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CONSTRUCTION OF ROAD AT BALLABGARH

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

Audil Ahmad
(13 CE 010)

in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

In

Civil Engineering

Department of Civil Engineering


Satyug Darshan Technical Campus
Bhopani Lalpur Road, Faridabad
Certificate

This is to certify that this project report by title “CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS” by AUDIL
AHMAD (CE13/010), submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Bachelor of Technology in Civil Engineering of the Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, during
the academic year 2013-2017, is a bonafide record of work carried out under my guidance and
supervision.

Parikshit,
Supervisor,
PWD Deptt.,
DECLARATION

I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the project report entitled,
“Construction of road at Ballabgarh” by me, Audil Ahmad (Uni. Roll No. 4870697) in
partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology in
Civil Engineering submitted in the department of Civil Engineering at Satyug Darshan
Technical campus, (Affiliated to MDU. Rohtak Haryana) is an authentic record of my own
carried out under the supervision of Ms. Garima Arora. The matter presented in the project
report has been submitted in any other university/institute for the award of any degree.

(Audil Ahmad)

This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate correct to best of my
knowledge.

(Ms.GarimaArora)
TrainingCo-ordinator
DepartmentofcivilEngg.
SDTC Faridabad

Countersigned By: (Head of Department)


The B.Tech, viva voce examination of Audil Ahmad has been held on …………. and accepted

Dr. N.J.Dembi (External Examiner)

H.O.D
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my deep sense of gratitude and sincere thanks to my College SATYUG DARSHAN
ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL CAMPUS for sincere endeavor in educating us in their
premier institution and my gratitude to my beloved Director Dr. Bhupesh kumar for making
us undergo internship training.

I am grateful to Ms. GARIMA ARORA, CORDINATOR [CE] for her valuable guidance and
encouragement in successful completion of my project.

I have immense pleasure and satisfaction in expressing my heart full thanks to my other
faculty for rendering their valuable assistance and guidance to me.

The Internee also thanks Mr. PRATISHIK and all other staff members of “PWD DEPTT” for
offering this opportunity and timely help when required. I am also thankful to my parents and
friends for their valuable support and contribution that were a source of inspiration for the
completion of this project.

AUDIL AHMAD
(B.Tech, 4th year)
(Civil Engg.)
ABSTRACT

The Project on “Construction of Roads” includes the design and construction aspects
of the highway project. This project was under PWD department. The project team has
completed first phase of the project work which includes design aspects, the study of
design data such as CBR value, Traffic data, Drainage conditions, Rainfall data,
Topography of the area, Alignment etc. It also includes design calculation based on
Indian Road Congress (IRC) codes.

For construction of roads various construction methodology and machineries have


been studied in detail. Construction aspects include the use of various Materials,
Machines, and Manpower. Also Quality Assurance (QA) & Quality Control (QC),
aspects incorporated in the construction procedure have been studied and these are
included in the project report. Testing of various materials is carried out for Quality
Assurance and Quality Control of the flexible pavement.
The construction of flexible pavement include construction of various activities viz.
clearing and grubbing, excavation, embankment and sub-grade construction, granular
sub-base, wet mix macadam, prime coat, dense bituminous macadam and bituminous
concrete. Method statements of each of these activities are presented in the project
report.

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CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES Page No

List of figures I
LIST OF TABLES
II
List of tables
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 10-12
1.1 General Background 10
1.2 Objectives of the project 11
1.3 Main components of methodology 12
CHAPTER 2: DETAILS OF PROJECT 13-16
2.1 General 13
2.2 Project corridor 14
2.3 Project scope 15
CHAPTER 3: CONSTRUCTION METHOD AND 17-41
EQUIPMENTS
3.1 Major Construction Activities 17
3.1.1 Construction of Flexible Pavement 17
3.1.2 Concrete tests Construction of Rail Over Bridges (ROBs) 18
3.2 Method Statements 18
3.2.1 Method Statement For Clearing And Grubbing 18
3.2.2 Method Statement For Excavation 17
3.2.3 Method Statement For Embankment And Sub-Grade Construction 19

3.2.4 Method Statement For Granular Sub-Base 23

3.2.5 Method Statement For Wet Mix Macadam 24


3.2.6 Method Statement For Laying Of Prime Coat 27
3.2.7 Method Statement For Dense Bituminous Macadam 27
3.2.8 Method Statement For Bituminous Concrete 28
7
3.2.9 Method Statement For Road Markings 28
3.3 Methodology Of Carrying Out Structural Concrete In Bridges And Culverts 38
3.3.1Transporting, Placing & Compaction Of Concrete 41
CHAPTER 4: MATERIAL INVESTIGATION SURVEY 42-51

4.1 Introduction 42
4.2 Material Survey 43
4.3 Lead for materials 43
4.4 Soil from borrow area
44

CHAPTER 5: PROBLEMS FACED DURING


CONSTRUCTION 52-53

5.1 Problems Faced 52


5.2 Possible Solutions 53
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS 54-55

REFERENCES 55
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 Project corridor 14


Figure 2.2 location of road
15
Figure 2.3 Map road project
Figure 3.1 list of equipments 15

37
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 list of test carried out
45
Table 2 Gradation test
Table 3 & 4 Sieve analysis of granular material 46
Table 5 Liquid limit & Plasticity index
47
Table 6 C.B.R test
Table 7 Elongation and flakiness index 48

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CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL BACKGROUND:

In our study we have included a stretch of the Highway pavement which is a part
of the Project of Six laning of Existing three lanes for Ballabgarh Road section of State
Highway (SH) No.8 in the state of Ballabgarh Faridabad on Built Operate and Transfer
(BOT) basis, which is currently carried out by PWD Projects and Technical Services
Ltd. In this project we studied design, construction methods and difficulties faced in
construction of the flexible pavement. During 7th Semester survey, traffic forecast and
design of flexible pavement using IRC: 37 has been completed.

During 8th Semester construction aspects and use of various construction


methodology and machineries have been studied in detail. Construction aspects include
the use of various Materials, Machines, and Manpower. Also Quality Assurance (QA)
& Quality Control (QC), aspects incorporated in the construction procedure have been
studied and these are included in the project report. Testing of various materials is
carried out for Quality Assurance and Quality Control of the flexible pavement.

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT:

 The main goal of this study is to get an insight of the design and construction
aspects and problems faced in the expansion/widening of roads. To evaluate the
various tasks, methodologies which are undertaken for the design and
construction of a Highway pavement.

 To study how to achieve a sound and economical engineering design


considering the various factors viz. climate; quality of local materials,
construction technology, environmental conditions etc.

 To study the complex design process considering realistic assessment of


subgrade strength, traffic loads & traffic projection, environmental factors and
several other factors.
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 To study the general design procedure has been based on the design of new
pavement structure done as per IRC: 37(Guidelines for the design of flexible
pavements). It includes study of the various design parameters.

 To study the Impact of use of Construction machinery on the construction


schedule. Examining of critical aspects of soil and material testing. To study
impact on environmental aspects due to highway construction.

 To study the various steps taken for completion of the work within estimated
budget and time and also maintaining the quality of work as per required
specifications

MAIN COMPONENTS OF METHODOLOGY :


The detailed data and information related to the design and construction
methodology Highway that are necessary to carry out the study have been provided by
the PWD Projects and Technical Services ltd.

The works includes construction of following:-

1. Road Works Viz: Site Clearance, Survey, Earthwork, Sub Base & Base Course,
and Bituminous Works.

2. Drainage & Protective Work

3. Traffic Signs, Markings and Road Accessories

4. Miscellaneous and Maintenance of Roads

The methodology includes the use of various equipments to carry out the various
procedures such as the Site clearance, Earthwork, bituminous works etc. as per the
required specifications.

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CHAPTER 2. DETAILS OF THE PROJECT
2.1 GENERAL

Three organizations are mainly involved in the construction and maintenance of roads
in Faridabad — MCF, the Public Works Department, and private developers. Each
organization is responsible for the development and maintenance of roads in their
areas.

