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The Sources for the IΩ-

Pronouns
jwr47

1: Europe - The Sky-God Names and Personal Pronouns


Abstract
Reading the initial chapter of the Herodotus' „Histories“ we may understand how the ancient
Greeks interpreted the settlement of Europe.
Especially the link between Egypt, Phoenicia and Hellas seems to be present at a very early stage.
Hellenic history begins with the rape of 3 princesses; (1) IΩ (Io), (2) Europa, and (3) Medea.
The main centers of the Bronze Age were located at Crete and Mycenae. The main impact for the
Bronze Age Collapse came from the north and may have struck the borderline between the Greek-
oriented Boeotian Orchomenus and Phoenician-oriented Thebes.
During Amenhotep III's kingdom (LHIIIA:1) an Egyptian delegation may have visited Lake Copais
and the city (or location) of Boeotian Thebes. This visit may have been involved in the planning,
engineering and/or organizing the drainage of the Lake Copais region, which is considered as the
first historically documented project to drain a shallow lake.
According to Herodotus originally all Egypt, except the Thebaïc canton, was a marsh. The Thebais
bore the name of Egypt, a district of which the entire circumference is but 6120 furlongs.
Therefore the Egyptian Thebes and Boeotian Thebes may have shared the same name for a large
irrigation project, which revolutionized the agricultural and cultural society. From here the
engineering arts of drainage, irrigation and agriculture may have been spread over Europe.
In "Lost Atlantis Found Again?" (1949) the classicist Robert L. Scranton described the Lake Copais
District (~20km x ~20km) as the drainage system for the metropolis of Plato's “Atlantic Sea”
(“Atlantis”) with canals, dykes and tunnels, in which Gla served as a citadel.
Thebes also has been documented as the initial center of the alphabetical scripture in Europe. This
paper describes the distribution of the divine names (such as Διός and δῖος, Iou-piter, Dju, Diéu) and
the personal pronouns from Boeotian ἰώ (iṓ) or (/ˈaɪ.oʊ/), Iou, Dji, iéu.
The description of the Hellenic environment
The History of Herodotus documents the Hellenic environment at the beginning of historical
recordings.1 The following parts may illustrate some relevant details of the archaic Hellenic
environment.

The parts of the world Europe, Asia, Libya and the Delta
Especially the Nile seems to mark a borderline between Asia and Libya. The Egyptian delta is
considered as a separate country.
For they all (the Greeks) say that the earth is divided into three parts, Europe, Asia, and
Libya, whereas they ought to add a fourth part, the Delta of Egypt, since they do not
include it either in Asia or Libya. For is it not their theory that the Nile separates Asia
from Libya? As the Nile, therefore, splits in two at the apex of the Delta, the Delta itself
must be a separate country, not contained in either Asia or Libya.

Originally the Egyptians considered themselves as the most ancient


The Egyptians, before the reign of their king Psammetichus, believed themselves to be
the most ancient of mankind. Since Psammetichus, however, made an attempt to
discover who were actually the primitive race, they have been of opinion that while they
surpass all other nations, the Phrygians surpass them in antiquity.

Originally Egypt was a marsh except the Thebaïc district


And they told me that the first man who ruled over Egypt was Min, and that in his time
all Egypt, except the Thebaïc canton, was a marsh, none of the land below Lake Moeris
then showing itself above the surface of the water2.

In ancient times the Thebais bore the name of Egypt, a district of which the entire
circumference is but 6120 furlongs.

The fountains of the Nile


"Between Syene, a city of the Thebais, and Elephantine, there are" (he said) "two hills
with sharp conical tops; the name of the one is Crophi, of the other, Mophi. Midway
between them are the fountains of the Nile, fountains which it is impossible to fathom.
Half the water runs northward into Egypt, half to the south towards Ethiopia."

The identity of the Egyptians and the Colchians


I will add a further proof to the identity of the Egyptians and the Colchians. These two
nations weave their linen in exactly the same way, and this is a way entirely unknown to
the rest of the world; they also in their whole mode of life and in their language
resemble one another. The Colchian linen is called by the Greeks Sardinian, while that
which comes from Egypt is known as Egyptian.

