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General Laboratory safety
1. Conduct yourself in a responsible manner at all times in the laboratory
2. Follow all written and verbal instructions carefully. If you do not understand a direction or part
3. Perform only those experiments authorized by your lecturer. Carefully follow all instructions,
both written and oral. Unauthorized experiments are not allowed.
4. Do not eat food, drink beverages, or chew gum in the laboratory. Do not use laboratory
glassware as containers for food or beverages.
5. Be prepared for your work in the laboratory. Read all procedures thoroughly before entering
the laboratory. Never fool around in the laboratory. Horseplay, practical jokes, and pranks are
dangerous and prohibited.
6. Always work in a well-ventilated area.
7. Observe good housekeeping practices. Work areas should be kept clean and tidy at all times.
8. Be alert and proceed with caution at all times in the laboratory. Notify the teacher immediately
of any unsafe conditions you observe.
9. Experiments must be personally monitored at all times. Do not wander around the room,
distract other students, startle other students or interfere with the laboratory experiments of
Your personal laboratory safety depends mostly on YOU

Electrical safety
1. Obtain permission before operating any high voltage equipment.
2. Make sure all the connection are correct before on the supply.
3. Avoid using extension cords whenever possible. If you must use one, obtain a heavy- duty one
that is electrically grounded, with its own fuse, and install it safely. Extension cords should not go
under doors, across aisles, be hung from the ceiling, or plugged into other extension cords.
4. Never, ever modify, attach or otherwise change any high voltage equipment.
5. Always make sure all capacitors are discharged (using a grounded cable with an insulating
handle) before touching high voltage leads or the "inside" of any equipment even after it has
been turned off. Capacitors can hold charge for many hours after the equipment has been
turned off.
6. When you are adjusting any high voltage equipment USE ONLY ONE HAND. Your other hand is
best placed in a pocket or behind your back. This procedure eliminates the possibility of an
accident where high voltage current flows up one arm, through your chest, and down the other

Emergency Response
1. It is your responsibility to read safety and fire alarm posters and follow the instructions during an
2. Know the location of the fire extinguisher, eye wash, and safety shower in your lab and know how
to use them.
3. Notify your instructor immediately after any injury, fire or explosion.

4. Know the building evacuation procedures.



PROGRAM / CLASS:…………………….…………...
GROUP :…………………………………
DATE :………………………………

*Practical Skill Assessment /CLO3

Matric Number Students 1 2 3 4 **5 Total

(10) (10) (10) (10) (10) (50)

*Remarks ( CLO3 assesment ) :

1 – Set-up practical work using appropriate equipment .
2 – Following procedure correctly .
3 – Ability to conduct experiment .
4 – Following safety rules & housekeeping.
5 – **Data collection (result), discussion & conclusion-lab report.

*Practical Skill Assessment / CLO3

Items/ Excellent Good Average Fair Poor
10 8 6 4 2
1.Set-up  All equipment accurately  All equipment accurately  Set-up of equipment is  Set-up of equipment is  Set-up of equipment is not
practical work placed placed generally accurate with 1 generally workable with accurate, help is required with
using  All necessary supplies on  All necessary supplies on or 2 small details that several details that need several major details
appropriate hand ( e.g multimeter hand need refinement refinement  Many necessary supplies must
equipment ,testpen )  All necessary supplies on  Some necessary supplies found in mid-lab
hand must be searched out

 Demonstrates very good  Demonstrates sound  Demonstrates good  Demonstrates general  Lacks the appropriate
2.Following knowledge of the lab knowledge of lab knowledge of the lab knowledge of lab procedures knowledge of the lab
Procedure procedures procedures procedures  Requires help from lecturer procedures
correctly  Thoroughly and carefully  Carefully follows each step  Works to follow each step with some steps in  Often requires help from the
follows each step before  Works to follow each step before moving on to the procedures lecturer to even complete basic
moving on to next step before moving on to the next step procedures
next step

3.Ability to Ablitiy to conduct the Quite able to conduct the Able to conduct the entire Able to conduct the entire Unable to conduct the experiment
conduct entire experiment & use entire experiment & use experiment & use experiment with a lot help on his own lecturer provides help
experiment appropriate equipmtent appropriate equipment appropriate equipment with from the lecturer in almost every step of
using with neglible help from the without help from the some help from the lecturer. experiment
appropriate lecturer. lecturer.

 Proper safety precautions  Proper safety procedures  Proper safety precautions  Proper safety precautions are  Proper safety precautions are
are consistently used are consistently used are generally used often missed consistently missed
4.Following  Consistently thinks ahead  Uses general reminders of  May need to be reminded  Needs to be reminded more  Needs to be reminded often
Safety Rules to ensure safety safe practices once during the lab than once during the lab during the lab
&  Very neat and organized independently  Quite neat and organized  Simply neat and organized  Untidy and unorganized during
housekeeping during & after  Neat and organized during during & after experiment during & after experiment & after experiment
experiment & after experiment

5 . Data
lt),discussion RESULT ( max = 3 marks ) : RESULT: RESULT:
& conclusion
 Result & measurements  Result & measurements  Result & measurements  Result & measurements are  Result & measurements are
are both accurate and are accurate with are mostly accurate somewhat inaccurate and incomplete, inaccurate and
precise reasonable precision very imprecise imprecise


