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CHEMISTRY INVESTIGATORY

PROJECT

COMPARITIVE STUDY OF
COMMERCIAL ANTACIDS
A Project Report

Submitted by

DT
IN

CHEMISTRY
AT

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA NO,1,SEC-30,GANDHINAGAR

2016-17
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that DT of Grade XII,Kendriya


Vidyalaya No.1,Sec-30,GNR has satisfactorily
completed the project in CHEMISTRY on
COMPARITIVE STUDY OF COMMERCIAL
ANTACIDS in the year 2016-17.

Signature of the Signature of the


Candidate Teacher In-Charge

Signature of the Signature of the


Principal External Examiner
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The enduring pages of the work are the cumulative sequence of extensive
guidance and arduous work I wish to acknowledge and express my
personal gratitude to all those without whom this project could not have
been a reality

First and foremost, I would like to express my deep gratitude to our


principal, Mrs. Rashmi Mishra for providing us with state of the art
laboratories and infrastructure and also providing her valuable suggestions
and feedback, which were instrumental in shaping up the project work.
Without her help, this project would remain unaccomplished.

I would like to sincerely thank our chemistry faculty Mr. Srikant Pradhan for
spending their precious time with us enhancing our knowledge regarding
project .. Their help is unforgettable as this project is built on the concepts
that they have taught us. They always motivated us and ensured that we
were on the right track.

My heartfelt thanks to my parents and other family members who have


constantly motivated and supported me during the making of this project
work.

This project would be incomplete without thanking my peers who always


lent a helping hand and showed true spirit of friendship.

I would also like to extend my heartfelt gratitude to the authors and


publishers of the books and managements of the websites, I referred to(as
in Bibliography), for having provided us with us valuable information

Signature of the student


ABBREVIATIONS

Ph Power of hydrogen ion


GERD Gastric esophageal reflux disease
N/10 0.1 normal
Ml Milliliters
OTC Over the counter
H-2 Histamine-2
Aq Aqueous
HOMO Highest occupied molecular orbit
LUMO Lowest unoccupied molecular orbit

Chemical formulae Expansions

HCl Hydrochloric acid


NaOH Sodium hydroxide
Na2CO3 Sodium carbonate
H3O+/H+ Hydronium ion
H2SO4 Sulphuric aid
HSO4- Bisulphate ion
Cl- Chloride ion
H2O Water
OH- Hydroxyl ion
INDEX

Serial No. CONTENT PAGE NO.

I INTRODUCTION 1

II OBJECTIVE 8

III THEORY 9
MATERIALS
IV REQUIRED 14

V PROCEDURE 16

VI PRECAUTIONS 20

VII OBSERVATIONS 22

VIII RESULT 24

IX SUMMARY 25

X BIBLIOGRAPHY 26
INTRODUCTION

It is well known that the food we take undergoes a series of


complex reactions within the body which constitute digestion and
metabolism. These reactions are catalyzed by enzymes which are
very specific in their action and can function properly only when
the pH of the medium is within a specific range.

Some enzymes require mildly alkaline conditions while others


operate only in weakly acidic media. Amongst the latter category
of enzymes are the enzymes that control the digestion of proteins
present in the food as it reaches the stomach. In the stomach,
dilute hydrochloric acid is secreted and it provides mildly acidic
conditions required for the functioning of protein digesting
enzymes in the stomach.

Gastric acid is a digestive fluid, formed in the stomach. It has a pH


of 1.5 to 3.5 and is composed of 0.5 % hydrochloric acid (HCl). It
is produced by cells lining the stomach, which are coupled to
systems to increase acid production when needed.

Other cells in the stomach produce bicarbonate to buffer the acid,


ensuring the pH does not drop too low (acid reduces pH). Also
cells in the beginning of the small intestine, or duodenum, produce
large amounts of bicarbonate to completely neutralize any gastric
acid that passes further down into the digestive tract. The
bicarbonate-secreting cells in the stomach also produce and
secrete mucus. Mucus forms a viscous physical barrier to prevent
gastric acid from damaging the stomach.

