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HEPE Harbin Huitong Electric Power Engineering Co., Ltd.
Project: Plant section:
560MW Bin Qasim Combined Cycle Power Project O&M Manual
Prepared Checked: Approved:
Zhang Jiawei Yin Xiaodong Li Xianchun
Form No.:
HTF-1 Operation & Maintenance Manual
Date:
2012.5 Operation Manual

560MW Bin Qasim Combined Cycle Power Project

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Volume B
ST Operation Procedure

Harbin Power Engineering Co., Ltd


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Content

1. FOREWORD................................................................................................ 5

2. OPERATION PRINCIPLE ............................................................................ 5

2.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 5

2.2 Record of events ........................................................................................................................... 5


2.2.1 Date, time and meters .......................................................................................................... 5
2.2.2 Operation phases .................................................................................................................. 6
2.2.3 Alarms and trips ..................................................................................................................... 6
2.2.4 Special notes and abnormalities ....................................................................................... 7
2.2.5 Instructions ............................................................................................................................. 7
2.2.6 Parameter readouts............................................................................................................... 7

2.3 Keep original state ........................................................................................................................ 7


2.3.1 Cleanliness of the equipment............................................................................................. 7
2.3.2 Fluid levels .............................................................................................................................. 7
2.3.3 Condition of filters ................................................................................................................ 8
2.3.4 Instrumentation ...................................................................................................................... 8
2.3.5 Behavior change .................................................................................................................... 8
2.3.6 Lighting and signaling ......................................................................................................... 8

2.4 Parameters read out and analysis ............................................................................................ 8


2.4.1 Parameter readouts............................................................................................................... 8
2.4.2 Analysis of the parameters ................................................................................................. 9
2.4.3 Vibration readouts ................................................................................................................. 9
2.4.4 Analysis.................................................................................................................................... 9

3. BASIC TECHNICAL DATA OF ST .............................................................. 9

3.1 Major Technical Specifications (“Thermal Characteristics” ) ......................................... 11

3.2 Explanation of the Systems ..................................................................................................... 11


3.2.1 Steam System ....................................................................................................................... 11
3.2.2 Sliding Pin System .............................................................................................................. 11
3.2.3 Gland Steam System .......................................................................................................... 12
3.2.4 Drainage System ................................................................................................................. 12
3.2.5 Water Spray System of LP Cylinder................................................................................ 13
3.2.6 Lube Oil System ................................................................................................................... 13

3.3 Introduction to the Major Equipment of Turbine Proper ................................................... 13


3.3.1 HP Main Stop Valve ............................................................................................................. 13
3.3.2 LP Main Stop Valve ............................................................................................................. 14
3.3.3 Crossover Pipe between HP and LP Cylinders............................................................ 15
3.3.4 Cylinder .................................................................................................................................. 15
3.3.5 Diaphragm ............................................................................................................................. 16
3.3.6 Rotor ....................................................................................................................................... 17
3.3.7 Bearing & Bearing Pedestal .............................................................................................. 17

4. OPERATION SEQUENCE ......................................................................... 18


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4.1 Condensed water system ......................................................................................................... 18


4.1.1 System general description .............................................................................................. 18
4.1.2 System start up .................................................................................................................... 18
4.1.3 System shut down............................................................................................................... 18

4.2 Circulating water system .......................................................................................................... 18

4.3 CCCW system .............................................................................................................................. 19


4.3.1 System general description .............................................................................................. 19
4.3.2 System start up .................................................................................................................... 19
4.3.3 System shut down............................................................................................................... 19

4.4 Vacuum system ........................................................................................................................... 19

4.5 Lube oil system & Sealing oil system.................................................................................... 20

4.6 jacking oil system ....................................................................................................................... 21

4.7 DEH oil system ............................................................................................................................ 21


4.7.2 Basic configuration of control and protection system .............................................. 22
4.7.3 EH fluid power unit.............................................................................................................. 22
4.7.4 Actuator.................................................................................................................................. 22
4.7.5 Emergency tripping protection system ......................................................................... 23
4.7.6 Diaphragm valve .................................................................................................................. 24
4.7.7 LP turbine oil safety and protection system ................................................................ 24
4.7.8 Setting value of EH system ............................................................................................... 26
4.7.9 Operation and maintenance of EH system ................................................................... 27

4.8 Gland sealing system ................................................................................................................ 30


4.8.1 Generals ................................................................................................................................. 30
4.8.2 Gland Seal of Rotor ............................................................................................................. 30
4.8.3 Gland Seal System .............................................................................................................. 32
4.8.4 Gland Steam Condenser .................................................................................................... 33
4.8.5 Safety Valve........................................................................................................................... 33
4.8.6 Steam Filter ................................................................................................................ 33
4.8.7 Operation of Gland Sealing System ............................................................................... 33

4.9 Ball clean system ........................................................................................................................ 34

4.10 Bypass system .......................................................................................................................... 35


4.10.1 Protection performance ................................................................................................... 35
4.10.2 Bypass regulation performance .................................................................................... 36

4.11 FORBIDDEN START ST CONDITIONS ................................................ 37

4.12 Tests before start ST ................................................................................................................ 37


4.12.1 Lube oil pressure low protection test .......................................................................... 37
4.12.2 Vacuum low test ................................................................................................................ 38
4.12.3 DC lube oil pump and DC sealing oil pump start up ................................................ 38
4.12.4 EH Oil Low test .................................................................................................................. 38
4.12.5 Sealing oil pump interlock test ...................................................................................... 38

4.13 Cold start procedure ................................................................................................................ 38


4.13.1 Concepts of cold and hot start up of steam turbine ................................................ 39
4.13.2 The cold starting procedure ........................................................................................... 39
4.13.3 Notices during start .......................................................................................................... 43

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4.13.4 Cold start curve ................................................................................................................. 43

4.14 The warm starting procedure ................................................................................................ 45


4.14.1 The description for warm start: ..................................................................................... 45
4.14.2 Warm start procedure: ..................................................................................................... 45
4.14.3 The curve of ST Warm-up start shown as follow. ..................................................... 46

4.15 Hot start procedures ................................................................................................................ 48


4.15.1 The hot starting procedure for the block .................................................................... 48
4.15.2. Hot start-up curve shown as follow: ........................................................................... 49
4.15.3 Notices for hot state start ................................................................................................ 52

4.16 shut down ................................................................................................................................... 52


4.16.1 Normal Stop ........................................................................................................................ 52
4.16.2 Notices for stopping the unit ......................................................................................... 54

5. PROTECTION LOGIC OF TURBINE ........................................................ 54

6. SPECIAL OPERATION ............................................................................. 55

6.1 Tests of steam turbine ............................................................................................................... 55


6.1.1 Local and remote emergency shut down test .............................................................. 55
6.1.2 Main steam stop valve and governor valve tightness test ....................................... 55
6.1.3 Overspeed test ..................................................................................................................... 56
6.1.4 Over speed test method and process ............................................................................ 57
6.1.5 Emergency Trip Governor Oil Spraying Test Procedure ........................................... 58

6.2 Routine operation and notice during normal operation of steam turbine ................... 58

6.3 Change over the standby oil cooler during normal operation of steam turbine ........ 60

6.4 Half cleaning of condenser during normal operation of steam turbine ....................... 60

6.6 Operation after half condenser cleaning .............................................................................. 60

6.7 Routine works for steam turbine ............................................................................................ 61

7. TROUBLE SHOOTING ............................................................................. 62

7.1 General rules for troubleshooting .......................................................................................... 62

7.2 Emergency shut down conditions and procedure ............................................................. 63


7.2.1 Emergency shut down conditions .................................................................................. 63
7.2.2 Emergency shut down procedure ................................................................................... 63

Attachment: Saturation steam pressure, temperature comparison table (listing


according to pressure) ................................................................................................................. 64

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1. Foreword
This operation instruction is only valid for Steam Turbine system in Pakistan Bin Qasim
Power Plant. In order to ensure safe and economic operation for power plants, some
specific regulations relating to equipment operation should be prepared for operation
staffs. In this steam turbine regulation book, regarding to the steam turbine equipments,
following content explain the criterion and running parameter, stipulate abnormal
operation and fault treatment. This rule is suitable for all steam turbine operators working
for Pakistan Bin Qasim Power Plant. More detailed information regarding to equipments
operation may be found in OEM manual.

