2
and
e−s s/4 − 1 −s/2 + 2
L {y} = + + e−s
s (s − 1)(s − 2) (s − 1)(s − 2)
 
3 1 1 1 −s 1 3 1 1
= − +e − + .
4 s−1 2 s−2 s 2 s−1 s−2

Then
1 t 1 2t h t−1 i
x= e − e + −e + e2(t−1) U (t − 1)
2 2
and  
3 t 1 2t 3 t−1 2(t−1)
y = e − e + 1− e +e U (t − 1).
4 2 2
13. The system is

x′′1 = −3x1 + 2(x2 − x1 )


x′′2 = −2(x2 − x1 )

x1 (0) = 0 x′1 (0) = 1 x2 (0) = 1 x′2 (0) = 0.


380 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives

(s2 + 5)L {x1 } − 2L {x2 } = 1


−2L {x1 } + (s2 + 2)L {x2 } = s

so that

s2 + 2s + 2 2 s 1 1 2 s 4 6
L {x1 } = 4 = + − + √
s + 7s2 + 6 5 s2 + 1 5 s2 + 1 5 s2 + 6 5 6 s2 + 6

and √
s3 + 5s + 2 4 s 2 1 1 s 2 6
L {x2 } = 2 2
= 2
+ 2
+ 2
− √ 2 .
(s + 1)(s + 6) 5 s +1 5 s +1 5 s +6 5 6 s +6

Then
2 1 2 √ 4 √
x1 = cos t + sin t − cos 6 t + √ sin 6 t
5 5 5 5 6
and
4 2 1 √ 2 √
x2 = cos t + sin t + cos 6 t − √ sin 6 t.
5 5 5 5 6

14. In this system x1 and x2 represent displacements of masses m1 and m2 from their equilibrium
positions. Since the net forces acting on m1 and m2 are

−k1 x1 + k2 (x2 − x1 ) and − k2 (x2 − x1 ) − k3 x2 ,

respectively, Newton’s second law of motion gives

m1 x′′1 = −k1 x1 + k2 (x2 − x1 )


m2 x′′2 = −k2 (x2 − x1 ) − k3 x2 .

Using k1 = k2 = k3 = 1, m1 = m2 = 1, x1 (0) = 0, x1 (0) = −1, x2 (0) = 0, and x′2 (0) = 1, and


taking the Laplace transform of the system, we obtain

(2 + s2 )L {x1 } − L {x2 } = −1
L {x1 } − (2 + s2 )L {x2 } = −1

so that
1 1
L {x1 } = − and L {x2 } = .
s2 +3 s2 +3
Then
1 √ 1 √
x1 = − √ sin 3 t and x2 = √ sin 3 t.
3 3

15. (a) By Kirchhoff’s first law we have i1 = i2 + i3 . By Kirchhoff’s second law, on each loop
we have E(t) = Ri1 + L1 i′2 and E(t) = Ri1 + L2 i′3 or L1 i′2 + Ri2 + Ri3 = E(t) and
L2 i′3 + Ri2 + Ri3 = E(t).
4.6 Systems of Linear Differential Equations 381

(b) Taking the Laplace transform of the system

0.01i′2 + 5i2 + 5i3 = 100


0.0125i′3 + 5i2 + 5i3 = 100

gives
10,000
(s + 500)L {i2 } + 500L {i3 } =
s
8,000
400L {i2 } + (s + 400)L {i3 } =
s
so that
8,000 80 1 80 1
L {i3 } = = − .
s2 + 900s 9 s 9 s + 900
Then
80 80 −900t 100 100 −900t
i3 = − e and i2 = 20 − 0.0025i′3 − i3 = − e .
9 9 9 9
(c) i1 = i2 + i3 = 20 − 20e−900t

16. (a) Taking the Laplace transform of the system

i′2 + i′3 + 10i2 = 120 − 120U (t − 2)


−10i′2 + 5i′3 + 5i3 = 0

gives
120 
(s + 10)L {i2 } + sL {i3 } = 1 − e−2s
s
−10sL {i2 } + 5(s + 1)L {i3 } = 0

so that
 
120(s + 1) −2s
 48 60 12 
L {i2 } = 2
1−e = − + 1 − e−2s
(3s + 11s + 10)s s + 5/3 s + 2 s

and  
240 −2s
 240 240 
L {i3 } = 2
1 − e = − 1 − e−2s .
3s + 11s + 10 s + 5/3 s + 2
Then
h i
i2 = 12 + 48e−5t/3 − 60e−2t − 12 + 48e−5(t−2)/3 − 60e−2(t−2) U (t − 2)

and h i
i3 = 240e−5t/3 − 240e−2t − 240e−5(t−2)/3 − 240e−2(t−2) U (t − 2).
h i
(b) i1 = i2 + i3 = 12 + 288e−5t/3 − 300e−2t − 12 + 288e−5(t−2)/3 − 300e−2(t−2) U (t − 2)
382 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