1 Source: (Wikisource) The History of Herodotus, (1910)


2 The History of Herodotus (Rawlinson) by Herodotus; The Second Book, Entitled Euterpé(1910)
The Celtic city Pyrene
Herodotus is aware of the location of the river Danube (named “Ister”).
Herodotus describes Pyrene as a city (probably Heuneburg) near the source of the river Ister. This
location allows relatively small ships to navigate from the Heuneburg to the Black Sea.
Pyrene is considered to be one of the most important early Celtic centres in Central Europe. Apart
from the fortified citadel, there are extensive remains of settlements and burial areas spanning
several centuries.
The first settlement on the site dates to the Middle Bronze Age (15th to 12th century BC). At this
time, the main plateau was fortified with a massive ditch-and-bank enclosure, including a wooden
wall. The settlement was abandoned at the beginning of the Urnfield period. This abandonment
apparently did not entail a violent destruction.
The citadel was reoccupied and refortified around 700 BC; adjacent areas were occupied at the
same time, including Alte Burg and Grosse Heuneburg. The Heuneburg complex developed briskly,
and by 600 BC, it was one of the key centres of power and trade in Celtic/Halstatt Southern
Germany. Major changes in internal structure occurred around that time. Before 500 BC, the site
suffered a major destruction, followed by a second flourish and a further destruction in the 5th
century BC.
For the Nile certainly flows out of Libya, dividing it down the middle, and as I
conceive, judging the unknown from the known, rises at the same distance from its
mouth as the Ister. This latter river has its source in the country of the Celts near the city
Pyrene, and runs through the middle of Europe, dividing it into two portions.

The brazen men (Greek warriors)


The special relation between Egypt and the Ionians and Carians is based on the brazen men who
intruded the Egyptian society at the reign of pharaoh Psammetichus (dated 660 BCE):
Twelve kings, united together by intermarriages, ruled Egypt in peace. The oracle had
declared "that he who, of the twelve, should pour a libation from a cup of bronze would be
king of the whole land of Egypt."
Not long afterwards certain Carians and Ionians who had left their country on a voyage of
plunder, were carried by stress of weather to Egypt where they disembarked, all equipped in
their brazen armour, and were seen by the natives, one of whom carried the tidings to
Psammetichus, and, as he had never before seen men clad in brass, he reported that brazen
men had come from the sea and were plundering the plain.
The Ionians and Carians occupied for many years the places assigned them by
Psammetichus, which lay near the sea, a little below the city of Bubastis, on the Pelusiac
mouth of the Nile. King Amasis long afterwards removed the Greeks hence, and settled
them at Memphis to guard him against the native Egyptians.
Navigating the world around 1400 BCE
In a YouTube-video titled 1177 BC: The Year Civilization Collapsed3 Eric H. Cline describes
Amenhotep III's “Aegean List” from Kom el – Hetan 4 as a journey to the “navigational” world of
the “Great Green Sea” around Keftiu (Crete) and Tanaja (the Hellenic main land) around 1400
BCE.
The Aegean list may be interpreted as a list of stations on a round trip in which the northernmost
station may be Boeotian Thebes (or Kato Zakro):
This has led to the suggestion that the inscription may be a record of a voyage to, and
around, the Aegean, starting in Crete with a visit to Minoan sites, proceeding to
mainland Greece to visit Mycenaean sites, and then returning to Egypt via Crete.23

In the YouTube-video titled 1177 BC: The Year Civilization Collapsed the Aegean list is specified
as:
(I) Keftiu (Crete), (II) Tanaja (Mainland Greece), (1) Amnisos, (2) Phaistos, (3)
Kydonia, (4) Mycenae, (5) dḳis as Boeotian Thebes (or Kato Zakro), (6) Methana
(Argolid), (7) Nauplion, (8) Kythera, (9) (Ilion), (10) Knossos, (11) Amnisos (listed
again), and (12) Lyktos, (13-16) “lost”.