2. Operation principle
2.1 Introduction
Operating the ST is mainly through the Human-Machine Interface (HMI) using the
command and automatic sequences like:
• Condenser pump starting
• Sealing oil pump of air side starting
• Sealing oil pump of hydrogen side
• Water chamber vacuum pump starting
• Water ring vacuum pump starting
• Make up DEMIN. water pump starting
• Etc.
As a supplement of the above, the operating crew shall organize a working structure to:
• Record the events
• Keep the original state
• Monitor the parameters
The experience acquired during daily operation of the installation will enable the operating
staff to further supplement and refine the operation principle described below.
2.2 Record of events
It is important to record all the events from the very first time of operation to build up the
history of operation for the HRSG. This will facilitate trouble shooting, event analysis and
can be an appreciable support for preventive maintenance scheduling.
The events may be recorded manually or automatically, on paper or on data carrier. The
wealth of information that these records represents for operation and maintenance will
become apparent during their use.
Main events to be recorded are:
• Date, time and meters.
• Operation phases.
• Alarms and trips.
• Special notes.
• Instructions.
• Parameter readouts.
2.2.1 Date, time and meters
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Relevant data :
• Date of the day.
• Time of the operation: start-up, shutdown…
• Daily meter readouts: number of start-ups, number of emergency shutdowns…,
• Climatic conditions :
- External ambient temperature.
- External atmospheric pressure.
• Weather conditions :
- Wind, rain, storm, snow, frost, humidity...
2.2.2 Operation phases
• Start-up :
- State of liquids: level readouts, e.g. readout of flow meters…
- State of alarms.
- Meter readings before and after start-up: number of start-ups, number of trips…
- Reason of start-up…
- Time of start-up command.
- Time of open damper
- Time of put on bypass
- Time of reaching rolling parameter.
• Operation :
- Rolling ST.
- Control increasing rated temperature and pressure.
• Shutdown :
- Meter readings before and after shutdown.
- Time of shutdown command.
- Time of synchronization off.
- Time of ST latch off.
- Time of ST Idle.
- Protections and interlock sunder taken
- Time of stopping of the turning gear (at least 24 hours after gas turbine shut down).
• Standby, safety measures taken.
• Unavailability for works :
- Type of works.
2.2.3 Alarms and trips
• Time of occurrence of alarms/trips.
• Chronological occurrence of alarms: the automatic readouts of the control systems
(history) are useful aids for incident analysis.

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• Summary of the intervention carried out.


• Measures taken prior to restart the turbine.
2.2.4 Special notes and abnormalities
Any machine behavior that is considered abnormal or unusual: noise, defective
instrumentation etc...
2.2.5 Instructions
• General operating instructions.
• Provisional instructions specific to each unit, with exact date and duration
• Restrictions of use.
• Specific shift-change instructions.
2.2.6 Parameter readouts
Parameters of the HRSG set are : pressures, temperatures, analog and digital control
values etc.
These values must be recorded cyclically, at steady state, either manually or automatically,
to demonstrate the proper operation of the systems.
2.3 Keep original state
Periodical visit and inspection, while the steam turbine is operating or during short standby
periods, shall be included in the daily task of the operator. Those tasks are not part of
preventive maintenance activities.
• Keeping the original state of the installation includes the following :
• Cleanliness of equipment
• Fluid levels
• Condition of filters
• Instrumentation
• Behavior change
• Lighting and signaling
2.3.1 Cleanliness of the equipment
The cleanliness of the equipment allows to :
• Easily detect possible leaks.
• Limit the propagation of fire caused by leaks or dirt deposits.
• Preserve the efficiency of the plant’s refrigeration, filtration and ventilation systems.
• Ensure the safety of the operating staff during inspection rounds and maintenance.
2.3.2 Fluid levels
Although certain levels are monitored automatically, it is nevertheless advisable to check
the proper functioning by a visual inspection. The main levels are related to:
• The lube oil in the tank.
• The turbine and possibly generator cooling water tank.
• The hotwell level
• The EH oil in tank
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• Absence of any condensates


Note: An abnormal level increase may be due to pollution by another fluid, a significant
decrease may be due to a leak.
In both cases appropriate action must be initiated as quickly as possible.
2.3.3 Condition of filters
Regular monitoring of the filters for pressure drop allows a schedule to be drawn up for
appropriate replacement of the cartridges. The main filters are located on the following
circuits :
• Lube oil.
• High pressure oil and control oil
• Sealing oil
• Condenser water pump
• CCCW heat exchanger
2.3.4 Instrumentation
Rapid identification of an instrumentation defect or fault allows the fault to be brought
under control and appropriate corrective action to be implemented.
The instrumentation relates to all checks and measurements of physical parameters :
• Pressure, temperature, flow rate…
• Vibration, valve position…
2.3.5 Behavior change
Behavior change can be identified by noise level intensity change, vibration increase, due
to : ball bearing, flow inlet condition, output condition, flow rate, etc.
2.3.6 Lighting and signaling
Lighting lamps and signaling devices such as alarms or motor status indicators must be
operational at all times. Rapid replacement of defective bulbs is part of compliance with
the operating regulations.
2.4 Parameters read out and analysis
In order to maintain the performances and the reliability of the HRSG, the operating
parameters must be read out and analyzed. This information, which is available on the
control screens or on site, can be divided into two families: the operating parameters and
the vibration readouts.
The readouts are performed manually or automatically with a frequency that depends on
the operational requirements. The following frequency is recommended:
• For the operating parameters: 1 to 4 readouts every 24 hours.
• For the vibration readouts: 1 to 4 readouts per month.
2.4.1 Parameter readouts
One method for reading out the parameters consists in classifying them into the following
categories :
• Performances
Active power, reactive power, generator voltage, generator current, excitation voltage and
current, ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, pressure drop of air filter etc…

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• Generator temperatures
All generator temperatures: hot air, cold air, stator bars, return oil of bearings etc...
• Compressor temperatures and turbine cooling
• Turbine and auxiliaries fluid pressures and levels
• Turbine and auxiliaries temperatures
• Shaft line vibration
• Start-up and shutdown
Start-up time, shutdown time.
2.4.2 Analysis of the parameters
The parameter readouts taken during the first commissioning period serve as reference.
All subsequent readouts will be compared against the original readouts.
2.4.3 Vibration readouts
The vibration measurements discussed in this chapter are carried out with a portable
device. The measuring schedule may be monthly or bimonthly. It is important to specify
the following:
• The type of value measured: displacement or speed.
• The units : µm or mm/s.
• The amplitude: single or double.
2.4.4 Analysis
Increased vibrations are often an indication of degradation of the rotating parts of the
machine, of their attachments or of their alignment.
Refer to the supplier documents for the acceptable limits and the corrective actions.
In certain cases the vibration frequency and phase values need to be measured to allow
for a more precise diagnostic.

