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DRAF

KEMENTERIAN PENDIDIKAN MALAYSIA

KURIKULUM STANDARD SEKOLAH RENDAH


DOKUMEN STANDARD KURIKULUM DAN PENTAKSIRAN

SAINS
TAHUN ENAM
( EDISI BAHASA INGGERIS)
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KURIKULUM STANDARD SEKOLAH RENDAH
DOKUMEN STANDARD KURIKULUM DAN PENTAKSIRAN

SAINS
TAHUN 6
(Edisi Bahasa Inggeris)

BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

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Cetakan Pertama 2016
Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia 2016

Hak Cipta Terpelihara. Tidak dibenarkan mengeluar ulang mana-mana bahagian artikel, ilustrasi, dan isi kandungan buku ini dalam
apa-apa juga bentuk dengan apa cara pun sama ada secara elektronik, fotokopi, mekanik, rakaman, atau cara lain sebelum
mendapat kebenaran bertulis daripada Pengarah Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia, Aras 4 -8,
Blok E9, Kompleks Kerajaan Parcel E, Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan , 62604 Putrajaya.

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FALSAFAH PENDIDIKAN SAINS NEGARA

Selaras dengan Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan,


pendidikan sains di Malaysia memupuk
budaya Sains dan Teknologi dengan memberi tumpuan
kepada perkembangan individu yang kompetitif,
dinamik, tangkas dan berdaya tahan serta
dapat menguasai ilmu sains dan keterampilan teknologi.

Source: MOSTI

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CONTENT

RUKUN NEGARA iii

FALSAFAH PENDIDIKAN KEBANGSAAN iv

FALSAFAH PENDIDIKAN SAINS NEGARA v

INTRODUCTION 1

DESIGN OF THE STANDARD-BASED CURRICULUM FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL 1

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 4

FOCUS 5

SCIENTIFIC SKILLS 5

SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES 7

ELEMENTS ACROSS THE CURRICULUM 14

SKILLS FOR 21ST CENTURY 16

SKILLS AND VALUE FOR THE 21ST CENTURY 17

STUDENT PROFILE 18

TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES 20

METHODS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING SCIENCE 22

ASSESSMENT OF TEACHING AND LEARNING 25

ORGANISATION OF THE SCIENCE STANDARD CURRICULUM 31

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THEME : INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE
1.0 Scientific Skills 32
2.0 Science Room Rules 50

THEME : LIFE SCIENCE

3.0 Microorganism 51
4.0 Interactions Among Living Things 55
5.0 Preservation and Conservation 58

THEME : PHYSICAL SCIENCE

6.0 Force 60
7.0 Speed 62

THEME : MATERIAL SCIENCE

8.0 Food Preservation 63


9.0 Waste Material 66

THEME : EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE

10.0 Eclipse 68
11.0 Constellation 70

THEME : TECHNOLOGY AND SUSTAINABILITY OF LIFE

10.0 . Machine 71

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KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

INTRODUCTION PREFACE enter fields of science. The Elective Science Subjects offer
options to pupils based on their inclinations, interests and
As articulated in the National Education Philosophy, education abilities in the science field to venture into careers specifically
in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the in science and technology fields. This group of pupils will
potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner to continually contribute to the development of the nation.
produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually,
emotionally and physically balanced. The primary and This group of pupils will become the human resources in the
secondary school science curriculum standard is developed field of science and technology that will contribute to the
with the aim of producing such individuals. continuity in the development of the country.

The overall Science Standard Curriculum encompasses three DESIGN OF THE STANDARD-BASED CURRICULUM FOR
core science subjects and four elective science subjects. The PRIMARY SCHOOL
Core Science Subjects are Primary School Science, Lower
Secondary Science, and Upper Secondary Science. The The concept of strands introduced in KSSR, is a form of
Elective Science subjects offered in upper secondary are classification of knowledge, skills and values. This concept
Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Additional Science. focuses on the development of a physically, emotionally,
The Core Science Subjects for primary and lower secondary spiritually and intellectually balanced human capital. Six
school are designed with emphasis on the knowledge and strands are identified to represent the fields of knowledge,
understanding of science to produce science literate pupils so skills and values that form the basis of development of
as to prepare them for science at higher levels. The Core creative and critical thinking, and innovative individuals
Science subjects in upper secondary school aim to develop (Diagram 1). The strands reflect explicit structuring of
pupils’ science literacy, innovative skills and to equip them to

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discipline of knowledge, skills and values that pupils need to appreciation. Knowledge disciplines that develop the physical
acquire. Each strand is interconnected and integrated. aspects are Physical Education and Health Education.
Creativity, talent and appreciation are nurtured through Visual
Communication Art Education and Music Education.
The communication strand emphasises the integration
process of the language skills in the form of verbal and non- Humanity
verbal during interaction. This strand focuses on language The Humanity strand emphasises on the mastery and practice
skills such as listening and speaking, reading and writing, as of knowledge about community and the environment locally,
well as the added value of reasoning. Pupils need to master nationally and globally as well as the appreciation of the spirit
these skills to assist them in the process of acquisition of of patriotism and unity. History is the knowledge discipline in
knowledge, skills and values in the other strands. Language the Humanity strand introduced at Level II of the primary
proficiency prepares pupils to select accurate and systematic school.
language used in social interaction.
The knowledge disciplines within the communication strand
include Bahasa Melayu, English Language, Bahasa Cina,
Bahasa Tamil, Bahasa Arab, Bahasa Iban, Bahasa
Kadazandusun and Bahasa Semai.

Physical and Aesthetic Development


The Physical Development and Aesthetic strand emphasises
on physical and health development for personal well-being
and nurturing of imagination, creativity, talent and

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Figure 1: Framework for Curriculum KSPK and KSSR

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Personal Development Spiritual, Attitude and Value


The Personal Development strand emphasises the nurturing The Spiritual, Attitude and Value strand emphasises the
of leadership and character building through curricular and learning areas that focus on religious practices, beliefs,
co-curricular activities. Pupils are given the opportunity to attitudes and values. Knowledge disciplines in this strand are
integrate knowledge, skills and values learned in the Islamic Studies for Muslim pupils and Moral Education for
classroom and practise them in co-curricular activities. non-Muslim pupils.
Participation in co-curricular activities such as societies,
uniformed bodies and sports provide opportunities for pupils AIMS
to heighten their potential as leaders to themselves, friends,
family and the community. The aim of Science Standard Curriculum for primary is to
instill interest and develop creativity amongst pupils through
Science and Technology experience and investigation so as to master knowledge in
The Science and Technology strand emphasises the mastery science, scientific skills, thinking skills and, scientific attitudes
of: and values.
 scientific knowledge, skills and scientific attitude
 knowledge, skills and values in mathematics OBJECTIVES
 knowledge and technology-based skills
The Level Two Primary School Science Curriculum aims to:

Knowledge discipline in Science and Technology Strand are 1. Stimulate pupils’ curiosity and develop their interest

Science, Mathematics, Design and Technology (DT) and about the world around them.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT). 2. Provide pupils with opportunities to develop scientific
skills as well as critical and creative thinking skills.