17. Taking the Laplace transform of the system

i′2 + 11i2 + 6i3 = 50 sin t


i′3 + 6i2 + 6i3 = 50 sin t

gives

50
(s + 11)L {i2 } + 6L {i3 } =
s2 + 1
50
6L {i2 } + (s + 6)L {i3 } =
s2 +1

so that
50s 20 1 375 1 145 s 85 1
L {i2 } = =− + + + .
(s + 2)(s + 15)(s2 + 1) 13 s + 2 1469 s + 15 113 s2 + 1 113 s2 + 1

Then
20 −2t 375 −15t 145 85
i2 = − e + e + cos t + sin t
13 1469 113 113
and
25 1 11 30 250 −15t 280 810
i3 = sin t − i′2 − i2 = e−2t + e − cos t + sin t.
3 6 6 13 1469 113 113

18. Taking the Laplace transform of the system

0.5i′1 + 50i2 = 60
0.005i′2 + i2 − i1 = 0

gives

120
sL {i1 } + 100L {i2 } =
s
−200L {i1 } + (s + 200)L {i2 } = 0

so that
24,000 61 6 s + 100 6 100
L {i2 } = = − − .
s(s2 + 200s + 20,000) 2
5 s 5 (s + 100) + 1002 5 (s + 100)2 + 1002

Then
6 6 −100t 6
i2 = − e cos 100t − e−100t sin 100t
5 5 5
and
6 6 −100t
i1 = 0.005i′2 + i2 = − e cos 100t.
5 5
4.6 Systems of Linear Differential Equations 383

19. Taking the Laplace transform of the system

2i′1 + 50i2 = 60
0.005i′2 + i2 − i1 = 0

gives
60
2sL {i1 } + 50L {i2 } =
s
−200L {i1 } + (s + 200)L {i2 } = 0

so that
6,000
L {i2 } =
s(s2 + 200s + 5,000)
√ √
61 6 s + 100 6 2 50 2
= − √ − √ .
5 s 5 (s + 100)2 − (50 2 )2 5 (s + 100)2 − (50 2 )2

Then √
6 6 −100t √ 6 2 −100t √
i2 = − e cosh 50 2 t − e sinh 50 2 t
5 5 5
and √
′ 6 6 −100t √ 9 2 −100t √
i1 = 0.005i2 + i2 = − e cosh 50 2 t − e sinh 50 2 t.
5 5 10
20. (a) Using Kirchhoff’s first law we write i1 = i2 + i3 . Since i2 = dq/dt we have i1 − i3 = dq/dt.
Using Kirchhoff’s second law and summing the voltage drops across the shorter loop
gives
1
E(t) = iR1 + q, (1)
C
so that
1 1
i1 = E(t) − q.
R1 R1 C
Then
dq 1 1
= i1 − i3 = E(t) − q − i3
dt R1 R1 C
and
dq 1
+ q + R1 i3 = E(t).
R1
dt C
Summing the voltage drops across the longer loop gives
di3
E(t) = i1 R1 + L + R2 i3 .
dt
Combining this with (1) we obtain
di3 1
i1 R1 + L + R2 i3 = i1 R1 + q
dt C
or
di3 1
L + R2 i3 − q = 0.
dt C
384 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

(b) Using L = R1 = R2 = C = 1, E(t) = 50e−t U (t − 1) = 50e−1 e−(t−1) U (t − 1),


q(0) = i3 (0) = 0, and taking the Laplace transform of the system we obtain

50e−1 −s
(s + 1)L {q} + L {i3 } = e
s+1
(s + 1)L {i3 } − L {q} = 0,

so that
50e−1 e−s
L {q} =
(s + 1)2 + 1
and
q(t) = 50e−1 e−(t−1) sin (t − 1)U (t − 1) = 50e−t sin (t − 1)U (t − 1).