3. Basic technical data of ST


Specification of LN190-8.396/0.75/536/273 ST

Item Unit Data


Single-shaft, double-pressure, two-casing, two- exhaust, impulse
Type condensing steam turbine

Rated Output MW 185.85


Rotated
Clockwise see from the direction of steam turbine
direction
Rated speed r/min 3000
855mm
Last stage vane mm

Stage No. 12+2+2x5

Make up water t/h 0 0 0 0

Temperature ℃ 30 5 23.8 47.6


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Item Unit Data


Condition

Relative
% 70 70 70 70
Humidity
Atmosphere
bar 1.0132 1.0132 1.0132 1.0132
Pressure
177.3×3=
HP Steam Flow t/h 182.2×3=546.6 178.9×3=536.7 176×3=528
531.9
HP Steam
MPa(a) 8.396 8.50 8.54 8.33
Pressure
HP Steam
℃ 536 515 531 536
Temperature
LP steam Flow t/h 36.5×3=109.5 40.3×3=120.9 37.3×3=111.9 33.9×3=101.7
LP Steam
MPa(a) 0.75 0.81 0.76 0.74
Pressure
LP Steam
℃ 273 273 273 273
Temperature
Rated Exhaust
kPa(a) 8.2 5 8.2 9.2
Pressure
Exhaust
℃ 42 32.9 42 44.2
Temperature
2
19000m .
Condenser
The material of condenser pipe will be titanium.
Circulating
water
℃ 30/33/20
Temperature
Design/Max/Min

LN190-8.396/0.75/536/273 type steam turbine is the condensing turbine used for 200MW
combined cycle, designed by Harbin Turbine Co., Ltd. (HTC) for KESC Karachi Pakistan
(the general contractor is Harbin Power Engineering Company Limited). The fume
exhausted by 3 sets of gas turbines passes through 3 waste heat boilers to generate
steam, and the generated steam shall enter 1 steam turbine to work. This steam turbine
adopts double pressure inlet steam: HP steam shall enter the front part of the HP casing;
LP steam shall make up the rear part of HP casing (after the 12th stage). This steam
turbine is without a regenerative system. In the design of flow path of the 161 unit, HTC
has adopted the multi-stage turbine flow
path aero-thermodynamic quasi-three-dimensional/ full-three-dimensional design system
so that the design of flow path can be up to the current advanced level. The 161 unit
adopts the existing mature technology of our company, and absorbs and draws lessons
from the advanced technology of similar units both in China and abroad to make sure the
safe, reliable and efficient running of the unit. The performance of the unit shall be up to
the international advanced level.
The Operation & Maintenance Manual of this steam turbine product shall be prepared by
basing on the current standards and national codes, combining the experience obtained in
the installation and running of the similar units, and referring to the foreign advanced
technical materials.
This Instruction Book introduces the technical data and structural characteristics of this
type of steam turbine and its auxiliary system, as well as the relevant provisions and
requirements during the use.
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3.1 Major Technical Specifications (“Thermal Characteristics” )


Model: LN190-8.396/0.75/536/273
Type: Single-shaft, double-pressure, two-casing, two- exhaust, impulse condensing steam
turbine
Rated power: 185.85 MW
Rated speed: 3000 r/min
Rotation: View from head towards generator, clockwise
Primary steam inlet pressure: 8.4MPa(a)
Primary steam inlet temperature: 536℃
Primary steam inlet flow: 532.2t/h
Secondary steam inlet pressure: 0.75MPa(a)
Secondary steam inlet temperature: 273℃
Secondary steam inlet flow: 110.1t/h
Exhaust pressure: 8.2kPa(a)
Cooling water temperature: ℃
30
Number of stages: 14+2×5=24 stages
Length of last-stage blade: 855mm
3.2 Explanation of the Systems
3.2.1 Steam System
The fresh steam from the BFPT shall center the HP main steam control combined valves on both
sides of the unit and flow out from the 4 control valves to pass through 4 HP steam conduits
(φ219×18) and simultaneously enter the HP steam chamber cast integrally with the HP inner
cylinder. After working at the stage 1-12, the steam shall be mixed with the second stream of
steam (make-up steam) from the BFPT; after working at the pressure stage 12-14, the steam
shall be discharged from the 2 exhaust ports at the rear upper half of the HP casing; and then the
steam shall pass through the crossover pipes to respectively enter the LP casing and inner
cylinder. The LP casing is of symmetric double-split-flow structure. The stream shall enter via the
middle of the flow path, pass through the positive and negative pressure stages (each 5 stages)
to work, and then be exhausted into the condenser installed under the LP casing. After passing
through the condenser, the steam shall be condensed into condensate which shall be pumped
out by the condensate pump. After passing through the gland steam heater and deaerator, the
condensate shall return to the BFPT after pressurization by the electric feedwater pump. The
steam turbine is without a regenerative system.
Both on the left and right of the main steam piping, each has a small diameter branch pipe which
is respectively connected to the rear upper half and lower half inlets(4-φ34×5)of the HP casing
via a electric shutoff valve. Open the shutoff valve to make the high temperature steam enter the
inter-layer so that the HP outer casing can be heated and the differential expansion of the unit
can be reduced. In this way, the start up time can be shortened.
3.2.2 Sliding Pin System
Sliding pin system is the rest and locating system of the stator part. The front base frame, the
middle base frame, the back base frame and the LP cylinder base frame of this steam turbine are
fixed on the foundation, on which the front bearing box, the middle bearing box, the back bearing
box and the low pressure cylinder are respectively installed, by anchor bolts. See the drawing of
sliding pin system(157.505Q)for more details.
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On the front base frame, along the center axis, a longitudinal pin is arranged. The front bearing
box can move on its base frame along the axis. Both the front and rear lugs of the HP outer
casing are respectively supported on the front bearing box and the middle bearing box. The
middle bearing box not only has a longitudinal pin, but also has a transverse pin. The intersection
point of the longitudinal pin and the transverse pin is the dead point of HP stator section. The
front bearing box, HP outer casing and middle bearing box expand or shrink axially by referring to
this dead point. The HP outer casing is connected with the front and middle bearing boxes by the
centering beam structure.
The center of the LP casing shall be assured by the longitudinal pin between the LP casing and
the middle/rear bearing box. On both sides, there are bearing surfaces supported on the base
frame of the LP casing. Besides, both sides are provided with transverse keys. The intersection
point between the center line of the transverse key and the center line the steam turbine is the
dead point of the LP casing. LP stator section expands or shrinks axially by referring to this dead
point.
The relative dead point of the rotor is at the work surface of the thrust disc of the middle bearing
box.
3.2.3 Gland Steam System
Take necessary measures at the place where the steam turbine rotor goes through the outer
cylinder to prevent the external air leaking into the cylinder to affect the vacuum of the exhaust
hood. At the same time, it is necessary to prevent the steam in the cylinder leaking out from the
cylinder to go into the front bearing box (causing oil mixed with water) or go into the turbine
house (destroying the environment conditions of the turbine house). The gland steam system of
the steam turbine is set for achieving this function.
For the drawing of gland steam system, see 161.501Q; for the Instruction Book of Gland Steam
System, see 161.501SM.
3.2.4 Drainage System
The drainage system equipped for the turbine proper is one of the major measures taken for
assuring the safe startup/stop of the steam turbine.
Once the water enters the steam turbine, damage is in-avoidable. It is possible to damage the
blades and shrouds as well as the thrust bearings, to bend the rotor, to cause permanent
deformation of the fixing parts, to damage the gland teeth, and to result in the collision & friction
between the moving and stationary parts and so on. The damage degree shall be determined by
the position, volume and duration of water entrance, the turbine metal temperature, the speed or
the load of the unit, the steam flow, the relative position of moving and stationary parts and the
remedy method adopted by the operator and so on.
In order to avoid the water entrance accidents of steam turbine and reduce the loss if the water
entrance accidents occur as much as possible, the following items which shall be referred to
while prescribing relevant specifications are especially put forward.

