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Hydraulic servo-systems: modelling, identification,


and control

Book · January 2003


DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-0099-7

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2 authors:

Mohieddine Jelali Andreas Kroll


Technische Hochschule Köln Universität Kassel
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Mohieddine Jelali and Andreas Kroll

Hydraulic
Servo-systems
Modelling, Identification and Control

With 182 Figures

Springer
CONTENTS

Notation xxi

1 Introduction 1
1.1 Historical View and Motivation for Hydraulic Systems 1
1.2 Aims and Focus of the Book -. 3
1.3 Outline of the Chapters 5
1.4 Background of the Work and Bibliographical Notes 7
2 General Description of Hydraulic Servo-systems 9
2.1 Basic Structure of Hydraulic Servo-systems 9
2.2 Description of the Components 10
2.2.1 Valves 11
2.2.2 Pumps and Actuators 16
2.2.3 Power Supplies 18
2.3 Classification of Hydraulic Servo-systems 19
2.4 Measurement and Control Devices 21
2.4.1 Control Loops 21
2.4.2 Sensors/Transducers 23
2.5 Application Examples 26
2.5.1 Hydraulically Actuated Manipulators : 26
2.5.2 Hydraulic Automatic Gauge Control for Rolling Mills 26
3 Physical Fundamentals of Hydraulics 29
3.1 Physical Properties of Fluids 29
3.1.1 Viscosity and Related Quantities 29
3.1.2 Mass Density, Bulk Modulus and Related Quantities 31
3.1.3 Effective Bulk Modulus 32
3.1.4 Section Summary 36
3.2 General Equations of Fluid Motion 36
3.2.1 Continuity Equation and Pressure Transients 37
3.2.2 Navier-Stokes Equation 38
3.2.3 Bernoulli's Theorem 39
3.2.4 Section Summary : 40
3.3 Flow Through Passages 40
3.3.1 Flow Establishment in Pipelines 41
3.3.2 Flow Through Orifices 42
3.3.3 Flow Through Valves 48
xvi Contents

3.3.4 Section Summary 50


3.4 Spool Port Forces 50
3.5 Electro-hydraulic Analogy 51
3.5.1 Hydraulic Capacitance 51
3.5.2 Hydraulic Resistance 51
3.5.3 Hydraulic Inductance 52
4 Physically Based Modelling 53
4.1 Introduction .' 53
4.1.1 Characterisation of Subsystems 54
4.1.2 Model Complexity and Applications 56
4.2 Elementary Models 58
4.2.1 Valves 58
4.2.2 Hydraulic Cylinders 69
4.2.3 Hydraulic Pumps and Motors 72
4.2.4 Power Supplies '. 77
4.2.5 Pipelines 79
4.3 Typical Non-linear State-space Models 96
4.4 Structured and Simplified Models of Valve-controlled Systems 98
4.4.1 Relevance of Valve and Pipeline Dynamics 98
4.4.2 Approximation of Pressure Dynamics 100
4.4.3 Introduction of Load Pressure 102
4.4.4 Linearised Models 104
4.5 Determination of Specific Model Parameters 113
4.5.1 Static Valve Characteristics 113
4.5.2 Dynamic Valve Characteristics 115
4.5.3 Actuator Dimensions and Mass 116
4.5.4 Friction Forces 116
4.5.5 Leakage Coefficients and Valve Underlap 120
4.6 Implementation and Software Tools ; 122
4.6.1 Simulation of Friction Forces 122
4.6.2 Simulation of Mechanical Saturations 123
4.6.3 Simulation Packages 124
4.7 Section Summary 126
5 Experimental Modelling (Identification) 127
5.1 Introduction 127
5.1.1 Generic Identification Procedure 128
5.1.2 Linear vs. Non-linear Identification 130
5.1.3 Online vs. Offline Identification 131
5.2 Pre-identification Process 131
5.2.1 Design of Input Signals 131
5.2.2 Pre-computations 134
5.3 Overview of Model Structures 136
5.3.1 Introductory Remarks and Definitions 136
5.3.2 Review of Linear Model Structures 140
5.3.3 Non-linear Input-output Models 145
5.3.4 Non-linear State-space Models 147
Contents xvii