In this list most toponyms are categorized as quite reliable transliterations, but the fifth name dḳis
is a topic in discussions. Between Mycenae and Methana (~90km), respectively Mycenae-Messenia
(~125km), a trip to Thebes would be suitable.
Deger-Jalkotzy claimed that the statue base from Kom el-Hetan in Amenhotep III's5
kingdom (LHIIIA:1) mentions a name similar to Thebes, spelled out quasi-syllabically
in hieroglyphs as d-q-e-i-s, and considered to be one of four tj-n3-jj (Danaan?)
kingdoms worthy of note (alongside Knossos and Mycenae). 6

Map for the route between Mycenae and Methana (~90km)

2: The route between Mycenae and Methana (~90km)

3 1177 BC: The Year Civilization Collapsed (Eric Cline, PhD)


4 Sailing the Great Green Sea? Amenhotep III’s “Aegean List” from Kom el- Hetan, Once More by Eric H. Cline,
Steven M. Stannish - Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections | http://jaei.library.arizona.edu | Vol. 3:2, 2011 | 6–16
5 Amenhotep III ruled from June 1386 to 1349 BC, or from June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC
6 Early history (Thebes)
Map for the route between Mycenae and Messenia (~125km)

3: The route between Mycenae and Messenia (~125km)

Map of the possible sites on Amenhotep III 's Aegean List


The following video 1177 BC: The Year Civilization Collapsed is presented and signed by Professor
Eric H. Cline of The George Washington University:

4: The Aegean list in the YouTube-video titled 1177 BC: The Year Civilization Collapsed
specified as Keftiu (Crete), Tanaja (Mainland Greece), Amnisos, Phaistos, Kydonia, Mycenae, Boeotian Thebes (or
Kato Zakro), Methana (Argolid), Nauplion, Kythera, Knossos, Amnisos (listed again), and Lyktos
The Aegean list
Elmar Edel's and Manfred Gorg's transliteration of the toponyms in the Aegean list may be listed as
follows7:

Nr. The Aegean list in 1177 Original transliteration Revised edition (2005)
BC: The Year Civilization by Edel (1966) and/or discussed alternatives
Collapsed
1 Amnisos (Crete) Amnisos (Crete) Amyklai (near Sparta in Lakonia)
2 Phaistos (Crete) Phaistos (Crete) Pisaia (near Olympia)
3 Kydonia (Crete) Kydonia (Crete) Amyklai (again)
4 Mycenae, Greece Mycenae, Greece Mycenae, Greece
5 Boeotian Thebes dḳis (Boeotian Thebes ?) Tegea, Greece, as well as other
(or Kato Zakro) names such as Tegeai and Dikte,
both on Crete
6 Methana (Argolid) Methana or Messenia, Greece
7 Nauplion Nauplion, Greece
8 Kythera island of Kythera
9 - Eleia, Crete Elos and Aulis, both in Greece,
remain possibilities. Ilios (Troy) is
a philological leap of faith, takes
us very far afield, and probably
should be discarded
10 Knossos (Crete) Knossos (Crete)
11 Amnisos (Crete) Amnisos (Crete)
12 Lyktos, Crete Lyktos, Crete
13 - Siteia, Crete
14 - Pisaia (?) Phaistos (?)
15 - Amyklai (?) Kydonia (?)
Table 1: Edel's and Görg's transliterations of the “Aegean List”

7 Source: Sailing the Great Green Sea? Amenhotep III’s “Aegean List” from Kom el- Hetan, Once More by Eric H.
Cline, Steven M. Stannish - Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections | http://jaei.library.arizona.edu | Vol. 3:2, 2011 | 6–16
Gla
Boeotian Thebes is located near Orchomenos at the Kopais Lake. An Egyptian visitor may have
been interested in the Lake Copais.8
Before the artificial drainage Lake Copais drained into the sea by numerous
subterranean channels. Some of these channels were artificial, as the 1st century
geographer Strabo recorded.[4]

Modern excavation has found enormous channels dug in the 14th century BCE which
drained water into the sea to the northeast;[5] Strabo mentions work being done on
these channels by an engineer named Crates of Chalcis in the time of Alexander the
Great. 9

5. Google Earth photograph of the Mycenaean citadel Gla and the abandoned ruins of the
palace, dated at ~ 1400 BCE

The Egyptian visitors may have been interested in the administrative center at the megalithic citadel
now called “Gla”, although its name remains unknown, but may match to Homer's Arne or another
alternative name such as dḳis (dy-ḳȝỉ-ỉȝ-s).
Gla (Greek: Γλα), rarely Glas (Γλας), was an important fortified site of the Mycenaean
civilization, located in Boeotia, mainland Greece. Despite its impressive size, more than
ten times larger than contemporary Athens or Tiryns, Gla is not mentioned in the Iliad.
[1] 10

The walls surrounding Gla were about 3 m thick, and 2.8 km long, enclosing about
235,000 square meters of land.[3] These massive walls were made from Cyclopean
masonry.[4] It had four gates, an unusually high number for a Mycenaean fortification,
in the north, west, south and southeast. Elaborate built ramps led to the gates. The
fortification can be dated to early Late Helladic III B, that is, circa 1300 BC11.