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3. Enhance pupils’ creativity. SCIENTIFIC SKILLS


4. Provide pupils with an understanding on scientific
facts and concepts. Science emphasizes inquiry method and problem solving. In
5. Enables pupils to apply knowledge and skills in a inquiry and problem solving processes, scientific and thinking
critical, creative and analytical manner for problem skills need to be utilised. Scientific skills are vital in any
solving and decision making. activities involving scientific investigation.
6. Instil scientific attitudes and noble values amongst Scientific skills encompass science process skills and
pupils, thus putting these into practice. manipulative skills.
7. Be aware of the need to care for the environment.
Science Process Skills
FOCUS Science Process Skills enable pupils to formulate questions
and find out the answers systematically.
Science Curriculum focuses on thoughtful learning. Descriptions of the science process skills are as the following:
Thoughtful learning is a process of acquisition and mastery of
knowledge and skills that can develop pupils’ minds to the Observing Using the sense of sight, hearing,
optimum level. Thoughtful learning does not just focus on the touch, taste or smell to gather
content to be taught, but also encompasses pedagogy and information about objects and
assessment. Thoughtful learning occurs when the inquiry phenomena.
approach that emphasises scientific skills and thinking skills
are integrated. Classifying Using observations to group objects or
phenomena according to similar
characteristics

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Measuring and Making quantitative observations Interpreting Data Giving rational explanations about an
Using Numbers using numbers or tools with standard object, event or pattern derived from
units or tools standardised with collected data.
reference units.
Defining Defining concepts by describing what
Making Making initial conclusions that are Operationally must be done and what should be
Inferences reasonable, that may be true or false observed.
to explain events or observations.
Controlling Identifying manipulated variables,
Predicting Making forecast about events based Variables responding variables and fixed
on observations and previous variables. In an investigation, a variable
experiences or collected data. is manipulated to observe its
relationship with the responding
Communicating Accepting, choosing, arranging, and variable. At the same time, the other
presenting information or ideas in the variables are kept the same.
form of writing, verbal, tables, graphs,
figures or models. Making Making a general statement about the
Hypothesis relationship between the variables that is
Using Space- Describing changes in parameters assumed to be true to explain an
Time such as location, direction, shape, observation or event. The statement can
Relationship size, volume, weight and mass with be tested to determine its validity.
time.

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Experimenting Planning and conducting an investigation SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES
to test a hypothesis, collecting and
interpreting data until a conclusion can be Learning experiences science can foster positive attitudes
obtained. and values in pupils. Positive attitudes and values fostered in
the teaching of science in schools include scientific attitudes
and noble values as the following:
Manipulative Skills  Having an interest and curiosity towards the
environment.
In a scientific investigation, manipulative skills are  Being honest and accurate in recording and validating
psychomotor skills that enable pupils to: data.
 Use and handle science apparatus and substances  Being diligent and persevere when carrying out a task.
correctly.  Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others
 Store science apparatus and substances correctly and and the environment.
safely.  Realising that science is a means to understand
 Clean science apparatus correctly nature.
 Handle specimens correctly and carefully.  Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living.
 Sketch specimens, apparatus and substances accurately  Appreciating the balance of nature.
 Being respectful and well-mannered.
 Appreciating the contribution of science and
technology.
 Being thankful to God.

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 Having critical and analytical thinking. scientific attitudes and noble values in teaching and learning
 Being flexible and open-minded. need to be integrated continuously. For example, during
 Being kind-hearted and caring. science practical work, the teacher should remind pupils the

 Being objective importance of being careful, thorough, cooperative, honest

 Being systematic and persevere when carrying out experiments.

 Being cooperative Proper planning is required to optimize the inculcation of

 Being fair and just. scientific attitudes and noble values. Teachers are
encouraged to go through all learning standards related to the
 Dare to try
content standard including the learning standard about the
 Thinking rationally
inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values before
 Being confident and independent
starting a lesson in the particular learning area.

The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values


Critical Thinking Skills
generally occurs through the following stages:
A brief description of each critical thinking skill is as the
 Be aware and understand the importance and the
following:
need of scientific attitudes and noble values.
 Giving attention and response.
Attributing Identifying characteristics, features,
 Internalising and practising.
qualities and elements of a concept or
 Inculcate scientific attitudes and noble values in life.
an object.

In this curriculum standard, learning standard for the affective


domain is written explicitly where appropriate. However,

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Comparing and Finding similarities and differences Analysing Processing information in detail by
Contrasting based on criteria such as breaking it down into smaller parts to
characteristics, features, qualities and understand concepts or events as well
elements of objects or events. as to find the implicit meanings.

Detecting Bias Detecting views or opinions that have


Grouping and Separating and grouping objects or the tendency to support or oppose
Classifying phenomena into groups based on something.
certain criteria such as common Evaluating Making consideration on the good and
characteristics or features. bad qualities of something based on
valid evidences or propositions.
Sequencing Arranging objects and information in
order based on the quality or quantity Making Making a statement about the outcome
of common characteristics or features Conclusions of an investigation based on a
such as size, time, shape or number. hypothesis or strengthening something
based on an investigation.
Prioritising Arranging objects or information in
order based on their importance or
urgency.

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Creative Thinking Skills Visualising Forming perception or making mental


A brief description of each creative thinking skill is as the images about a particular idea,
following: concept, situation or vision.

Generating Ideas Producing ideas related to something. Synthesising Combining separate elements to
produce an overall picture in the form
Relating Making connections in certain of writing, drawing or artefact.
situations or events to find a structure
or pattern of relationship. Making Making a general statement about the
Hypotheses relationship between the variables
Making Making initial conclusions that are that is assumed to be true to explain
Inferences reasonable, that may be true or false an observation or event. The
to explain events or observations. statement can be tested to determine
its validity.
Predicting Making forecast about events based
on observations and previous Making Forming an understanding about a
experiences or collected data. Analogies complex or abstract concept by
relating it to simple or concrete
Making Making a general statement about concepts with similar characteristics.
Generalisations certain matter from a group of
observations on samples or some
information from that group.

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Inventing Producing something new or Besides thinking skills and thinking strategies, another skill
modifying something already in emphasised is reasoning. Reasoning is a skill used in making
existence to overcome problems in a logical, rational, fair and just consideration. Mastery of critical
systematic manner. and creative thinking skills and thinking strategies is made
easier if an individual is able to provide reasoning in inductive
Thinking Strategies and deductive manner. Figure 2 gives an overall picture of the
Description of each thinking strategy is as the following: thinking skills and thinking strategies (TSTS).

Conceptualising Making generalisations towards Thinking Skills

building of meaning, concept or


model based on inter-related specific Critical Creative
common characteristics.  Attributing
 Comparing and  Generating ideas
contrasting  Relating
Making Selecting the best solution from  Grouping and  Making inferences
classifying  Predicting
Decisions several alternatives based on  Sequencing  Making hypothesis
 Prioritising  Synthesising
specific criteria to achieve the  Analysing Reasoning  Making
 Detecting bias generalisations
intended aims.  Evaluating  Visualising
 Making conclusions  Making analogies
 Inventing
Problem Finding the right solutions in a
Solving systematic manner for situations that Thinking Strategies

are uncertain or challenging or  Conceptualising


 Making decisions
unanticipated difficulties.  Problem solving

Figure 2: TSTS Model in Science


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Mastery of TSTS through the teaching and learning of science critical, creative, analytical and systematic thinking. Mastery of
can be developed through the following stages: Science Process Skills together with knowledge and suitable
attitudes ensure pupils to think effectively.
1. Introducing TSTS. The mastery of Science Process Skills requires pupils to
2. Practising TSTS with teacher’s guidance. master the relevant thinking skills. The main thinking skills that
3. Practising TSTS without teacher’s guidance. are related to each science process skill are as the following:
4. Applying TSTS in new situations and developed with
teacher’s guidance. Science Process Skills Thinking Skills
5. Applying TSTS together with other skills to accomplish Observing Attributing
thinking tasks. Comparing and contrasting
6. Relating
Further information about the stages on the implementation of
TSTS can be referred to the guidebook “Buku Panduan Classifying Attributing

Penerapan Kemahiran Berfikir dan Strategi Berfikir dalam Comparing and contrasting

Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Sains (Curriculum Grouping and classifying

Development Centre, 1999)”.


