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Valves

A ball valve features a spherical disc to open and close the flow of the fluid. They are the industry
standard for pipeline shut-off applications, as their design guarantees very tight and leak-free
sealing even after years of operation. The two key types of ball valves are the floating and the
trunnion designs (side or top entry). The body can be cast or forged and monolithic or split (in 2 or
3 pieces). The API 6D and ASME B16.34 are key specifications.

Table of Content [show]

WHAT IS A BALL VALVE?


Ball valves are key devices to shut-off and regulate the flow of a fluid (oil, gas, steam, etc) in the
petrochemical industry.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BALL VALVES


This type of valve has the following advantages:

 can be quickly opened and closed with a quarter turn movement


 ensure a very tight seal without the need for high torque forces
 have a compact design (this is the main difference between a ball valve and a gate valve –
which are both on/off devices)

The disadvantages are:

 valve has poor regulating and throttling capabilities, as it is designed for pipeline shut-off
instead of flow modulation (this is an ideal function for globe valves): throttling causes the
partially exposed seat to erode because of the high-velocity flow and pressure experienced by
the valve. The wear may lead to a leakage of the valve progressively.
 valve can’t be used for slurries, as the accumulation of suspended particles and debris would
make the valve leak. These particles may solidify in the cavities in the proximity of the ball
and seats. Ball valves are way more very efficient with gases and other liquid fluids (even
challenging chemicals as dry chlorine, hydrofluoric acid or hydrochloric acid, and oxygen).
 may be difficult to clean (except for top entry design)

The open, close or partially open position of the valve can be detected by looking at the position of
the lever:

 when the lever is aligned to the pipe, the valve is open; when it is perpendicular to the pipe,
the valve is closed;
 when it is any other position, the valve is partly open (or partly closed) and is modulating the
flow.

These valves belong to the family of “quarter turn” valves or “1/4 turn valve” (together with butterfly
and plug valves), as the opening and closing operations are executed by turning a lever connected to
the disc by 90 degrees.

The key ball valve specifications are the API 6D, BS 5351 (forged) and ASME B16.34 (pressure and
temperature ratings), ASME B16.5/B16.47 (flanged ends) and ASME B16.25 (butt welding ends).

HOW DOES IT WORK?


The ball inside the valve has a hole through which the flow passes freely when it is fully aligned with
the two ends of the valve. When the hole is completely perpendicular to the ends of the device, the
valve is perfectly sealed.

Otherwise, when the hole is in any other position (perpendicular to the valve ends for instance) the
flow is totally or partly interrupted.

Ball valve vs gate valve


This valve absolves the same function as a gate valve (shut-off). The difference between a ball valve
and a gate valve is that the former uses a spherical ball to open/close the flow, the latter uses a disc
sitting on a seat. The difference between these two valves is therefore in design and compactness.

Ball valve vs globe valve


These valves are not as precise as globe valves to throttle the fluid flow, as they generally have
positive (at 0, 45 and 90 degrees) instead of incremental positions. Further, the valve would be
damaged by partial open positions (or repeated open/close operations) in the long run (not an issue
for globe valves).

BALL VALVE TYPES


Ball valves can be classified according to multiple criteria:

 Design: floating, trunnion mounted and double bleed and block


 Number of ports: the standard type is with 2 ports design (1 inlet, 1 outlet), but 3-ways design
is also available (1 inlet and 2 outlets or vice-versa)
 Bore size: full bore or reduced bore (FB vs. RB), and V-notch
 Body assembly: unibody (the ball body is made out of one single piece of cast or forged
steel), 2 pieces or 3 pieces (the body results from the assembly of two or three different parts)
 Ball access: side entry or top entry (depending on the fact that the ball can be accessed, for
maintenance, from the side of the valve or from its top)
 Seat type: metal or soft (Teflon)

FLOATING BALL VALVE


In a floating valve, the ball is suspended in the flowing fluid and is kept in position by the
compression of two elastomeric seats against it.

The shaft is connected at the top of the ball and allows the switch from an open to a closed position
with a quarter turn movement (90 degrees).
When the shaft is moved, a load is applied to the ball which gets pressed against its seats.

This design, which is lightweight and economic, suits bore sizes up to 10 inches: above this bore
size, the seats of the valve would not be able to withstand heavier and heavier balls and the valve
would not operate safely and efficiently.

Floating valves allow a bi-directional shut-off of the flow (as the trunnion type).

(Source: Walworth Valves Youtube Channel)

TRUNNION BALL VALVE


Trunnion valves have been introduced to cope with the size limitations of standard floating valves
outlined above. Indeed, in this type of valves the shaft, the ball, and the supporting trunnion act as a
single solid assembly able to withstand the heavy loads generated by balls of large dimensions.
Besides a size flexibility advantage, a trunnion valve features a lower operating torque compared to a
floating valve design (which can become a benefit when the valve needs to be actuated, as smaller
and economical actuators can be fitted to operate the valve).

A stainless steel ball valve, trunnion mounted type

(Source: Robert Cort – Wartsila Valves Youtube Channel)

SIDE ENTRY VS. TOP ENTRY


What is the difference between a side entry and a top entry ball valve?

These terms relate to the way by which the ball of the valve and its internal parts can be accessed,
from the side (side entry) or from the top (top entry).

Floating and trunnion-mounted ball valves are available with a “side entry” and “top entry” design.

The top entry design is specified when frequent inline maintenance activities are expected on
the valve.
This is due to the fact that top entry ball valves allow easier and faster access to the ball and the valve
trim compared to side entry valves (which require more maintenance time and space for the same
operations).

The main differences between these two ball valve design are:

 Top entry ball valves are manufactured, generally, with cast steel bodies; side entry valves
are manufactured with (robust) forged steel bodies
 Top entry ball valves have a monolithic structure (are made by one single piece); side entry
valves have a two or three piece assembly
 Top entry ball valves require more non-destructive tests than side entry due to their cast
bodies;
 Side entry ball valves are easier to assemble and manufacture than top entry, which requires
long experience and craftsmanship to work properly
 Top entry ball valves are generally more expensive than side entry ones and have longer lead
times due to the casting operations required to manufacture the body

3-WAYS
Generally, a ball valve has two entries (or “two ways”).

However, for some applications, a 3-way ball valve may be specified. A 3-way ball valve has 3 ports
(entries), instead of only two.
This multiport design is needed to divert the fluid coming from the main valve inlet to two different
directions (instead of just one), each served by two separate valve’s outlet. Another typical
application of a 3-way ball valve is to have the main flow line served by two separate and alternative
inlets.

The ball of a 3 ways ball valve may have an L or a T design as shown in the picture below. Further,
this special type of ball valve is available in floating or trunnion design, with any type of valve end
(flanged, socket or threaded connection) and in various materials from plastics, to carbon, alloy, and
stainless steel.

FULL PORT VS REDUCED PORT


These concepts refer to the relation between the bore diameter of the valve and the connected piping
system. More in detail:

 The “Full port” (FB) type features a bore size (the hole of the ball) matching the bore size of
the connected piping. Full port ball valves minimize the pressure drop that is generated by
reduced port valves but they are of course more bulky, heavy and expensive. FB ball valves
are better suited, than RB ball valves, for throttling applications.
 The “Reduced port” ball valve (RB) type has a bore size that is smaller than the bore size
of the connected piping (for example a tube). The media flowing through the valve is, in this
case, limited to a percentage (generally between 70 and 80%) of the full flow in the pipeline.
Reduced port ball valve creates a pressure drop in the pipeline.

MATERIALS
This type of valve is available with cast or forged body materials (monoblock, or split).

Generally, valves below 2 inches of diameter have 2 pieces of three pieces forged bodies (the most
common is ASTM A105 for high-temperature service, ASTM A350 LF2 and LF3 for low-
temperature service and ASTM A182 F304, F316 for stainless steel valve or higher grades, such as
duplex valves ASTM A182 F51 and super duplex ASTM A182 F53/F55).

Forged bodies are also used for high-pressure valves of higher bore sizes (with 2 or 3 pieces split
body construction).

Examples of forged ball valves (small size and stainless steel valve with a forged body, trunnion
mounted).
Valves of sizes above 2 inches have a cast body (the most common grades are ASTM A216 WCB for
high temp. service, ASTM A352 for low-temperature service and ASTM A351 CF8, CF8M for cast
stainless steel valves).

The symbol for this type of valve in P&ID diagrams is represented below

Anti-Blowout Stem Design


The stem is inserted from the valve body inside to provide blowout- proof safety.
API Standards
API 6D

API 6D is the standard for valves used in pipeline systems. API


Specification 6D is an adoption of ISO 14313: 1999, Petroleum and
Natural Gas Industries-Pipeline Transportation Systems-Pipeline
Valves. This International Standard specifies requirements and gives
recommendations for the design, manufacturing, testing and
documentation of ball, check, gate and plug valves for application in
pipeline systems.