8 The Role of Irrigation and Drainage in a Successful Civilisation


9 Source: (Wikipedia) Drainage (Lake Copais)
10 Source: (Wikipedia) Gla
11 June 1386 to 1349 BC, or from June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC
It is suggested that the land dominated by the citadel of Gla served as the "bread basket"
of the Mycenaean world. This is supported by the fact that Lake Kopais, the largest lake
in southern Greece, had been drained by a system of dams and canals (one of the most
astonishing achievements of prehistoric engineering) at about the same time as the
erection of Gla, producing a large fertile plain. The drainage system collapsed from
destruction or neglect at or after the end of Mycenaean Civilisation; in Classical
Antiquity, the lake existed again. It was drained a second time in the 19th century. 12.

Gla may have been the impressive drainage project dated circa 1300 BC:
• which may have been planned or studied by the Egyptian travelers under the reign of
Amenhotep III's13 kingdom (LHIIIA:1), 1386 - 1349 BC. In this case the Egyptians may have
been invited for their experience and capacities in drainage and irrigating engineering.
• which may have existed at the Egyptian travel under the reign of Amenhotep III's kingdom
(LHIIIA:1), 1386 - 1349 BC. In this case the Egyptian visitors may have been impressed by
the technological engineering of the architects and engineers.

Gla(s) as the citadel of Atlantis


In "Lost Atlantis Found Again?14" (1949) the classicist Robert L. Scranton described the Lake
Copais District (~20km x ~20km) as the drainage system for the metropolis of Plato's “Atlantic
Sea” (“Atlantis”) with canals, dykes and tunnels, in which Gla(s) served as a citadel.
The name Gla(s) may have been derived from “amber” (“glæsum” in Germanic languages”),
which had been traded by long-distance-traders for centuries.15
Pliny says that the German name of amber was glæsum. This is confirmed by the
recorded Old High German word glas and by the Old English word glær for "amber"
(compare glass). In Middle Low German, amber was known as berne-, barn-, börnstēn
(with etymological roots related to "burn" and to "stone"[16]). The Low German term
became dominant also in High German by the 18th century, thus modern German
Bernstein besides Dutch barnsteen.

In fact as an “Atlantic Sea” Lake Copais is a sweet water sea with a number of islands (such as
“Gla”) enclosed inside a ring of mountains. In the case of a failing drainage the community of the
lowlands near “the Atlantic Sea” may be drowned in a flood.
The water level of the Copaic plain is calculated at a maximum level of 97m and may be drained
either (1) via the (24-25) natural sinkholes, and additionally: (2) via an artificial canal to Lake
Likeri at a height of 45 metres, and Lake Paralimni at a height of 35 metres above the level of the
sea or (3) by an artificial tunnel canal via Upper Larymna and Lower Larymna to the sea level.
Teams of archaeologists investigated several stages in the development of the sophisticated drainage
system at Lake Copais and identified a catastrophic (natural or artificial) failure in the drainage
system around 1100 BC, which may have been registered in Plato's dialogues.
In two papers16 I checked and documented these concepts by comparing Plato's description and the
archaeologic reports of both drainage systems.

12 Source: (Wikipedia) Draining of the Kopais (Gla)


13 Amenhotep III ruled from June 1386 to 1349 BC, or from June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC
14 "Lost Atlantis Found Again?" - by Robert L. Scranton (1949) Source: JSTOR - 41662314. which includes
the link between Atlantis and the drainage system for Lake Copais .
15 History (Amber )
16 Notes to Frazer's "Pausanias's Description of Greece" and The War against Atlantis
The role of the pronouns, the gods and the cities' names

The role of IΩ
Herodotus' Hellenic history begins with the rape of 3 princesses; (1) IΩ (Io), (2) Europa, and (3)
Medea. Ultimately Europa had to rescued by their brother Cadmus, the first Greek hero and king of
Thebes.17
The statue of the goddess Isis has the form of a woman but with horns like a cow,
resembling thus the Greek representations of Io; and the Egyptians, one and all,
venerate cows much more highly than any other animal.