Measuring and Using Relating
Numbers Comparing and contrasting
Relationship between Thinking Skills and Science
Process Skills
Making Inferences Relating
Science Process Skills are skills that are required in the
Comparing and contrasting
process of finding solutions to a problem or making decisions
Analysing
in a systematic manner. It is a mental process that promotes

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Science Process Skills Thinking Skills Science Process Skills Thinking Skills
Making Inferences Relating
Predicting Relating Analysing
Visualising Making hypothesis Attributing
Relating
Using Space-Time Sequencing Comparing and contrasting
Relationship Prioritising Generating ideas
Making hypothesis
Interpreting data Comparing and contrasting
Predicting
Analysing
Synthesising
Detecting bias
Making conclusions
Experimenting All thinking skills
Making Generalisations
Evaluating
Communicating All thinking skills

Defining operationally Relating


Making analogies
Teaching and Learning Based on Thinking Skills and
Visualising
Scientific Skills
Analysing
This Science Curriculum Standard emphasises thoughtful
Controlling variables Attributing learning based on thinking skills and scientific skills. In this
Comparing and contrasting curriculum, the intended learning standard is written by
integrating acquisition of knowledge with mastery of thinking

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skills and scientific skills. Thus in teaching and learning, implementation. The following is a description about the new
teachers need to integrate mastery of skills together with elements of EMK in KSSR:
acquisition of knowledge and the inculcation of scientific
attitudes and noble values. Creativity and Innovation
Creativity and Innovation are two related items.
Generally, creativity refers to the act of generating new ideas,
ELEMENTS ACROSS THE CURRICULUM approaches and new actions. Innovation on the other hand, is
the process of generating new ideas and applying creative
The Elements across the Curriculum (EMK) is a value-added ideas in certain contexts.
element applied in the teaching and learning process other
than those specified in the Content Standard. The integration The element of creativity and innovation is an element that is
of these elements is aimed at strengthening the human capital stressed upon in KSSR to prepare students to handle 21st
skills and competency as well as intended to prepare pupils century challenges. Creativity and innovation in students need
for the challenges of the present and the future. The elements to be inculcated and developed to optimum levels so that they
across the curriculum in KBSR i.e. language, science and are capable of generating ideas and inventions that are of
technology, environmental sustainability, values and quality that become practices and cultures in the lives of
patriotism are still relevant to be used in KSSR. Malaysian citizens in the future.

The new elements of EMK, namely creativity and innovation, To reach this aim, the writing of the learning standard for the
entrepreneurship, as well as ICT are identified as a subject of Science that is related to inculcating creativity and
complementary effort to enhance the quality of KSSR innovation is stated clearly. However, teachers are also
encouraged to instil elements of creativity and innovation in

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any topic deemed suitable if these elements are not stated All characteristics and practices are implemented according to
clearly. Teachers should prepare activities that increase primary school children’s abilities.
interest and creativity and students should be equipped with
knowledge, skills and tools that will enable them to develop Information and Communication Technology
creativity and inculcate attitudes and personalities of creative Technology is an effective method to strengthen the learning
individuals. of science. The use of technology like television, radio,
computer, computer internet software, course software, and
Entrepreneurship computer interface makes the learning of science more
In the New Economic Model, among the characteristics of interesting and effective. Animation and computer simulations
Malaysia in 2020 is innovation and entrepreneurship. The are a useful method to learn a difficult and abstract concept
instilling of the element of entrepreneurship in KSSR is aimed and can be presented in the form of course software or
at forming the characteristics and practices of website.
entrepreneurship until it becomes a culture among students.
Entrepreneurship characteristics can be formed by: The element of Information and Communication Technology is
 Practicing entrepreneurship one of the elements added to KSSR. There are three
 Applying entrepreneurship thinking approaches in using Information and Communication

 Applying knowledge and business management skills Technology in KSSR:

 Formulating concepts, processes or products of  Learning about ICT

entrepreneurship  Learning through ICT

 Practice moral values and good ethics in  Learning with ICT


entrepreneurship

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Teachers must ensure that EMK are integrated effectively in SKILLS FOR 21ST CENTURY
the teaching and learning process in order to produce
individuals as intended in the National Education Philosophy. Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)
The relationship between EMK and the development of a The national curriculum aims to produce pupils who are well
balanced individual is illustrated in Diagram 3. balanced, resilient, curious, principled, well informed, and
patriotic and posses thinking and communication skills and
LANGUAGE able to work in teams. The 21st century skills are in line with
Entrepreneurship the six aspirations as outlined in the Malaysia Education
Blueprint. The six aspirations are leadership skills, bilingual
BALANCED INDIVIDUAL proficiency, ethics and spirituality, social identity, knowledge
Critical Creative and
Innovation Thinking SCIENCE AND
VALUES TECHNOLOGY
and thinking skills intended to be acquired by every pupil to
Creativity and Information and enable them to compete globally.
Innovation Communication
Technology

Thinking skills have been emphasized in the curriculum since


1994 to introduce Creative and Critical Thinking Skills (KBKK).
KBKK emphasises on thinking from the low to the higher level.
Starting from 2011, the Primary School Curriculum Standard
(KSSR) has placed emphasis on Higher Order Thinking Skills
Diagram 3: EMK in the development of a Balanced (HOTS).
individual

ENVIRONMENTAL Higher order thinking skills is the ability to apply knowledge,


skills and values for reasoning and reflecting in solving
PATRIOTISM SUSTAINABILITY
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problems, making decisions, to innovate and to create. HOTs questioning, inside and outside the classroom to encourage
refer to the skills of applying, analysing, evaluating and pupils to think. Pupils are accountable to their own learning.
creating as shown in Table 1.
SKILLS AND VALUE FOR THE 21st CENTURY
Table 1: Description of HOTs
HOTs Description A student must be equipped with skills, knowledge and values
to excel in life and career in the 21st century. The Ministry of
Using knowledge, skills and values to take
Applying Education Malaysia (MOE) has identified skills and values that
actions in different situations.
each pupil needs to have to face the 21st century. Skills and
Breaking down information into smaller parts to
values consist of 3 aspects:
Analizing enhance understanding and make relationship
between the parts.
Thinking skills: Prepares pupils to face life and current
Using knowledge, experience, skills and values
working environment which is becoming more challenging.
Evaluating to consider, make decisions and give
The skills are:
justifications.

Producing ideas, products or methods creatively  Creative


Creating
and innovatively.  Critical
 Reasoning
HOTS can be applied in the classroom through activities in  Innovative
the form of inquiry, solving problems and projects. Teachers  Problem solving
and pupils need to use the thinking tools such as thinking  Decision making
maps, mind maps, and Thinking Hats and high level

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Career and Life Skills: Crucial than thinking skills and  Responsibility
knowledge. Pupils develop career and life skills to face a  Unity
complex life and current working environment which is
becoming more challenging. These are: STUDENT PROFILE
 Communication Skills
 Information and Communication Technology The critical factor that contributes towards social growth,
 Cooperation culture and economy of a country is the development of
 Entrepreneurship innovative and highly skilled human capitals. Hence; each
 Leadership pupil must be physically, emotionally, spiritually and
 Lifelong learning intellectually balanced as stated in the National Education
 Flexibility Philosophy.

 Ability to Adapt To compete at a global stage, MOE has outlined 10 Student

 Initiative and Self-direction Profiles which are characterised as below:

Values: Guideline for pupils to become individuals with noble Balanced: Physically, emotionally, spiritually and

character, capable of making decisions and act responsibly intellectually balanced to achieve personal

towards family, society and country which encompass: satisfaction, show empathy, compassion,

 Spirituality and respect for others. Able to contribute

 Humanity towards a harmonious family, community

 Patriotism and country

 Integrity

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Resilient: Able to face and overcome difficulties, respecting and appreciating the
overcome challenges with wisdom, contributions given by team members.
confidence, tolerance and empathy. Become better leader and team mate by
obtaining interpersonal skills through
Thinker: Able to think critically, creatively and collaborative activities.
innovatively; handle complex problems
and make ethical decisions. Think about Curious: Develop natural curiosity to explore
learning and themselves as pupils. strategies and new ideas. Learn skills that
Generate questions and are open to are needed to carry out inquiry and
perspective, values and individual and research, as well as practice independent
societal traditions. Confident and creative learning. Enjoy continuous lifelong
in handling new learning fields. learning experiences.

Skilled in Able to voice out and express their Principled: Honest and have integrity, equality, fair

communication: thoughts, ideas and information with and respect the dignity of individuals,

confidence and creatively in verbal form group and community. Responsible for

and in writing, using various media and their actions, consequences and

technology. decisions.