API 526

Flanged Steel Pressure Relief Valves. The standard is a purchase


specification for flanged steel pressure relief valves. Basic requirements
are given for direct spring-loaded pressure relief valves and pilot-
operated pressure relief valves as follows: orifice designation and area;
valve size and pressure rating, inlet and outlet; materials; pressure-
temperature limits; and center-to-face dimensions, inlet and outlet.

API 527

Seat Tightness of Pressure Relief Valves R (2002). Describes methods


of determining the seat tightness of metal- and soft-seated pressure
relief valves, including those of conventional, bellows, and pilot-
operated designs.

ANSI/API STD 594

Check Valves: Flanged, Lug, Wafer and Butt-welding. API Standard


594 covers design, material, face-to-face dimensions, pressure-
temperature ratings, and examination, inspection, and test
requirements for two types of check valves.

API 598

Valve Inspection and Testing. The standard covers inspection,


supplementary examination, and pressure test requirements for both
resilient-seated and metal-to-metal seated gate, globe, plug, ball,
check, and butterfly valves. Pertains to inspection by the purchaser and
to any supplementary examinations the purchaser may require at the
valve manufacturer's plant.

ANSI/API 599

Metal Plug Valves - Flanged, Threaded and Welding Ends. A purchase


specification that covers requirements for metal plug valves with
flanged or butt-welding ends, and ductile iron plug valves with flanged
ends, in sizes NPS 1 through NPS 24, which correspond to nominal
pipe sizes in ASME B36.10M. Valve bodies conforming to ASME
B16.34 may have flanged end and one butt-welding end. It also covers
both lubricated and nonlubricated valves that have two-way coaxial
ports, and includes requirements for valves fitted with internal body,
plug, or port linings or applied hard facings on the body, body ports,
plug, or plug port.

ANSI/API 600

Bolted Bonnet Steel Gate Valves for Petroleum and Natural Gas
Industries - Modified National Adoption of ISO 10434:1998.

API 602

Compact Steel Gate Valves - Flanged, Threaded, Welding, and


Extended-Body Ends. The standard covers threaded-end, socket-
welding-end, butt-welding-end, and flanged-end compact carbon steel
gate valves in sizes NPS4 and smaller.

ANSI/API 603

Corrosion-Resistant, Bolted Bonnet Gate Valves - Flanged and Butt-


Welding Ends. The standard covers corrosion-resistant bolted bonnet
gate valves with flanged or butt-weld ends in sizes NPS 1/2 through 24,
corresponding to nominal pipe sizes in ASME B36.10M, and Classes
150, 300, and, 600, as specified in ASME B16.34.

ANSI/API 607

Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter Turn Valves. The standard covers the
requirements for testing and evaluating the performance of straightway,
soft-seated quarter-turn valves when the valves are exposed to certain
fire conditions defined in this standard. The procedures described in
this standard apply to all classes and sizes of such valves that are
made of materials listed in ASME B16.34.

API 609

Butterfly Valves: Double Flanged, Lug- and Wafer-Type. The standard


covers design, materials, face-to-face dimensions, pressure-
temperature ratings, and examination, inspection, and test
requirements for gray iron, ductile iron, bronze, steel, nickel-base alloy,
or special alloy butterfly valves that provide tight shutoff in the closed
position and are suitable for flow regulation.

API 6FA

Specification for Fire Test for Valves. The standard covers the
requirements for testing and evaluating the performance of API Spec
6A and Spec 6D valves when exposed to specifically defined fire
conditions.

API 6FC

Fire Test for Valve with Automatic Backseats. The standard covers the
requirements for testing and evaluating the performance of API Spec
6A and Spec 6D valves with automatic backseats when exposed to
specifically defined fire conditions.

API 6RS

Referenced Standards for Committee 6, Standardization of Valves and


Wellhead Equipment.

API 11V6

Design of Continuous Flow Gas Lift Installations Using Injection


Pressure Operated Valves. The standard sets guidelines for continuous
flow gas lift installation designs using injection pressure operated
valves.

ANSI/API RP 11V7
Recommended Practice for Repair, Testing, and Setting Gas Lift
Valves. The standard applies to repair, testing, and setting gas lift
valves and reverse flow (check) valves.

API 520-1

Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in


Refineries: Part I - Sizing and Selection. The recommended practice
applies to the sizing and selection of pressure relief devices used in
refineries and related industries for equipment that has a maximum
allowable working pressure of 15 psig (1.03 bar g or 103 kPa g) or
greater.

API 520-2

Recommended Practice 520: Sizing, Selection, and Installation of


Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries-Part II, Installation. The
recommended practice covers methods of installation for pressure-relief
devices for equipment that has a maximum allowable working pressure
of 15 psig (1.03 bar g or 103 kPa g) or greater. It covers gas, vapor,
steam, two-phase and incompressible fluid service.

ANSI/API 574

Inspection Practices for Piping System Components. The standard


covers the inspection of piping, tubing, valves (other than control
valves) and fittings used in petroleum refineries.

ANSI/API 576

Inspection of Pressure Relieving Devices. The recommended practice


describes the inspection and repair practices for automatic pressure-
relieving devices commonly used in the oil and petrochemical
industries.

ANSI/API 608

Metal Ball Valves - Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends. The standard


covers Class 150 and Class 300 metal ball valves that have either butt-
welding or flanged ends and are for use in on-off service.
ASME Standards

ASME A105/105M

Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for piping


applications.

ASME A181/181M

Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for General purpose


piping.

ASME A182/182M

Standard Specification for forged or rolled alloy-steel pipe flanges,


forged fittings and valves and parts for high-temperature service.

ASME A727/727M

Standard specification for carbon steel forgings for piping components


with inherent notch toughness.

ASME A961

Standard Specification for Common Requirements for Steel Flanges,


Forged Fittings, valves, and Parts for Piping Applications.

ASME B16.10

Face to Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves.

ASME B16.34

Valves - Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End.

ASME B462

Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled UNS N08020, UNS


N08024, UNS N08026, UNS N08367, and UNS R20033 Alloy Pipe
Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for Corrosive High-
Temperature Service.

ASME B834

Standard Specification for Pressure Consolidated Powder Metallurgy


Iron-Nickel- Chromium-Molybdenum (UNS N08367) and Nickel-
Chromium Molybdenum Columbium (Nb) (UNS N06625) Alloy Pipe
Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts.

ASME D5500

Standard Test Method for Vehicle Evaluation of Unleaded Automotive


Spark-ignition Engine Fuel for Intake Valve Deposit Formation.

ASME F885

Standard Specification for Envelope Dimensions for Bronze Globe


Valves NPS 1/4 to 2 El-1996 R(1996).

ASME F992

Standard Specification for Valve Label Plates El-1997 R(1997).

ASME F993

Standard Specification for Valve Locking Devices El-1997 R(1997).

ASME F1020

Standard Specification for Line-Blind Valves for marine Applications El-


1996 RI'1996).

ASME F1098

Standard Specification for Envelope Dimensions for Butterfly Valves -


NPS 2 to 24 EI-1993 R(1993).

ASME F1271

Standard Specification for Spill Valves for Use in Marine Tank Liquid
Overpressure Protections Applications EI-1995 R (1995).

ASME F1370

Standard Specification for Pressure Reducing valves for Water


Systems, Shipboard.

ASME F1508

Standard Specification for Angle Style, Pressure Relief Valves for


Steam, Gas, and Liquid Services.

ASME F1565

Standard Specification for Pressure-Reducing Valves for Steam


Service.

ASME F1792

Standard Specification for Special Requirements for Valves Used in


Gaseous Oxygen Service.

ASME F1793

Standard Specification for Automatic Shut-Off Valves (Also Known as


Excess Flow Valves, EFV) for Air or Nitrogen Service.

ASME F1794

Standard Specification for Hand operated, Globe-Style Valves for Gas


(Except Oxygen Gas), and Hydraulic Systems.

ASME F1795

Standard specification for Pressure-Reducing Valves for Air or Nitrogen


Systems.

ASME A230

Standard specification for steel wire oil - tempered carbon valve spring
quality.

ASME A232

Standard specification for chromium - vanadium alloy steel valve spring


quality.

ASME A350

Standard specification for forged or rolled carbon and alloy steel


flanges forged fittings and valves and parts for low - temperature
service.

ASME A338

Standard specification for ultrasonic examination of heavy steel


forgings.

ASME A694

Standard specification for forgings carbon and alloy steel for pipe
flanges fittings valves and parts for high - pressure transmission
service.

ASME A404

Standards specification for forged or rolled alloy - steel pipe flanges


forged fittings and valves and parts specially heat treated for high
temperature service.

ASME A522

Forged or rolled 8% and 9% nickel alloy steel flanges fittings valves


and parts for low - temperature service.
ASTM Standards

ASTM A126-04

Standard Specification for Gray Iron Castings for Valves, Flanges, and
Pipe Fittings.

ASTM A182/A182M-04

Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy-Steel Pipe Flanges,


Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service.

ASTM A338

Standard Specification for Malleable Iron Flanges, Pipe Fittings, and


Valve Parts for Railroad, Marine, and Other Heavy Duty Service at
Temperatures Up to 650°F (345°C).