All drain valves of the turbine proper and other drain valves relevant to the turbine safety shall be:
a)From the moment that the unit is stopped until the steam turbine is completely cooled, the
drain valves must be open;
b)Before start the steam turbine and feed steam to the gland seal, the drain valves must be
open.
c) When the load of the unit rises to 10~30% rated load, automatically close all the drain valves
of main steam piping and HP piping in sequence as per the pressure and temperature
of the drainage points.

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d)When the load of the unit reduces to 10~30% rated load, open all the drain valves in sequence
until the steam turbine is completely cooled down.
Before all drain valves are open, avoid breaking the vacuum. However, this recommendation is
neither applicable to the emergency condition under which the vacuum shall be broken
immediately, nor applicable to the drain valves of user’s main steam piping.
This system is provided with a receiving cylinder to be used for collecting the drainage of all
valves and pipes and so on. The characteristics in the arrangement of drainage system are: in
order to prevent the drainage flowing backwards, all drain pipes shall be ranked until to the
drainage header in sequence as per their pressure, and then connected with the expansion tank.
3.2.5 Water Spray System of LP Cylinder
In normal circumstances, the temperature of the exhaust hood is generally about 40℃, and the
radial kinetic-static clearance of the steam turbine shall be kept within the allowed scope. When
the temperature of the exhaust hood rises, uneven heating may occur to the exhaust hood to
cause deformation of the exhaust hood. In this way, the kinetic-static clearance shall change.
Therefore, cooling measures must be taken for the exhaust hood. For the diagram of the water
spray system, see 161.504Q.
When the speed of the steam turbine is up to 600r/min or the exhaust temperature exceeds 80 ℃,
the water spray system of the exhaust hood shall be automatically put into operation; The water
spray system of the exhaust hood shall run continuously to automatically stop until the unit
carries 10~15% duty and the exhaust temperature is lower than 80℃.
Use method:
The water spray pipeline of LP cylinder is mainly controlled by a pneumatic stop valve.
When the water spray conditions are satisfied by the unit, the control system shall connect
the power supply for the solenoid valve on the pneumatic stop valve to open the solenoid
valve. In this way, the pneumatic stop valve can be opened so that the cooling water from
the condensate pump shall pass through the pneumatic stop valve to flow into the water
spray pipe of LP cylinder, and then, the water spray operation can be realized. When the
unit can satisfy the conditions for stopping water spray, cut off the power of the solenoid
valve by the control system to close the solenoid valve. In this way, the pneumatic stop
valve shall be closed to stop the water spray.
The exhaust temperature of the exhaust hood shall not exceed 120℃.
3.2.6 Lube Oil System
Lube oil system mainly is used for supplying lube oil for the journal bearing, thrust bearing
and turning gear of the turbo-generator unit. At the same time, the lube oil system shall
supply pressure oil for the governing system, meeting the oil supply requirement of the
turbo-generator unit under startup, shutdown, normal operation and emergency
conditions.
The lube oil system shall consist of the main oil pump (turbine main shaft drive), oil cooler,
oil ejector, oil overflow valve, turning gear, jacking device, smoke exhauster,oil tank,
startup oil pump, AC lube oil pump, DC emergency oil pump, oil level indicator,
over-pressure reduction relay, oil purifying system, lube oil filter, connection piping, valves
and various monitoring instrumentations and so on.
For principle system drawing of the lube oil system, see 161.551Q; for the parameters and
maintenance of equipment in the lube oil system, see the Instructions for Lube Oil System
for details(161.551SM).
3.3 Introduction to the Major Equipment of Turbine Proper
3.3.1 HP Main Stop Valve

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For this unit, 2 main-steam combined governing valves (i.e. the main steam valve and governing
valve share one valve housing) including 2 horizontal main steam valves and 4 vertical governing
valves are equipped. They are located on two sides of the unit (one on the right and the other
one on the left). In the horizontal direction, the valve housing of main steam governing valve are
cast with 4 supporting legs which support the whole steam valve on the frame. When thermal
expansion occurs, the frame of the steam valve shall take 1 of the 4 supporting legs as the dead
point, allowing the other 3 supporting legs to slide in the plane. The frame of the steam valve, a
rigid rest welded by steel sheets, is located on the foundation of the turbine operation platform
and fixed by bolts.
3.3.1.1 Main stop valve
The main steam valve is a single-seat ball valve and the end of the valve disc is semi-spherical.
The valve disc and valve seat must be carefully ground to assure the best fit of seal. While
startup, open the pre-startup valve at first to reduce the differential pressure before and after
valve disc so that the lifting force of valve can be effectively reduced. The valve seat has a
diffuser to reduce the steam flow loss. After the pre-startup valve is opened enough (stroke: 10
mm), the stem shall move continuously to make the main valve disc open. The overall stroke of
main steam valve is 70mm. the stroke of the main steam valve is limited by an oil servo motor.
Between the valve disc sleeve and valve bonnet, there are two 180° opposite flat keys to prevent
the valve disc rotating due to the impact of the steam flow. Outside the valve stem, there is a
stem sleeve on which two extraction chambers are arranged. The stem’s primary leakage steam
from the first segment of extraction chamber is connected with steam make-up piping. The
stem’s secondary leakage steam from the second segment of extraction chamber is connected
with gland steam extractor. Therefore, the leakage steam shall not enter the steam turbine
building, and at the same time, the heat from the leakage steam can be sufficiently utilized. The
surfaces of stem and stem sleeve have passed nitrogen treatment to improve their anti-wearing
performance. Outside the valve disc, one steam strainer is equipped. The strainer sheet is a
cylinder rolled by a stainless steel sheet. On the strainer sheet, there are several small round
holes which can prevent the mechanical impurities in the steam flow entering the flow passage
portion of the steam turbine.
3.3.1.2 Steam governing valve
This unit has four steam governing valves of completely same structure. The steam governing
valves have a valve disc, valve seat, stem, gland, sleeve, etc. The fitting portion between the
valve disc and valve seat is spherical section with 120° cone angle. The fitting portion on the
valve seat is a 75° cone and the lower portion has a diffuser so that the flow loss can be reduced.
A sleeve covering the valve disc is fixed on the bonnet by a pin. Inside the valve disc, there is a
pre-startup valve. The upper space of valve disc is unloading chamber, and for this unit, the
structure in which the diameter of unloading chamber is different from the fitting diameter of valve
disc has been adopted to reduce the lifting force of the valve. The valve seat and valve housing
adopt hot pressure assembly to assure interference fit. Besides, each valve seat and valve
housing are fixed by two radically opposite cylinder pins of Ф16 to guarantee that the valve seat
shall not move during operation. The extraction type and orientation of gland sleeve and isolation
sleeve are the same as those of main steam valve. The valve bonnet is fixed on the valve
housing by the studs and cap nuts. On the sealing surface between the valve bonnet and the
valve housing shall not be fit with a gasket, but the steam tightness shall be assured by surface
finishing accuracy and grinding method.
The stroke of the pre-startup valve is 7 mm and that of the governing valve is 51.8 mm. The
strokes are limited by an oil servo motor.
3.3.2 LP Main Stop Valve
LP main steam valve and governing valves adopt triple eccentric hydraulic butterfly valves (the
equipment from Shanghai Jiangnan Shipbuilding Valves Co., Ltd.) which are arranged under the
operating layer. Via two pieces of Ф377×11 LP steam guide pipes, valves are connected to the