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However, sometimes the stomach begins to secrete an excess of
HCl. This leads to a condition known as Gastric Hyperacidity. This
condition can also be triggered by the intake of to much food or
highly spiced food. This, in turn, makes the stomach lining cells to
secrete more acid resulting in Hyperacidity. It also leads to acute
discomfort due to indigestion.

To counter this situation, substances like Antacids or literally anti -


acids, have been developed. Antacids are commercial products
that neutralize the excess acid in the stomach providing a
sensation of relief to the person. The action of antacids is based
on the fact that a base can neutralize an acid forming salt and
water.

Common antacids satisfy the condition – right amount of alkali that


can neutralize the acid. If the content of alkali in the antacid is too
high, no doubt acidity is relieved, but it’ll create alkaline conditions
that makes the digestive enzymes ineffective.To make sure that
the pH of the stomach remains in a specific range, many
substances are added to the antacids.
2
Working of Antacids

If the antacid contains NaHCO3 then the reactions that occur in


the stomach are:

Na++HCO3- +H+ +Cl- NaCl + H2CO3

H2CO3 H2O+CO2

The excess Na+ and HCO3-ions are absorbed by the walls of the small intestines
as the food passes through.

The H2CO3 formed during the reaction decomposes rapidly to form water and
carbon dioxide gas.

3
TYPES OF ANTACIDS
 Sodium Antacids (Alka-Seltzer, Bromo-Seltzer and Others): Sodium
bicarbonate (commonly known as baking soda) is perhaps the best-known of the
sodium-containing antacids. It is potent and fast-acting. As its name suggests, it
is high in sodium. If you're on a salt-restricted diet, and especially if the diet is
intended to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), take a sodium-containing
antacid only under a doctor's orders.

 Calcium Antacids (Tums, Alka-2, Titralac and Others):Antacids in the form


of calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate are also potent and fast-acting.
Regular or heavy doses of calcium (more than five or six times per week) can
cause constipation. Heavy and extended use of this product may clog your
kidneys and cut down the amount of blood they can process. Extended use of
calcium antacids can also cause kidney stones.

 Magnesium Antacids (Maalox, Mylanta, Riopan, Gelusil and Others):


Magnesium salts come in many forms -- carbonate, glycinate, hydroxide, oxide,
trisilicate, and aluminosilicate. Magnesium has a mild laxative effect; it can
cause diarrhea. For this reason, magnesium salts are rarely used as the only
active ingredients in an antacid, but are combined with aluminum, which
counteracts the laxative effect. (The brand names listed above all contain
magnesium-aluminum combinations.) Like calcium, magnesium may cause
kidney stones if taken for a prolonged period, especially if the kidneys are
functioning improperly to begin with. A serious magnesium overload in the
bloodstream (hypermagnesaemia) can also cause blood pressure to drop,
leading to respiratory or cardiac depression -- a potentially dangerous decrease
in lung or heart function.

 Aluminum Antacids (Rolaids, ALternaGEL, Amphojel and Others): Salts of


aluminum (hydroxide, carbonate gel, or phosphate gel) can also cause
constipation. For these reasons, aluminum is usually used in combination with
the other three primary ingredients. Used heavily over an extended period,
antacids containing aluminum can weaken bones, especially in people who have
kidney problems. Aluminum can cause dietary phosphates, calcium, and fluoride
to leave the body, eventually causing bone problems such as osteomalacia
or osteoporosis.
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SIDE-EFFECTS

 Calcium: Excess calcium from supplements, fortified food and high-calcium


diets, can cause milk-alkali syndrome, which has serious toxicity and can be
fatal.