ASTM A522/A522M-01

Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled 8 and 9% Nickel Alloy Steel


Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for Low-Temperature Service.

ASTM A694/A694M-03

Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Pipe
Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for High-Pressure Transmission
Service.

ASTM A961-04

Standard Specification for Common Requirements for Steel Flanges,


Forged Fittings, Valves, and Parts for Piping Applications.

ASTM A988/A988M

Standard Specification for Hot Isostatically-Pressed Stainless Steel


Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for High Temperature Service.
ASTM A989/A989M

Standard Specification for Hot Isostatically-Pressed Alloy Steel


Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for High Temperature Service.

ASTM B61-2

Standard Specification for Steam or Valve Bronze Castings.

ASTM B763

Standard Specification for Copper Alloy Sand Castings for Valve


Application.

ASTM B834

Standard Specification for Pressure Consolidated Powder Metallurgy


Iron-Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum (UNS N08367) and Nickel-
Chromium-Molybdenum-Columbium (Nb) (UNS N06625) Alloy Pipe
Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts.

ASTM C1129

Standard Practice for Estimation of Heat Savings by Adding Thermal


Insulation to Bare Valves and Flanges.

ASTM F885

Standard Specification for Envelope Dimensions for Bronze Globe


Valves NPS 1/4 to 2.

ASTM F992

Standard Specification for Valve Label Plates.

ASTM F993

Standard Specification for Valve Locking Devices.


ASTM F1020

Standard Specification for Line-Blind Valves for Marine Applications.

ASTM F1030

Standard Practice for Selection of Valve Operators.

ASTM F1098

Standard Specification for Envelope Dimensions for Butterfly Valves-


NPS 2 to 24.

ASTM F1271

Standard Specification for Spill Valves for Use in Marine Tank Liquid
Overpressure Protections Applications.

ASTM F1370

Standard Specification for Pressure-Reducing Valves for Water


Systems, Shipboard.

ASTM F1394

Standard Test Method for Determination of Particle Contribution from


Gas Distribution System Valves.

ASTM F1565

Standard Specification for Pressure-Reducing Valves for Steam


Service.

ASTM F1792

Standard Specification for Special Requirements for Valves Used in


Gaseous Oxygen Service.

ASTM F1793
Standard Specification for Automatic Shut-Off Valves (Also Known as
Excess Flow Valves, EFV) for Air Or Nitrogen Service.

ASTM F1794

Standard Specification for Hand-Operated, Globe-Style Valves for Gas


(Except Oxygen Gas), and Hydraulic Systems.

ASTM F1795

Standard Specification for Pressure-Reducing Valves for Air or Nitrogen


Systems.

ASTM F1802

Standard Test Method for Performance Testing of Excess Flow Valves.

ASTM F1970

Standard Specification for Special Engineered Fittings, Appurtenances


or Valves for use in Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) or Chlorinated Poly
(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Systems.

ASTM F1985

Standard Specification for Pneumatic-Operated, Globe-Style, Control


Valves.

ASTM F2138

Standard Specification for Excess Flow Valves for Natural Gas Service.

ASTM F2215

Standard Specification for Balls, Bearings, Ferrous and Nonferrous for


Use in Bearings, Valves, and Bearing Applications.

ASTM F2324
Standard Test Method for Prerinse Spray Valves.

BSi Standards
BS 341-1:1991

Transportable gas container valves. Specification for industrial valves


for working pressures up to and including 300 bar (REPLACED by BS
EN 14189:2003) , BS 341-3:2002) , BS EN 849:1997) , BS EN ISO
13340:2001) , BS EN ISO 14246:2001) , BS 341-4:2004).

BS 341-2:1963

Transportable Gas Container Valves. Valves with Taper Stems for Use
with Breathing Apparatus. (REPLACED by BS 341-1:1991) , BS EN
849:1997) , BS EN ISO 12209-1:2001) , BS EN ISO 12209-2:2001) ,
BS EN ISO 12209-3:2001).

BS 341-3:2002

Transportable gas container valves. Valve outlet connections.

BS 341-4:2004

Transportable gas container valves. Pressure relief devices.

BS 759-1:1984

Valves, gauges and other safety fittings for application to boilers and to
piping installations for and in connection with boilers. Specification for
valves, mountings and fittings.

BS 1123-1:1990

Safety valves, gauges and fusible plugs for compressed air or inert gas
installations - Code of practice for installation.

BS 1212-1:1990

Float operated valves - Specification for piston type float operated


valves (copper alloy body) (excluding floats).
BS 1212-2:1990

Float operated valves - Specification for diaphragm type float operated


valves (copper alloy body) (excluding floats).

BS 1212-3:1990

Float operated valves - Specification for diaphragm type float operated


valves (plastics bodied) for cold water.

BS 1212-4:1990

Float operated valves - Specification for compact type float operated


valves for WC flushing cisterns (including floats).

BS 1552:2004

Specification for open bottomed taper plug valves for 1st, 2nd and 3rd
family gases up to 200 mbar.

BS 1570:1960

Flanged and but weld-welding end steel plug valves for the petroleum
industry (excluding well -head and flow-line valves).

BS1655:1976

Flanged automatic control valves for the process control industry (face
to face dimensions).

BS 1735:1966

Flanged cast iron outside-screw-and-yoke wedge gate valve, class 125,


sizes 1 1/3 in to 24 in, for the petroleum industry.

BS 1868:1975

Specification for steel check valves (flanged and butt-welding ends) for
the petroleum, petrochemical and allied industries.
BS 1873:1975

Specification for steel globe and globe stop and check valves (flanged
and butt-welding ends) for the petroleum, petrochemical and allied
industries.

BS1952:2000

Copper alloy valves for general purposes.

BS1953:2000

Copper alloy check valves for general purposes.

BS1963:1990

Specification for pressure operated relay valves for domestic,


commercial and catering gas appliances.

BS 1968:195

Specification for floats for ball valves (copper).

BS2060:2000

Copper alloy screw down stop valves for general purposes.

BS2080:1995

Specification for face to face, center to face, end to end and center to
end dimensions of valves.

BS 2456:1990

Specification for floats (plastics) for float operated valves for cold water
services.

BS 2879:1980
Specification for draining taps (screw-down pattern).

BS2995:1966

Cast and forged steel wedge gate, globe, check and plug valve,
screwed and socket welding, sizes 2 in and smaller, for the petroleum
industry.

BS 3457:1973

Specification for materials for water tap and stop valve seat washers.

BS 3464:2000

Cast iron wedge and double disk gate valves for general purposes.

BS3808:1964

Cast and forged steel flanged, screwed and socket welding wedge gate
valves (compact design), sizes 2 in and smaller, for the petroleum
industry.

BS3948:1965

Cast iron parallel slide valves for general purposes.

BS3952:1965

Cast iron butterfly valves for general purposes.

BS3961:1965

Cast iron screw down stop valves and stop and check valves for
general purposes.

BS 4062-1:1982

Valves for hydraulic fluid power systems - Methods for determining


pressure differential/flow characteristics.
BS 4062-2:1990

Valves for hydraulic fluid power systems - Methods for determining


performance.

BS4090:1966

Cast iron check valves for general purposes.

BS4133:1967

Flanged steel parallel slide valves for general purposes.

BS4312:1968

Flanged steel screw down stop valves and check valves for general
purposes.

BS 4460:1969

Steel ball valves for the petroleum industry.

BS 5041:1987

Fire hydrant systems equipment - Specification for landing valves for


wet risers.

BS 5146 P1:1984

Steel valves for the petrochemical and allied industries.

BS 5150:1990 - Withdrawn, Superseded

Specification for cast iron gate valves.

BS 5151:1982

Specification for cast iron gate (parallel slide) valves for general
purposes.

BS 5152:1989

Cast iron globe & globe stop and check valves.

BS 5153:1989

Cast iron check valves for general purposes.

BS 5154:1991

Specification for copper alloy globe, globe stop and check, check and
gate valves.

BS 5155:1992

Specification for butterfly valves.

BS 5156:1990

Specification for diaphragm valves.

BS 5157:1989

Specification for steel gate (parallel slide) valves.

BS 5158:1989

Specification for cast iron plug valves.

BS 5159:1982

Cast iron and carbon steel ball valves for general purposes.

BS 5160:1989

Specification for steel globe valves, globe stop and check valves and lift
type check valves.
BS 5163:1991

Specification for predominantly key-operated cast iron gate valves for


waterworks purposes.

BS 5351:1990

Steel ball valves for petroleum, petrochemical and allied industries.

BS 5352:1990

Steel wedge gate, globe and check valves 50mm and small.

BS 5353:1989

Specification for steel plug valves.

BS 5417:1976

Testing of general purpose industrial valves.

BS 5418:1984

Specification for marking of general purpose industrial valves.

BS 5672:1991

Specification for designation of the direction of retation and of cylinders


and valves in cylinder heads, and definition of right-hand and left-hand
in-line engines and locations on engines for reciprocating internal
combustion engines.