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steam make-up port at the 12th stage of lower half IP exhaust hood.
3.3.3 Crossover Pipe between HP and LP Cylinders
The crossover pipe between the HP and LP cylinders is used for directly transporting the steam
exhausted by the IP exhaust hood to the LP inner casing via the two upwards exhaust ports
(DN1000), to facilitate the continuous working of steam at all stages of the LP cylinder.
Because the HP and LP cylinders are both provided with independent dead points, the crossover
pipe between the HP and LP cylinders has been designed into flexible structure to absorb the
influence of thermal displacement. The crossover pipe adopts the balancing bellows group style
and each balancing bellows group has four axial rods. The thermal displacement shall be
absorbed by two groups of axial bellows. It is integrally and hydraulically formed by multi-layer
thin stainless steel sheets. Inside the crossover pipe, there is a guide sleeve use for the guiding
the steam flow so that the vibration and squealing can be eliminated while the steam flow
passing the bellows.
For installation and adjustment, please refer to the Instruction Book supplied together with the
unit, supplied by the bellows manufacturer, for details.
3.3.4 Cylinder
3.3.4.1 HP cylinder
The whole HP cylinder is composed of the front part of the HP cylinder and the IP exhaust hood.
The two parts are connected together by the vertical flange face and bolts. At the same time, the
whole HP cylinder is divided into the upper half and the lower half. In the front of the HP cylinder,
HP front gland seal is installed and at the rear portion of the HP cylinder, IP rear gland seal is
equipped. Both the front and rear shaft-end gland seals adopt the back-off type comb round
gland seals to assure that the steam shall not leak out. The whole HP cylinder is supported on
the front and middle bearing boxes respectively by the front and rear lugs of lower half cylinder.
Between the HP cylinder and the front/middle bearing boxes, there is a push-pull mechanism so
that when the cylinder is expanding, the front bearing box (pedestal) can be pushed or pulled by
the push-pull mechanism. At the same time, the center of the whole cylinder can be assured.
Both the front and rear lugs of the cylinder adopt lower lug joint bracing manner so that the
problem of casing center rising up during running of the unit can be solved.
The front part of the HP cylinder adopts the double shell structure including the HP inner
casing (ZG20CrMoV)and HP outer casing (ZG15Cr2Mo1). Therefore, the wall thicknesses
of the inner and outer casings shall be thinner than that of single shell structure. While startup,
stop and load-varying operation, the temperature difference between the inner and outer
surfaces of the cylinder wall is smaller. For some metallic materials of the cylinder, the thermal
stress of the cylinder wall is also smaller so that the startup duration can be shortened and the
adaptability of the steam turbine to the load can be enhanced to meet the operation
requirements of the steam turbine used for combined cycle. The HP inner casing is mounted in
the front cylinder by mounting riser, upper and lower vertical keys at front end, left and right
transverse keys in the middle, and the upper and lower axial keys at the rear end. The HP
inner casing has an integrally cast HP steam chamber which allows full admission. At the lower
and upper halves, there are two steam inlets each. Between the steam inlets and front cylinder,
there are several turns of gland seal rings to assure that there is only a trace amount of steam
leaking between the inner and outer casings. Inside the HP inner casing, there is stage 1~ 7
diaphragms and the 1st stage diaphragm is fixed behind the HP steam chamber by bolts.
Inside the HP outer casing, there are two stages of diaphragm sleeves. Inside the 1#
diaphragm sleeve, stage 8 ~ 9 diaphragms are installed; inside the 2# diaphragm sleeve,
stage 10~12 diaphragms are installed.
Inside the IP exhaust hood (ZG230~450), 1 stage of diaphragm sleeve is installed. Inside the
3# diaphragm sleeve, the stage 13 ~14 diaphragms are installed. At the lower part of the first
chamber, there are two pieces of steam inlet pipes(φ377×11) which are connected with the
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main steam governing valve set. At the upper part of the first chamber, there are two pieces of
gland steam leakage pipes(φ76×6)which are connected with the HP outer casing. The second
chamber has two steam exhaust ports (DN1000) on the top.
3.3.4.2 LP cylinder
LP cylinder is of symmetric double-diversion structure including the inner casing and the outer
casing.
LP inner casing is of the welding structure. Because it adopts the double-diversion structure, LP
rotor hardly bear any axial force. All LP diaphragms (5 stages each at the front and the back) are
hung on the LP inner casing. The inner casing is supported on the board inside the outer casing
and positioned on the outer casing by the riser, transverse keys and bottom keys. In order to
improve the steam leakage between the admission part of inner casing horizontal joint and the
front & rear pressure stages, respectively set 12 pieces of M42 bolts inside the horizontal joint of
the first-stage retaining ring (both in the front and at the back). Therefore, while opening up the
cylinder, pay attention to removing the 12 cap nuts at first, and then, remove the 36 pieces of
M42 cap nuts outside the inner casing. After the above work, it is allowed to open up the cylinder.
The LP outer casing is welded from steel sheets. In order to facilitate the manufacture and
transportation, the LP outer casing is axially divided into 3 parts, i.e. LP outer casing front part,
LP outer casing middle part and LP outer casing rear part. After the alignment and positioning on
site, the three parts shall be assembled and connected to form a whole. The three parts shall not
only be connected by the flange bolts but also be welded (seal welding) on the outer wall
perpendicular to the flange, to assure the tightness of the cylinder. The diffuser profile of outer
casing is designed as per the aero dynamics to transform the kinetic energy in the steam
exhausted by the last-stage rotor blade into the pressure energy as much as possible so that
the leaving velocity loss of the steam turbine can be reduced and the efficiency of the steam
turbine can be increased. At the same time, inside the exhaust hood, a certain amount of rib
plates and stay tubes are arranged to assure the enough rigidity of the cylinder. Further, on the
top of the exhaust hood, the atmospheric breaking valve is provided to make sure the safety of
the exhaust hood.
The front and rear gland housings (casings) of the LP outer casing are directly welded on the end
boards of LP outer casing. Both the front and rear shaft-end gland seals adopt the back-off type
comb elliptical gland seals. Two groups of extraction (feed) steam pipes each at the front and
rear gland seals are led out from the middle part of the support legs of LP outer casing. At the
end wall above the flange surface of the upper half gland seal of LP outer casing, a window, used
for installing the balancing screw plugs while performing the on-site rotor balancing, is provided.
The LP outer casing and the condenser adopt rigid connection. The weight of the condenser
itself is applied on its own foundation and the water weight of the condenser while the unit is
running shall be born by the base frame of the LP outer casing.
3.3.5 Diaphragm
The stationary blades of HP and LP diaphragm are all designed by full 3D technology. The 1~14
stage diaphragm is the welding structure by punching holes on shroud and stationary blade
being welding; 15~16 and 20~22 stage diaphragm are the welding structure by welding the
integral shroud diamond type guide blade. 17~19 and 23~24 stage diaphragm are welding
structure of stationary blades, diaphragm and outer ring.
Different materials are used for HP diaphragm according to the different steam temperature zone.
If the working temperature for diaphragm is above 350℃, the m ate rial shall be ZG20CrMoV or
ZG20CrMo high strength alloy and if the working temperature for diaphragm is below 350℃, the
material shall be Q235-A or ZG230~450. If the working temperature of guide blade material is
above 450℃, the m aterial shall be 1C r11M oV, if the temperature is below 450℃, the m aterial
shall be 1Cr13. Radial gland teeth is designed at the root of stationary blade from 1st to 12th stage
to not only reduce the leakage loss but also increase the axial clearance to meet the cycle duty
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operation of the unit.