 Carbonate: Regular high doses may cause alkalosis, which in turn may result
in altered excretion of other drugs, and kidney stones. A chemical reaction
between the carbonate and hydrochloric acid may produce carbon dioxide
gas. This causes gastric distension which may not be well tolerated. Carbon
dioxide formation can also lead to headaches and decreased muscle
flexibility.

 Aluminum hydroxide: May lead to the formation of insoluble aluminium-


phosphate-complexes, with a risk for hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia.
Although aluminium has a low gastrointestinal absorption, accumulation may
occur mainly in the presence of renal insufficiency. Aluminium-containing
drugs often cause constipation and are neurotoxic.

 Magnesium hydroxide: Has laxative properties.Magnesium may accumulate


in patients with renal failure leading to hypermagnesaemia, with
cardiovascular and neurological complications.

 Sodium: increased intake of sodium may be deleterious for arterial


hypertension, heart failure and many renal diseases.

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 Heartburn, reflux, indigestion, and sour stomach are a few of the common
terms used to describe digestive upset. Self-diagnosis of indigestion does
carry some risk because the causes can vary from a minor dietary indiscretion
to a peptic ulcer.

 The pain and symptoms of GERD or simply "reflux", may mimic those of a
heart attack. Misdiagnosis can be fatal. A bleeding ulcer can be life
threatening.

 GERD and pre-ulcerative conditions in the stomach are treated much more
aggressively since both, if untreated, could lead to esophageal or stomach
cancer.

 It is primarily for this reason that the H2 blockers including cimetidine


(Tagamet), famotidine (Pepcid), and ranitidine (Zantac), and the proton pump
inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole (Prilosec) were made OTC.

 These drugs stop production of stomach acid and provide longer lasting relief
but they do not neutralize any stomach acid already present in the stomach.

PROBLEMS WITH REDUCED STOMACH ACID

 Reduced stomach acidity may result in an impaired ability to digest and


absorb certain nutrients, such as iron and the B vitamins. Since the low pH of
the stomach normally kills ingested bacteria, antacids increase the
vulnerability to infection. It could also result in the reduced bioavailability of
some drugs. For example, the bioavailability of ketocanazole (anti-fungal) is
reduced at high intragastric pH (low acid content).

 Over usage of antacids naturally have side-effects. As with anything in life, it


be used in moderation.
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The following flowchart elucidates very clearly.

7
II.OBJECTIVE

This project aims at analyzing some of the commercial antacids to


determine which one of them is the most effective by conducting a
quantitative analysis.

Motives behind selecting this research project:

 Consumerism, in the era of global industrialization, plays a


very important role. There are various product options available
for consumers to choose from. Different manufacturers selling
their products, attempting to sway public opinion in their favor,
marketing their products regardless of their effectiveness in
functionality. Hence it becomes the consumer’s right to
experiment and know the most effective, efficient, and value for
money product. There are various methods to conclude that a
product out of all the given competitors is the best.
Experimental research is the most rational and convincing one
of those methods. The result of this analysis could be used to
inform oneself as to which antacid is the best and provides
best relief.

 Apart from the economic perspective, the titrations that are


conducted as a part of this experiment is in itself an attracting
aspect. The prospect of making color changing solutions, the
thrill of chemical reactions, and conducting them with accuracy
is probably the most interesting part of titrations and the whole
project.
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III.THEORY

Antacids react with excess stomach acid by neutralization.

i.e. HCl + NaOH → H2O + NaCl

During the process, hydrogen ions H+ from the acid (proton donor) or a hydronium

ion H3O+ and hydroxide ions OH Θ from the base (proton acceptor) react together

to form a water molecule H2O. In the process, a salt is also formed when the anion

from acid and the cation from base react together. Neutralization reactions are

generally classified as exothermic since heat is released into the surroundings.

Acids are proton donors which convert into conjugated bases. They are generally

pure substances which contain hydrogen ions (H+) or cause them to be produced in

solutions. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) are common examples.