BS 5793-4:1987

Industrial-process control valves - Specification for inspection and


routine testing.

BS 5793-6:1986
Industrial-process control valves - Specification for mounting details for
attachment of positioners to control valve actuators.

BS 5834-1:1985

Surface boxes, guards and underground chambers for gas and


waterworks purposes - Specification for guards, including foundation
units.

BS 5834-2:1983

Surface boxes, guards and underground chambers for gas and


waterworks purposes - Specification for small surface boxes.

BS 5834-3:1985

Surface boxes, guards and underground chambers for gas and


waterworks purposes - Specification for large surface boxes.

BS 5834-4:1989

Surface boxes, guards and underground chambers for gas and


waterworks purposes - Specification for preformed chambers.

BS 5995:1980

Methods of test for electrohydraulic servovalves.

BS 6282-2:1982

Devices with moving parts for the prevention of contamination of water


by backflow - Specification for check valves of nominal size up to and
including DN 54.

BS 6282-3:1982

Devices with moving parts for the prevention of contamination of water


by backflow - Specification for in-line anti-vacuum valves of nominal
size up to and including DN 42.
BS 6282-4:1982

Devices with moving parts for the prevention of contamination of water


by backflow - Specification for combined check and anti-vacuum valves
of nominal size up to and including DN 42.

BS 6283-2:1991

Safety and control devices for use in hot water systems - Specifications
for temperature relief valves for pressures from 1 bar to 10 bar.

BS 6283-4:1991

Safety and control devices for use in hot water systems - Specification
for drop-tight pressure reducing valves of nominal size up to and
including DN 50 for supply pressures up to and including 12 bar.

BS 6494-4:1989

Hydraulic fluid power valve mounting surfaces - Specification for


clamping dimensions of four-part, size 03 and 05, modular stack valves
and directional control valves.

BS 6675:1986

Specification for servicing valves (copper alloy) for water services.

BS 6683:1985

Guide to installation and use of valve.

BS 6697:1986

Methods of test for electrohydraulic proportional control valves.

BS 6755-2:1987

Testing of valves - Specification for fire type-testing requirements.


BS 6759-1:199

Safety valves - Part 1. Specification for safety valves for steam and hot
water.

BS 6759-2:1997

Safety valves - Part 2. Safety valves for compressed air or inert gas.

BS 6759-3:1995

Safety valves - Part 3. Specification for safety valves for process fluids.

BS 6821:1988

Methods for aerodynamic testing of dampers and valves.

BS 7296-1:1990

Cavities for hydraulic fluid power cartridge valves - specification for two-
port slip-in valves.

BS 7350:1990

Specification for double regulating globe valves and flow measurement


devices for heating and chilled water systems.

BS 7389-1:1990

Pneumatic fluid power valve mounting surfaces - specification for five-


port directional control valves (without electrical motor).

BS 7438:1991

Specification steel and copper alloy waffer check valves, single disk,
spring-loaded type.

BS EN 488:2003

District heating pipes - Preinsulated bonded pipe systems for directly


buried hot water networks - Steel valve assembly for steel service
pipes, polyurethane thermal insulation and outer casing of
polyethylene.

BS EN 558-1:1996

Industrial values face to face and center to face dimensions of metal


valves for use in flanged pipe systems. Part 1 PN designated valves.

BS EN 558-2:1996

Industrial valves face to face and center to face dimensions of metal


valves for use in flanged piping systems. Part 2 class-designated
valves.

BS EN 561:2002

Gas welding equipment - Quick-action coupling with shut-off valves for


welding, cutting and allied processes.

BS EN 736-1:1995

Valves - Terminology - Definition of types of valves.

BS EN 736-2:1997

Valves - Terminology - Definition of components of valves.

BS EN 816:1997

Sanitary tapware - Automatic shut-off valves PN 10.

BS EN 917:1997

Plastics piping systems - Thermoplastics valves - Test methods for


resistance to internal pressure and leaktightness.

BS EN 1092-2:1997

Flanges and their joints - Circular flanges for pipes, valves, fittings and
accessories, PN designated - Cast iron flanges.

BS EN 1112:1997

Shower outlets for (PN 10) sanitary tapware.

BS EN 1680:1997

Plastics piping systems - Valves for polyethylene (PE) piping systems -


Test method for leaktightness under and after bending applied to the
operating mechanism.

BS EN 1704:1997

Plastics piping systems - Thermoplastics valves - Test method for the


integrity of a valve after temperature cycling under bending.

BS EN 1705:1997

Plastics piping systems - Thermoplastics valves - Test method for the


integrity of a valve after an external blow.

BS EN 12119:1997

Plastics piping systems - Polyethylene (PE) valves - Test method for


resistance to thermal cycling.

BS EN 14141:2003

Valves for natural gas transportation in pipelines - Performance


requirements and tests.

BS EN 14189:2003

Transportable gas cylinders. Inspection and maintenance of cylinder


valves at time of periodic inspection of gas cylinders. Partially replaces
BS 341-1:1991.

BS EN 28233:1992
Thermoplastics valves - Torque - Test method.

BS EN 28659:1992

Thermoplastics valves - Fatigue strength - Test method.

BS EN 60534-1:1989

Industrial-process control valves - Industrial-process control valves -


Control valve terminology and general considerations.

BS EN 60534-2-1:1999

Industrial-process control valves - Flow capacity - Flow capacity -


Sizing equations for fluid flow under installed conditions.

BS EN 60534-2-3:1998

Industrial-process control valves - Flow capacity - Test procedures.

BS EN 60534-2-5:2003

Industrial-process control valves - Flow capacity - Sizing equations for


fluid flow through multistage control valves with interstage recovery.

BS EN 60534-3-1:2000

Industrial-process control valves - Dimensions - Face-to-face


dimensions for flanged, two-way, globe-type, straight pattern and
centre-to-face dimensions for flanged, two-way, globe-type, angle
pattern control valves.

BS EN 60534-3-2:2001

Industrial-process control valves - Dimensions - Face-to-face


dimensions for rotary control valves except butterfly valves.

BS EN 60534-3-3:1998
Industrial-process control valves - Dimensions - End-to-end dimensions
for buttweld, two-way, globe-type, straight pattern control valves.

BS EN 60534-5:2004

Industrial-process control valves - Marking.

BS EN 60534-6-1:1998

Industrial-process control valves - Mounting details for attachment of


positioners to control valves - Positioner mounting on linear actuators.

BS EN 60534-6-2:2001

Industrial-process control valves - Mounting details for attachment of


positioners to control valves - Positioner mounting on rotary actuators.

BS EN 60534-8-1:2001

Industrial-process control valves - Noise considerations - Laboratory


measurement of noise generated by aerodynamic flow through control
valves.

BS EN 60534-8-2:1991

Industrial-process control valves - Noise considerations - Laboratory


measurement of noise generated by hydrodynamic flow through control
valves.

BS EN 60534-8-3:2000

Industrial-process control valves - Noise considerations - Control valve


aerodynamic noise prediction method.

BS EN 60534-8-4:1994

Industrial-process control valves - Noise considerations - Prediction of


noise generated by hydrodynamic flow.
BS EN 60730-2-8:2002

Specification for automatic electrical controls for household and similar


use - Particular requirements - Particular requirements for electrically
operated water valves, including mechanical requirements.

BS EN ISO 5210:1996

Industrial valves - Multi-turn valve actuator attachments.

BS ISO 4401:1996

Hydraulic fluid power - Four-port directional control valves - Mounting


surfaces.

BS ISO 6263:1997

Hydraulic fluid power - Compensated flow-control valves - Mounting


surfaces.

MSS Standards
MSS SP-6

Standard finishes for contact faces of pipe flanges of valves and fittings.

MSS SP-9

Spot facing for bronze , iron and steel flanges.

MSS SP-25

Standard marking system for valves, fittings, flanges and unions.

MSS SP-42

Class 150 corrosion resistant gate, globe, angle and check valves with
flanged and butt weld ends.

MSS SP-54
Quality standard for steel castings - radiographic inspection method for
valves , flange, fittings and other piping components.

MSS SP-55

Quality standard for steel castings for valves, flanges and fittings and
other piping components.

MSS SP-60

Connecting flange joint between tapping sleeves and tapping valves.

MSS SP-61

Hydrostatic testing of steel valves.

MSS SP-67

Butterfly valves.

MSS SP-70

Cast iron gate valves , flanged and threaded ends.

MSS SP-71

Cast iron swing check valves, flanged and threaded ends.

MSS SP-72

Ball valves with flanged or butt - welding ends for general service.

MSS SP-78

Cast iron plug valves.

MSS SP-80
Bronze Gate, globe angle and check valves.

MSS SP-82

Valves pressure testing methods.

MSS SP-84

Steel valves socket welding and threaded ends.

MSS SP-86

Metric data in standards for valves, flanges and fittings.

DIN Standards
DIN 475-1

Widths across flats for bolts, screws, valves and fittings.

DIN 475-2

Wrench and socket openings.