Especially the first princess' name IΩ (Io) seems to have been loaded with symbolism. The modern
spelling (/ˈaɪ.oʊ/) of the name IΩ (Io) also may be related to the personal pronoun (Italian io,
Boeotian ἰώ (iṓ), ἱών (hiṓn), “iau” in Jauers etc.) and the various cores in the names of the sky-gods
Διός and δῖος.

The role of the cities' names


The names of the cities Thebes and Tyre are loaded with symbolism. The name Thebes is found as
(1) a capital in Egypt, (2) in Boeotia and Thessaly (Greece) and (3) in Anatolia (Asia Minor).
Originally the city Tyre was named Melqart after the city-god, the name Tyre appears on
monuments as early as 1300 BC.18
Thebes and Orchomenus were described as rivals, who temporarily joined forces against enemies or
common projects such as the drainage of the Copais Lake.
In European languages a number of personal pronouns have been equipped with similar roots such
as the Boeotian ἰώ (iṓ) or (/ˈaɪ.oʊ/). Also the name Thebes (in Linear B *Tʰēgʷaii s (Ancient Greek:
Θήβαις, Thēbais, i.e. "at Thebes") may refer to the personal pronoun “ego” (“I”).
Thebes (modern Greek: /Thiva/) and Tyre may have been inherited towards the Germanic deities
Tiw and Tyr.

The transit dialects between Germanic & Romance languages


In the Walloon dialect the threefold correlation between the words God (“Dju”), his creature Man
(“Djin”) and the personal pronoun (“dji”) according to His image seems to be unique. However the
correlation to Man (“Djin”) may be invalid. Officially the etymology for “djin” is described as
“From Old French gent, from Latin gentem, accusative of gēns, c.f. French gens“19.
The French territory seemed to be surrounded by strange correlations between:
• the Walloon words Dju (dji),
• the Savoyan words DYU (DE) and
• the Sardinian words Deu (Dèu),
although officially French is dominated by a divine name “Dieu” (“God”) and a personal pronoun
“je” (“I”).20
In contrast Germanic languages use another set of correlations between personal pronouns of the 1st
person dual “wit” & “wut” correlate to the divine names “Wut(an)” and “Tiw”.
17 Notes to Herodotus' Histories of IΩ, Europa and Medea
18 Source: (Wikipedia's entry) Egyptian period (1700-1200 BCE) (Tyre)
19 Djin - human being
20 The Reconstruction of a European Philosophy
The origin of the personal pronouns of the 1st person singular
The word IAΩ (“iaw”), which may have been composed from the symbols I, A, Ω of three
“planets” may have been used as a core for the usually maximal 3-letter personal pronouns “I” of
the 1st person singular and the corresponding Name of the Creator “God”.
An overview of these personal pronouns and the corresponding divine name has been listed as an
overview, in which the letter I is a core-symbol which is a dominant character in the planetary
pantheon and also in the translation IAO of the divine name YHVH21.
The following table22 is extended with the Hellenic entries Διός, δῖος, and Boeotian ἰώ (iṓ):

Language Creator God I (singular) Marker


Greek / Boeotian Διός (δῖος) (Boeotian) ἰώ (iṓ) Διός ( ἰώ)
French Dieu je Dieu (je)
Provencal Diéu iéu Diéu (iéu)
Italian Dio io Dio (io)
Spanish Dios yo Dios (yo)
Portuguese Deus eu Deus (eu)
Sicilian Diu iu Diu (iu)
Romanian Zeu eu Zeu (eu)
Nîmes (F.) Dïou yiou Dïou (yiou)
Savoye (Montagny) Dzeu dzou Dzeu (dzou)
Savoye (central) Dyu de Dyu (de)
Savoye (Bessans, Giettaz) Dyu, Dzyeû, Dezyeu ze Dyu (ze)
Sardinian (Campidanese) Deu dèu Deu (dèu)
Walloon Diu, Dju, Diè dji Diu (dji)
Villar-St-Pancrace Dïou (?) iòu Dïou (yiou)
Eischemtöitschu Ziisch iich Ziisch (iich)
Logudorese Sardinian déu(s) dèo déu(s) (dèo)
Rumansh (sutsilvan) Dieu(s) jou Dieu(s) (jou)
Rumansh (Surmiran) Dia ia Dia (ia)
Rumansh (Grischun) Dieu jau Dieu (jau)
Rumansh (Vallader) Diẹu eu, eau Diẹu (eau)
Table 2: European “I”-definitions in Romance languages