21. (a) Solve the system by using the Laplace transform , subject to the conditions x(0) = 0,
x′ (0) = v0 cos t,y(0) = 0, and y ′ (0) = v0 sin θ to get
( ′′ 
x (t) = 0 s2 X(s) = v0 cos θ
or g
y ′′ (t) = −g s2 Y (s) = v0 sin θ −
s

1 
X(s) = (v0 cos θ) 2
 x(t) = (v0 cos θ) t
Then s or
Y (s) = (v0 sin θ) 1 − g
 y(t) = (v0 sin θ) t − 1 gt2
s2 s3 2

(b) Substituting t = x/ (v0 cos θ) into the equation for y(t) yields
 2    
1 x x 1 g
y(x) = − g + (v0 sin θ) =− x2 + (tan θ)
2 v0 cos θ v0 cos θ 2 v02 cos2 θ

(c) Solve y(x) = 0 to get the horizontal range R


 
−g
x x + tan θ = 0
2v02 cos2 θ

(tan θ) 2v02 cos2 θ v 2 sin 2θ


x= = 0
g g

Note that this result will be the same for the angle π/2 − θ

v02 sin 2 π2 − θ v 2 sin (π − 2θ) v 2 (sin π cos 2θ − cos π sin 2θ) v 2 sin 2θ
= 0 = 0 = 0
g g g g

(d) The maximum height occurs at the vertex of

g v02 sin 2θ
y(x) = − 2 x2 + (tan θ) x where x =
2v0 cos2 θ 2g
so
   2  
v02 sin 2θ g v02 sin 2θ v02 sin 2θ v02
y =− + (tan θ) = sin2 θ
2g 2v02 cos2 θ 2g 2g 2g
4.6 Systems of Linear Differential Equations 385

(e) Under the given parameter values we get the following



 (300 ft/sec)2 ◦


 R = 2 · sin 2 (38 ) = 2728.96 ft

 32 ft/sec
For θ = 38◦
 (300 ft/sec)2



 H =   · (sin 38◦ )2 = 533.02 ft
2
 2 32 ft/sec

 (300 ft/sec)2

 R = · sin 2 (52◦ ) = 2728.96 ft


 32 ft/sec2
For θ = 52◦
 (300 ft/sec)2



 H =   · (sin 52◦ )2 = 873.23 ft
2
 2 52 ft/sec

(f ) When the projectile hits the ground, y(t) = − − 21 gt2 + (v0 sin θ) = 0. The time the
projectile hits the ground is found by solving this equation to get t = (2v0 sin θ) /g.
For θ = 38◦ , this time is t = (2 · 300 · sin 38◦ )/32 = 11.5437 s, therefore the range is
x(t) = (v0 cos θ)t = (300 · cos 38◦ )(11.5437) = 2728.97 ft. To find the maximum height,
solve the equation y ′ (t) = −gt + v0 sin θ = 0 to get t = (v0 sin θ) /g. Now for θ = 38◦ we
get t = (300 · sin 38◦ )/32 = 5.7718 s, therefore the maximum height is

1
y(5.7718) = (300 sin 38◦ )(5.7718) − (32)(5.7718)2 = 533.02 ft
2

Repeat this process for θ = 52◦ and find that the time to hit the ground is t = 14.7752
s, therefore the range is x(14.7752) = 2728.96 ft. The maximum height occurs when
t = 7.3876 s and so the maximum height is y(7.3876) = 873.23 ft.

(g) The two trajectories or ballistic curves for the two launch angles (in radians) are given
by the parametric equations
     
38π 52π


 x(t) = 300 cos t 

x(t) = 300 cos t
 180  180
C1 :   and C2 :  

 38π 
 52π
y(t) = 300 sin
 t − 16t2 y(t) = 300 sin
 t − 16t2
180 180

800

400

500 1500
386 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

22. (a) Solve the system by using the Laplace transform, subject to the conditions x(0) = 0,
x′ (0) = v0 cos t, y(0) = 0, and y ′ (0) = v0 sin θ to get


 (v0 cos θ)

β ′

 X(s) =  
′′  β
x (t) = − m x s s +

 

 m
or
y ′′ (t) = − β y ′ − g

 