In water, these break apart into ions:

HCl → H+ (aq) + ClΘ (aq) OR H2SO4 → H+ (aq) + HSO4Θ (aq)

Bases are proton acceptors which convert into conjugated acids. They are generally

substances which contain hydroxide ion (OHΘ) or produce it in solution. Alkalis are

the soluble bases, i.e. a base which contains a metal from group 1 or 2 of the

periodic table. To produce hydroxide ions in water, the alkali breaks apart into ions

as below:

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NaOH→ Na+(aq) + OHΘ(aq)

Examples of bases include sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH),

magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2), and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). Antacids are

generally bases.

EXPLANATION OF ACTIONS OF NEUTRALIZATION OF ANTACIDS

The Lewis definition of acid-base reactions is a donation mechanism, which

conversely attributes the donation of electron pairs from bases and the acceptance

byacids.

Ag + + 2 :NH3 → [H3N :Ag: NH3]+

(A silver cation reacts as an acid with ammonia which acts as an electron-pair

donor, forming an ammonia-silver adduct)

In reactions between Lewis acids and bases, there is the formation of an adduct

when the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of a molecule, such as NH3

with available lone electron pair(s) donates lone pairs of electrons to the electron-

deficient molecule's lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO)through a co-

ordinate covalent bond; in such a reaction, the HOMO-interacting molecule acts as

a base, and the LUMO-interacting molecule acts as an acid. In highly-polar

molecules, such as boron trifluoride (BF3), the most electronegative element pulls

electrons towards its own orbitals, providing a more positive charge on the less-

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electronegative element and a difference in its electronic structure due to the axial

or equatorial orbiting positions of its electrons, causing repulsive effects from lone

pair-bonding pair (Lp-Bp) interactions between bonded atoms in excess of those

already provided by bonding pair-bonding pair (Bp-Bp) interactions.

DETERMINATION OF CONCENTRATION OF SUBSTANCES IN

NEUTRALISATION

The experimental method about neutralization is the acid-base titration. An acid- base

titration is a method that allows quantitative analysis of the concentration of an unknown

acid or base solution. It makes use of the neutralization reaction that occurs between acids

and bases, and that we know how acids and bases will react if we know their formula.

Before starting the titration a suitable pH indicator must be chosen. In this project,

phenolphthalein is chosen. The endpoint of the reaction, the point at which all the

reactants have reacted, will have a pH dependent on the relative strengths of the acid and

base used.

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The pH of the endpoint can be estimated using the following rules:

• A strong acid will react with a strong base to form a neutral (pH=7) solution.

• A strong acid will react with a weak base to form an acidic (pH<7) solution.

• A weak acid will react with a strong base to form a basic (pH>7) solution.

Phenolphthalein is used to determine the end point of the titration which indicates

complete neutralization. In the presence of, an acid solution is colourless, a basic

solution is very dark pink, and a neutral solution is very pale pink. At this point the

solution is very slightly basic, with a negligible amount of excess NaOH. By keeping

track of exactly how much NaOH is needed to complete the neutralization process,

the amount of HCl originally neutralized by the antacid can be calculated. The

difference between the number of moles of HCl initially added to the antacid and the

number of moles of HCl neutralized by the NaOH during the titration is the number

of moles neutralized by the antacid. Several antacids will be tested and the relative

strengths of each will be compared.

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NATURE OF PHENOLPTHALEIN :

Phenolphthalein is a chemical compound with the formula C20 H14 O4. It is insoluble

in water, and is usually dissolved in alcohols for use in experiments. It is itself a

weak acid, which can lose H+ ions in solution. The phenolphthalein molecule is

colorless. However, the phenolphthalein ion is pink. When a base is added to the

phenolphthalein,the molecule⇌ ions equilibrium shifts to the right,

leading to more ionization as H+ ions are removed. This is predicted by

Le Chatelier's principle.