5.4 Description of Selected Non-linear Model Structures 148


5.4.1 Continuous-time Special (Canonical) Models 148
5.4.2 Fuzzy Models 152
5.4.3 Artificial Neural Networks 162
5.5 Parameter Estimation Methods 166
5.5.1 Prediction Error Methods 167
5.5.2 Classical Least-squares Analysis 167
5.5.3 Orthogonal Least-squares Estimator 170
5.5.4 Maximum Likelihood Method 175
5.5.5 Bias/Variance Dilemma and Regularisation Concepts 176
5.6 Optimisation Algorithms 179
5.6.1 Newton's Method 179
5.6.2 Damped Gauss-Newton Method 180
5.6.3 Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm 180
5.6.4 Computational Aspects 182
5.7 Grey-box Identification of Non-linear Hydraulic Servo-system Models. 184
5.7.1 Identification of Pressure Dynamics Model 184
5.7.2 Identification of Load Dynamics Model 185
5.7.3 Online Identification for Adaptive Control 186
5.7.4 Identification of General Models 187
5.8 Fuzzy Identification 187
5.8.1 Introduction and Model Parameter Overview 188
5.8.2 Structure Identification 189
5.8.3 Parameter Identification (Premise) 193
5.8.4 Parameter Identification (Conclusion) 196
5.8.5 Optimisation 197
5.9 Identification with Artificial Neural Networks 199
5.9.1 Selection of Artificial Neural Network Architectures 200
5.9.2 Estimation of Weights 201
5.9.3 Optimisation of Network Architecture (Growing/Pruning) 203
5.10 Model Validation and Comparison of Model Structures 204
5.10.1 Prediction, Simulation and Cross-validation 204
5.10.2 Residual Tests 205
5.10.3 Model Structure Test Criteria 206
5.11 Implementation and Software Tools 208
5.12 SectiorfSummary 209
Hydraulic Control Systems Design '. 213
6.1 Introduction 213
6.1.1 General Approaches 214
6.1.2 Literature Scan and Classification 216
6.2 Classical Feedback Control Design 216
6.2.1 Pressure Feedback 218
6.2.2 Acceleration Feedback 220
6.2.3 Position Feedback 221
6.2.4 Summary 222
6.3 Estimator-based State Feedback Control 223
6.3.1 Computation of the State Control Law 223
xviii Contents

6.3.2 Selection of Pole Locations 225


6.3.3 Elimination of Steady-state Errors 227
6.3.4 Application to Hydraulic Servo-system Linear Models 228
6.4 Extensions to Linear Feedback Control 229
6.4.1 Combined Feedback and Feedforward Control 229
6.4.2 Adaptive Control 233
6.4.3 Compensation of Special (Static) Non-linearities 234
6.4.4 Conclusions and Drawbacks of Classical Approaches 239
6.5 Feedback Linearising Control 239
6.5.1 Feedback Linearisation and the Companion Form 240
6.5.2 Intuitive Concept of Input-Output Linearisation 240
6.5.3 Formalised Theory of Feedback Linearisation 243
6.5.4 Application to Hydraulic Servo-system Models 249
6.5.5 Feedback Linearisation Based on Bilinear Models 254
6.6 Approaches Similar to Feedback Linearisation 256
6.6.1 Direct Inverse Control 256
6.6.2 Cascade Load Pressure (Load Force) Control 257
6.7 Fuzzy Control 260
6.7.1 Fuzzy State Control 261
6.7.2 Fuzzy Model Predictive Control 267
6.8 Neural-network-based Control 274
6.8.1 Neural-network-based Feedback Linearisation 274
6.8.2 Control Based on Instantaneous Linearisation 275
6.9 Vibration Damping Control 276
6.9.1 Introduction 276
6.9.2 Vibration Damping Concept 277
6.9.3 Integrated Velocity Control 278
6.10 State Estimation 279
6.10.1 Velocity Estimation 279
6.10.2 Estimation of Acceleration and Friction Forces 282
6.10.3 Estimation of External Forces ..'. 284
6.11 Implementation and Software Tools 286
6.12rRapid Prototyping Tools for Control 286
6.13 Section Summary 288
7 Case Studies and Experimental Results 291
7.1 Identification and Control of a Synchronising Cylinder 291
7.1.1 System Description 291
7.1.2 Continuous-time Model in Canonical Form 293
7.1.3 Fuzzy Model Identification 294
7.1.4 Fuzzy Model Predictive Controller and Fuzzy State Feedback
Controller 295
7.1.5 Neural Network (Multi-layer Perceptron) Identification 298
7.1.6 Section Summary 299
7.2 Modelling and Control of a Small Differential Cylinder 299
7.2.1 System Description 300
7.2.2 Physically Based Model 301
7.2.3 Linear vs. Non-linear Control 303
Contents xix

7.3 Control of a Big Differential Cylinder 307


7.3.1 System Description '. 307
7.3.2 Linear vs. Non-linear Control 307
7.4 Vibration Damping Control for a Flexible Robot 311
7.5 Vibration Damping Control for a Concrete Pump 313
Appendix A Fluid Power Symbols 317

Appendix B Data and Catalogue Sheets 321


B.I Parameter Sets for Experimental Setups 321
B.2 Typical Parameter Values for Simulation of Servo-valves 324
B.3 Some Catalogue Diagrams 324
Appendix C Non-linear Control Background 327
C. 1 Kronecker Product/Matrix Operations 327
C.2 Lie Derivatives and Lie Brackets 329
C.3 Diffeomorphisms and State Transformations 330
C.4 Approximation of Non-linear Systems 331
References 333

Subject Index 351

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