 (v0 sin θ) s2
 Y (s) =   − g 
m 

 s s+ m β
s+ mβ

After partial fraction decomposition we get

  
1 1 mv0 cos θ


 X(s) = −
 s s + β/m β
    2  


 1 1 mv0 sin θ 1 1 m g 1 mg
Y (s) = − + − −
s s + β/m β s s + β/m β 2 s β

The corresponding inverse transforms are

  
−βt/m mv0 cos θ


 x(t) = 1 − e
 β
 

 mv0 sin θ m2 g   mg
y(t) =
 + 2 1 − e−βt/m − t
β β β

(b) With the given parameter values, the projectile hits the ground when


y(t) = (3750 sin 38◦ + 5000) 1 − e−0.08t − 400t = 0

that is, when t ≈ 10.1776 s. Therefore the range is

 
x(10.1776) = 1 − e−0.08(10.1776) · 3750 cos 38◦ ≈ 1645.9869 ft

(c) Repeating the process in Part (b) but with θ = 52◦ we find that the projectile hits the
ground when t ≈ 12.6704 s so then the range is x(12.6704) ≈ 1470.8956 ft
4.6 Systems of Linear Differential Equations 387

(d) x

23. (a) Taking the Laplace transform of the system


4θ1′′ + θ2′′ + 8θ1 = 0
θ1′′ + θ2′′ + 2θ2 = 0
gives

4 s2 + 2 L {θ1 } + s2 L {θ2 } = 3s

s2 L {θ1 } + s2 + 2 L {θ2 } = 0
so that
 
3s2 + 4 s2 + 4 L {θ2 } = −3s3
or
1 s 3 s
L {θ2 } = − .
2 s + 4/3 2 s2 + 4
2

Then
1 2 3
θ2 = cos √ t − cos 2t and θ1′′ = −θ2′′ − 2θ2
2 3 2
so that
1 2 3
θ1 = cos √ t + cos 2t.
4 3 4
(b) x
θ1 θ2

02 02

01 01

3π 6π t 3π 6π t
–1 –1

–2 –2
388 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

Mass m2 has extreme displacements of greater magnitude. Mass m1 first passes through
its equilibrium position at about t = 0.87, and mass m2 first passes through its equi-
librium position at about t = 0.66. The motion of the pendulums is not periodic since
√ √ √
cos (2t/ 3 ) has period 3 π, cos 2t has period π, and the ratio of these periods is 3 ,
which is not a rational number.

(c) x

θ2
2

θ1
–1 –.5 .5 1

–1

–2

The Lissajous curve is plotted for 0 ≤ t ≤ 30.

(d)
t=0 t=1 t=2 t θ1 θ2

1 –0.2111 0.8263
2 –0.6585 0.6438
3 0.4830 –1.9145
4 –0.1325 0.1715
5 –0.4111 1.6951
t=3 t=4 t=5 6 0.8327 –0.8662
7 0.0458 –0.3186
8 –0.9639 0.9452
9 0.3534 –1.2741
10 0.4370 –0.3502

t=6 t=7 t=8 t=9 t = 10

(e) Using a CAS to solve θ1 (t) = θ2 (t) we see that θ1 = θ2 (so


t = 0.75
that the double pendulum is straight out) when t is about 0.75
seconds.
Chapter 4 in Review 389

(f ) To make a movie of the pendulum it is necessary to locate the mass in the plane as a
function of time. Suppose that the upper arm is attached to the origin and that the
equilibrium position lies along the negative y-axis. Then mass m1 is at (x, (t), y1 (t)) and
mass m2 is at (x2 (t), y2 (t)), where

x1 (t) = 16 sin θ1 (t) and y1 (t) = −16 cos θ1 (t)

and
x2 (t) = x1 (t) + 16 sin θ2 (t) and y2 (t) = y1 (t) − 16 cos θ2 (t).

A reasonable movie can be constructed by letting t range from 0 to 10 in increments of


0.1 seconds.

Chapter 4 in Review

Z 1 Z ∞
1 2
1. L {f (t)} = te−st dt + (2 − t)e−st dt = − e−s
0 1 s2 s2
Z 4
1 −2s 
2. L {f (t)} = e−st dt = e − e−4s
2 s

3. False; consider f (t) = t−1/2 .

4. False, since f (t) = (et )10 = e10t .

5. True, since lims→∞ F (s) = 1 6= 0. (See Theorem 4.2.3 in the text.)

6. False; consider f (t) = 1 and g(t) = 1.


 1
7. L e−7t =
s+7
 1
8. L te−7t =
(s + 7)2
2
9. L {sin 2t} =
s2 + 4
 2
10. L e−3t sin 2t =
(s + 3)2 + 4
 
d 2 4s
11. L {t sin 2t} = − = 2
ds s2 + 4 (s + 4)2
2
12. L {sin 2tU (t − π)} = L {sin 2(t − π)U (t − π)} = e−πs
s2 +4
   