21 In Dutch: Over de woorden en namen, die eeuwenlang bewaard gebleven zijn by jwr47 on Scribd
22 (PDF) The Role of the Vowels in Personal Pronouns of the 1st ...
Conclusion
Reading the initial chapter of the Herodotus' „Histories“ we may understand how the ancient
Greeks interpreted the settlement of Europe.
Especially the link between Egypt, Phoenicia and Hellas seems to be present at a very early stage.
Hellenic history begins with the rape of 3 princesses; (1) IΩ (Io), (2) Europa, and (3) Medea.
The main centers of the Bronze Age were located at Crete and Mycenae. The main impact for the
Bronze Age Collapse came from the north and may have struck the borderline between the Greek-
oriented Boeotian Orchomenus and Phoenician-oriented Thebes.
During Amenhotep III's kingdom (LHIIIA:1) an Egyptian delegation may have visited Lake Copais
and the city (or location) of Boeotian Thebes. This visit may have been involved in the planning,
engineering and/or organizing the drainage of the Lake Copais region, which is considered as the
first historically documented project to drain a shallow lake.
According to Herodotus originally all Egypt, except the Thebaïc canton, was a marsh. The Thebais
bore the name of Egypt, a district of which the entire circumference is but 6120 furlongs.
Therefore the Egyptian Thebes and Boeotian Thebes may have shared the same name for a large
irrigation project, which revolutionized the agricultural and cultural society. From here the
engineering arts of drainage, irrigation and agriculture may have been spread over Europe.
In "Lost Atlantis Found Again?23" (1949) the classicist Robert L. Scranton described the Lake
Copais District (~20km x ~20km) as the drainage system for the metropolis of Plato's “Atlantic
Sea” (“Atlantis”) with canals, dykes and tunnels, in which Gla served as a citadel.
Thebes also has been documented as the initial center of the alphabetical scripture in Europe. This
paper describes the distribution of the divine names (such as Διός and δῖος, Iou-piter, Dju, Diéu) and
the personal pronouns from Boeotian ἰώ (iṓ) or (/ˈaɪ.oʊ/), Iou, Dji, iéu.

In Europe the pronoun IΩ (Io or Iou) may have spread:


1. from the east to the west as a layer, which covered a former archaic language and form the
south to the north. This distribution may be a standard for Romance languages, which may
have been supported by the Roman civilization. In fig. 1 these distributions are marked red
in fig. 1.
2. or simultaneously radiating in all available directions from the southeast to the west, the
northwest and the north. This central radiation may have been guided by a central location at
Chur (Switzerland). In fig. 1 these distributions are marked black in fig. 1.
3. As a mixture of both types (1) and (2) of spreading. This mechanism results in different
correlations between the personal pronouns and divine names for the Germanic & Romance
languages.

23 "Lost Atlantis Found Again?" - by Robert L. Scranton (1949) Source: JSTOR - 41662314. which includes
the link between Atlantis and the drainage system for Lake Copais .
Contents
Abstract.................................................................................................................................................2
The description of the Hellenic environment.......................................................................................3
The parts of the world Europe, Asia, Libya and the Delta...............................................................3
Originally the Egyptians considered themselves as the most ancient ............................................3
Originally Egypt was a marsh except the Thebaïc district..............................................................3
The fountains of the Nile.................................................................................................................3
The identity of the Egyptians and the Colchians.............................................................................3
The Celtic city Pyrene......................................................................................................................4
The brazen men (Greek warriors)....................................................................................................4
Navigating the world around 1400 BCE..............................................................................................5
Map for the route between Mycenae and Methana (~90km)...........................................................5
Map for the route between Mycenae and Messenia (~125km)........................................................6
Map of the possible sites on Amenhotep III 's Aegean List.............................................................6
The Aegean list ...............................................................................................................................7
Gla....................................................................................................................................................8
Gla(s) as the citadel of Atlantis...................................................................................................9
The role of the pronouns, the gods and the cities' names...................................................................10
The role of IΩ................................................................................................................................10
The role of the cities' names..........................................................................................................10
The transit dialects between Germanic & Romance languages.....................................................10
The origin of the personal pronouns of the 1st person singular.........................................................11
Conclusion..........................................................................................................................................12