The comb type round gland is used for HP diaphragm gland; comb type ellipse gland is used for
LP diaphragm gland. The stress and flexibility shall be calculated for each stage of diaphragm and
flexibility test shall be made before ex-work.
3.3.6 Rotor
The turbine rotor consists of HP rotor (30Cr1Mo1V) and LP rotor (30Cr2Ni4MoV). The front
end of HP rotor is connected with emergency tripping device and main oil pump and so on; the
adjustable gaskets are installed between the HP and LP rotor which are connected by rigid
coupling; rigid coupling is used for the connection between LP rotor and generator rotor. Both HP
and LP rotors are integral forgings without center bore.
Both HP and LP rotors use double supporting structure and are located by the thrust
bearing in middle bearing pedestal; span between #1 and #2 bearings: 4788; span
between #2 and #3 bearings: 1312; span between #3 and #4 bearings: 5962; span
between #4 bearing and generator front bearing: 2201.
All rotor blades on HP and LP rotor use integral shroud. LP L-0 blades are designed with integral
lacing wire structure. The radial glands for HP stage 9~13 top blades use labyrinth gland sealing.
Radial gland seal is designed for the inlet side of HP 1~12 stages wheel and root of stationary
blade of 1~12 stages to reduce the internal leakage effectively and improve the efficiency of HP
and LP casing. Because the L-0 and L-1 blades are working in the wet steam area, the leading
edge of blade will be impact by the erosion of water particle, the brazing of carbide sheet will be
used to improve the anti-erosion capability of blade.
The transfer of rotor torque is made by the bolts connecting the rotor. The bolt connection type is
to ream the hole to match the bolt. After the alignment in power plant, ream the bolt holes
according the bolt diameter and then to transfer the torque by shearing and pressing force of bolt.
Compared with erection of bolts and holes with clearance, this method could reduce the
pre-tightening force of bolt assembly.
3.3.7 Bearing & Bearing Pedestal
Turbine rotor is supported by 4 journal bearings with HP rotor being supported by 1# and 2#
bearing and LP rotor by 3# and 4# bearing. There are front, middle and rear 3 bearing pedestals.
2# and 3# bearing are located in middle pedestal and 1# and 4# bearing pedestal are located in
front and rear bearing pedestal respectively. The front, middle and rear bearing pedestal are
floor-type and of welding structure by steel plate which is made of Q235-A. Observation windows
are designed for the oil returned pipe in bearing pedestal to observe the oil condition. The double
metallic thermometer and WZP2-221 Pt thermal resistance with electrical contacts are installed
in the observation tube to perform the local oil temperature indication, remote alarm and control.
The front bearing pedestal is located on the front base frame and fixed by vertical keys and
pressed by the plate with sliding clearance. The front lug of lower half of HP casing is supported
on the front bearing pedestal. The front pedestal is connected with HP casing by push/pull
mechanism to ensure the compliant expansion during unit operation. The high temperature
grease shall be filled between the bottom flat of front bearing pedestal and the base plate
contacted. Journal bearing, main oil pump, control and protection equipments and measurement
elements are installed in the front bearing pedestal.
#2 bearing is combined journal-thrust bearing with the spherical self-adjustable journal parts
and Michelson type thrust parts. The working pads and locating pads are totaled at 10 pieces
with swing sector type pad. Each pad is equipped with WZPM2-001 and Pt100 surface type
resistance to measure the bearing alloy temperature.
All journal bearings are ellipse bearing with self-adjustable spherical double layer structure. The
journal bearing is equipped with WZPM2-001 and Pt100 surface type resistance to measure the
temperature of bearing alloy; Holes for HP oil jacking are made below the pad for jacking the

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rotor during turning gear for startup and shutdown. No casing opening and rotor lifting is required
during the maintenance of journal bearing. Each pad could be taken out for repair or replacement
conveniently.

4. Operation sequence
4.1 Condensed water system
4.1.1 System general description
Condensate water system is compose of hotwell, two condenser pumps, gland steam
cooler, condenser water heater in HRSG and one recycle pipe to return water back to
hotwell for condenser pump protection. Hotwell has makeup water from desalting water
for system consumption. Exhaust steam from LP casing, and then condensed into
condensate water. This water supply to gland cooler to be heated by condensate water
pump , past gland cooler condensate water continue to condensate water heater and then
to deaerator.
There is one recycle pipe for protection condensate water pump during start and
condensate water flow is very small. When ST is normal running this valve need close.
The functions of condensate water system are that condensate water supply to deaerator.
4.1.2 System start up
1). Hotwell water level is normal
2). Inlet valves of condenser pumps need open.
3). Outlet valves need close position .
4). recycle valves of pumps need open.
5). CCCW system must operation .
6). The bearings cooling water and startup sealing water valves of condenser pumps need
open.
7). Self-sealing water valves of condenser pumps need open.
8). Lube oil cup level is normal.
9). Control valve before and after manual valve need open , bypass manual close .
10). Check gland sealing cooler system is normal.
11). Check condensate water heater system is normal.
12). Start one condenser pump, check outlet valve open automatically.
13). Hot well level put into auto.
4.1.3 System shut down
1). Condensate water pump can stop when nothing need cooling.
2). Hotwell level must be noticed after stop condensate water pump .
4.2 Circulating water system
4.2.1 The function of Circulating water system is that sea water is supplied condenser for
exhaust steam to condensed water continuously and set up vacuum.
4.2.2 Circulating water system consists of 3 pumps.
4.2.3 Circulating water pump supply sea water to condenser, then this sea water return
back to sea.

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4.2.4 Before start ST need start Circulating water pump first.

4.2.5 Circulating water pumps can stop when condenser can’t cooling.
4.3 CCCW system
4.3.1 System general description
CCCW system is very important system for power plant. It is consist of an expansion
water tank, two CCCW pumps and two heat exchangers. This system supply cooling
water to following equipment:
One set EH oil station of ST
Four sets of hydrogen cooler
Two sets of hydrogen side sealing oil cooler
Two sets of air side sealing oil cooler
One set of sampling and analysis system
Two sets of stator cooler
Two sets of condensate water pump cooling and sealing water
Six sets of HP feed water pump motor cooler
Twelve sets of HP feed water pump oil cooler
The mechanical sealing of HP LP feed water pump in HRSG 1,2,3
Two sets of lube oil cooler
Hydrogen dry equipment
4.3.2 System start up
1) Tank level must be normal.
2) Anyone heat exchangers inlet and outlet valves opened .pump inlet valve open , outlet
valve close .
3) Start pump before fill water to system.
4) All air must be vented.
5) Fill water to all cooler.
6) Start pump .
4.3.3 System shut down
1) This system need not shut down commonly.
2) If need shut down this system, must confirm all users don’t need cooling.
3) Especially notice lube oil system; even if unit shut down but lube oil pump running and
turning gear running .
4) When restart up this system, must be notice that all air of system must be vented out.
4.4 Vacuum system
Exhaust into the condenser and condensed into water after steam expanding and doing
work in the steam turbine , vacuum is created in the condenser. In order to discharge the
noncondensing air which gradually accumulate in the condenser during operation, air
extraction pipes are installed on frontwater chamber, and the noncondensing air is
discharged by the vacuum pump keep vacuum. Start anyone vacuum pump before start

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ST, set up vacuum.