Teamwork: Work effectively and harmoniously with


others. Take on responsibility while

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Informative: Knowledgeable and form wide activating pupils’ critical and creative thinking skills and not be
understanding which is balanced across confined to routine method. Pupils should be made aware of
various disciplines. Explore knowledge on the thinking skills and thinking strategies that are being used
local and global issues effectively and in their learning. They should be challenged with higher order
efficiently. Understand ethical issues/laws questions and problems and be required to solve problems
related to the information gained. creatively and critically. Pupils should be actively involved in
the teaching and learning that integrate the acquisition of
Caring/ Show empathy, compassion and respect knowledge, mastery of skills and inculcation of scientific
Concern towards needs and feelings of others. attitudes and noble values. Thoughtful learning can take place
Committed to serve the society and through various learning approaches such as inquiry,
ensure sustainability of nature. constructivism, science, technology and society, contextual
Patriotism Portray love, support and respect towards learning and mastery learning.
the country.
Approaches to Teaching and Learning Science

TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES Inquiry-Discovery Approach


Inquiry-discovery approach emphasises learning through
Teaching and learning strategies in the science curriculum experiences. Inquiry generally means to find information, to
emphasise on thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a question and to investigate a phenomenon. Discovery is the
process that helps pupils acquire knowledge and master skills main characteristic of inquiry. Learning through discovery
that will help them develop their minds to the optimum level. occurs when the main concepts and principles of science are
Learning activities should therefore be geared towards investigated and discovered by pupils themselves. Through

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activities such as experiments, pupils investigate a  Pupils have the opportunities to cooperate, share
phenomenon and draw conclusions by themselves. Teachers ideas and experiences and reflect on their learning.
then lead pupils to understand the science concepts through
the results of the inquiry. Thinking skills and scientific skills Science, Technology and Society approach
are thus developed further during the inquiry process. Meaningful learning occurs if pupils can relate what they have
However, the inquiry-discovery approach may not be suitable learnt with their daily life. Meaningful learning happens to
for all teaching and learning situations. Sometimes, it may be various approaches such as contextual learning and the
more appropriate for teachers to present concepts and science, technology and society (STS) approach. The theme
principles directly or through guided inquiry-discovery to and objective of learning that is based on STS is reflected in
pupils. this standard curriculum. The STS approach recommends that
the learning of science is done through investigation and
Constructivism discussions based on science, technology and society issues.
Constructivism is an ideology that suggests pupils learn by Science and technology knowledge can be learnt together
building their own understanding that is meaningful to them. with the application of science and technology and their
The important attributes of constructivism are: implications on the society.

 Teachers considered pupils prior knowledge. Meaningful learning occurs if pupils can relate their learning
 Learning is the result from pupil’s own effort. with their every day experiences. Meaningful learning can
 Learning occurs when pupils restructure their take place in learning approaches such as contextual learning
existing ideas by relating new ideas to old ones. and Science, Technology and Society (STS). Learning
themes and learning objectives that carry elements of STS
are incorporated into the curriculum. STS approach suggests

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that science learning takes place through investigation and METHODS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING SCIENCE
discussion based on science, technology and society issues.
Knowledge of science and technology can be learnt with the Teaching and learning approaches can be implemented
application of science and technology and their impact on through various methods such as experiments, discussions,
society. simulations, projects, the usage of external resources, future
research and problem solving. In this curriculum standard,
Contextual Learning suggestions for these teaching and learning methods are not
Contextual learning is an approach that associates learning explicitly stated. This is to enable teachers to use their own
with pupil’s every day life. This approach involves creativity in teaching and pupils to acquire the intended
investigative learning as in the inquiry-discovery approach. In knowledge, skills, attitudes and values.
contextual learning, the relationship between knowledge The teaching and learning method determined should be
taught and every day life is explicitly demonstrated. In this based on the contents of the curriculum standard, pupils’
context, pupils not only learn in theory but learn to appreciate abilities and pupils’ repertoire of intelligences and the
the relevance of science in their lives. availability of resources and infrastructure. Besides the role of
presenting information and subject matter expert, teachers
Mastery learning also act as facilitators in teaching and learning. Teachers
Mastery learning is an approach that ensures all pupils to should be attentive to the various repertoires of intelligences
acquire and master the intended learning objectives. This among pupils. Different methods and activities should be
approach is based on the principle that pupils are able to planned to cater to pupils with multiple intelligences.
learn if given the opportunities. Pupils should be allowed to The following are brief descriptions of some teaching and
learn at their own pace, with the incorporation of remedial and learning methods.
enrichment activities as part of the teaching-learning process.

22
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

Experiment  Writing the report


An experiment is a method commonly used in science
lessons. Pupils test hypotheses through investigations to In this standard curriculum, it is suggested that, besides
discover specific science concepts and principles. Scientific guiding pupils to carry out experiments, pupils are given the
methods are used when conducting an experiment involving opportunity to design experiments, which involves drafting
thinking skills, science process skills, and manipulative skills. their own experimental method, the data that can be
In general, procedures to follow when conducting an measured, how to analyse data and how to present the
experiment are: results of their experiments. These activities can be done
 Identifying a problem individually or in small groups.
 Making a hypotheses
 Planning the experiment Discussion
- Controlling variables A discussion is an activity in which pupils question and
- Determining equipment and materials needed present their opinions based on arguments or valid reasons.
- Determining the procedures of the experiment During discussions, pupils must have an open mind to accept
- Determining the method of data collection others’ opinions. The teacher should play the role of a
- Determining the method of data analysis facilitator by asking questions that lead pupils towards the

 Conducting the experiment topic discussed. Discussions can be conducted during and

 Collecting data after experiments, projects, data collection and interpretation

 Analysing data activities, simulations using external resources, problem

 Interpreting data solving etc.

 Making a conclusion

23
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

Simulation Visits and Use of External Resources


Simulation is an activity that resembles the actual situation. Learning science through visits to zoos, museums, science
Simulations can be carried out through role-play, games or centers, research institutes, mangroves swamps and factories
use of model. In role-play, pupils act out a particular role can make learning more effective, enjoyable and meaningful.
spontaneously based on a certain pre-determined conditions. Learning through visits can be optimised by careful planning
Games require procedures that need to be followed. Pupils whereby pupils have to carry out or perform tasks during the
play games in order to learn a particular principle or to visit. Discussion after the visit should be held to conclude the
understand the process of decision-making. Models are used activities carried out.
to represent objects or real situations. Pupils will be able to
visualize the real situation, thus understanding the concepts Future Research
and principles learned. Pupils use critical and creative thinking to explore changes
from the past to the future. This pedagogy is pupils-centered
Project and integrates various fields. Noble values such as
A project is an activity carried out individually or in groups to responsibility and cooperation are cultivated through this
achieve a certain goal that takes a long time and exceeds method.
formal teaching hours. Pupils are required to identify methods
to solve the problem given and thus plan the entire Problem Solving
project.The outcome of the project either in the form of a Problem solving is a method that involves pupils actively
report, an artefact or in other forms needs to be presented. participating in decision making or to achieve a particular aim.
During problem solving, activities such as simulations,
discussions and experiments can be carried out. Generally,
problem solving involves these steps:

24
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

 Identify and understand a problem ASSESSMENT OF TEACHING AND LEARNING


 Explain the problem
 Finding alternative solutions Assessment is an element in the learning process that

 Carry out operations to solve the problem encompasses describing, collecting, recording, scoring, and

 Evaluate solutions interpreting information about pupils’ learning for a particular


purpose. Therefore assessment is a process of getting

Use of Technology information and making evaluation of pupils’ achievement.

Technology is an effective tool for enhancing the learning of


science. Through the use of technology such as the Assessment is a yardstick to assess pupils’ achievement in

television, radio, video, computer, internet, computer software, obtaining knowledge, skills and ethics besides assessing the

courseware and computer interfaces make the teaching and activities carried out during T&L. Assessment supports pupils’

learning of science more interesting and effective. Animation learning and provides valuable feedback to stakeholders such

and computer simulation is an effective tool for learning of as administrators, teachers, pupils and parents/guardians

difficult and abstract science concepts and can be presented about pupils’ progress and achievement. The feedback is

in the form of courseware or website. used to enhance the quality of T&L.