PWD is responsible for intercity link roads like the Gurgaon-Faridabad road, roads
connecting cities to villages, and the state highways. In the case of a private locality or
group housing, private colonizers built and maintain roads.
The MCF area is divided into three zones, .i.e., Old Faridabad, Ballabgarh, and the
New Industrial Town (NIT). The road network in the MCF area functionally comprises
arterial roads, collector roads, and local streets.
The network of roads in the city runs to a length of 1,230 km. This includes 80 km of
National Highway, State Highway, and Public Works Department roads. The total
length of roads under MCF‟s maintenance is 1,150 km. The average width of the roads
in the city is 6.66 metres.

The Delhi-Mathura NH 2 is the spine of all the road networks in the city. The main
arterial roads either start or end on NH 2. Other highways in the city include NH3 and
NH4, which also branch out from NH 2. The State Highways include the Faridabad-
Gurgaon highway and the Ballabgarh-Sohna highway.

Areas to the east of NH 2 mostly follow the grid-iron pattern (except for core village
areas which have a geometric road network with narrow lanes and high density
concentrations). These are the Old Faridabad and Ballabgarh areas.
Areas to the west of NH 2, mainly comprising NIT, have a mix of organic and grid-
iron patterned roads.

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PROJECT CORRIDOR:
Figure 1

12
Figure 2 Locations of Ballabgarh

Figure 2 locations of Ballabgarh

Project Road Map

Figure 3 Project road Map

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2.2 PROJECT SCOPE:
Fig 4

• 102km of 6
laning
Highways • 37 km of
Service Road

Toll Plazas • 2 numbers

• 3 Major Bridges
• 8 Minor Bridges
Structures
• 4 RoB
• 35underpasses

Various important surveys were carried out for the section 0f Ballabgarh which are
given below

1. Topography Survey
2. Traffic Surveys, which included Classified Weekly Volume Counts, Turning
Movement Counts, Origin – Destination Survey, Plate Registration Survey, Axle
Load Survey, Speed & Delay Survey.
3. Road & Bridge Inventory Survey
4. Pavement Condition Survey
5. Bridge Condition Survey
6. Environmental Survey, which included Vegetation and Fauna Survey.

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CHAPTER 3. CONSTRUCTION METHODS AND
EQUIPMENTS

The construction of six lane highway from Vasad to Bagodara is being carried out
by M/s GVKBVEPL. The project work in 8th Semester included survey, traffic forecast
and design of flexible pavement. During this Semester project activities on
construction methodologies and construction machineries have been covered. During
project work site visits and interaction with project team has been carried out on
several occasions. Based on actual project details, documentation of the project report
has been finalized as below.

3.1 MAJOR CONSTRUCTION ACTIVTIES:

The construction work of six lane highway from Vasad to Bagodara includes
following major areas:

 Construction of Flexible Pavement


 Construction of Major bridges
 Construction of Rail Over Bridges (ROBs)
 Construction of Culverts

3.1.1 Construction of Flexible Pavement:

(1) Total new construction

(2) Widening of one side (Eccentric widening)

(3) Widening on both side (Concentric widening)

3.1.2 Test

There are four main tests to be done on concrete:

1. The Slump Test.


2. Compression Test
3. Impact Test
4. Cube Test

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THE SLUMP TEST
The slump test is done to make sure a concrete mix is workable. Workability measures
how easy the concrete is to place, handle and compact

 Standard slump cone (100 mm top diameter x 200 mm bottom diameter x 300
mm high)
 Small scoop Bullet-nosed rod (600 mm long x 16 mm diameter )
 Rule Slump plate (500 mm x 500 mm)

Method

 Clean the cone. Dampen with water and place on the slump plate. The slump
plate should be clean, firm, level and non-absorbent.
 Collect a sample.
 Stand firmly on the footpieces and fill 1/3 the volume of the cone with the
sample. Compact the concrete by 'rodding' 25 times. Rodding Rodding means
to push a steel rod in and out of the concrete to compact it into the cylinder, or
slump cone. Always rod in a definite pattern, working from outside into the
middle.
 Now fill to 2 /3 and again rod 25 times, just into the top of the first layer.
 Fill to overflowing, rodding again this time just into the top of the second
layer. Top up the cone till it overflows.
 Level off the surface with the steel rod using a rolling action. Clean any
concrete from around the base and top of the cone, push down on the handles
and step off the footpieces.
 Carefully lift the cone straight up making sure not to move the sample.
 Turn the cone upside down and place the rod across the up-turned cone.

THE COMPRESSION TEST


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The compression test shows the compressive strength of hardened concrete. The
testing is done in a laboratory off-site. The only work done on-site is to make a
concrete cylinder for the compression test. The strength is measured in
Megapascals(MPa) and is commonly specified as a characteristic strength of concrete
measured at 28 days after mixing. The compressive strength is a measure of the
concrete’s ability to resist loads which tend to crush it. Tools Cylinders (100 mm
diameter x 200 mm high or 150 mm diameter x 300 mm high) ( The small cylinders
are normally used for most testing due to their lighter weight ) Small scoop Bullet-
nosed rod (600 mm x 16 mm) Steel float Steel plate.

Method

 Clean the cylinder mould and coat the inside lightly with form oil, then place
on a clean, level and firm surface, i.e the steel plate.
 Collect a sample
 Fill 1/2 the volume of the mould with concrete then compact by rodding 25
times. Cylinders may also be compacted by vibrating using a vibrating

 table. . Fill the cone to overflowing and rod 25 times into the top of the first 4
layer
 then top up the mould till overflowing.
 Level off the top with the steel float and clean any concrete from around the
mould.
 Cap, clearly tag the cylinder and put it in a cool dry place to set for at least 24
hours.
 After the mould is removed the cylinder is sent to the laboratory where it is
cured and crushed to test compressive strength.

Impact Testing

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An impact test is a dynamic test conducted on a selected specimen which is usually
notched. The specimen is struck and broken by a single blow in a specially designed
machine. This demo illustrates the experiment setup, procedure and the energy
absorbed in an impact test.

Cube Test

Test applied to the concrete, this is the utmost important which gives an idea about all
the characteristics of concrete. By this single test one judge that whether Concreting
has been done properly or not.

For cube test two types of specimens either cubes of 15 cm X 15 cm X 15 cm or 10cm


X 10 cm x 10 cm depending upon the size of aggregate are used. For most of the works
cubical moulds of size 15 cm x 15cm x 15 cm are commonly used.

This concrete is poured in the mould and tempered properly so as not to have any
voids. After 24 hours these moulds are removed and test specimens are put in water for
curing. The top surface of these specimen should be made even and smooth. This is
done by putting cement paste and spreading smoothly on whole area of specimen.

These specimens are tested by compression testing machine after 7 days curing or 28
days curing. Load should be applied gradually at the rate of 140 kg/cm2 per minute till
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the Specimens fails. Load at the failure divided by area of specimen gives the
compressive strength of concrete.

APPARATUS

Compression testing machine.

PREPARATION OF CUBE SPECIMENS

The proportion and material for making these test specimens are from the same
concrete used in the field.

SPECIMEN

6 cubes of 15 cm size Mix. M15 or above

MIXING

Mix the concrete either by hand or in a laboratory batch mixer.

HAND MIXING

 Mix the cement and fine aggregate on a water tight none-absorbent platform
until the mixture is thoroughly blended and is of uniform color
 Add the coarse aggregate and mix with cement and fine aggregate until the
coarse aggregate is uniformly distributed throughout the batch
 Add water and mix it until the concrete appears to be homogeneous and of the
desired consistency.

PRECAUTIONS

The water for curing should be tested every 7days and the temperature of water must
be at 27+-2oC.