4.4.1 The function of vacuum system is set up vacuum before ST start. Keep vacuum after
ST start .
4.4.2 This system is composed of steam side and sea side .steam side is composed of
two vacuum pumps, two self-circulating cooling pumps, two coolers, two separate tank
and one vacuum break valve. sea side is composed of two vacuum pumps and two
separate tank .
4.4.3 vacuum pump makeup water from condensate water system .
4.4.4 Vacuum pump start procedure
1) Check inlet manual valves opened and vacuum break valve closed position.
2) CCCW system must be in service.
3) Condensate water pump must be start.
4) Separate tank level is normal and water supply in service.
5) At first start self- circulating water pump.
6) Start up vacuum pump and then check inlet valve open automatically when vacuum H
switch close.
7) Check vacuum pump working is normal.
8) Check cooler in service.
4.4.5 Vacuum pumps shut down
1) Vacuum pump will be shut down after ST shut down.
2) Stop vacuum pump and then stop self-circulating pump.
3) Check vacuum drop.
Notice: ST cold start: at first extract air and then when main steam temperature enough
put into gland sealing system; ST warm start: at first when main steam temperature
enough put into sealing system and then extract air out.
4.5 Lube oil system & Sealing oil system
4.5.1 The function of lube oil system as follows:
1) Supply lube oil to all bearings.
2) Supply oil to jacking pump.
3) Supply oil to safety oil.
4.5.2 Lube oil system consists of main oil pump, HP start up oil pump, AC lube oil pump,
DC lube oil pump, two oil ejectors, two lube oil coolers and two lube oil filters.
1) Main oil pump is the same shaft with ST. when ST normal running use main oil pump
supply oil. Total three ways oil supply. First way is supply oil to NO.2 oil ejector and then to
lube oil and jacking oil pump; second way is supply oil to NO.1 oil ejector and then to main
oil pump inlet. Third way is supply oil to safety oil system for protection.
2) HP start up oil pump only supply safety oil . Difference is that HP start up oil pump will
be used ST speed less than 2850rpm. But main oil pump will be used ST speed 3000rpm.
3) AC lube oil pump supply lube oil for bearing and jacking oil pump supply oil .
4) DC lube oil pump is AC lube oil standby pump.
5) NO.1 ejector received oil from main pump or AC oil pump and then low flow oil will
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become more flow oil supply to main pump inlet.


6) NO.2 ejector received oil from main pump and then supply to lube oil for bearing and
jacking oil pump supply oil.
4.5.3 Lube oil system start up
1) Start AC lube oil pump.
2) Start HP startup oil pump when need latch.
3) Check lube oil pressure and each bearing return oil fluent.
4.5.4 Lube oil system stop.
1) When shut down ST and upper casing wall temperature is less than 90℃ can stop lube
oil system.
4.5.3 Oil sealing system
1) Oil sealing system consists of air side AC and DC oil sealing pumps, hydrogen side AC
and DC oil sealing pumps.
2) The function of Oil sealing system is that to prevent air from out flow into generator and
prevent hydrogen from generator leakage out.
4.6 jacking oil system
1) The function of shaft jacking oil system is that jacking up rotor 0.04~0.08mm before oil
films isn’t established.
2) Shaft jacking oil system consists of two jacking pump, jacking oil header.
3) Jacking oil pump supply jacking oil for every bearing.
4) Jacking oil pump start up before must lube oil pump
5) Jacking oil pump start automatically when ST speed〈1050 rpm
6) Jacking oil pump stop automatically when ST speed〈1100 rpm
7) Jacking oil pump can stop when turning gear isn’t running and 0 speed .
4.7 DEH oil system
4.7.1 Working Principle of EH system :
Steam turbine use a digital electro-hydraulic control system. The control oil for 14 Mpa the
high-pressure fire-resistant oil , the safety protection oil is 1.96 Mpa low-pressure turbine
oil. Each valve has an actuating mechanism to control valve . Among them, the actuating
mechanism of the GV is servo type . TV is switch and two-digit type. All the actuating
mechanisms rely on the hydraulic force to open the valves and depend on the spring force
to close them. The adjustable needle valve at an end of the upper-half oil cylinder of the oil
servo motor can be used to adjust the closing speed of valve, it have” adjust and buffer”
function. The actuating mechanisms of the LP steam makeup valve and LP steam
makeup regulation valve principle is similar to HP.
First use the reset solenoid valve 20/RS to reset the sliding valve of the emergency trip governor
before startup (latch). When the latch oil pressure in the sliding valve of the emergency trip
governor drops to 0.45±0.05MPa, the pressure switch 63/RS are closed to send a signal to the

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DEH control system. DEH control system can be put into operation. Afterwards, the actuating
mechanism of the TV is opened by the DEH control system. After the TV has been fully opened,
limit switch is closed , sending out a signal to the DEH control system. Then, the actuating
mechanism of the GV receives a valve-position instruction signal from the DEH control system to
open corresponding GV, thus realizing the startup, speed rise, parallel in and on-load.

4.7.2 Basic configuration of control and protection system


1) The control and protection system is classified into three parts according to
corresponding functions: fluid supply system, actuating mechanism, emergency tripping
system.
2) The fluid supply system is also divided into EH fluid power unit, self-circulation cooling
system, fluid regeneration system and EH fluid piping with accessory.
3) The actuating mechanism contains one actuator for HP main stop valve, one actuator
for low pressure feed steam actuator(main stop valve), two actuators for HP control valve
and one for low pressure feed steam actuator(governor valve) respectively.
4) The emergency tripping system includes OPC/AST solenoid valve group, diaphragm
valve, emergency governor, pilot valve of emergency governor, and lever of emergency
governor, reset device and safety operation box.
4.7.3 EH fluid power unit
The main function of EH fluid power unit is to provide the actuators with the necessary
hydraulic power and maintain the normal physical and chemical properties of the hydraulic
fluid. Backup filtering mechanism interface is provided on EH fluid power unit.
The requirement for the power supply of the oil supply device:
Two main oil pumps motor: 15 kW, 415 VAC, 50 Hz, 3 phase, 27.6A
One circulation pump motor: 1.5 kW, 415 VAC, 50 Hz, 3 phase, 3.7 A
One circulation pump motor: 0.75KW, 415VAC, 50HZ, 3 phase, 1.88A
One electric heater: 1x3 kW, 415 VAC, 50 Hz, 3 phase, 4.5 A
Warning: variable piston pump requires high cleanliness and strict viscosity of fluid. The
pump could be started only after confirming the fluid temperature is higher than 20℃.
EH fluid power unit has two independent pumps one of which is for operation and the
other for backup during normal operation. When the turbine control system requires
higher flow or the system pressure is low due to some reasons, the interlocking could be
used to start another fluid pump so that two main fluid pumps could be put into operation
at the same time to meet the requirements for flow and pressure by system.
All sealing parts for this device use fluororubber. The Peltry accumulator uses butyl rubber
and painting is of special polyurethane paintings.
Notes: the sealing parts are the lifeline of hydraulic system. No sealing parts made of
butadiene acrylonitrile rubber could be used for this system.
In order to ensure the performance of fluid, the self-circulation cooling and heating system
as well as the regeneration system is provided in the system. The fluid regeneration
system is resin filter and cellulose filter.
4.7.4 Actuator
4.7.4.1 Actuator for HP main stop valve