HYPOTHESIS

Our hypothesis is that the greater proportion of the active ingredient with

stronger base in an antacid tablet will have the greater neutralizing power.

And thus, it will be more effective to cure upset stomach.

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IV.MATERIALS REQUIRED
The following were the materials required for the project:

Apparatus:
1. Burette(50ml)
2. Pipette(20ml)
3. Conical Flasks(250ml)
4. Measuring Cylinder(10ml)
5. Beakers(100ml)
6. Standard Flasks(100ml)
7. Filter Paper
8. Funnel
9. Bunsen Burner
10.Weighingmachine
11.Clean&glazedwhitetile
12.GlassRod
13.Water
14.Crusher

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Chemicals:
1. NaOH powder
2. Na2CO3 powder
3. 10 M conc. HCl acid
4. Four different brands of antacids
5. Phenolpthalein
6. Methyl Orange

Na2CO3 Powder

NaOH Powder 10 M HCl Solution

Antacids Phenolpthalein Solution

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V.PROCEDURE

1. First prepare approximately1 litre of approximately N/10 solution of HCl by


diluting 10ml of the given 10M HCl acid to1 litre.

Approx.1L
H2O

10ml-10M HCl 1L-0.1MHCl

2. Next prepare 1litre of approx. .N/10 NaOH solution by dissolving 4.0g


of NaOH powder to make1litre of solution.

4.0gNaOH
Approx.1L H2O

1L-0.1MHCl

3. Similarly prepare N/10 Na2CO3 solution by weighing exactly 1.325g of


anhydrous Na2CO3 and then dissolving it in water to prepare exactly 0.25L
or 250ml of Na2CO3solution.

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4. Now ,standardize the HCl solution by titrating it against the
standard Na2CO3 solution using methyl orange as indicator.

Burette:0.1NHCl

Flask:0.1 N Na2CO3+Methyl Orange

5.Similarly standardize the NaOH solution by titrating it against


standardized HCl solution using phenolopthalein as indicator .
Stop the titration when the pink colour of the solution
disappears.

Burette: 0.1NHCl

Flask:0.1NNaOH+
Phenolpthalien

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6. Now , powder the four antacid samples and weigh 0.5 g of each.

1.0g

7 . Add 25ml of the standardized HCl to each of the weighed


samples taken in conical flasks . Make sure that the acid is in slight
excess
So that neutralize all the basic character of the tablet powder.

25ml 0.1NHCl

8.Addafewdropsofphenolpthaleinindicatorandwarmtheflaskoverabu
nsenburnertillmostofthepowderdissolves.

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9. Filter the insoluble material.

10. Titrate this solution against the standardized


NaOH solution ,till a permanent pinkish tinge is
obtained.

11. Repeat the same experiment for all other samples


too.
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VI.PRECAUTIONS

Avoid touching the antacid with your fingers.:

1. Be careful not to lose any solid when crushing the antacid

tablet.

2. Avoid touching hot surfaces when working near the hot

plate and be cautious when transporting heated solutions.

3. The hot plate should not be left unattended .

4. Dilute HCl and NaOH were corrosive and can damage

your eyes and cause skin irritation.

5. The burette must be rinsed out with NaOH before use to

prevent dilution of the solution.

6. It should be made sure that there were no air bubbles in

the burette tips.

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7. Burette readings should be recorded to the nearest 0.05

cm3.

8. Sodium hydroxide should be removed from the burette as

soon as possible after the titration. It was because NaOH

is corrosive and it reacted with carbon dioxide in the air to

form sodium carbonate which was a white solid and

clogged the tip of the burette easily.

9. Rinse all apparatus thoroughly using Distilled water. Any

residual chemicals could cause variations in pH readings.

10. Tap on the weighing machine after it shows required

value to confirm a precise reading

11. Pipette out the solutions carefully as it is possible to

accidentally ingest the solution.