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PROCEDURE

 Remove the specimen from water after specified curing time and wipe out
excess water from the surface.
 Take the dimension of the specimen to the nearest 0.2m
 Clean the bearing surface of the testing machine
 Place the specimen in the machine in such a manner that the load shall be
applied to the opposite sides of the cube cast.
 Align the specimen centrally on the base plate of the machine.
 Rotate the movable portion gently by hand so that it touches the top surface of
the specimen.
 Apply the load gradually without shock and continuously at the rate of
140kg/cm2/minute till the specimen fails
 Record the maximum load and note any unusual features in the type of failure.

3.1.3 Construction of Rail Over Bridges (ROBs)

There are 3 ROBs on the proposed six lane highway Ballabgarh Faridabad.

3.1.4 Construction of Culverts

There are several box culverts on the proposed six lane highway from Vasad to
Bagodara. The box culverts are provided depending upon local discharge calculations.

3.2 METHOD STATEMENTS

Method statements for various activities covered during construction flexible pavement
are as below:

 Clearing and grubbing


 Excavation
 Embankment and sub-grade construction
 Granular sub-base
 Wet mix macadam
 Prime coat
 Dense bituminous macadam
 Bituminous concrete

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3.2.1 METHOD STATEMENT FOR CLEARING AND GRUBBING

(A) Scope

This work consists of the following activities:


Cutting, removing and disposing of all materials like trees, bushes, shrubs, stumps,
roots, grass, weeds, top organic soil not more than 150 mm depth and rubbish etc. up
to toe Line/Required width.

(B) Procedure

 Toe line will be marked with the help of survey equipments.


 Clearing of top grass bushes & shrubs are done mechanically with Excavator or
Dozer and manually.
 Stumps and roots are removed by the help of Backhoe and also the top soil up to
150 mm thickness shall be removed.

 The materials arising after clearing and grubbing operational shall be disposed off.
The topsoil will be stocked for future use within provided ROW on other side of
widening area.
 Ditches and Pits obtaining from uprooting of trees roots etc. shall be filled by
suitable material.
 The density of fill material in ditches portion shall be checked as 85% w.r.t.
Laboratory Maximum Dry Density with help of Sand Replacement Method (IS:
2720 Part – 27).
 The soil sample shall be collected from every 250 m interval after clearing and
grubbing within the toe line and shall be tested for Modified Proctor Test (IS :
2720 Part – 8),Gradation ,LL & PL and CBR Test in the field laboratory.

(C) Equipment

The following equipments will be used

1. Back Hoe cum Loader

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2. Dozer
3. Grader
4. Roller
5. Water Tanker
6. Tipper Trucks

3.2.2 METHOD STATEMENT FOR EXCAVATION

(A) Scope

This work shall consist of excavation, removal and satisfactory disposal of all
materials necessary for the construction of roadway, in accordance with requirements
of these Specifications and the lines, grades and cross-sections shown in the drawings
or as indicated by the Engineer. It shall include the hauling and stacking of hard rocks,
boulders, hauling to sites of embankment and subgrade construction, suitable cut
materials as required, as also the disposal of excess material to the designated spoil
area, trimming and finishing of the road to specified dimensions or as directed by the
Engineer

(B) Procedure

 Working area within ROW for excavation is to be fixed according to drawing.


Boundary / toe line points shall mark with lime.
 The excavation shall be done by using manpower, excavator, blasting as per
requirement to avoid minimum disturbance to the existing traffic.

 The excavated material shall be classified in three categories and stocked / used or
spoiled as appropriate.
o Rock / Boulder
o Useful material for embankment, GSB, Backfilling etc
o Excess Material / unsuitable material

 The excavated slope will be trimmed properly and falling of loose material after
completion of work will be taken care.

 Required level will be marked on the each peg to control of excess excavation.

 The Engineer will be informed through RFI for inspection of excavation sites and
level checking.

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 After achieving final excavation level next activity will be executed.

(C) Equipment

1. Excavator

2. Dozer

3. Tipper Truck

4. Tractor

3.2.3 METHOD STATEMENT FOR EMBANKMENT AND SUB-GRADE


CONSTRUCTION

(A) Scope

Selection of borrow areas conforming to the requirements of specifications,


building up each layer by compacting to the required thickness and compaction in
accordance with lines, grades and cross-sections.

(B) Procedure

 Working area within ROW for construction of embankment is to be fixed


according to drawing. Boundary / toe line points shall mark with lime.

 Approved earth from borrow area shall be brought to site with the help of
tipper. Soil clouds larger than 75 mm size shall be broken manually before
spreading.

 Earth will be spread over the working area with the help of grader to the
desired loose thickness. Layer thickness shall be constructed 250 mm to 275
mm in loose state and compacted to 175 mm to 200 mm thickness.

 To control the loose / compacted layers thickness pegs will be fixed at each 50
m. interval.

 Required level will be marked on the each peg for thickness control.

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 Natural Moisture of the Borrow material shall be checked at site with the help
of Moisture Meter for each 250 Cum. of earth.

 As per the laboratory OMC, water shall be sprinkled throughout the soil
uniformly with the help of Control Water browser.

 The earth will be spread and graded by Grader for uniformity. Then compacted
with the help of vibratory roller of at least 5 to 6 passes consisting of Plain,
Light, and Medium or High vibration. The Density should be checked for
95% minimum for Embankment and 97% minimum for subgrade of laboratory
density.

 If compaction is found less than 95% for embankment and 97 % for


subgrade, the layer should be re-compacted with vibratory roller by sprinkle
water if necessary. The density of layer shall be rechecked with respect to
laboratory Maximum Dry Density with help of Sand Replacement Method (IS:
2720 Part – 27).

 If the density of layer is not achieved, the layer shall be harrowed with the help
of Grader. Then layer natural moisture content shall be checked with the help
of Laboratory calibrated Rapid Moisture Meter. If the Moisture is less than
OMC, Additional water shall be uniformly spread throughout and uniformly
mixed by Mechanical means either by Disc Harrow / Grader.

 If the Moisture Content found more than OMC required limit, then the bed is
kept for drying for few hours until the earth will attained moisture nearer to
OMC.

 The Engineer will be informed through RFI for taking field density and level
checking.

 After achieving specified density next layer filling will proceed

(C) Equipment

1. Excavator
2. Dozer
3. Tipper Truck
4. Motor Grader
5. Vibro Roller
6. Water Tanker
7. Tractor
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3.2.4 METHOD STATEMENT FOR GRANULAR SUB-BASE (GSB)

(A) Scope

The work shall consist of laying and compacting of well-graded materials on a


prepared and approved sub-grade. Materials shall be laid on one or more layers as per
line and level, grade and cross section shown in the drawing or as directed by the
Engineer.

(B) Materials

The material used in GSB shall be mixture of natural sand, moorum, gravel,
crushed stone, shall satisfy Grading given in Table 400-2 of MORT&H Specification.
The required testing will be done and test report will be forwarded to the Engineer
after the tested material satisfied the specification requirement. The material for GSB
shall be obtained from the approved source.

(C) Preparation Of GSB

Prior to laying of GSB, approved sub-grade is rolled with two passes by 80 – 100
KN smooth wheeled roller with slight sprinkle of water.

(D) Trial Run

A trial run will be prepared with the mix on the prepared Sub-grade to decide the
loose spread thickness and water content so as to achieve the required compacted
thickness of one layer of 150 mm.

(E) Spreading And Compacting

The Granular Sub-base (herein after called GSB) Material is spread with the
help of motor grader on the approved layer of Sub-grade. During spreading and
mixing by grader in site, water is sprinkled over the material by water browser
mounted on water tanker. Sufficient water is added taken into account of evaporation
losses so that moisture content of the materials should lie in between +1% & +2% of
optimum moisture content.

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Immediately rolling starts with vibratory roller of 80 to 100 KN static weights
with plain drum. Rolling is done from lower edge towards upper edge longitudinally
for the portion having unidirectional cross fall and super elevation. For the portion
having cross fall in both sides, rolling should commence from outer edge towards
crown (center) of the road.