20 1 5! 1
13. L −1
=L = t5 −1
s6 6s 6 6
   
1 −1 1 1 1
14. L −1
=L = et/3
3s − 1 3 s − 1/3 3
390 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

   
1 1 −1 2 1
15. L −1
3
= L 3
= t2 e5t
(s − 5) 2 (s − 5) 2
   
−1 1 −1 1 1 1 1 1 −√ 5 t 1 √5 t
16. L = L − √ √ + √ √ = − √ e + √ e
s2 − 5 2 5 s+ 5 2 5 s− 5 2 5 2 5
   
s s−5 5 2 5
17. L −1
2
=L −1
2 2
+ 2 2
= e5t cos 2t + e5t sin 2t
s − 10s + 29 (s − 5) + 2 2 (s − 5) + 2 2
 
1 −5s
18. L −1 e = (t − 5)U (t − 5)
s2
   
−1 s + π −s −1 s −s π −s
L e =L e + 2 e
19. s2 + π 2 s2 + π 2 s + π2

= cos π(t − 1)U (t − 1) + sin π(t − 1)U (t − 1)


   
−1 1 1 L −1 nπ/L 1 nπ
20. L 2 2 2 2
= 2 L 2 2 2 2
= sin t
L s +n π L nπ s + (n π )/L Lnπ L

21. L e−5t exists for s > −5.
 d
22. L te8t f (t) = − F (s − 8).
ds
23. L {eat f (t − k)U (t − k)} = e−ks L {ea(t+k) f (t)} = e−ks eak L {eat f (t)} = e−k(s−a) F (s − a)
Z t 
1 F (s − a)
24. L aτ
e f (τ ) dτ = L {eat f (t)} = , whereas
0 s s
 Z t  Z t 

F (s) F (s − a)
L eat

f (τ ) dτ = L f (τ ) dτ = = .
0 0 s s−a
s→s−a s→s−a

25. f (t)U (t − t0 )

26. f (t) − f (t)U (t − t0 )

27. f (t − t0 )U (t − t0 )

28. f (t) − f (t)U (t − t0 ) + f (t)U (t − t1 )

29. f (t) = t − [(t − 1) + 1]U (t − 1) + U (t − 1) − U (t − 4) = t − (t − 1)U (t − 1) − U (t − 4)


1 1 1
L {f (t)} = 2 − 2 e−s − e−4s
s s s
 t 1 1 1 −4(s−1)
L e f (t) = − e−(s−1) − e
(s − 1)2 (s − 1)2 s−1
30. f (t) = sin tU (t − π) − sin tU (t − 3π) = − sin (t − π)U (t − π) + sin (t − 3π)U (t − 3π)
1 1
L {f (t)} = − 2 e−πs + 2 e−3πs
s +1 s +1
 1 1
L et f (t) = − 2
e−π(s−1) + e−3π(s−1)
(s − 1) + 1 (s − 1)2 + 1
Chapter 4 in Review 391

31. f (t) = 2 − 2U (t − 2) + [(t − 2) + 2]U (t − 2) = 2 + (t − 2)U (t − 2)


2 1
L {f (t)} = + 2 e−2s
s s
 t 2 1
L e f (t) = + e−2(s−1)
s − 1 (s − 1)2

32. f (t) = t − tU (t − 1) + (2 − t)U (t − 1) − (2 − t)U (t − 2) = t − 2(t − 1)U (t − 1) + (t − 2)U (t − 2)


1 2 1
L {f (t)} = 2
− 2 e−s + 2 e−2s
s s s
 t 1 2 1
L e f (t) = 2
− 2
e−(s−1) + e−2(s−1)
(s − 1) (s − 1) (s − 1)2

33. The graph of



X
f (t) = −1 + 2 (−1)k+1 U (t − k) = −1 + 2U (t − 2) + 2U (t − 3) − · · ·
k=1

is

t
1 2 3 4 5 6

-1

One way of proceeding to find the Laplace transform is to take the transform term-by-term
of the series:

1 2 2 2
L {f (t)} = − + e−s − e−2s + e−3s − · · · ←− geometric series
s s s s

For s > 0,

1 2  −s  1 2 e−s
L {f (t)} = − + e − e−2s + e−3s − · · · = − + ·
s s s s 1 + e−s
e−s − 1
=
s (1 + e−s )

Alternatively, since f is a periodic functions it can also be defined by


(
−1, 0 ≤ t < 1
f (t) = where f (t + 2) = f (t).
1, 1 ≤ t < 2,
392 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