T&L assessment is more inclined to be formative and


prioritises the progress of each pupil from one level to
another. A teacher is able to diagnose and detect the
development of pupils. This provides an opportunity for
teachers to rectify mistakes and weaknesses of pupils
immediately so that it is not accumulated. The teachers will be

25
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

able to identify pupils’ weaknesses and do follow up. The type T&L ASSESSMENT

and needs of T&L assessment is illustrated in Figure 4 below.


Purpose:
 Monitoring pupils achievement
 Feedback on the teaching and learning
Who should conduct the assessment?

Formative: Sumative:
The task of assessing is not only limited to teachers.  Assessment during T&L  Assessment after T&L
Assessment can also be carried out by peers, pupils  Process and product  Product

themselves and their parents/ guardians. Parents/guardians


WHY ASSESSMENT IS NEEDED?
may assess the achievement of their children, guided by
assignment instructions or checklists. Therefore TEACHER PUPILS PARENTS ADMINISTRATOR
parents/guardians are directly involved in monitoring the
 Monitor progress Identify self Know the Manage the
learning progress of their children.  Pupils strength and strength & assessment
achievement weaknesses weaknesses of administration
 Pupils the child
development
How is the assessment done?  Mastery of  Make a  Helping  Plan the
knowledge, skills learning learning
overcome
and values reflection activities to
the child’s
T&L assessment can be carried out according to the  Evaluate T&L  Be more increace
weaknesses
methods responsible pupils;
 Encourage
proposed steps as shown in Figure 5.  Learn on the children achievemnent
 Upgrades T&L their own according to
 Plan follow up their interest
 Handle pupils  Helping and
weaknesses supporting
the school in
related
activities

Figure 4: Types and Needs of Evaluation


26
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

Assessment can be done using various methods according to


PLANNING
 Determine learning standard and instrumen the determined leaning objectives. Figure 6 shows few
examples of assessment methods in T&L.

PLANNING
 Determine learning standard and instrumen Observing Test
 Suitable to  Can be tested
access the using written,
skills, attitudes sketching, verbal
EXECUTE THE ASSESSMENT and values form and language
 Observing/Verbal/Written

Verbally Performance Checklist


RECORDING  Use to evaluates  Record of
the skills of pupils
communication, achievement
ANALYSE THE INFROMATION ASSESSMENT
self confident & development
knowlegde METHODS
REPORT
(if necessary)

Follow up YES NO Follow up


 Reinforcement MASTER THE  Remedial Folio
 Enrichment Essay
TAUGHT  Compilation of
 Allow pupils to
TOPIC pupils’ work
show the skills
individually or
of choosing,
group work
YES compile and
delivered the
content

PROCEED TO THE NEW TOPIC


Figure 6: Methods of Assessment

Figure 5: T&L Assessment Flowchart


27
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

Performance Standard Table 2: Standard Terms of Performance


PERFORMANCE
STANDARD
Performance Standard is a statement of pupils’ learning LEVEL
development level measured based on the standard and it 1 Know
indicates the position of pupils’ progress in their learning
2 Know and Understand
development. Developments in the Standard are divided into
two; i.e. horizontal development (construct) and vertical 3 Know, Understand and Can Do
development (level of achievement). Pupils’ developments are Know, Understand and Can Do with Good
4
explained with one or more qualifiers using correct words or Attitude
phrases to describe the Standard in the form of learning Know, Understand and Can Do with Good
5
outcomes. Performance Standard is developed as a guide for Attitude and Laudable
the teachers to improve School Assessment (SA) in line with Know, Understand and Can Do with
Standard Reference of Assessment. Achievement Level is 6 Excellent Attitude, Laudable and
arranged in a hierarchy to be used as a benchmark in the Exemplary
individual report.

28
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

Table 3: General Interpretation of Achievement Level challenges of everyday life, communicate

PERFORMANCE to obtain and convey information using


INTERPRETATION
LEVEL proper and polite sentences and be an
Pupil knows the basics or can perform exemplary pupil.
1
basic skills or can respond to the basics.
Pupil shows their understanding by
changing type of communication or Interpretation of Achievement Level for Primary Science
2
translates and can explain what they have Assessment conducted comprises of knowledge, skills,
learned. scientific attitudes and moral values. Assessment of
Pupil uses knowledge to perform a skill in knowledge and skills are stated in the Performance Standard
3
a particular situation. related to Content Standard.
Pupil performs particular skill with proper
4 attitude by following procedure or being Table 4: General Interpretation of Achievement Level for
systematic. Primary Science
Pupil performs particular skilling a new PERFORMANCE
INTERPRETATION
situation by following procedure or being LEVEL
5
systematic, persistent with positive Know the basic knowledge and skills in
1
attitude. science
Pupil can express their creative and Understand the science knowledge and
6 innovative ideas, has the ability to make 2 skills and can explain the understanding in
decisions to adapt to requirements and any way.

29
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

Apply knowledge and scientific skills in Table 5: Value Interpretation of Achievement Level for
3
completing the task in a situation Primary Science
Analyzing knowledge and scientific skills PERFORMANCE
INTERPRETATION
4 to be applied in completing the task in a LEVEL
situation systematically 1 Interest
Analyze and synthesize knowledge and
2 Interest and curious
scientific skills to be applied in completing
5 Interests, curious, honest and accurate in
the task or in a new situation persistently, 3
recording data.
systematically and with positive attitude
Interest, curious, honest and accurate in
Analyze and synthesize knowledge and 4
recording data, brave and systematic.
scientific skills to be applied creatively and
6 innovatively in creating, evaluating or Interest, curious, honest and accurate in

conceptualising something new in recording data, brave and systematic,


5
completing a task cooperates, diligent and perseverance in
completing task.
Interest, curious, honest and accurate in
recording data, brave and systematic,
6 cooperates, diligent and perseverance in
completing task, responsible for oneself,
friends, and environment and courteous.

30
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

ORGANISATION OF THE SCIENCE STANDARD The Learning Standard is a tangible learning objective. It
CURRICULUM comprises the scope of learning with scientific skills and
thinking skills that require the students to master the intended
The Science Standard Curriculum for Year 1 to Year 6 has six science concepts. Generally, the Learning Standard is
themes; Introduction to Science, Life Science, Physical ordered according to level of difficulty. However, the Learning
Science, Science of Matter, Science of the Earth and The Standard can be modified accordingly. The Content Standard
Universe as well as Technology and Sustainability. However, for the affective domain is written at the end of the relevant
these themes are not present in every year of study. cognitive domain. However not all cognitive domains are
followed by affective domains.
Introduction to Science, Life Science, Physical Science,
Material Science, The Earth and The Universe and Performance Standard is a statement of the level of pupils’
Technology and Sustainability are elaborated according to the learning development measured with Standard Content and
Content Standard and Learning Standard. The Content Learning Standards well as to indicate the position of pupils’
Standard has at least one or more Learning Standards that progress in the learning development.
are conceptualised based on determined fields of study. The Pupils’ developments are explained with one or more
Content Standards are written according to hierarchy in qualifiers using correct words or phrases to describe the
cognitive and affective domains. The Content Standard is a Standards in the form of learning outcomes. Performance
general statement that contains elements of knowledge, Standard is developed as a guide for the teachers to
scientific skills, thinking skills, scientific attitudes and noble implement School Assessment (SA) in line with Standard
values in line with the desired Learning Standard. Reference of Assessment.

31
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

The teaching and learning process should be planned For Level Two, Science is a single subject and the time
holistically and integrally to allow several Learning Standards allocated is 120 minutes per week.
to be achieved. Teachers should analyse all the Learning
Standards and Content Standards before planning teaching
and learning activities. The activities can be varied to achieve
the Content Standard to fulfil leaning objectives. Teachers are
encouraged to shape activities that require the active
participation of students to generate analytical, critical, For Level Two, Science is a single subject and the time
innovative and creative thinking while using technology as a allocated is 120 minutes per week.
means to achieve the Content Standard affectively.