Each pass of the roller shall uniformly overlap not less than one third of the
track made in the previous pass. During rolling, grade and cross fall shall be checked
and any high spot or depressions, which become apparent, corrected by adding or
removing fresh materials. The speed of roller shall not exceed 5km/h. Rolling shall be
continued till the density of the layer is achieved 98% of the Maximum Dry Density.

(F) Equipment

1. Excavator
2. Dozer
3. Tipper Truck
4. Motor Grader
5. Vibro Roller
6. Water Tanker
7. Tractor

3.2.5 METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR WET MIX MACADAM

(A) Scope

The works shall consist of laying and compacting clean, crushed, graded aggregate
and granular materials premixed with water into a dense mass on a prepared Granular
Sub base Course to specified lines, grades and cross sections as shown in drawings,
subject to a minimum thickness of 75 mm and max. Of 200 mm.

(B) Coarse Aggregate

Coarse aggregate shall be obtained from nearby approved quarry. Cone crusher
will be installed at the quarry/camp sites. This crusher shall produce aggregates cubical
/ angular type so that flakiness and elongation indices are contained within the
26
specified limit. If the water absorption of the coarse aggregate is more than 2%,
soundness tests shall be carried as per IS 2386.

(C) Grading Requirements

The aggregate shall conform to the grading given in table 400-11 of technical
specification. Material finer than 425 micron, shall have Plasticity Index (PI) not
exceeding 6. The final gradation approved within these limits shall be well graded
from coarse to fine and shall not vary from low limit on one sieve to high limit of
adjacent sieve or vice versa.

(D) Plants & Equipments

 Wet Mix Plant


 Paver (4.8 m Width)
 Grader
 Vibratory Rollers (80/100 kN)
 Dumpers
 Water tanker/ Browser
 Back Hoe cum Loader

(E) CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE

(i) Preparation of Base

While constructing Wet Mix Macadam (Herein after called as WMM),


arrangement shall be made for the lateral confinement of wet mix. This shall be done
by laying materials on adjoining shoulder along with that of WMM layer. The
preparation of mix, spreading of mix and compaction are done sequentially.

(ii) Preparation and Transportation of Mix

WMM shall be prepared in the Wet Mix Plant at site. The mixed material shall
be immediately transported to prepared sites by using tipper trucks.

(iii) Spreading

The plant mix WMM at OMC / within the variation limits from OMC as will
be decided in the trial mix, be transported to the site in dumpers and shall be
spread uniformly upon the prepared Sub-Base/Base in required quantities. The
Mix shall be spread either by a paver finisher or motor grader as per site
condition. For portions where mechanical means cannot be used, Manual
means as per approved by the Engineer shall be used. The level and gradient
will be controlled by the electronic sensors attached to the paver or with the
level peg.

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(iv) Compaction

After the mix has been laid on site to the required thickness, on grade and
camber, then compaction is carried out with suitable roller to the full depth. For
a compaction up to 200mm in a single layer, compaction shall be done with
vibratory roller of 80 to 100 KN static weights with plain drum or equivalent
capacity roller. The speed of the rollers shall not exceed 5 km/hour to ensure
smooth finish and better compaction.

(v) Opening to traffic

After final compaction of WMM course the road shall be allowed to dry for 24
hours. Preferably no vehicular traffic should be allowed on the finished WMM
surface till it has dried and covered with wearing course.

(F) SURFACE FINISH AND QUALITY CONTROL

Surface finish shall conform to the requirements of Clause 902, MORT&H


specifications.

3.2.6 METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR LAYING OF PRIME COAT

(A) Scope

The work shall consist of applicant of single coat of low viscosity liquid bituminous
material over prepared Wet Mix Macadam Surface.

The prime coat shall be applied only on the top most WMM layer over which
BM/DBM layers are to be laid.

(B) Materials

The primer used for prime coat shall be bitumen emulsion complying with IS 8887 and
CSS – I Grade conforming to ASTM D 2397/AASHTO M 140. The particular grade
and test certificate of prime coat will be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

(C) Weather & Seasonal Limitations

The priming shall not be carried out if the surface of WMM is wet, or if the weather is
foggy, rainy, windy etc. or the temperature in shade is less than 100C.

28
(D) Rate of Spray

The rate of spray shall be 6 to 9kg/10sqm.

(E) Equipment

Priming shall be carried out by using self-propelled bitumen pressure distributor. The
distributor shall ensure that the material is sprayed uniformly and at specified rates and
temperatures.

(F) Preparation Of Base

The Wet Mix Macadam surface to be primed shall be swept clean, made free from dust
and be made dry. It shall be shaped to the specified grades and levels as per drawings.
It shall be free from any ruts, irregularities and segregated materials.

(G) Application

The prime coat shall be sprayed uniformly over the WMM surface. The temperature of
the primer during application shall be such that the primer could be sprayed effectively
through the jets of the spray bar.

(H) Curing
After the application of the Prime Coat, the surface shall be allowed to be cured for at
least 24 hours so as to allow the penetration of the Priming Material into the WMM
course. During this curing period no traffic of any kind shall be allowed to ply on the
surface.

3.2.7 METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADAM

(A) Scope

This work shall consist of laying in a single course a 50 to 100 mm – thick layer of
DBM on a previously primed Wet Mix Macadam Layer, as per specified lines &
grades.

(B) Materials

The source and test report of all material will be submitted to the Engineer before
using the material.

(i) Bitumen

29
Bitumen shall be paving bitumen of Penetration grade S65 (60/70 penetration
grade).

(ii) Coarse Aggregates

Coarse aggregate shall be obtained from the approved quarry. Two cone crusher
shall be installed at the quarry site. This crusher shall produce aggregates cubical /
angular type so that flakiness and elongation indices are contained within the specified
limit.

(iii) Fine Aggregate


Fine aggregates shall be of the fraction passing 2.36 mm sieve and retained on 75
micron sieve, consisting of crusher run screening, sand or a mixture of both.

(C) Mix Design

(i) Requirement of Mix

Apart from conformity with grading and quality requirements of individual


ingredients, the mix shall meet the requirements set out in Table-500-11, MORT&H
specifications.

(ii) Binder Content

The binder content shall be determined to achieve the requirements set out in Table-
500-11, MORT&H specifications and traffic volume specified in the contract. The
Marshal method for determining the optimum binder content shall be adopted as
described in the Asphalt Institute Manual MS-2, replacing aggregates retained on 26.5
mm sieve by the aggregates passing 26.5 mm sieve and retained on 22.4 mm sieve
where approved by the Engineer.

(D) PLANTS & EQUIPMENT

 Hot Mix Plant


 Paver
 Vibratory Rollers
 Pneumatic Roller
 Bitumen Sprayer
 Dumpers
30
(E) Construction Operations
(i) Weather and Seasonal Limitations

The work of laying shall not be taken up during rainy or foggy weather / the base
course is damp or wet or during dust storm or when the atmospheric temperature in
shade is 10 deg. or less as specified in the MORT&H specifications.

(ii) Preparation of Base

The WMM surface already prepared to the specified lines, grades and cross
sections shall be swept clean free from dust and foreign matters using mechanical
broom or blown off by compressed air as specified in the MORT&H specifications.

(F) Prime Coat


A bituminous primer emulsion shall be used as per clause 502, MORT&H
specifications over the WMM surface. The range of spraying temperature will be 20 to
60 deg as specified in the MORT&H specifications.

(G) Tack Coat


The binder for tack coat shall be Rapid Setting Emulsion and shall be applied as
per clause 503 of the MORT&H specifications.

(H) Preparation and Transportation of Mix

DBM shall be prepared in batch Hot Mix Plant. The mixing will be done in a twin
shaft pug mill, which will produce a homogeneous mix. The mixture shall be
transported from the batching plant in tippers covered with tarpaulin so as to maintain
the temperature.