DIN 477-1

Gas cylinder valves rated for test pressures up to 300 bar; types, sizes
and outlets.

DIN 477-4

Compressed gas cylinder valves; swing check valves for camping-


cylinders.

DIN 477-5

Gas cylinder valves - Part 5: For test pressure up to 450 bar max.;
Outlet connections.

DIN 477-6
Gas cylinder valves; test pressures 300 bar and 450 bar, with
cylindrical thread for valve stem and gas cylinder neck for breathing
apparatus; sizes, threads.

DIN 477-9 (Draft standard)

Gas cylinder valves, for highest grade gases; sizes, connections,


threads.

DIN 1690-10

Technical delivery conditions for castings of metallic materials;


supplementary requirements for steel castings used for heavy-duty
valves.

DIN 3202-4

Face-to-face and center-to-face dimensions of valves; Valves with


female thread connection.

DIN 3202-5

Face-to-face and center-to-face dimensions of valves; valves for


connection with compression couplings.

DIN 3230-3

Technical delivery conditions for valves; Compilation of test methods.

DIN 3230-4

Technical Conditions of Delivery for Valves; Valves for Potable Water


Service, Requirements and Testing.

DIN 3230-5

Technical delivery conditions; valves for gas installations and gas


pipelines; requirements and testing.
DIN 3230-6

Technical delivery conditions for valves; requirements and methods of


test for valves for use with flammable liquids.

DIN 3266-1

Valves for drinking water installations on private premises; PN 10 pipe


interrupters, pipe disconnectors, anti-vacuum valves.

DIN 3266-2

Valves for drinking water installations on private premises; PN 10 pipe


interrupters, pipe disconnectors, anti-vacuum valves; testing.

DIN 3320-1

Safety valves; safety shut-off valves; definitions, sizing, marking.

DIN 3320-3 (Draft standard)

Safety valves; safety shut-off valves; center for face dimensions of


flanged safety valves to PN 40 and to DN 250 inlet.

DIN 3339

Valves; body component materials.

DIN 3352-1

Gate Valves; General Information.

DIN 3352-2

Cast iron gate valves, with metallic seat and inside screw stem.

DIN 3352-3

Cast iron gate valves, with metallic seat and outside screw stem.
DIN 3352-4

Cast iron gate valves with elastomeric obturator seatings and inside
screw stem.

DIN 3352-5

Steel gate valves, isomorphs series.

DIN 3352-13

Double-socket cast iron gate valves, with elastomeric obturator seat


and inside screw stem.

DIN 3356-1

Globe valves; General data.

DIN 3356-2

Globe valves; Cast iron stop valves.

DIN 3356-3

Globe valves; Unalloyed steel stop valves.

DIN 3356-4

Globe valves; High temperature steel stop valves.

DIN 3356-5

Globe valves; Stainless steel stop valves.

DIN 3357-1

Metal ball valves; general requirements and methods of test.


DIN 3357-2

Full bore steel ball valves.

DIN 3357-3

Reduced bore steel ball valves.

DIN 3357-4

Full bore nonferrous metal ball valves.

DIN 3357-5

Reduced bore nonferrous metal ball valves.

DIN 3381

Safety devices for gas supply installations operating at working


pressures up to 100 bar; pressure relief governors and safety shut-off
devices.

DIN 3399

Gas low-pressure cut-off valves; safety requirements, testing.

DIN 3441-1

Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U) valves; requirements and


testing.

DIN 3441-2

Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U) valves; ball valves;


dimensions.

DIN 3441-3

Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U) valves; diaphragm valves;


dimensions.

DIN 3441-4

Valves of Rigid PVC (Unplasticized or Rigid Polyvinyl Chloride); Y-


valves (Inclined-seat Valves), Dimensions.

DIN 3441-5

Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U) valves; PN 6 and PN 10 wafer


type butterfly valves; dimensions.

DIN 3441-6

Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (UPVC) valves; gate valves with inside


screw stem; dimensions.

DIN 3442-1

Polypropylene (PP) valves; requirements and testing.

DIN 3442-2

Fittings of PP (Polypropylene); Ball valves, Dimensions.

DIN 3442-3

Polypropylene (PP) valves; diaphragm valves; dimensions.

DIN 3475

Spheroidal graphite cast iron valves and fittings provided with internal
corrosion protection by means of enamelling, for use in drinking water
supply systems; requirements and testing.

DIN 3476

Corrosion protection of water valves and pipe fittings by epoxy powder


or liquid epoxy resin linings - Requirements and testing.
DIN 3500

PN 10 piston type gate valves for use in drinking water supply systems.

DIN 3502

Stopvalves for drinking water supplies on and in private property;


straight pattern globe valves with oblique bonnet, rated for nominal
pressure PN 10.

DIN 3512

Stopvalves for domestic water supply - Two-way valves - Vertical


bonnet type PN 10; Straight pattern globe valve; Technical rule of the
DVGW.

DIN 3535-1

Sealants for gas supplies; elastomeric gasket materials for gas valves
in domestic installations; requirements and tests.

DIN 3535-5

Rubber/cork and rubber/cork synthetic fiber based gasket materials for


use with gas valves, gas appliances and gas pipe work.

DIN 3535-6

Gaskets for gas supply - Part 6: Gasket materials based on synthetic


fibers, graphite or polytetrafluoroethylen (PTFE) for gas valves, gas
appliances and gas mains.

DIN 3537-1

Gas stop valves rated for pressures up to 4 bar; requirements and


acceptance testing.

DIN 3543-1
Metal tapping valves; requirements, testing.

DIN 3543-2

Metallic tapping stop valves; dimensions.

DIN 3543-3, Publication date:1978-07

PVC tapping valves for plastic pipes; dimensions.

DIN 3543-4

High density polyethylene (HDPE) tapping valves for HDPE pipes;


dimensions.

DIN 3544-1

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) valves; tapping valves; requirements


and test.

DIN 3852-1

Ports and stud ends with metric fine pitch thread, for use with
compression couplings, valves and screw plugs; Dimensions.

DIN 3852-2

Stud ends and tapped holes with pipe thread, for use with compression
couplings, valves and screw plugs; Dimensions.

DIN 3852-11

Stud ends and tapped holes for use with compression couplings, valves
and screw plugs - Type E stud end dimensions.

DIN 19208

Flow measurement; mating dimensions and application of shut-off


valves for differential pressure transducers and differential pressure
piping.

DIN 19578-1

Stop valves for site drainage systems; anti-flooding valves for faucal
sewage systems; requirements.

DIN 20042

Water valve, nominal pressure 40 - Dimensions and requirements.

DIN EN 28233

Thermoplastics valves; torques; test method (ISO 8233:1988).

DIN 30677-1

Corrosion protection of buried valves; coating for normal requirement.

DIN 30677-2

External corrosion protection of buried valves; heavy-duty thermoset


plastics coatings.

DIN 32509

Hand-operated shut-off valves for welding, cutting and allied processes


- Type of construction, safety requirements, tests.

DIN 42560

Transformers; Throttle-valves NW 80, Dimensions, Tightness Testing.

DIN 74279

Air braking systems - Charging valves.

DIN 86251
Shut off valves for shipboard use, of cast iron, with flanges, DN 15 to
500.

DIN 86252

Non return valves for shipboard use, cut off type, of cast iron, with
flanges, DN 15 to 500.

DIN 86260

Shut off valves for shipboard use, of gun metal, with flanges, DN 15 to
500.

DIN 86261

Non return valves for shipboard use, cut off type, of gun metal, with
flanges, DN 15 to 500.

DIN 86501

Valves, screwed bonnet type of gun metal with 24?-connection with


port end W according to DIN 3861.

DIN 86528

Tab washers for screwed bonnet valves.

DIN 86552

Valves, screwed bonnet type of steel with 24?-connection with port end
W according to DIN 3861.

DIN 86720

Gate valves flat sided of gun metal with screwed bonnet and flanges,
DN 20 to DN 100, PN 16.

DIN 87101, Publication date:2003-10

Non-return flaps (storm valves), self-closing, vertical type, DN 50 up to


DN 150, PN 1 - Mating dimensions for flanges according to PN 10.

DIN 87901

Sniffle valves for pumps.

DIN EN 488

District heating pipes - Preinsulated bonded pipe systems for directly


buried hot water networks - Steel valve assembly for steel service
pipes, polyurethane thermal insulation and outer casing of
polyethylene; German version EN 488:2003.

DIN EN 558-1

Face-to-face and center-to-face dimensions of metal industrial valves


for use in flanged pipe systems - PN designated valves.

DIN EN 558-2

Face-to-face and center-to-face dimensions of metal industrial valves


for use in flanged pipe systems - Class-designated valves.

DIN EN 736-1

Valves - Terminology - Types of valves.

DIN EN 736-2

Valves - Terminology - Part 2: Definition of components of valves.

DIN EN 736-3

Valves - Terminology - Part 3: Definition of terms (includes Amendment


A1:2001); English version of DIN EN 736-3:1999 + A1:2001.