(max= 4 marks ) :  Trends/patterns are  Trends/patterns are DISCUSSION /QUESTIONS: DISCUSSION /QUESTIONS:
 Trends/patterns are logically analyzed. Analysis logically analyzed for the  Trends/patterns are not  Trends/patterns are not
logically analyzed. is thoughtful . most part . Analysis is analyzed. Analysis is analyzed. Analysis is not
Analysis is insightful . general . inconsistent. relevant
 Questions are answered in  Answers to questions are  Questions are not answered
 Questions are answered complete sentences  Questions are answered incomplete
thoroughly and in in complete sentences
complete sentences CONCLUSION :
 All important conclusions CONCLUSION):
CONCLUSION have been clearly made  All important conclusions CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION:
(max= 3 marks ): with a simple mistake. have been drawn, could  Conclusions regarding major  Conclusions missing or missing
 All important conclusions  Understands the be better stated . points are drawn, but many the important points.
have been clearly made, experiment, including its are misstated, indicating a
student shows good purpose and results lack of understanding.

A fault occurs when two or more conductors that normally operate with a potential difference
come in contact with other. This fault maybe caused by sudden failure of piece of equipment,
accidental damage or short circuit to overhead lines or by insulation failure resulting from
lightning surge.

The faults which involve all the three phases is known as the symmetrical fault. Such types of
fault remain balanced even after the fault. The symmetrical faults mainly occur at the terminal of
the generators. The fault on the system may arise on account of the resistance of the arc between
the conductors or due to the lower footing resistance. The symmetrical fault is sub-categorized
into line-to-line-to-line fault and three-phase line-to-ground-fault

a. Line – Line – Line Fault – Such types of faults are balanced, i.e., the system remains
symmetrical even after the fault. The L – L – L fault occurs rarely, but it is the most severe type
of fault which involves the largest current. This large current is used for determining the rating of
the circuit breaker.

b. L – L – L – G (Three-phase line to the ground fault) – The three-phase line to ground fault
includes all the three phase of the system. The L – L – L – G fault occurs between the three
phases and the ground of the system. The probability of occurrence of such type of fault is nearly
2 to 3 percent.
Read more:

1. Measuring and interpreting the current and voltage ratios of a transmission line during
a three-phase short circuit.

 DL 101T1 Three-phase supply
 DL 2108T01 Power circuit breaker
 DL 1080TT Three-phase transformer
 DL 7901TT Overhead line model
 DL 2109T26 Power meter
 DL 2109T2A5 Moving-iron meter (2.5A)
 DL 2109T1PV Moving-iron voltmeter (600V)
 DL 1017RResistive load

In accordance with the IEC regulations, metal parts not carrying a voltage in normal operation
(housing) are to be connected to the PE ground conductor. The ground conductor is provided
solely for this purpose and may not be connected with the neutral conductor N of the circuit.
Fill in the block the correct name for the equipment .




Figure 1 : Normal condition

Fill in the block the correct name for the equipment .
b) d)

f) g)

Figure 2: Short Circuit condition

1. The circuit was assembled in accordance to the foregoing topographic diagram.
2. The primary-side of the three-phase transformer in was set in delta connection 380V
and bridging plugs was used to set the secondary-side to star UN -15%
3. All bridging plugs connecting the capacitance to overhead line model was inserted.
4. The supply voltage was set to UN 170V (lowest possible voltage) !): test short-circuit
current was about 1.5 A.
5. The measurement of voltage at beginning line (V1), voltage at end line (V2), and the
current at both line ends ( I1 & I2).
6. For normal condition set the load resistance value to R5 ( refer figure 1 ).
7. For short circuit condition (refer figure 2 ) ,the short circuit is done on the outgoing of
overhead line model.
8. Step 5 was repeated to take measurement in short circuit condition.

Due to the high current load on the components during

short-circuit, the measurement must be carried out
quickly !!!!!!
Note: if the short-circuit currents measured here are converted to the real 380 kV level,
realistic results are not obtained. The fault currents arising in this voltage level can be
considerably higher because here we are normally dealing with meshed networks with
several feeds, normally involving line lengths shorter than 360 km.


During normal condition During short circuit condition

U1 = U1 =
I1 = I1 =

U2 = U2 =
I2 = I2 =

Percentage of current increase from normal condition to short circuit condition = ___%

Identify the method of reducing fault current ?


The title for this experiment is three phase short circuit. Objective of this experiment is to
measuring and interpreting the current and voltage ratios of a transmission line during a
three phase short circuit. The type of fault happen in three phase are called symmetrical
fault. The phasor diagram fault are same with phasor diagram three phase. Symmetrical
fault can effect the equipment of three phase if the current value higher than the voltage. In
the table below show the result of two circuit, normal circuit condition and short condition
circuit. Before that, the short circuit does`t have load so, the outgoing voltage have no value.

During normal condition During short circuit condition

U1 =153 V U1 =105 V
I1 =0.06 A I1 =0.63

U2 =18 V U2 =0
I2 =0.04 A I2 =0.66A

We measure the voltage using multimeter and current using clampmeter with suitable range.
As we can see the result above, the current of short circuit condition for incoming and
outgoing are very high compare to the normal condition. It happens because the short circuit
condition have symmetrical fault on the transmission line. The experiment was done
successfully and we follow the safety of electrical from our lecturer.


We can conclude that the fault may be occur in three phase circuit whether during normal condition
or short circuit condition. The types of fault can affect the value of voltage and current flowing. It
happen when some of equipment are damaged or insulation failure for electric to pass through
from the source. For normal condition, the fault occur between all 3 phase line and the ground.
During short circuit condition, we can see that the value of voltage are decrease rapidly until 0
volts because of the fault.