(I) Spreading

The mix shall be transported to the site by the dumpers covered with Tarpaulin,
which shall slowly discharge the mix in the paver hopper, while both the tipper and
paver will move forward steadily and slowly. The automatic sensor shall ensure that
the mix is being laid to the proper line and grade and level. The direction of the paver
will be guided by the string lines fixed with the stack & arms on both sides of the
edges 0.5 m away from the edge. The paving will be done in one go for the full width
or in two lanes running forward simultaneously. The temperature of the mix at the time
of laying shall be between 120 to 140 deg. C. Transverse joints shall be cut vertically
with asphalt cutter and a coat of bitumen Emulsion shall be applied before placing

31
materials. In case hot joints cannot be made, cold joints will be provided with joint
heater to attain about 80 deg. C before laying adjacent layer.

(J) Compaction

As soon as the mix has been laid to the paver, compaction shall be done with the
help of a set of rollers moving at a speed not exceeding 5 km/hour following
close to the paver. Rolling sequence will be as under or as established during laying
trial stretch. Initial or breakdown rolling shall be done with 80-100 KN static weight
smooth wheeled rollers. No vibration will be applied during the operation.
Intermediate rolling shall be done with 80-100 KN static weight vibratory rollers.
Vibrations shall be applied during this stage and the amplitude of vibration and the no.
of passes required shall be decided after laying a trial bed. The final and finish rolling
shall be done with 60-80 KN weight smooth wheeled tandem roller as well as a
pneumatic tyre roller of 150-250 KN weight having tyre pressure of 0.7 MPa. No
vibration will be applied in this stage. During rolling, wheels of rollers shall be kept
moist by sprinkling water from the water storage fitted with the roller to prevent the
mix from adhering to the wheels. The roller shall proceed on the fresh material with
rear or fixed wheel leading so as to minimize the pushing of the mix.

(K) Arrangement for Traffic

The works shall be so executed that there is a minimum disturbance to the traffic.
The traffic shall be diverted to this carriage-way by making proper diversions at
suitable locations. Signboards indicating the locations of these diversions shall be
fixed at desired positions.

3.2.8 METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR BITUMINOUS CONCRETE

(A) Scope

This work shall consist of laying in a single course a 25 to 100 mm – thick layer of
BC on previously prepared bituminous course, as per specified lines & grades.

(B) Materials

The source and test report of all material will be submitted to the Engineer before
using the material.

(i) Bitumen

32
Bitumen shall be ordinary paving bitumen or Modified Bitumen

(ii) Coarse Aggregates

Coarse aggregate shall be obtained from the approved quarry. Three cone crusher
shall be installed at the quarry/camp site. This crusher shall produce aggregates cubical
/ angular type so that flakiness and elongation indices are contained within the
specified limit.

(iii) Fine Aggregate

Fine aggregates shall be of the fraction passing 2.36 mm sieve and retained on 75
micron sieve, consisting of crusher run screening, sand or a mixture of both.

(C) Mix Design

(i) Requirement of Mix

Apart from conformity with grading and quality requirements of individual


ingredients, the mix shall meet the requirements set out in Table-500-19, MORT&H
specifications.

(ii) Binder Content

The binder content shall be so fixed as to achieve the requirements of the mix set
forth in Table 500-19. Marshall Method for arriving at the binder content shall be
adopted.

(D) Plants & Equipment

 Hot Mix Plant


 Paver
 Vibratory Rollers
 Pneumatic Roller
 Bitumen Sprayer
 Dumpers

(E) Construction Operations

(i) Weather and Seasonal Limitations

The work of laying shall not be taken up during rainy or foggy weather / the base
course is damp or wet or during dust storm or when the atmospheric temperature in
shade is 10 deg. or less as specified in the MORT&H specifications.

(ii) Preparation of Base


33
The DBM surface already prepared to the specified lines, grades and cross sections
shall be swept clean free from dust and foreign matters using mechanical broom or
blown off by compressed air as specified in the MORT&H specifications.

Tack Coat

The binder for tack coat shall be Rapid Setting bitumen Emulsion and shall be
applied as per clause 503 of the MORT&H specifications.

(iii) Preparation and Transportation of Mix

BC shall be prepared in batch Hot Mix Plant. The mixing will be done in a twin
shaft pugmill, which will produce a homogeneous mix. The mixture shall be
transported from the batching plant in tippers covered with tarpaulin so as to maintain
the temperature.

(iv) Spreading

The mix shall be transported to the site by the dumpers covered with Tarpaulin,
which shall slowly discharge the mix in the paver hopper, while both the tipper and
paver will move forward steadily and slowly. The automatic sensor shall ensure that
the mix is being laid to the proper line and grade and level. The direction of the paver
will be guided by the string lines fixed with the stack & arms on both sides of the
edges 0.5 m away from the edge. The paving will be done in one go for the full width
or in two lanes running forward simultaneously. The temperature of the mix at the time
of laying shall be between 120 to 140 deg. C.

(v) Compaction

As soon as the mix has been laid to the paver, compaction shall be done with the
help of a set of rollers moving at a speed not exceeding 5 km/hour following close to
the paver. Rolling sequence will be as under or as established during laying trial
stretch.

(a) Initial or breakdown rolling shall be done with 80-100 KN static weight smooth
wheeled rollers. No vibration will be applied during the operation.
(b) Intermediate rolling shall be done with 80-100 KN static weight vibratory
roller. Vibrations shall be applied during this stage and the amplitude of
vibration and the no. of passes required shall be decided after laying a trial bed.

34
(c) The final and finish rolling shall be done with 60-80 KN weight smooth
wheeled tandem roller as well as a pneumatic tyred roller of 150-250 KN
weight having tyre pressure of 0.7 MPa. No vibration will be applied in this
stage.

(F) Arrangement for Traffic

The works shall be so executed that there is a minimum disturbance to the traffic.
The traffic shall be diverted to this carriage-way by making proper diversions at
suitable locations. Signboards indicating the locations of these diversions shall be
fixed at desired positions

3.2.9 METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR ROAD MARKINGS

(A) General
The color, width and layout of road markings shall be in accordance with the Code
of Practice and as specified in the drawings or as directed by the Engineer.

(B) Materials

Road markings shall be hot applied thermoplastic compound and the materials
shall meet the requirements as specified in Clause 803.4

(i) Hot applied thermoplastic compound :

This will be used by marking traffic stripes using a thermoplastic compound in


the manner as outlined below:

(a) The thermoplastic compound shall be screeded / extruded on to the pavement


surface in a molten state by suitable machine capable of controlled preparation
and laying with surface application of glass beads at a specified rate. Upon
cooling to ambient temperature, it shall produce an adherent pavement marking
of specified thickness and width and capable of deformation by traffic.

(b) The color of the compound shall be white or Yellow as specified in the
drawings or as directed by the Engineer.

(c) Where the compound is to be applied to cement concrete pavement, a sealing


primer as recommended by the manufacturer, shall be applied to the pavement
in advance to the stripes to ensure proper bonding of the compound. On new

35
concrete surface any laitance and/or curing compound shall be removed before
the markings are applied.
(d) Composition of Materials : The thermoplastic material shall be
homogeneously composed of pigment, resins and glass reflectorsing beads.
(ii) Reflectorsing glass beads : Type 2 reflectorsing glass beads as required
vide Table 800-4 of MORT&H Specification will be used.

(iii) Application properties of thermoplastic material

(a) The material shall be melted in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions
in a heater fitted with a stirrer to give a smooth consistency to the thermoplastic
material to avoid local overheating. The temperature of the mass shall be within
the range specified by the manufacturer. The molten materials should be used
as expeditiously as possible.

(b) After transfer to the laying equipment, the material shall be maintained within
the temperature range specified by the manufacturer for achieving the desired
consistency for laying.

The thermoplastic material shall get screeded / extruded at temperatures


specified by the manufacturer to produce a line of specified thickness which
shall be uniform in shape having clear and sharp edges.