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VII.OBSERVATIONS
 Standardisation of HCl solution:

Volume of 0.1N Na2CO3 taken = 20 ml

Indicator used = Methyl Orange

SERIAL BURETTE READINGS VOLUME OF


No. INITIAL READING FINAL READING ACID USED
(ml)
1. 0 17 17
2. 18 35 17

Applying normality equation,

N1 V1 = N2 V2
(acid) (base)

N1 x 17 = 0.1 x 20
Normality of HCl, N1= 2/17 = 0.11 ≈ 0.1
 Standardization of NaOH Solution:

Volume of the given NaOH solution taken = 20.0 ml

Indicator used = Phenolphthalein

SERIAL BURETTE READINGS VOLUME OF


No. INITIAL READING FINAL READING ACID USED
(ml)
1. 0 16 16
2. 17 33 16

22
Volume of acid used = 16 ml

Applying normality equation,


N1 V’1 = N’2 V’2
(acid) (base)
0.11 x 16 = N’2 x 20

Normality of HCl, N’2 = (0.11*16)/20 = 0.09 ≈ 0.1

 Analysis of antacid tablets:

 Weight of the antacid tablet powder = 0.5 g


 Volume of HCl solution added = 30 ml
 Volume of sample solution taken = 20 ml
for titration

VOLUME OF (NaOH) USED


ANTACID
FOR NEUTRALIZING
UNUSED (HCL)

1.Eno Pineapple 29

2. Eno Lemon 24

3.Digene Lime 9

4.Omez 24

5. Pephyrous 40

6. Gelusil 22

23
VIII.RESULT
 1g of Eno Pineapple required 29 ml of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)
to titrate it completely.
 1 g of Eno Lemon required 24 ml of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)
solution to titrate it completely.
 1 g of Digene lime required 9 ml of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) to
titrate it.
 1 g of Omez required 24 ml of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) to
titrate it completely.
 1 g of Pephyrous required 40 ml of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) to
titrate it completely.
 1 g of Gelusil required 22 ml of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) to
titrate it completely.
Based on the hypothesis of the experiment, the antacid which requires
the least amount of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) is the best antacid. From
the recorded observation, Digene© requires the least (5 ml), and is
therefore the best Antacid.

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IX.SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

Antacids play a very important role in relieving many patients suffering from
gastric hyperacidity, commonly referred to as gastritis. This project was
undertaken to analyze the best commercially available antacid according to the
amount of hydrochloric acid they could neutralize.
After exploring many books and websites to find out more about antacids, we
were clear of its role and its applications. We started our project by powdering
the various antacid samples and making sure that the apparatus were clean.
Later we standardized various solutions and prepared N/10 HCl solution and
N/10 NaOH solution. This was done by titrating various solutions and using the
respective indicators.
The powdered antacid samples weighing 1 gram each was each added to 30 ml
of the standardized solution of HCl in separate conical flasks. These solutions
were later titrated with the standardized NaOH and the readings were noted.
These readings were helpful in deciding the amount of HCl that each antacid
could neutralize.
Various antacids could neutralize a specific amount of the acid. pephyrous was
the poorest among all antacids. Eno pineapple had a slightly higher alkaline
nature while Eno lemon and Omez proved to neutralize to same amount .
Gelusil had a higher concentration of the base. Digene had the highest basic
character!
Thus, on the basis of the experiment conducted, it was adjudged that Digene
was the best commercially available antacid.

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X.BIBLIOGRAPHY

Websites
• http://www.reachoutmichigan.org/funexperiments/quick/csustan/antacid
• http://icn2.umeche.maine.edu/genchemlabs/Antacid/antacid2.htm
• http://www.chem.latech.edu/~deddy/chem104/104Antacid.htm
• http://www.images.google.com
• http://www.wikipedia.com
• http://www.pharmaceutical-drug-manufacturers.com

Books

 Comprehensive Practical Chemistry Class XII

26