The teaching and learning process involves activities,


investigations and experiments which are deemed appropriate
to achieve learning standard should be carried out to
strengthen students' understanding.

The Thematic Core Modules of World of Science and


Technology is introduces to Level One pupils. This module is
a combination of Sciencc elements, Design & Technology and
Informaion & Communication Technology. Time allocated for
the subject is 60 minutes per week.

32
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE
1.0 SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS
PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
1.1 Science Pupils will be able to:
Process Skills 1 State all the senses involved in
1.1.1 Observe making observations about the
phenomena that occurs.

2 Describe the utilization/use of the


senses involved when making
observations about the phenomena
or changes that occur.

3 Use all the senses involved to make


observations about the phenomena
or changes that occur.

4 * Use all the senses involved to


make qualitative observations to
describe the phenomena or
changes that occur
* Use appropriate tools where
necessary to assist in making
observations.

32
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL

5 * Use all the senses involved to


make qualitative and quantitative
observations to describe the
phenomena or changes that occur
* Use appropriate tools where
necessary to assist in making
observations.

6 * Use all the senses involved sys-


tematically to make qualitative and
quantitative observations to describe
the phenomena or changes that
occur.
* Use appropriate tools where nec-
essary to assist in making observa-
tions.

33
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
Pupils will be able to:
1 State the characteristics of objects
1.1.2 Classify by observing the/its similarities and
differences.

2 Describe the characteristics of


objects by observing the/its
similarities and differences.

3 Sort and group the objects based on


its common characteristics and
differences.

4 Sort and group the objects based on


its common characteristics and
differences and state the common
characteristics used.

34
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL

5 Sort and group the objects based on


its common characteristics and
differences and state the common
characteristics used and are able to
use another characteristic to sort and
group these objects.

6 Sort and group the objects based on


its common characteristics and
different until to the final stage by
stating the characteristic used.

35
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
Pupils will be able to:
1 State more than one appropriate tool
1.1.3 Measure and using numbers to measure a quantity.

2 Describe the tools and correct meth-


ods to measure the quantity.

3 Measure using tools and standard


units correctly.

4 Measure using tools and standard


units with correct techniques.

5 Measure using tools and standard


units with correct techniques and rec-
ord systematically and completely in a
table

6 Demonstrate how to measure using


tools and standard units with correct
techniques and record systematically
and completely in a table.

36
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
Pupils will be able to:
1 State a reasonable interpretation
1.1.4 Make inference of an event or observation.

2 Describe more than one reasona-


ble interpretation of an event or
observation.

3 Draw a reasonable initial


conclusion based on interpreta-
tions of an event or observation.

4 Draw a reasonable initial


conclusion of an event or
observation by using gathered
information.

5 Draw more than one reasonable


initial conclusion of an event or
observation by using gathered
information.

37
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL

6 Draw more than one reasonable


initial conclusion of an event or
observation by using gathered
information and able to explain the
conclusion drawn.

38
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
Pupils will be able to:
1 State a possibility of an event or
1.1.5 Predict data.

2 Describe a possibility or event.

3 Make a prediction of an event


based on observations, past
experience or data.

4 Justify the most suitable and


reasonable prediction of an event
or data.

5 Make predictions of an event


based on observations, past ex-
perience or data.

6  Make predictions of an event


based on 0bservations, past
experience or data.
 Predict using interpolation or
extrapolation of data.

39
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
Pupils will be able to:
1 State a possibility of an event or
1.1.5 Predict data.

2 Describe a possibility or event.

3 Make a prediction of an event


based on observations, past
experience or data.

4 Justify the most suitable and


reasonable prediction of an event
or data.

5 Make predictions of an event


based on observations, past ex-
perience or data.

6  Make predictions of an event


based on 0bservations, past
experience or data.
 Predict using interpolation or
extrapolation of data.

40
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
Pupils will be able to:
1 Arrange information obtained in
1.1.6 Communicate a suitable form.

2 Record information or ideas in a


suitable form.

3 Record information or ideas in


more than one suitable form.

4 Record information or ideas in a


suitable form and present it
systematically.

5 Record information or ideas in a


suitable form, present it
systematically and have a
positive attitude towards
information collected.

6 Record information or ideas in a


suitable form, present it
systematically, creatively and
innovatively in various forms and
able to provide feedback.

41
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFOR-
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
MANCE LEVEL
Pupils will be able to:
1 State a parameter that varies with
1.1.7 Use space and time relationship. time based on a situation.

2 Describe a parameter that varies


with time based on a situation.

3 Arrange the occurrences of a


phenomenon or event
chronologically with time

4 Provide reasoning on changes in


parameter of a chronological
phenomenon or event with time

5 Arrange graphically the


occurrences of a phenomenon or
event chronologically with time.

6 Present and explain the


chronological changes of a
phenomenon or events with time.

42
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

CONTENT PEFORMANCE STANDARD


LEARNING STANDARD
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR DESCRIPTOR
Pupils will be able to:
1 Provide an explanation based on data.
1.1.8 Interpret data
2 Provide a description of more than one
explanation based on data.

3 Choose relevant ideas to make an


explanation about objects, events or
patterns of data.

4 Correlate between the parameters in


the data based on the relationship
between the parameters or science
concepts.

5 Provide a rational explanation using


interpolation of objects, events or pat-
terns of data collected.

6 1. Provide a rational explanation using


interpolation or extrapolation of data
collected.

43
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
Pupils will be able to:
1 State what is done and what is
1.1.9 Define operationally observed in a situation.

2 Describe what is done and what is


observed in a situation

3 Interpret what is done and what is


observed in a situation for the
predetermined aspects

4 Make more than one interpretation of


what is done and what is observed in
a situation for the predetermined
aspects

5 Select the most appropriate


interpretation of a concept by stating
what is done and what is observed in
a situation.

6 Describe the most appropriate


interpretation of a concept by stating
what is done and what is observed in
a situation.

44
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
Pupils will be able to:
1 Identify the variables that affect an
1.1.10 Control variables investigation.

2 Describe the variables that affect an


investigation

3 Determine the manipulated variable


in an investigation.

4 Determine the responding and


constant variables after determining
the manipulated variable in an
investigation

5 Explain the relationship between the


manipulated and responding variable
in an investigation.

6 Change the constant variable in an


investigation to manipulated variable
and state the new responding
variable

45
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
Pupils will be able to:
1 State the variables involved in an
1.1.11 Make hypothesis investigation.

2 Describe the variables involved in


an investigation.

3 Describe the relationship between


the variables in an investigation.

4 Make a general statement about the


relationship between variables that
can be tested in an investigation.

5 Relate the manipulated and


responding variable in making a
hypothesis to be tested.

6 Plan an investigation to test the


hypothesis.

46
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
Pupils will be able to:
1 State the aim of the identified
1.1.12 Carry out experiment. problem.
2
Make a hypothesis based on
identified problem.
3
Specify the appropriate method
and apparatus in planning the
experiment.

4 Carry out the experiment to test the


hypothesis.

Carry out the experiment, collect


5 data, interpret the data and make a
conclusion to prove the hypothesis
and write a report.

6 Identify a new problem and design


an experiment to test the
hypothesis.

47
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFOR-
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
MANCE LEVEL
1.2 Science Pupils will be able to:
manipula- 1 List science apparatus, substances
tive skills. 1.2.1 Use and handle science apparatus and and specimens required for an
substances correctly. activity.

1.2.2 Handle specimens correctly and carefully. 2 Describe the use of science
apparatus, substances and
Sketch specimens, apparatus and science specimens required for an activity
1.2.3 substances correctly. with the correct method.

Clean science apparatus correctly. 3 Handling science apparatus,


1.2.4 substances and specimens required
Store science apparatus and substances for an activity with the correct
1.2.5 correctly and safely. method.