(C) Method Of Operation

Marking shall be done by machine and for locations where painting cannot be done
by machine, approved methods shall be used with prior approval of the Engineer.
Control of traffic movement will be maintained by putting proper barricades so as to
cause minimum inconvenience to traffic compatible with protecting the workmen.
The pavement temperature shall not be less than 10 deg. centigrade during
application. All surfaces to be marked shall be thoroughly cleaned of all dust, dirt,
grease, oil and other foreign matter before application.

Thermoplastic paint shall be applied in intermittent or continuous lines of uniform


thickness of at least 2.5 mm unless specified otherwise. Where arrows or letters are to
be provided, thermoplastic compound may be hand-sprayed. In addition to the beads
included in the material, a further quantity glass bead of Type 2, conforming to the
stated specification, shall be sprayed uniformly into a mono-layer on to the hot paint
line in quick succession of the paint spraying operation. The glass beads shall be
applied at the rate of 250 grams per square meter area. The minimum thickness
specified is exclusive of surface applied glass beads. The finished lines shall be free
from ruggedness on sides and ends and be parallel to the general alignment of the
carriageway.

36
3.2.10 MACHINERY USED FOR ROAD CONSTRUCTION

Fig 4 Dumper Fig 5 Paver

Fig 6 Roller and Grader Fig 7 Pneumatic Roller

Fig 8 WMM Paver Fig 9 Hot Mix Plant

37
3.3 METHODOLOGY OF CARRYING OUT STRUCTURAL
CONCRETE IN BRIDGES AND CULVERTS

(A) Scope

The work shall consist of producing and placing the concrete of grade M-40, M-35,
M-30, M-25, M-20 & M-15 by weigh batching in accordance with the specifications
conforming to MORT&H, IS: 456 and the work specifications stipulated in the
contract document.

(B) Setting Out

After completion of site preparation, alignment of structure of culverts and or


minor bridges is marked on the ground with lime and /or string. With reference to its
alignment other points of structures like wing wall, abutment wall are pegged. For
construction purpose temporary bench marks (TBM) are also established near by the
location of structure. The place of TBM shall be chosen in a such a way that it will not
be disturbed by the construction activities and it shall remain in position until all the
works are completed in that location.

(C) Material

(i) Cement

Cement confirming to IS: 8112 & IS: 12269 shall be used only after ensuring the
minimum required design strength. Manufacturer’s test certificate shall be submitted to
the Engineer for every consignment of cement. The certificate shall cover all the tests
for chemical requirements, physical requirements and chloride content. Independent
tests of samples drawn from the consignment shall be carried out at the site laboratory
or in an independent laboratory approved by the Engineer, immediately after delivery.

(ii) Coarse aggregate

Coarse aggregate shall be produced from approved quarry in required sizes. It shall
consist of clean, hard, strong, dense, non-porous and durable pieces of crushed stone or
a suitable combination thereof as specified.
Maximum nominal size of aggregate for various structural components shall confirm
to the section 1700 MORT&H.

38
(ii) Fine aggregate

Fine aggregate for structural concrete shall be clean, hard, strong and durable
pieces of crushed stone or suitable combination of natural sand. They shall not contain
dust, lumps, soft or flaky, materials, mica or other deleterious materials in such a
quantity to reduce the durability and strength of concrete.

(iv) Water

Water shall be free from injurious materials like oils, acids, alkalis, salts, sugar,
organic materials or other substances that may be deleterious to the concrete or steel.
Potable water is generally considered satisfactory for construction purpose. Mixing
and curing with seawater shall not be permitted.

(v) Reinforcement steel

Reinforcement shall be thermo-mechanically treated (TMT) deformed bars of


grade Fe500 confirming to IS code 1786. Only uncoated steel shall be used as per
shape and size shown on the drawing. It confirms to the specification or as approved
by the Engineer.

 Bending of reinforcement:
Bar bending schedule is prepared and submitted to get Engineer’s approval before
start of work. Bar schedule shall include number, shape and cutting length of bar
and weight in respect of each type. A separate bar bending schedule shall be
prepared for auxiliary bars like spacer, chairs etc.

 Placing of reinforcement:
Reinforcement shall be placed in accordance with the drawing and get inspected
and approved by Engineer. After approval from Engineer, immediately pouring of
concrete follows. Reinforcement shall be tied with binding wire in such a way that
it shouldn’t be displaced while pouring the concrete on it.

Cover block are made of cement mortar with the same durability of surrounding
concrete. Layers of bar shall be separated by space bars kept at approximately 1m
interval and min. size is 12mm, or maximum size of main reinforcement, whichever is
greater is used. Horizontal reinforcement shall not be allowed to sag between supports.

(D) Proportioning Of Concrete

In proportioning concrete, the quantity of both cement and aggregate shall be


determined by weight. Cement is weighed from bulk stock at site and aggregates shall
weigh separately. Water shall either be measured by volume in calibrated tanks or
weighed. All measuring equipment shall be in a clean and serviceable condition. Their
39
accuracy shall be periodically checked. Water cement ratio is maintained constant to
its connecting value taking in to account of moisture content of aggregates. The
amount of water to be added shall be adjusted to compensate the variation in moisture
content due to weather condition.

 Trial mixes :

The trial mixes of all grades of concrete shall be prepared by using samples of
approved materials same as that are proposed to use in the works before
commencement of work. The initial trial mixes shall be prepared at site laboratory. In
all cases complete testing of all the constituent materials proposed in the design mix
shall be carried out prior to making trial mixes. Additional trial mixes shall be carried
out before the production, in case of substantial changes are made in the material or in
the proportion of the materials to be used.

 Equipments:

Keeping in view of the equipments of the work, equipment proposed to carry


out is as under:

1) For production of concrete


For overall bridge length of less than 200 meters - batch type concrete mixer
diesel or electric operated, with a minimum size of 200 liters, automatic water
measuring system and internal weigher (hydraulic/pneumatic type)

For overall bridge length of 200 meters or more - concrete batching and mixing
plant fully automatic with minimum capacity of 15 cu. m. per hour.

2) For Concrete Transportation :


i) Concrete dumpers
ii) Powered hoists
iii) Chutes
iv) Buckets handled by cranes
v) Transit truck mixer
vi) Concrete pump
vii) Concrete distributor booms
viii) Belt conveyor
ix) Cranes with skips
x) Tremies

3) For Compaction of Concrete:


i) Internal vibrators size 25 mm to 70 mm
ii) Form vibrators minimum 500 watts
iii) Screed vibrators full width of carriageway
40
3.3.1 TRANSPORTING, PLACIN G & COMPACTION OF
CONCRETE

Transportation of concrete is carried by pumps. Pipe lines from the pump and
to the placing area should be laid out with minimum bends. Concrete at the time of
pouring should have temperature in between 5 to 40 degree Celsius. It shall be
compacted to its final position within 30 minutes of its discharge from the mixture.
Concrete shall be poured in horizontal layer of compacted thickness of 300 mm. Fresh
concrete shall not be placed against concrete which has been in position for 30
minutes unless appropriate construction joints are provided. Placement of concrete
shall not be carried out when the day temperature exceeds 40 deg. Celsius.

(A) Formwork
Only steel formwork shall be used. All bolts shall be countersunk. The use of
approved internal ties or plastic spacer shall be used. Structural steel tubes are used as
support for forms and form shall have minimum thickness of 4mm ply.

(B) Construction Joints

Construction joints shall be provided as minimum as possible and shall be as


per drawings. Laitance shall be removed before fresh concrete is cast. The surface shall
be roughed enough not to dislodge the coarse aggregate. Concrete may be brushed
with stiff brush in its green stage at the location of construction joint. Fully hardened
concrete shall be treated with mechanical tools to remove the laitance.

(C) Curing

Water curing shall be done with water specified in section 1000 of MORT&H
exposed surface of concrete shall be kept continuously in a damp or wet condition by
ponding or by covering with a layer of sacks, canvas, Hessian or similar materials and
shall be kept constantly wet for a period of not less than 14 days from the date of
placing the concrete.