DIN EN 917

Plastics piping systems - Thermoplastics valves - Test methods for


resistance to internal pressure and leak-tightness.

DIN EN 1092-1

Flanges and their joints - Circular flanges for pipes, valves, fittings and
accessories - Part 1: Steel flanges, PN designated.

DIN EN 1092-2

Circular flanges for pipes, valves, fittings and accessories, PN


designated - Part 2: Cast iron flanges.

DIN EN 1092-4

Flanges and their joints - Circular flanges for pipes, valves, fittings and
accessories, PN designated - Part 4: Aluminium alloy flanges.

DIN EN 1680

Plastics piping systems - Valves for polyethylene (PE) piping systems -


Test method for leaktightness under and after bending applied to the
operating mechanism.

DIN EN 1705

Plastics piping systems - Thermoplastics valves - Test method for the


integrity of a valve after an external blow; German version EN
1705:1996.

DIN EN 28233

Thermoplastics valves; torques; test method (ISO 8233:1988).

ISO Standards
ISO 683-15:1992

Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels; part 15: valve
steels for internal combustion engines.
ISO 4126-1:2004

Safety devices for protection against excessive pressure - Part 1:


Safety valves.

ISO 4401:1994

Hydraulic fluid power - Four-port directional control valves - Mounting


surfaces.

ISO 4411:1986

Hydraulic fluid power; Valves; Determination of pressure


differential/flow characteristics.

ISO 4422-4:1997

Pipes and fittings made of unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) for


water supply - Specifications - Part 4: Valves and ancillary equipment.

ISO 5208:1993

Industrial valves; pressure testing of valves.

ISO 5209:1977

General purpose industrial valves; Marking.

ISO 5210:1991

Industrial valves; multi-turn valve actuator attachments.

ISO 5211:2001

Industrial valves - Part-turn actuator attachment.

ISO 5599-1:2001

Pneumatic fluid power - Five-port directional control valves - Part 1:


Mounting interface surfaces without electrical connector.

ISO 5599-2:2001

Pneumatic fluid power - Five-port directional control valves - Part 2:


Mounting interface surfaces with optional electrical connector.

ISO 5599-3:1990

Pneumatic fluid power; five-port directional control valves; part 3: code


system for communication of valve functions.

ISO 5752:1982

Metal valves for use in flanged pipe systems; Face-to-face and center-
to-face dimensions.

ISO 5781:2000

Hydraulic fluid power - Pressure-reducing valves, sequence valves,


unloading valves, throttle valves and check valves - Mounting surfaces.

ISO 5996:1984

Cast iron gate valves.

ISO 6002:1992

Bolted bonnet steel gate valves.

ISO 6182-1:2004

Fire protection - Automatic sprinkler systems - Part 1: Requirements


and test methods for sprinklers.

ISO 6182-2:1993

Fire protection; automatic sprinkler systems; part 2: requirements and


test methods for wet alarm valves, retard chambers and water motor
alarms.

ISO 6182-3:1993

Fire protection; automatic sprinkler systems; part 3: requirements and


test methods for dry pipe valves.

ISO 6182-4:1993

Fire protection; automatic sprinkler systems; part 4: requirements and


test methods for quick-opening devices.

ISO 6182-5:1995

Fire protection - Automatic sprinkler systems - Part 5: Requirements


and test methods for deluge valves.

ISO 6263:1997

Hydraulic fluid power - Compensated flow-control valves - Mounting


surfaces.

ISO 6264:1998

Hydraulic fluid power - Pressure-relief valves - Mounting surfaces.

ISO 6403:1988

Hydraulic fluid power; valves controlling flow and pressure; test


methods.

ISO 6552:1980

Automatic steam traps; Definition of technical terms.

ISO 6553:1980

Automatic steam traps; Marking.


ISO 6554:1980

Flanged automatic steam traps; Face-to-face dimensions.

ISO 6704:1982

Automatic steam traps; Classification.

ISO 6948:1981

Automatic steam traps; Production and performance characteristic


tests.

ISO 7121:1986

Flanged steel ball valves.

ISO 7244:1984

Air distribution and air diffusion; Aerodynamic testing of dampers and


valves.

ISO 7259:1988

Predominantly key-operated cast iron gate valves for underground use.

ISO 7368:1989

Hydraulic fluid power; two-port slip-in cartridge valves; cavities.

ISO 7508:1985

Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U) valves for pipes under


pressure; Basic dimensions; Metric series.

ISO 7714:2000

Agricultural irrigation equipment - Volumetric valves - General


requirements and test methods.
ISO 7790:1997

Hydraulic fluid power - Four-port modular stack valves and four-port


directional control valves, sizes 02, 03 and 05 - Clamping dimensions.

ISO 7841:1988

Automatic steam traps; determination of steam loss; test methods.

DIN ISO 7967-3:1993

Reciprocating internal combustion engines; vocabulary of components


and systems; valves, camshaft drive and actuating mechanisms.

ISO 8233:1988

Thermoplastics valves; torque; test method.

ISO 8242:1989

Polypropylene (PP) valves for pipes under pressure; basic dimensions;


metric seriess.

ISO 8659:1989

Thermoplastics valves; fatigue strength; test method.

ISO 9393-1:2004

Thermoplastics valves for industrial applications - Pressure test


methods and requirements - Part 1: General.

ISO 9393-2:1997

Thermoplastics valves - Pressure test methods and requirements - Part


2: Test conditions and basic requirements for PE, PP, PVC-U and
PVDF valves.
ISO 9635:1990

Irrigation equipment; hydraulically operated irrigation valves.

ISO 9644:1993

Agricultural irrigation equipment; pressure losses in irrigation valves;


test method.

ISO 9911:1993

Agricultural irrigation equipment; manually operated small plastics


valves.

ISO 9952:1993

Agricultural irrigation equipment; check valves.

ISO 10418:2003

Petroleum and natural gas industries - Offshore production installations


- Basic surface process safety systems.

ISO 10423:2003

Petroleum and natural gas industries - Drilling and production


equipment - Wellhead and christmas tree equipment.

ISO 10497:2004

Testing of valves - Fire type-testing requirements.

ISO 10522:1993

Agricultural irrigation equipment; direct-acting pressure-regulating


valves.

ISO 10631:1994
Metallic butterfly valves for general purposes.

ISO 10931-4:1997

Plastics piping systems for industrial applications - Poly(vinylidene


fluoride) (PVDF) - Part 4: Valves.

ISO 10933:1997

Polyethylene (PE) valves for gas distribution systems.

BS ISO 6263:1997

Hydraulic fluid power - Compensated flow-control valves - Mounting


surfaces.

Body Material Equivalence Guide

General Name American Standard DIN Standard JIS Standard BS Standard

Stainless Steel ASTM A351-CF8M DIN 17745 1.4408 SCS14A 304C15


316

Stainless Steel ASTM A351-CF8 DIN 17745 1.4308 SCS13A 304S31


304

Carbon Steel ASTM A216 Gr. DIN 17245 GS-C25 SCW400 -----
(Cast) WCB 1.0619

Carbon Steel ASTM A105 DIN 17100 St52-3 G3201 -----


(Forged) 1.057 SF490A

Cast Iron ASTM A126 Class GG25 0.6025 FC 250 Gr. 250
B

Ductile Iron ASTM A536 Gr. 60- DIN 1698 GGG40 FCD 40 BS 289 Gr.
40-18 0.704 420-17
Chemical Composition Comparison of Common
Materials

Seat Selection Guide


Valve Seat Material Selection Guide

Ball Valve - 1, 2 & 3 Piece Structure


One piece Structure
* No potential body leak path.
* requires use of reduced port ball.
* significant pressure drop.
* Not repairable.
Two-piece
* most common in building services.
* Best price value.
* Available in full or standard port balls.
* Not recommended to be repaired.
Three-piece
* more costly.
* easier to disassemble.
* Can be repaired in pipe line.
* Available in full or standard port balls
Butterfly - Triple Eccentric
Single Eccentric :
Design : The center of Stem rotation (Os) is moved from the centerline
of Disc (Od). The face of Seat and Seal are conical.
Feature : There are interference between Seal and Seat, So this is only
applicable to soft Seated Valve.

Double Eccentric :
Design : The centerline of Stem rotation (Os) is moved from the
centerline of Disc (Od). And the center of Stem rotation (Os) is moved
from the Centerline of Pipe (Lp).
Feature : The Friction between seal and seat is reduced. The materials
of Seat must be relatively soft or highly elastic.

Triple Eccentric Design :


The centerline of Stem rotation (Os) is moved from the centerline of
Disc (Od). The center of Stem rotation (Os) is moved from the
Centerline of Pipe (Lp). And the centerline of the cone of the seal face
(Lc) is rotated from the centerline of the Pipe (Lp).
Feature : The interference between the Seal and Seat is eliminated to
ensure a long cycle life with this geometry. This design can suit to metal
Seat and used in high temperature and high pressure.