4 Using, handling, sketching, cleaning


and storing the science apparatus,
substances and specimens used in
an activity with the correct method.

48
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFOR-
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
MANCE LEVEL

5 Using, handling, sketching, cleaning


and storing the science apparatus,
substances and specimens used in
an activity with the correct methods,
systematically and sparingly.

6 Using, handling, sketching, cleaning


and storing the science apparatus,
substances and specimens used in
an activity with the correct methods,
systematically, sparingly and be an
example to others.

49
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

2.0 SCIENCE ROOM RULES


PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
2.1 Science Pupils will be able to:
room rules 1 State one of the science room rules.
2.1.1 Adhere to science room rules.
2 State more than one of the science
room rules.

3 Apply one of the science room rules.

4 Apply more than one of the science


room rules.

5 Give reasons the needs to adhere


the science room rules.

6 Be an example to peer in adhering


to science room rules.

50
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

LIFE SCIENCE
3.0 MICROORGANISM
PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
3.1 Microorganisms Pupils will be able to:
are living things 1 State the types of microorganisms
3.1.1 Identify types of microorganisms through and its examples.
observation by using various media.
Describe microorganisms that
Type Examples 2 undergo life processes based on
the activities carried out.
fungi yeast, mucor
3 Make generalisation that
protozoa Paramecium, Amoeba.
microorganisms are living things and
algae Phytoplankton, Spirulina. most of them cannot be seen with
naked eyes.
E.coli, Basilus, Salmonella,
bacteria
streptococcus. 4 Predict the factors that affect the
growth of microorganisms.
virus HIV, influenza virus
5 Test the factors that affect the growth
of microorganisms.

51
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL

3.1.2 State microorganisms that undergo life pro- 6 Communicate to conclude the
cesses by carrying out investigation on a few factors that affect the growth of mi-
examples of microorganism such as yeast, croorganisms.
mucor and Paramecium using appropriate
tools.

3.1.3 Make generalisation that microorganisms are


living things and most of them cannot be seen
with naked eyes.

3.1.4 Carry out experiments to determine the fac-


tors that affect the growth of microorganisms
i.e. water, air, temperature, nutrient and acid-
ity.

3.1.5 Explain observation using sketches, ICT,


written or verbal form.

52
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
3.2 Useful and Pupils will be able to:
harmful micro- 1 State the harmful effects of
organisms 3.2.1 Describe the harmful effects of microorganisms.
microorganisms through observation using
various media which causes:
2 Describe the usage of
 diseases;
microorganisms.
 tooth decay;
 food poisoning; 3
 food spoilage. Make generalisation that some
microorganisms are useful and some
are harmful.
4
3.2.2 Describe the useful effects of microorganisms
Generate ideas on how to prevent
through observation using various media,
contagious diseases.
such as:
5
 making bread, tapai, tempe and yoghurt; Relate the factors of microorganisms’
 produce antibiotics and vaccines; growth with the food processing.
 decomposition of organic materials
6
including making of fertilizer and waste Communicate creatively and
treatment. inovatively about contagious
diseases and how they spread
through touch, air, food and water.

53
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL

3.2.3 Make generalisation that some microorgan-


isms are useful and some are harmful.

3.2.4 Explain observation using sketches, ICT,


written or verbal form.

3.3 Live healthily Pupils will be able to:


according to the
knowledge of 3.3.1 Generate ideas on how to prevent contagious
diseases.
microorganisms
. 3.3.2 Practise a healthy lifestyle for well-being and
prevent contagious diseases.

3.3.3 Explain observation using sketches, ICT,


written or verbal form.

54
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

4.0 INTERACTION AMONG LIVING THINGS


PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
4.1 Interaction Pupils will be able to:
among animals 1 Give examples of animals that live in
4.1.1 State that the meaning of interaction among groups and in solitary.
animals is a form of relationship that occurs
through intraspecies and interspecies to get 2 Describe the meaning of interaction
their basic needs. among animals.

4.1.2 Explain with example that some animals live in


groups and others live in solitary through 3 Describe the factors of competition
observation using various media. among animals.

4.1.3 Describe the advantages and disadvantages of


animals living in groups and in solitary. 4 Describe the advantages and
disadvantages of animals living in
groups and in solitary.

5 Explain through examples the types


of interactions among animals.

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KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFOR-
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
MANCE LEVEL

4.1.4 Describe the factors of intraspecies and 6 Communicate to describe the


interspecies competition among animals interaction that occurs between an
through observation using various media: animal within the same species and
with other species.
 food;
 water;
 shelter or territory;
 mate;

4.1.5 Explain through examples the types of


interaction among animals such as symbiosis,
mutualism, commensalism and parasitism.

4.1.6 Explain observation using sketches, ICT,


written or verbal form.

56
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
4.2 Interaction Pupils will be able to:
between 1 State the example of plants in an
plants 4.2.1 Describe the factors of competition between identified habitat.
plants through observation using various media:
2 Describe the factors of competition
 water; between plants.
 sunlight;
 nutrient; 3 Carry out investigations to
 space. determine the factors of competi-
tion between plants.

4.2.2 Carry out investigations to determine the factors Explain through examples the
of competition between plants. 4 types of interactions between
plants.
4.2.3 Explain through examples the types of
interactions between plants such as symbiosis: Relate the interactions between
commensalism and parasitism. 5 plants in the photosyntesis
process.
4.2.4 Explain observation using sketches, ICT, written
or verbal form. 6 Provide reasoning on the effects of
interactions between plants and
other living things in a habitat.

57
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

5.0 PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION


PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
5.1 Extinction Pupils will be able to:
threat of ani- 1 State examples of extinct animals.
mals and 5.1.1 Explain with examples animals that are
plants. extinct.
2 State examples of endangered
5.1.2 Explain with examples animals and plants animals and plants.
that are endangered.
3 Describe the factors that threaten
animals and plants.
5.1.3 Explain through examples the threatening
factors of animals and plants as follows:
Explain through examples the
 human activities such as logging, hunting, 4
threatening factors of animals and
deforestration.
plants and the ways to prevent it.
 natural phenomena such as flood,
earthquake, storm;
 pollution such as water, air and soil. Generate ideas on how to preserve
5
and conserve the animals and
plants.
5.1.4 Explain observation using sketches, ICT,
written or verbal form.
6 Communicate about the human’s
role on the preservation and con-
servation of animals and plants.

58
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

CONTENT PEFORMANCE STANDARD


LEARNING STANDARD
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR DESCRIPTOR
5.2 Importance of Pupils will be able to:
maintaining
the balance of 5.2.1 State the meaning of preservation and
nature conservation of animals and plants.

5.2.2 Describe ways to preserve and conserve


animals and plants.

5.2.3 Explain observation using sketches, ICT,


written or verbal form.

59
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PHYSICAL SCIENCE
6.0 FORCE
PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
6.1 Force and Pupils will be able to:
its effects 1 State the meaning of force.
6.1.1 State that force is a push or a pull that act on an
object through implementation of activities.
2 Describe the effects of force.

6.1.2 Explain with examples the effects of force by Explain with examples the meaning of
3
carrying out activities i.e.: friction.
 change the shape of an object;
 change the direction of a moving object;
 change the speed of an object; 4 Make conclusion about the factors
 move the stationery object; that affects the friction.
 stop a moving object.
Generate ideas the effects of friction
5
6.1.3 Explain observation using sketches, ICT, written and how to increase or reduce
or verbal form. friction.

Solve daily life problems by


6
increasing or reducing friction and
explain it.

60
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
6.2 Frictional Pupils will be able to:
Force
6.2.1 State the meaning of friction.

6.2.2 Carry out experiment to determine factors that


affect friction i.e.:

 the mass of an object;


 type of surface.

6.2.3 Describe the effects of friction.

6.2.4 Solve the daily life problems by increasing or


decreasing friction.

6.2.5 Explain observation using sketches, ICT, written


or verbal form.