By Theorem 4.4.3 with p = 2 we get


Z 1 Z 2 
1 −st −st
L {f (t)} = (−1) e dt + (1) e dt
1 − e−2s 0 1
 
1 1 −s 1 1 −2s 1 −s −1 
= e − − e + e = 1 − 2e−s + e−2s
1−e −2s s s s s s (1 − e )
−2s

2
− (1 − e−s )
=
s (1 − e−2s )

Using 1 − e−2s = (1 + e−s ) (1 − e−s ) and algebra the last expression is the same as

e−s − 1
L {f (t)} = .
s (1 + e−s )

34. The graph of



X
f (t) = (2k + 1 − t) [U (t − 2k) − U (t − 2k − 1)]
k=0
= (1 − t) [U (t) − U (t − 1)] + (3 − t) [U (t − 2) − U (t − 3)] + · · ·

is
y

t
1 2 3 4 5 6

Since f is a periodic function it can also be defined by


(
1 − t, 0 ≤ t < 1
f (t) = where f (t + 2) = f (t).
0, 1≤t<2

By Theorem 4.4.3 with p = 2 we get


Z 1 Z 2   
1 −st −st 1 1 1 −s 1
L {f (t)} = (1 − t) e dt + 0 · e dt = − e + 2
1 − e−2s 0 1 1 − e−2s s s2 s
s + 1 − e−s
= .
s2 (1 − e−2s )

35. Taking the Laplace transform of the differential equation we obtain


5 1 2
L {y} = 2
+
(s − 1) 2 (s − 1)3
so that
1
y = 5tet + t2 et .
2
Chapter 4 in Review 393

36. Taking the Laplace transform of the differential equation we obtain

1
L {y} =
(s − 1)2 (s2− 8s + 20)
6 1 1 1 6 s−4 5 2
= + − +
169 s − 1 13 (s − 1)2 169 (s − 4)2 + 22 338 (s − 4)2 + 22

so that
6 t 1 6 4t 5 4t
y= e + tet − e cos 2t + e sin 2t.
169 13 169 338
37. Taking the Laplace transform of the given differential equation we obtain

s3 + 6s2 + 1 1 2
L {y} = − e−2s − e−2s
s2 (s+ 1)(s + 5) s2 (s + 1)(s + 5) s(s + 1)(s + 5)
6 1 1 1 3 1 13 1
=− · + · 2+ · − ·
25 s 5 s 2 s + 1 50 s + 5
 
6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
− − · + · 2+ · − · e−2s
25 s 5 s 4 s + 1 100 s + 5
 
2 1 1 1 1 1
− · − · + · e−2s
5 s 2 s + 1 10 s + 5

so that
6 1 3 13 4 1
y=− + t + e−t − e−5t − U (t − 2) − (t − 2)U (t − 2)
25 5 2 50 25 5
1 9 −5(t−2)
+ e−(t−2) U (t − 2) − e U (t − 2).
4 100

38. Taking the Laplace transform of the differential equation we obtain

s3 + 2 2 + 2s + s2 −s
L {y} = − e
s3 (s − 5) s3 (s − 5)
 
2 1 2 1 1 2 127 1 37 1 12 1 1 2 37 1
=− − − + − − − − + e−s
125 s 25 s2 5 s3 125 s − 5 125 s 25 s2 5 s3 125 s − 5

so that
 
2 2 1 2 127 5t 37 12 1 2 37 5(t−1)
y=− − t− t + e − − − (t − 1) − (t − 1) + e U (t − 1).
125 25 5 125 125 25 5 125

39. Taking the Laplace transform of the integral equation we obtain

1 1 1 2
L {y} = + 2+
s s 2 s3
so that
1
y(t) = 1 + t + t2 .
2
394 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

40. Taking the Laplace transform of the integral equation we obtain

6 1
(L {f })2 = 6 · or L {f } = ±6 ·
s4 s2
so that f (t) = ±6t.

41. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives

1
sL {x} + L {y} = +1
s2
4L {x} + sL {y} = 2

so that
s2 − 2s + 1 11 1 1 9 1
L {x} = =− + + .
s(s − 2)(s + 2) 4 s 8 s−2 8 s+2

Then
1 1 9 9 −2t 1 2t
x = − + e2t + e−2t and y = −x′ + t = e − e + t.
4 8 8 4 4

42. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives

1
s2 L {x} + s2 L {y} =
s−2
1
2sL {x} + s2 L {y} = −
s−2
so that
2 11 1 1 1
L {x} = 2
= − +
s(s − 2) 2 s 2 s − 2 (s − 2)2
and
−s − 2 31 1 1 3 1 1
L {y} = =− − + − .
s2 (s
− 2) 2 4 s 2s 2 4 s − 2 (s − 2)2

Then
1 1 2t 3 1 3
x= − e + te2t and y = − − t + e2t − te2t .
2 2 4 2 4

43. The integral equation is


Z t
10i + 2 i(τ ) dτ = 2t2 + 2t.
0

Taking the Laplace transform we obtain


 
4 2 s s+2 9 2 45 9 2 9
L {i} = + = 2 =− + 2 + =− + 2 + .
s3 s2 10s + 2 s (5s + 2) s s 5s + 1 s s s + 1/5

Thus
i(t) = −9 + 2t + 9e−t/5 .
Chapter 4 in Review 395

44. The differential equation is

1 d2 q dq
2
+ 10 + 100q = 10 − 10U (t − 5).
2 dt dt

Taking the Laplace transform we obtain


20 −5s

L {q} = 1 − e
s(s2 + 20s + 200)
 
1 1 1 s + 10 1 10 
= − 2 2
− 2 2
1 − e−5s
10 s 10 (s + 10) + 10 10 (s + 10) + 10

so that
1 1 1
q(t) = − e−10t cos 10t − e−10t sin 10t
10 10 10
 
1 1 −10(t−5) 1 −10(t−5)
− − e cos 10(t − 5) − e sin 10(t − 5) U (t − 5).
10 10 10

45. Taking the Laplace transform of the given differential equation we obtain
 
2w0 L 4! 1 5! 1 5! −sL/2 c1 2! c2 3!
L {y} = · 5− · 6+ · 6e + · 3+ ·
EIL 48 s 120 s 120 s 2 s 6 s4

so that
"     #
2w0 L 4 1 5 1 L 5 L c1 2 c2 3
y= x − x + x− U x− + x + x
EIL 48 120 120 2 2 2 6

where y ′′ (0) = c1 and y ′′′ (0) = c2 . Using y ′′ (L) = 0 and y ′′′ (L) = 0 we find

c1 = w0 L2 /24EI, c2 = −w0 L/4EI.

Hence
"    #
w0 1 5 L 4 L2 3 L3 2 1 L 5 L
y= − x + x − x + x + x− U x− .
12EIL 5 2 2 4 5 2 2

46. Since the beam is simply supported we have y(0) = 0, y ′′ (0) = 0, y(π) = 0, and y ′′ (π) = 0.
n o nw o
0
L y (4) + 4L {y} = L
EI
0 c 0 c
z}|{ z }|1 { z }| { z }|2 { w0
s4 Y (s) − s3 y(0) −s2 y ′ (0) −s y ′′ (0) − y ′′′ (0) +4Y (s) =
sEI
 w0
s4 + 4 Y (s) = c1 s2 + c2 +
sEI
396 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

Thus
s2 1 w0 /EI
Y (s) = c1 4
+ c2 4 +
s +4 s + 4 s (s4 + 4)

s2 1 w0 /EI
= c1 4
+ c2 4 +
s +4 s + 4 s (s − 2s + 2) (s2 + 2s + 2)
2

 
s2 1 w0 2 s−1 s+1
= c1 4 + c2 4 + − 2 − 2
s +4 s + 4 8EI s s − 2s + 2 s + 2s + 2
 
c1 2s2 c2 4 w0 2 s−1 s+1
= + + − −
2 s4 + 4 4 s4 + 4 8EI s (s − 1)2 + 1 (s + 1)2 + 1