41
CHAPTER 4. MATERIAL INVESTIGATION SURVEY

4.1 Introduction

This chapter covers the preliminary report on soil and materials investigations
for the project corridor for Bagodara – Wataman – Tarapur – Vasad road (SH-8). This
chapter also details probable quarries and borrow pit locations for use as the sources of
construction materials. An assessment of the existing embankments and pavement
materials is also covered, and preliminary pavement designs are also discussed.

Testing procedures being followed are in accordance with Indian Standards,


Association of American State Highways and Transportation Officials, and British
Standards (IS/AASHTO/BS) wherever applicable to determine their suitability in
accordance with MORT&H specifications, including those for stripping value and 10%
fine value of aggregates.

The site was surveyed and various samples of soil, sand, aggregate etc. from
carriageway, side shoulders, nearby quarry, and borrow area were collected and
necessary tests have been carried out. The report of testing and suitability of materials
are enclosed. The general terrain is plain along the proposed alignment. The detailed
survey work for the materials have been carried out and borrow material was found
suitable.

4.2 Material Survey

Road pavement component comprises of subgrade, sub base, base course and
bituminous wearing course. Soil and aggregate are the prime material, which are
available naturally and therefore its characteristics vary from place to place. In order to
familiarize with the resources, properties and characteristics of these basic items,
material survey is undertaken. Locations of borrow areas are assessed in terms of
available approximate quantity. Aggregate quarries in the vicinity of project area are
checked for number of crushers working over there along with production capacity.
Resources of rock aggregate are surveyed to assess the approximate quantity that could
be produced for use in road construction.

The samples of soil from borrow area, sand from river and aggregate from crusher are
collected and tested to determine its suitability in construction of various component of
pavement. Soil samples collected from borrow area were tested for Gradation,
Atterberg limit, Free Swell Index, Modified Proctor test, CBR. Parameters like
Crushing strength, Impact value, Water Absorption, Specific gravity, Stripping value
test and coating were carried out on the aggregate samples collected from various
quarries in order to determine its suitability. Resources of sand as well as water were
also checked and samples thereof were collected to check the suitability as per
specification. All the tests were carried out in accordance with relevant IRC /
MORT&H / ASTM codes.

42
4.3 Lead for materials

The following lead will be considered in preparing the estimate for the project
road.

Earth (for Embankment and Subgrade) : 10 km


Sand (Vasad) : 60 km
Quarry Material (Sayla / Sevaliya) : 140 km
Asphalt (Koyali Refinery, Vadodara) : 80 km

4.4 Soil from borrow area

Soil that can be used in sub grade and embankment are identified from various
borrow area located in vicinity of project road. Soil sub grade is a layer of soil
prepared to stand against load of road material, traffic load and environmental
conditions. The load on pavement is ultimately received by the sub grade soil is
overstressed meaning that the pressure transmitted on top of the sub grade is within the
allowable limit, not to cause excessive stress condition or to deform the same beyond
elastic limit.

Aggregate survey

Aggregate quarries close to project road are Sevaliya and Sayla at about 140
km from project site. These consist of series of hillocks containing hard rock basalt
suitable for sub base, base course and bituminous work. From Sevaliya quarry,
material was taken for testing and various tests were conducted and the results
obtained were satisfactory. The material can be extracted from this quarry. The
aggregates of all sizes are available here, which are required for various layers in the
construction of pavement.

Resources for Sand

Sand is available from river Sabarmati near Wataman. Sabarmati river is on the
alignment of project road at 30.5 km. The other source of the sand is from river Mahi
near Vasad. The quality of sand from river is very good and can be used in the
construction of the road. This sand has very less silt content and fineness modulus of
3.0 to 4.0%.

Water

The main source of water is surface water i.e. from river Sabarmati and Mahi.
on the road alignment at km. 30.50 and km. 101.90. Both the river at this location are
perennial. The samples of water were collected to test its pH value, sulphates,
chlorides etc.

43
Test Results of Aggregate, Borrow area soil, sand and water

Samples of soil collected from various borrow area, aggregate from identified
quarries, sand from river and water samples from different resources were tested and
result of same are produced in the latter part of this volume.

Other Material

Bitumen manufactured at Baroda Refinery in grade of 60/70, 30/40 are


available. 60/70-grade bitumen is most appropriate for project road in consideration of
traffic, rainfall, temperature and other environmental condition.

Cement

Cement of all types of varieties i.e. Ordinary Portland, Portland Slag Cement
and Portland Puzzolana Cement confirming to relevant IS code is readily available in
bulk quantity from market which can be used for various type of construction such as
for Bridges, CD works, as filler material in bituminous courses etc.

Reinforcement Steel

Reinforcement Steel confirming to relevant IS code is readily available in market.

Locally available material

Locally available material like quarry spalls or any other material could be used
in embankment or any other component of pavement.

Conclusion:

1. No problematic soil is met within the alignment.

2. In this area sufficient borrow areas and quarries are available within reasonable lead
with required quantity so that potential material could be gainfully exploited
without any hassles during the project implementation.

3. The aggregates from these quarries are excellent. The only problem being flakiness
and elongation index, which varies from 30% to 40%. The rock crushing is being
done by conventional Jaw Crusher. This problem might persist unless settings of
screen is suitably adjusted or different crushing technology e.g. vertical shaft
impactor (VSI) or rock on rock methods are employed.

4. There is no need to lease or otherwise establish Government Quarry for this project.

44
List of Test carried out for Soils and Aggregate

Sr. No. Description


A. Soil & Borrow Area
1 Natural Moisture Content
2 Sieve Analysis of Granular Material
3 Free Swell Index
4 Atterbergs Limit
5 Modified Compaction Test
6 California Bearing Ratio
B. Granular material
1 Sieve Analysis
2 Atterberg limit
3 Ten percent fine value Test
4 Modified Proctor Test
5 California bearing ratio Test
C. Aggregates
1 Water Absorption
2 Flakiness Index & Elongation Index
3 Aggregate Impact Value
4 Specific gravity test

TABLE 1 List of tests carried out

45
TEST

Fine Aggregate Report

This is with reference to above; we have received the sample of Sand for sieve analysis
for Zone classification, Relative density. The test conducted as per I.S. 2386 part I and
results of the same areas under:

SAMPLE TAKEN: 1000 gm.

Sieve Size Wt. of Soil Weight of Cumulative % of Limit as


Retained Soil retained % mass passing per
(%) retained I.S. – 383
ZONE – II
4.75 104 10.4 10.4 89.6 90-100
2.36 81 8.1 18.5 81.5 75-100

1.18 216 21.6 40.1 59.9 55-90


600µ 224 22.4 62.5 37.5 35-59

300µ 242 24.2 86.7 13.3 8-30


150μ 88 8.8 95.5 4.5 0-10

PAN 28

Total 983

TABLE 2: GRADATION TEST (Sand)

46
Sr.no Description Result I.S Requirement as
per I.S 383
1 Zone classification: The Zone –II --
above sample falls in
2 Fineness Modulus 3.14 --
3 Uniformity co-efficient from 2.340 --
the semi log graph
Cu = D60/D10
4 C0 = D30 0.833 --
2 / (D10 x D60)
5 Bulk Density in gm/cc 1.520 --
6 Specific Gravity 2.578 --

TABLE 3: OTHER PROPERTIES

Name of Six Laning of Bagodara – Wataman – Tarapur – Vasad Road from km


Work 0.000 to km 101.900 of SH – 8
SIEVE ANALYSIS OF GRANULAR MATERIAL
IS: 2720 (Part: 28)
Type of Granular
Sample
Total Wt. Of the sample: 30015 g

I.S. Sieve Weight Percentage Cumulative % Passing Specification


Size Retained Retained % Retained Limit
75 mm Nil Nil Nil 100 100 100
26.5 mm 7920 26.39 26.39 73.61 55 - 75
4.75 mm 14005 46.66 73.05 26.95 10 - 30
75 µ ` 6995 23.31 96.36 3.64 < 10 %

TABLE 4: SIEVE ANALYSIS OF GRANULAR MATERIAL

47
Sr. No. of Con Wt. of Wt. of Wt. of Wt. of Wt. of Moisture
No Blows / No. can gm can can water Dry content
Penetration W1 & wet & dry (W2- Soil %
(W2-W3)X 100
Soil. Soil. W3 ) gm
(W3-W1)
gm gm (W3-
W2 W3 W1 )
1 18 10 22.30 46.84 43.32 3.52 21.02 16.74
2 21 23 26.15 51.52 46.98 4.54 20.83 21.79
3 23 13 24.81 55.98 50.02 5.96 25.21 23.64
4 26 14 28.50 59.10 52.83 6.27 24.33 25.77

TABLE 5: LIQUID LIMIT AND PLASTICITY INDEX


(I.S: 2720 part – v)

LIQUID LIMIT: 18.80%


PLASTIC LIMIT: %
PLASTICITY INDEX: N.P.