Pressure Seal
Pressure Seal
When the pressure of Valve’s inside increases, the Sealing Seat will
be pushed up. And the flexible Seat Ring will be pressure to form a
good seal. In other words, the pressure of Valve’s inside is higher,
the seal is better.

Stem - Rising & Non-rising


Rising Stem
When the Stem rises, the Valve is opened. Therefore, space is required for
opening a "rising stem" valve. The position of Stem indicates whether the valve is
open or close. In addition, in the opening position, the thread of stem is not in
contact with the fluid, and thus, avoid corrosion.
Non-Rising Stem
For Non-Rising Stem valves, space is not required for operation. However, it
would be difficult to determine the valve open/close position by visual, and the
thread of the stem may be corroded since it is in contact with the fluid.

Anti-static Device
Anti-static Device
There are Coil springs provides contact between Stem and Ball and a
further which provides contact between Stem and Body. So it can
prevent fire caused by static electricity from friction between stem and
Ball, Body.

Fire Safe Design


Fire-Safe Design
In the event of a fire the valve is required to make a downstream seal.
During and after a fire, the nonmetal seal ring between Body and Ball,
Stem, End Cap will be busted. And the Ball will be push to the End
Cap to form a good metal to metal seal.
Body & Ball

Body & Stem

Body & End Cap


Locking Device
Locking Device
It can be locked in open or close position to ensure a valve remains in
the desired position and prevent unauthorized operation.

Glossary Of Terms

Technicals

Actuator:
Device used to operate a valve using electric, pneumatic or hydraulic means. Often used for remote
control or sequencing of valve operations.

Alloy steel:
A steel consisting primarily of iron with some percentage of one or more other elements such as
chromium, nickel, manganese, or vanadium deliberately added to enhance its properties.

Ambient temperature:
The prevailing temperature of the environment immediately surrounding an object - generally considered
to be -20° F to +100° F.

Austenitic stainless steel:


The common stainless steel, where the primary microstructure is austenite and the composition primarily
iron but also includes both chromium and nickel. The steels are designated as 300 series such as 304,
316, CF8M, etc.

Bevel gear operator:


Device facilitating operation of a gate or globe valve by means of a set of bevel gears having the axis of
the pinion gear at right angles to that of the larger ring gear. The reduction ratio of this gear set
determines the multiplication of torque achieved.

Back seat:
A shoulder on the stem of a gate or globe valve which seals against a mating surface inside the bonnet to
prevent leakage of media through the bonnet stuffing box when the valve is fully opened.
Ball The closure element of a ball valve.

Ball valve:
A valve using a spherical closure element which is rotated through 90° to open and close the valve.

Body:
The principle pressure containing part of a valve in which the closure element and seats are located.

Bolted bonnet:
A bonnet which is connected to a valve body with bolts or studs and nuts.

Bolted construction:
Describes a valve construction in which the pressure shell elements (such as body and closures of a
trunnion ball valve) are bolted together and so can be taken apart and repaired in the field.

Bonnet:
The top part of a valve, attached to the body, which contains the packing gland, guides the stem, and
adapts to extensions or operators.

Bore (or port):


The inside diameter of the smallest opening through a valve, e.g., inside diameter of a seat ring, diameter
of hole through ball in a ball valve.

Butt weld end:


The end connection of a valve suitably prepared for butt welding to a connecting pipe.

Carbon steel:
Iron containing carbon in the form of carbides, about 0.1 to 0.3 percent carbon with no other alloying
elements other than the sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements present in almost all steels.

Cast iron:
The common term for cast gray iron or iron containing flake carbon in the range of _% to 2 _%. Cast iron
is brittle, exhibiting very little ductility before fracturing.

Casting:
A product or the act of producing a product made by pouring molten metal into a mold and allowing it to
solidify, thus taking the shape of the mold.

Charpy:
test A destructive mechanical test conducted on a precisely machined coupon of steel to be tested. The
coupon is clamped in a special machine and subjected to lateral hammer blow. The test provides a
relative measure of the toughness of the steel or its resistance to shock or impact loads and is usually
required for material used in low temperature applications.

Check valve:
A one-directional valve which is opened by the fluid flow in one direction and closed automatically when
the flow stops or is reversed.

Clapper:
The hinged closure element of a swing check valve.
Class:
A pressure rating expressed as a dimensionless number. The class rating charts give actual pounds per
square inch maximum allowable pressure at a given temperature.

Closure:
The ends of a bolted construction ball valve, bolted to the body, which often contain the seat rings.

Closure element:
The moving part of a valve, positioned in the flow stream, which controls the flow through the valve, e.g.,
wedge, plug, clapper, ball.

Cv:
Flow coefficient expressed as the number of gallons of water that would flow through an opening, such as
a valve port, in 1 minute under a differential pressure of 1 psi.

CWP:
Cold working pressure - the maximum allowable pressure under non-shock conditions at ambient
temperature ( -20° F to +100° F).

Dezincification:
A form of pitting corrosion which attacks certain zinc bearing copper-based alloys, often called "yellow
brasses", when in contact with sea water or fresh water that is high in oxygen and carbon dioxide. (ASTM
B61 and B62 are "red brasses" and not susceptible to dezincification.)

Double block and bleed:


The capability of a valve under pressure to obtain a seal across both the upstream and downstream seat
rings and to have its body cavity bled down to atmospheric pressure.

Drain plug:
A fitting at the bottom of a valve, the removal of which permits draining and flushing the body cavity.

E
Elastomer:
A natural or synthetic elastic material, often used for o-ring seals. Typical materials are viton, buna-n,
EPDM (ethylene propylene dimonomer), etc.

Emergency seat:
seal A fitting on the valve body through which sealant can be injected to effect a seat seal in an
emergency situation.

End connection:
The type of connection supplied on the ends of a valve which allows it to be connected to piping - may be
weld end, flanged end, threaded or socketweld.

ENP:
electroless nickel plating.

Face to face:
The overall dimension from the inlet face of a valve to the outlet face of a valve (one end to another)
allowing valves of the same size and pressure class to be mutually interchangeable, regardless of
manufacturer.

Facing:
The finish of the gasket contact surface of a flange.

Fitting:
Any component, other than valves, used with pipe as part of the pressure system and normally referring
to items covered by a national standard.

Flat Face (FF):


A flange surface in which the gasket sealing area is the entire surface from the ID to the outside edge.
Usually used for class 125 cast iron valves.

Fire safe:
A valve design that is capable of passing a fire test with specified limits on leakage to the atmosphere and
downstream after being closed subsequent to fire exposure.

Floating ball:
A ball valve design in which the ball is not rigidly held on its rotational axis and so is free to float between
the seat rings.

Forging:
A metalworking process that involves hammering or squeezing, with or without a die, at hot working
temperatures to form a specific shape.

Full bore (full opening):


Describes a valve in which the bore (port) is nominally equal to the bore of the connecting pipe.

Full penetration weld:


Describes the type of weld wherein the weld metal extends through the complete thickness of the parts
being joined.

Gasket:
A component whose purpose is to seal a joint between two larger components, softer than the surfaces of
the joint being sealed and usually squeezed by means of bolting to effect the seal.

Gate:
The closure element of a gate valve (sometimes called wedge or disc)

Gate valve:
A straight through pattern valve in which closure element is a wedge situated between two fixed seating
surfaces, with means to move it in or out of the flow stream in a direction perpendicular to the pipeline
axis. Used as a block valve, or on-off valve.

Gland or gland bushing:


The part of the valve which retains or compresses the stem packing in a stuffing box.

Gland follower or gland flange:


The component used to hold down or retain the gland in the stuffing box.

Globe valve:
A valve whose closure element is a flat disc or conical plug sealing on a seat which is usually parallel to
the flow axis. Can be used for throttling services.

Graphite:
Flexible carbon material used to make gaskets and packing. The gaskets may be flat graphite sheet or
have metal inserts for added strength. The packing is a combination of lattice braided rings used as anti-
extrusion or wiper rings and die-formed rings which are compressed to effect the seal.

Grease fitting:
A device which permits injection of grease into a bearing surface.

Handwheel
A wheel-shaped valve operating device intended to be grasped with one or both hands which allows
turning the valve stem or operator shaft to which it is attached.

Hardfacing
A surface preparation in which an alloy is deposited on a metal surface usually by weld overlay to
increase resistance to abrasion and or corrosion.

Heat analysis
A chemical analysis conducted by a foundry immediately prior to pouring which measures the exact
chemical composition of a particular batch of molten metal.

Heat treatment:
Describes any process or procedure by which the internal structure of steel is altered by heating to
produce desired physical and mechanical characteristics.

Hot tap:
A connection made to a pipeline while the line is under pressure or in service. A special procedure is
required to make an opening in the pipe without leaking any of the line contents.
Hot tears:
A defect occurring in castings caused where partially solidified or weak, newly solidified sections are
subjected to a pull resulting from the contraction of thinner parts that have solidified earlier. A hot tear is
an intergranular failure.

Huey test:
A corrosion resistance test for stainless steel, most useful for predicting resistance to intergranular
corrosion.