61
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

7.0 SPEED
PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
7.1 Speed Pupils will be able to:
1 State the units for speed.
7.1.1 Explain the meaning of speed by carrying out
. activity such as race competition. 2 Explain the meaning of speed by
carrying out activities.
7.1.2 State the units for speed i.e. kilometre per hour
(km/h), metre per second (m/s), centimetre per 3 Make conclusion on the relationship
second (cm/s). between speed, distance and time.
7.1.3 Carry out investigation to relate speed, distance
and time. Solve problems to determine the
4 speed, distance and time taken
using the formula.
7.1.4 Solve problems related to speed using the
formula: Interpret the data about space and
5 time relationship of a moving object
Speed = Distance by analysing the graph.
Time
Give reasoning on the importance
7.1.5 Interpret the data about space and time 6 of the knowledge about the rela-
relationship of a moving object. tionship between speed, distance
and time for peaceful life.
7.1.6 Explain observation using sketches, ICT, written
or verbal form.

62
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

MATERIAL SCIENCE
8.0 FOOD PRESERVATION
PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
8.1 Food Pupils will be able to:
spoilage 1 Characterise the spoilt food.
8.1.1 Explain with examples the characteristic of spoilt
food through observation on real food or using
various media. 2 Explain with examples the methods
of food preservation and relate
8.1.2 State that food spoilage is caused by the action them to the factors of
of microorganisms. microorganisms growth.

8.1.3 Make generalization that food preservation aims


to prevent or slow down the life processes of 3 Make generalization that food
microorganisms. preservation can prevent or slow
down the life processes of
microorganisms.

4 Conclude the importance of food


preservation technology to fulfil the
needs of food supply.

63
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL

8.1.4 Explain with examples the methods of food 5 Provide reasoning on a suitable
preservation and relate them with the factors method of preserving food in
of microorganisms growth such as: maintaining the texture, appearance
or taste.
 drying;
 boiling;
 cooling; 6 Communicate creatively and
 vacuum packing; innovatively about the importance of
 pickling; food preservation technology in
 freezing; national economic development.
 canning and bottling;
 pasteurising;
 salting;
 smoking;
 waxing;

8.1.5 Carry out a food preservation project using


various methods of preservation.

64
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT LEARNING STANDARD
STANDARD PERFORMANCE
DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL

8.1.6 Describe the importance of food preservation


technology to fulfill the need of food supply.

8.1.7 Explain observation using sketches, ICT,


written or verbal form.

65
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

9.0 WASTE MATERIAL


PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT LEARNING STANDARD
STANDARD PERFORMANCE
DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
9.1 Waste Pupils will be able to:
material 1 State the examples of waste materials.
9.1.1 Identify the waste material based on the
types of material through observation of the 2 Classify the waste materials to
surrounding and various media, such as: biodegradable and non-biodegradable
material.
 glass;
 paper; 3 Explain through examples the proper
 plastic; ways of waste management.
 metal;
 toxic waste; 4 Provide reasoning on the proper usage
of non-biodegradable waste.
 food leftovers;
 excretion and defecation waste 5 Generate ideas on the effects of
improper waste disposal.
9.1.2 State the meaning of biodegradable and
non-biodegradable waste.

66
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT LEARNING STANDARD
STANDARD PERFORMANCE
DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL

9.1.3 Classify the waste materials to 6 Communicate creatively and innovatively


biodegradable and non-biodegradable on the human role in managing waste
material. disposal for a sustainable life.

9.1.4 Provide reasoning on the proper usage of


biodegradable waste.

9.1.5 Describe proper waste management for a


sustainable life.

9.1.6 Explain observation using sketches, ICT,


written or verbal form.

67
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

EARTH AND SPACE SCEINCE


10.0 ECLIPSE
PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT LEARNING STANDARD
STANDARD PERFORMANCE
DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
10.1 The eclipse Pupils will be able to:
of the Moon 1 State the position of the Moon, the Earth
and the 10.1.1 Describe the eclipse of the Moon by and the Sun during the eclipse of the
eclipse of sketching, based on : Moon.
the Sun
phenome-  the position of the Moon, the Earth and 2 State the position of the Moon, the Earth
na. the Sun; and the Sun during the eclipse of the
 the property of light Sun.
10.1.2 Describe the eclipse of the Sun by
sketching based on: 3 Sketch a diagram to show the eclipse of
the Moon that occurs due to the position
 the position of the Moon, the Earth and
of the Earth, the Moon, and the Sun, and
the Sun;
the property of light travelling in a straight
 the property of light line.
10.1.3
4 Sketch a diagram to show the eclipse
Explain observation using sketches, ICT, of the Sun (the phenomenon of solar
written or verbal form. eclipse) that occurs due to the position of
the Earth, the Moon, and the Sun, and
the property of light travelling in a straight
line.

68
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT LEARNING STANDARD
STANDARD PERFORMANCE
DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL

5 Communicate on the effects of the


eclipse phenomena to the living things
on Earth.

6 Interpret the diagram of the stages of


eclipses in the correct sequence.

69
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

11.0 CONSTELLATION
PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT LEARNING STANDARD
STANDARD PERFORMANCE
DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
11.1 Constellation Pupils will be able to:
1 State the meaning of constellation.
11.1.1 State that constellation is a group of
stars that form a certain pattern.
2 Identify the constellations.
11.1.2 Identify the shape of constellations
such as Orion, Big Dipper, Southern 3 Sketch the shape of constellations that
Cross and Scorpion. can be easily seen.

11.1.3 Explain the importance of constellation 4 Explain with examples the importance of
i.e.: constellation.
 to show directions;
 to indicate seasons;
5 Generate ideas on the existing constel-
lations by finding information from vari-
Explain observation using sketches, ous media.
11.1.4
ICT, written or verbal form.
6 Design a creative and innovative project
to show a variety of constellations.

70
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

TECHNOLOGY AND SUSTAINABILITY OF LIFE


12.0 MACHINE
PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT
LEARNING STANDARD PERFORMANCE
STANDARD DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
12.1 Simple Pupils will be able to:
machine 1 State the types of simple machine.
12.1.1 Explain with example the types and
usage of simple machines i.e.:
2 Describe the types and usage of simple
 inclined plane; machine.
 lever;
 wedge; 3 Make generalisation that complex
 gear; machine is a combination of more than
 screw; one simple machine.
 pulley;
 wheel and axle; 4 Segregate complex machine into simple
machines by using examples.
12.1.2 Explain observation using sketches, ICT,
written or verbal form.
5 Communicate to show the importance
of inventing sustainable machine.

6 Design a model of a complex machine


and describe the science concept
applied, and the sustainability of the
model.

71
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT LEARNING STANDARD
STANDARD PERFORMANCE
DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
12.2 Complex machine Pupils will be able to:

12.2.1 Identify the simple machines in a


complex machine.

12.2.2
Make generalisation that a complex
machine is a combination of more than
one simple machine.

12.2.3 Generate ideas on the importance of


inventing sustainable machine based
on:
 usage of materials;
 life span;
 maintenance;
 cost;
 environmental friendly;
 safety;

12.2.4 Explain observation using sketches,


ICT, written or verbal form.

72
KSSR SCIENCE YEAR 6

PEFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT LEARNING STANDARD
STANDARD PERFORMANCE
DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
12.3 Design a Pupils will be able to:
machine
model 12.3.1 Design a model of a complex machine by
combining science concepts that have been
learned such as:
 elecricity
 magnet
 speed
 light properties.

12.3.2 Describe the designed model.

12.3.3 Explain observation using sketches, ICT,


written or verbal form.

73
This curriculum document is published in Bahasa Melayu and English language. If there is any conflict or inconsistency between the Bahasa
Melayu version and the English version, the Bahasa Melayu version shall, to the extent of the conflict or inconsistency, prevail.
BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM
KEMENTERIAN PENDIDIKAN MALAYSIA
Aras 4-8, Blok E9
Presint 1
Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan
62604 PUTRAJAYA
Tel: 03-8884 2000 Faks: 03-8888 9917
http://www.moe.gov.my/bpk