48
PENETRATION DIAL GUAGE LOAD kg CORRECTED
mm READING LOAD kg
0.0 -- --
0.5 27 96.79
1.0 46 164.91
1.5 66 236.61
2.0 85 304.72
2.5 103 369.25
3.0 122 437.27
4.0 154 552.09
5.0 184 659.64
6.0 217 777.94
7.5 297 1064.74
Proving Ring Factor: 3.585

TABLE 6: California Bearing Ratio Test


(IS: 2720 (PART – XVI)

CBR (Penetration At 2.5mm): 26.95 %


CBR (Penetration At. 5.0mm): 32.09 %
Hence CBR For Tested Sample: 32.09 %
No. of Layer – 5
No. Blows – 56 per Layer
Volume of Mould – 2250 cc
Surcharge Weight Used = 5000 gm

49
Fraction Sample Wt. Wt. Wt. Wt. Wt.
Passing Retained Weight Retained Passing Taken Passing Retained
IS Sieve, IS Sieve taken on flakiness (B) elongation on
Mm mm (A) flakiness gauge (C) elongation
Gm gauge (A– B) gm (B – C)
(B) gm gm
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
63 50
50 40
40 31.5 742 667 75 667 627 40
31.5 25 946 885 61 885 820 65
25 20 390 345 45 345 310 35
20 16 300 273 27 273 244 29
16 12.5 497 412 85 412 363 49
12.5 10 485 399 86 399 298 101
10 6.3 434 296 138 296 216 80
Total 3794 517 3277 399

TABLE 7: ELONGATION & FLAKINESS INDEX


I.S. 2386 (Part – I)

Flakiness Index ƩColumn 5 x 100 = 517 x 100 = 13.63%


ƩColumn 3 3794

Elongation Index = ƩColumn 8 x 100 = 399 x 100 = 12.81%


ƩColumn 6 3277

FI + EI = 13.63 + 12.18 = 25.81%

50
DESCRIPTION SAMPLE – 1 SAMPLE – 2
Total Weight of oven dry sample passing 342 356
12.5 mm sieve and retained on 10 mm
Sieve (W1),gm
Weight of portion passing 2.36 mm sieve, 60 57.5
(W2)gm
Weight of portion retained 2.36 mm sieve, 282 298.5
(W3)gm
Aggregate Impact Value = (W2/W1)x100 17.54 16.15
%
Aggregate Impact Mean Value = (1+2) / 2 Average 16.85
%
Acceptance Criteria Specified: 30% Max.

TABLE 8: AGGREGATE IMPACT VALUE


I.S. 2386 (Part – IV)

Sr.no Description Unit Test


A Weight of Saturated Surface Dry gm 600
Sample
(After 24 hrs. immersed in water)
B Weight of Saturated Surface Dry gm 594.5
Sample
(After 24 hrs. dried in oven)
C Water Absorption % 0.925
(A – B) / B * 100

Name of Sample: 18 MM
Source: Sevalia
Initial weight of Sample taken: 600 grams

TABLE 9 : Water Absorption Test


I.S. 2386 (Part – III)

51
CHAPTER 5. PROBLEMS FACED DURING
CONSTRUCTION

5.1 The following problems were faced during the construction at site

 Some of the construction issues include workforce considerations, safety, time


constraints, and the changing nature of the work. Non-construction challenges
that Construction Managers face that are part of the business landscape include
legal issues, government regulations, environmental concerns, and socio-
political pressures.

 The Bagodara-Vasad Highway passes through flood plain of river Sabarmati.


The flood plain of the river Sabarmati gets inundated in a stretch of more than
10 km during high flood event of 100 year return period. This high flood level
poses several problems for deciding formation level of the highway, provision
of appropriate drainage, provision of cross-drainage work etc.

 Flexible pavement is more susceptible under overtopping during heavy rain.


Also embankment for providing formation width is equally susceptible to
overtopping during heavy rain. Rutting and erosion of embankment virtually
lead to failure of road formation work.

 The existing pavement has riding surface fair to poor because it has a various
surface defects such as cracking, bleeding, potholes, edge erosion etc. thus
strengthening of existing pavement is needed for required design period.

 Overtopping of the carriageway caused by the rain water during monsoon


season causes damage to the road and vehicles are stranded and it leads to long
spells of traffic.

 Other problems include the significant negative, environmental impacts if any


on account of the implementation of the project. There are certain benefits to
the human and natural environment as a result of improvement of Bagodara –
Wataman – Tarapur – Vasad road. The traffic currently using this section of
SH-8 comprises of local transportation and long distance through traffic. These
create traffic congestion leading to increase in travel time; higher vehicle
operating costs and affects road safety. Improvement of this section will
mitigate all these problems and will provide comfortable and efficient road
transportation in the area.

52
5.2 Following were the possible solution given for the above mentioned problems:

 For the water logged area Longitudinal & transverse drains will be cut to
dewater the area through sumps, for identification of artesian holes & to
facilitate removal of unsuitable materials.
 After dewatering, all rotten vegetation, marsh etc. will be removed grid wise
which will be disposed off away from the site by tippers. When the area will
be satisfactorily cleaned of the unsuitable soil, excavated ground levels will
be jointly recorded.
 Water will then be allowed to raise upto its maximum head so that a standstill
condition is achieved. Rate of rise of water will be recorded regularly until
zero rises is observed.
 The boundary of the fully flooded area will then be measured and the water
level will be recorded.
 Crushed GSB granular mix will then be filled-up (without any stone dust /
filler) by side tipping & dozing.
 After filling every layer, compaction will be done by running excavator
crawlers and then by vibratory compactors depending upon the firmness of
the ground.

 Granular filling will be continued upto the above mentioned water level upto
maximum head ignoring afflux (raised water level), whatsoever.
 After compact granular filling, dewatering of the area will be done through
drains & sumps.
 The top surface will then be made in proper level & grade & also in required
compaction, dry & firm so that it becomes ready to receive the next higher
layer of embankment in dry condition.
 For the strengthening of base the filling of cracks and bituminous spray grout
proposed to complete the required base before overlay.
 To restore the area washed off during flood it is proposed that the section of
road will be dug out and rebuilt with new crust layers.

53
CHAPTER 6.0 CONCLUSIONS

The project on construction of six lane highway between Vasad and Bagodara
has been quite challenging and informative. The project is very good for learning
various aspects of actual design and construction of flexible pavement. During project
work various aspects of flexible pavement have been covered viz. type of survey,
traffic forecast, selection of design parameters, construction methodology, material
investigation survey and material testing etc. During site project team got opportunity
to visit actual construction and interaction with project implementation agencies. Also,
problem faced during the actual project implementation have been gathered along with
the project specific problem solution. Overall this Industry Defined Project remains
quite fruitful as final year project. Learning from various phases of this project will be
highly useful for the future work in this area.

*********

54
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55