Hydrostatic test:
A pressure test in which a valve is tested with water to detect leaks - may be a shell test or a seat closure
test.

IBBM:
Iron body, bronze mounted - common term for valves with cast iron body and bonnet and bronze trim
(seating surfaces, stem, bushings).

ID:
The measurement of the inside diameter of a circular part.

ISRS:
Inside screw, rising stem - common term for any valve design in which the stem threads are exposed to
the fluid below the packing and the stem rises up through the packing when the valve is opened.

Lever:
An operating device for quarter-turn valves.

Liquid penetrant inspection:


A nondestructive method of detecting the presence of surface cracks and imperfections through use of a
special red dye. Abbreviated as LPI or PT.
Locking device:
Any valve attachment whose purpose is to prevent the operation of the valve by unauthorized persons.

Magnetic particle inspection:


A nondestructive method of detecting the presence of surface cracks and imperfections through use of
fine iron particles in an electrical field. Abbreviated as MPI or MT.

Material Test Reports:


Certificates provided by the steel manufacturer indicating the chemical analysis and mechanical
properties of a specific batch of steel traced by sequentially assigned heat numbers or codes.

Mold:
A hollow cavity, frequently in packed sand, for giving a desired shape to a material in a molten or plastic
shape.

NPS:
Nominal pipe size - dimensionless number used to indicate sizes of pressure pipe and valves - used
interchangeably with valve size in inches.

NPT:
National Pipe Thread - standard tapered thread for pressure pipe and components. Requirements defined
in ASME B1.20.1.

NRS:
Non-rising stem - A gate valve having its stem threaded into the gate. As the stem turns the gate moves
but the stem does not rise. Stem threads are exposed to the line fluid.

OD:
The measurement of the outside diameter of a circular part.

O-ring:
An elastomeric or synthetic seal ring of circular cross section.
OS&Y:
Outside Screw & Yoke - A valve design in which the stem threads are above the packing gland or outside
the valve body and there is a yoke to support the top or outer end of the stem.

Packing:
The deformable sealing material inserted into a valve stuffing box which when compressed by the gland
provides a tight seal about the stem.

Pattern:
A duplicate made of wood or metal of a part to be cast. Used to form the mold into which the molten metal
is poured.

Pinhole:
Numerous small gas holes at the surface or just below the surface of castings, generally occurring in the
thicker parts of the casting as a reduction in the solubility of gases in the metal as the metal cools.

Pinion shaft:
The external input shaft of certain gear operators which drive the internal reduction gearing.

Plastics:
A broad classification covering a variety of non-metallic, synthetic or organic materials capable of being
molded or formed into desired shapes. Typical materials include nylons and tetrafluoroethylenes such as
DuPont’s Teflon" .

PMI:
Positive material identification - a method for cross checking the identity of a piece of material, often using
a portable spectrometer, usually with x-rays (TN 9266, nuclear analyzer) or a welding arc (Arc Met 900,
optical spectrometer).

Pneumatic test:
A test in which a valve is tested with air - usually a seat closure test.
Porosity:
A defect found in castings or welds consisting of gas bubbles or voids in the solidified metal.

Position indicator:
Any external device which visually indicates the open and closed position of valve.

Pressure-Temperature Ratings:
The maximum allowable working pressures at specified temperatures. For steel valves, the ratings are
defined by "classes" and found in ASME B16.34. For iron and bronze valves, the ratings are defined in
the applicable MSS specifications.

Product Analysis:
The chemical analysis of a material done on a finished component to show compliance with the material
specifications. Usually has tolerances defined for each element to allow for differences in the completed
product compared to the molten metal.

PSI:
Pounds per square inch - the force per unit area exerted against a resisting body.

Ra:
Abbreviation for "arithmetic average roughness height" - the measure of the roughness of a surface
expressed in microinches. The higher the number, the rougher the surface. Used to designate the desired
surface finish for end flange raised faces.

Radiographic inspection:
A nondestructive inspection method using x-rays to locate internal flaws in castings, fabricated parts and
welds. Abbreviated as RT.

Raised faced (RF):


The raised area of a flange face which is the gasket sealing surface between mating flanges. Defined in
ASME B16.5. Class 150 and 300 valves have 0.06" RF and Class 600 and up have a 0.25" RF.

Reduced port:
A valve port opening that is smaller than the line size or the valve end connection size.

Ring type joint (RTJ):


A flange connection using a specially shaped soft metal ring as a gasket. Generally used on high
pressure valves. May be the body and bonnet connection and/or the end flange connection.

Resilient seat:
A valve seat containing a soft seal such as an o-ring or plastic to assure tight shut-off.

Rim pull:
The force required at the edge of the handwheel to generate the required torque at the center of the
handwheel.

RS:
Rising stem - A valve stem with threads arranged so that as the stem turns, the threads engage a
stationary threaded area and lift the stem along with the closure element attached to it.

Schedule:
A system for indicating the wall thickness of pipe. The higher the schedule number, the thicker the wall for
a certain pipe size.

Seal weld:
A weld that does not contribute anything to the mechanical integrity of an assembly, but is made purely to
seal or prevent leakage from, for instance, a threaded joint.

Seat:
The part of a valve against which the closure element effects a tight shut-off.

Self-relieving:
The process by which excessive internal body cavity pressure is automatically relieved either into the
upstream or downstream line - generally found in ball valves

Shrinkage:
Internal defect in castings that are internal voids, irregular in shape, caused by volume contraction during
solidification. Can be caused by not maintaining a fluid channel to the riser during solidification.

Socketweld end (SW):


The end connection of a valve suitably prepared for Socket welding to a connecting pipe.

Sour gas:
Natural gas containing significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Requires special material
treatments to avoid valve failures from sulfide corrosion cracking.

Specification:
A document that defines the requirements that a finished product must conform to - may include chemical
and mechanical properties, tolerances, marking, shipping, etc.

Spur gear:
The simplest of gears - in a gear set, the pinion and ring gear are aligned on parallel shafts. Can be
added to another gear operator to further increase the mechanical advantage afforded by the gear.

Square operating nut:


A nut, usually 2" x 2", which is attached to a valve stem or the pinion shaft of a gear operator allowing use
of wrenches to quickly operate the valve.

Stainless steel:
Any of a number of types of iron alloy with chrome, nickel, or other elements that does not oxidize in free
air.

Stem:
The rod or shaft transmitting motion from an operator (handwheel or gear operator) to the closure
element of the valve.

Stem nut (yoke nut):


The threaded nut that surrounds a reciprocating valve stem and causes the stem to move when the nut is
rotated.
Stud:
A bolt, threaded on both ends, often used in bolting together bodies and bonnets or bodies and closures.

Stuffing box:
The annular chamber provided around a valve stem in a sealing system into which deformable packing is
placed. Sometimes called packing chamber.

Swing check valve:


A check valve in which the closure element is a hinged clapper which swings or rotates about a
supporting shaft.

Tensile strength:
The highest tensile stress that a material can withstand before failure or rupture occurs - the force being
applied in a direction tending to elongate the material.

Tensile test:
A destructive test performed on a specially machined specimen taken from material in its delivered
condition to determine mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, yield strength, and percent
elongation.

Throttling:
The intentional restriction of flow by partially closing or opening a valve.

Thrust:
The net force applied to a part in a particular direction - e.g., on the end of a valve stem

Torque:
The rotational force imposed on or through a shaft, usually expressed in foot-pounds.

Trim:
Commonly refers to the valve’s working parts and to their materials. Usually includes seat ring sealing
surfaces, closure element sealing surfaces, stems, and back seats. Trim numbers which specify the
materials are defined in API 600 and API 602.

Trunnion:
The part of a ball valve which holds the ball on a fixed vertical axis and about which the ball turns.

Turns to operate:
The number of complete revolutions of a handwheel or the pinion shaft of a gear operator required to
stroke a valve from fully open to fully closed or vice versa.

Ultrasonic inspection:
An inspection procedure using high frequency sound waves to detect wall thickness or flaws throughout
the thickness of metal parts. Abbreviated as UT.

Union bonnet:
A type of valve construction in which the bonnet is held on by a union nut with threads on the body.

V, W & Y

Valve:
A device used to control the flow of fluid contained in a pipe line.

WOG:
Water-oil-gas - a rating designation generally used for small valves chiefly in low ratings. Indicates
maximum working pressure at ambient + 32° F to +100° F. Also called Nonshock Rating.

Working pressure:
The pressure (pounds per square inch) at which a valve is designed to operate.

Wall thickness:
The thickness of the wall of the pressure vessel or valve. For steel valves, minimum thickness
requirements are defined in ASME B16.34, API 600, and API 602.

Worm gears:
A gear set in which the input shaft is offset from and perpendicular to the output shaft, and driving gear is
very small and perpendicular to the driven gear. Worm gear operators are used on ball valves.

Yield strength:
The limiting stress beyond which a material will sustain permanent deformation.

Yoke:
The part of gate or globe valve which acts as a bracket to support the top or outer end of the stem and
stem bearing.