Using the table in Appendix III the inverse transform is


c1 c2
y(x) = (sin x cosh x + cos x sinh x) + (sin x cosh x − cos x sinh x)
2 4
w0  
+ 2 − ex cos x − e−x cos x
8EI
c1 c2 w0
= (sin x cosh x + cos x sinh x) + (sin x cosh x − cos x sinh x) + [1 − cos x cosh x]
2 4 4EI
The remaining conditions y(π) = 0 and y ′′ (0) = 0 then give
w0 w0
c1 = (1 + cosh π) csch π, and c2 = − (1 + cosh π) csch π
4EI 2EI
Therfore,
w0
y(x) = (1 + cosh π) csch π (sin x cosh x + cos x sinh x)
8EI
w0 w0
− (1 + cosh π) csch π (sin x cosh x − cos x sinh x) + [1 − cos x cosh x]
8EI 4EI
47. In this case the boundary conditions are y(0) = y ′ (0) = 0 and y(π) = y ′ (π) = 0. If we let
c1 = y ′′ (0) and c2 = y ′′′ (0) then
w0 n  π o
s4 L {y} − s3 y ′′ (0) − s2 y ′ (0) − sy(0) − y ′′′ (0) + 4L {y} = L δ x−
EI 2
and
c1 2s c2 4 w0 4
L {y} = · 4 + · 4 + · 4 e−sπ/2 .
2 s +4 4 s + 4 4EI s + 4
From the table of transforms we get
c1 c2
y= sin x sinh x + (sin x cosh x − cos x sinh x)
2 4
w0 h  π  π  π  π i  π
+ sin x − cosh x − − cos x − sinh x − U x−
4EI 2 2 2 2 2
Using y(π) = 0 and y ′ (π) = 0 we find
w0 sinh π2 w0 cosh π2
c1 = , c2 = − .
EI sinh π EI sinh π
Chapter 4 in Review 397

Hence
w0 sinh π2 w0 cosh π2
y= sin x sinh x − (sin x cosh x − cos x sinh x)
2EI sinh π 4EI sinh π
w0 h  π  π  π  π i  π
+ sin x − cosh x − − cos x − sinh x − U x− .
4EI 2 2 2 2 2

48. (a) With ω 2 = g/l and K = k/m the system of differential equations is

θ1′′ + ω 2 θ1 = −K(θ1 − θ2 )
θ2′′ + ω 2 θ2 = K(θ1 − θ2 ).

Denoting the Laplace transform of θ(t) by Θ(s) we have that the Laplace transform of
the system is

(s2 + ω 2 )Θ1 (s) = −KΘ1 (s) + KΘ2 (s) + sθ0


(s2 + ω 2 )Θ2 (s) = KΘ1 (s) − KΘ2 (s) + sψ0 .

If we add the two equations, we get


s
Θ1 (s) + Θ2 (s) = (θ0 + ψ0 )
s2 + ω2
which implies
θ1 (t) + θ2 (t) = (θ0 + ψ0 ) cos ωt.

This enables us to solve for first, say, θ1 (t) and then find θ2 (t) from

θ2 (t) = −θ1 (t) + (θ0 + ψ0 ) cos ωt.

Now solving

(s2 + ω 2 + K)Θ1 (s) − KΘ2 (s) = sθ0


−kΘ1 (s) + (s2 + ω 2 + K)Θ2 (s) = sψ0

gives
[(s2 + ω 2 + K)2 − K 2 ]Θ1 (s) = s(s2 + ω 2 + K)θ0 + Ksψ0 .

Factoring the difference of two squares and using partial fractions we get

s(s2 + ω 2 + K)θ0 + Ksψ0 θ0 + ψ0 s θ0 − ψ0 s


Θ1 (s) = = + ,
(s2 + ω 2 )(s2 + ω 2 + 2K) 2 s2 + ω 2 2 s2 + ω 2 + 2K
so
θ0 + ψ0 θ0 − ψ0 p
θ1 (t) = cos ωt + cos ω 2 + 2K t.
2 2
Then from θ2 (t) = −θ1 (t) + (θ0 + ψ0 ) cos ωt we get
θ0 + ψ0 θ0 − ψ0 p
θ2 (t) = cos ωt − cos ω 2 + 2K t.
2 2
398 CHAPTER 4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

(b) With the initial conditions θ1 (0) = θ0 , θ1′ (0) = 0, θ2 (0) = θ0 , θ2′ (0) = 0 we have

θ1 (t) = θ0 cos ωt, θ2 (t) = θ0 cos ωt.

Physically this means that both pendulums swing in the same direction as if they were
free since the spring exerts no influence on the motion (θ1 (t) and θ2 (t) are free of K).
With the initial conditions θ1 (0) = θ0 , θ1′ (0) = 0, θ2 (0) = −θ0 , θ2′ (0) = 0 we have
p p
θ1 (t) = θ0 cos ω 2 + 2K t, θ2 (t) = −θ0 cos ω 2 + 2K t.

Physically this means that both pendulums swing in the opposite directions, stretching
and compressing the spring. The amplitude of both displacements is |θ0 |. Moreover,
θ1 (t) = θ0 and θ2 (t) = −θ0 at precisely the same times. At these times the spring is
stretched to its maximum.