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One actuator for HP main stop valve is installed on the HP main stop valve in front of the
front pedestal. The on-off solenoid valve and movable test solenoid valve are provided on
the actuator for HP main stop valve. The actuator for HP main stop valve is two position
opening/closing type. The hydraulic cylinder has the function of adjustable buffering.
Actuator for HP main stop valve will accept the control signal from DEH control system.
The on-off solenoid valve will close when de-energizing after receiving the signal from
DEH control system so that the channel to pressure returned oil from automatic shutdown
tripping(AST) control oil in upper chamber of dump valve will be blocked and the slide
valve on dump valve will be closed under the action of AST oil pressure and spring force.
At this moment, the HP fire resistant fluid will enter the lower half of actuator cylinder and
dump valve through throttle holes. Under the fluid pressure, this actuator will overcome
the forces of steam on valves, friction force, valve weight and spring force of spring
housing to open the HP main stop valve. When the actuator for HP main stop valve moves
to the fully opening limiting travel, the travel switch on spring housing will close and one
signal will be sent to DEH to indicate that the main stop valve has been opened.
There is an inserted dump valve on the manifold of actuator assy. It is able to open rapidly
while the auto-stop tripping oil (AST oil) drains due to the emergency situation occurred,
thus to drain the pressure oil in the chamber under piston of the actuator quickly. At this
moment, HP main stop valve will close rapidly by the spring force.
There is a movable test solenoid valve on the manifold of actuator assy. This solenoid
valve is connected to the pressure returning oil pipe. When the movement test for the HP
main stop valve is required, the DEH control device will send a signal to move the main
stop valve and part of the pressure oil in the chamber under piston of the actuator will be
discharged through the throttle holes after the solenoid valve so that the oil pressure of the
chamber under the piston of the actuator will drop. The HP main stop valve will drop for
certain travel under the action of spring force, so as to realize the purpose of the
movement test.
4.7.4.2 Actuator for HP control valve
The HP control valve actuator is of continuous servo type and able to move the HP control
valve to any required position for proportional regulating the inlet steam flow according to
the operation requirement of the turbine.
DEH control signal will drive the electro-hydraulic servo valve to move the main valve core
so as to control the channel of servo valve to make the high pressure fire resistant oil
enter the working chamber of actuator, then to move the piston of actuator and then to
open the HP control valve or discharge the pressure oil from the working chamber. The
HP control valve will be closed by reverse movement of piston with the spring force. The
movement of actuator piston will drive two linear displacement sensors (LVDT) to move.
The displacement of actuator piston will be converted into electrical signal which will be
added to the signal sent after computer processing. Because of the reverse polarity,
actually it is the subtraction. The main valve of servo valve will return to the middle
position only after adding the original input signal and feedback signal to make the signal
input to amplifier at zero. No HP oil will enter the working chamber of actuator. The HP
main stop valve will stop to move and stay at new working position.
There is an inserted dump valve on the manifold of actuator assy. It is able to open rapidly
while the overspeed protection oil (OPC) drains due to the emergency situation occurred,
thus to drain the pressure oil in the chamber under piston of the actuator quickly. At this
moment, the actuator for each HP control valve will close rapidly by the spring force.
4.7.5 Emergency tripping protection system
In order to prevent the serious accident of unit due to the partial equipment failure during
turbine operation, the emergency tripping protection system is provided on the unit.

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4.7.5.1 Emergency trip test device


This device includes one EH oil pressure test device, one bearing oil pressure test device,
one condenser vacuum test device and two test devices for emergency oil pump and
bearing oil pump. The on-line test and maintenance could be made.
4.7.5.2 OPC/AST solenoid valve group
The OPC/AST solenoid valve assemblies composed of two overspeed protection solenoid
valves (20/OPC-1, 2) connected in series, two check valves and four automatic shutdown
tripping protection solenoid valves(20/AST-1, 2, 3,4)connected in both series and paralell
as well as one control module. When the speed exceeds 103% of the rated speed, the
OPC action signal will be sent and OPC solenoid valve will be open by excitation so
that the OPC mains oil will be discharged to EH oil tank through pressureless oil pipe.
Thus the dump valve on corresponding control valve actuator will be open rapidly to close
the HP control valve and LP feed steam main stop valve.
During the emergency, the AST signal will be sent and four AST solenoid valves will be
open after de-energizing so that the AST mains oil will be discharged to EH oil tank
through DV oil pipe. Thus the dump valve on the main stop valve actuator and control
valve actuator will be open rapidly and to close each valves rapidly.
4.7.6 Diaphragm valve
The interface between LP turbine oil mechanical safety protection system and HP fire
resistance oil emergency tripping system is diaphragm valve which will receive the control
from LP turbine oil mechanical safety and protection system to trip the HP fire resistant oil
tripping system.
4.7.7 LP turbine oil safety and protection system
The mechanical overspeed and manual shutdown device includes the emergency
governor, lever of emergency governor, pilot valve of emergency governor and safety
operation box. The function of this system is to cut off the steam to turbine to shutdown
the steam turbine and send the alarm signal under the conditions as follows:
The emergency governor will actuate when the working speed of turbine reaches
110%-112% of the rated speed.
During the manual trip pilot valve, each main stop valve and control valve shall be closed.
4.7.7.1 Reset of unit
The system is provided one set of remote reset device for pilot valve of emergency
governor for the remote reset of pilot valve of emergency governor. During the remote
reset, the procedures are as follows: push the reset button and the reset solenoid valve on
the reset device will open by energizing to discharge the reset oil in the upper chamber of
pilot valve of emergency governor (the reset oil is formed by the pressure oil going
through the throttle hole of Ф4.5) . The pilot valve of emergency governor will move from
the bottom stop point to the top stop point under the action of oil pressure. Thus, the oil
drain port of LP safety oil will be blocked and this oil will enter the upper chamber of
diaphragm valve. The diaphragm valve will be closed under the oil pressure of LP safety
oil to block the oil discharge port of automatic shutdown tripping mains of HP fire resistant
oil emergency tripping system and then the EH control system could be put into operation.
When the reset oil pressure of pilot valve of emergency governor drops to 0.45MPa, the
63/RS pressure switch contacts on the reset oil pipe will be closed to send the signal to
DEH control system to make the reset solenoid valve to de-energize so that the oil
pressure in the upper chamber of pilot valve of emergency governor will recover to
1.96MPa. The reset program of turbine unit could be completed.
4.7.7.2 Trip of turbine unit
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As for the unit reliability and operation requirements, both redundant mechanical and
manual tripping ways are provided for LP turbine oil safety system.
4.7.7.3 Mechanical overspeed protection
The mechanical overspeed protection system is composed of emergency governor, pilot
valve of emergency governor and lever of emergency governor with double channels.
That is to say two sets of centrifugal stop bolt are provided on the emergency governor
and each of which will control the corresponding pilot valve of emergency governor. The
two pilot valves are connected in parallel. Only one action will rapidly close the main stop
valve and control valve. The operating speed is the 110-112% of the rated speed. During
the normal operation of turbine, the pressure oil from throttle holes will enter the bottom of
pilot valve of emergency governor to push the pilot valve to the upper stop point. When
the working speed of turbine reaches 110%-112% of the rated speed, the centrifugal force
will overcome the spring force. The stop bolt will fly to hit the lever of emergency governor
to move the pilot valve downwards so that the safety and protection oil pipe on the top of
diaphragm valve will be connected with discharged oil to open the diaphragm valve rapidly
and to close each valve of EH control system under the spring force of control seat to stop
the steam admission to turbine. Changing the spring force of stop bolt could change the
working speed of stop bolt. When adjust the screw cap at clockwise direction, rotating of
each 30° equals to increasing the working speed of stop bolt by 105r/min. Two sets of
identical actuators are provided for emergency governor, lever of emergency governor
and pilot valve of emergency governor. The intersecting actuation could be performed to
ensure that the emergency tripping system will not fail when any stop bolt and pilot valve
is jamming.
4.7.7.4 Manual shutdown
Safety operation box is provided on the front pedestal in the front of the turbine and the
manual pushbutton is provided on the safety operation box. The safety operation box is
the control and test device for emergency tripping system and is installed at the external
side of front pedestal as well as composed of one operating valve, two jetting test pilot
valve and one manual trip pilot valve.
Pushing manual trip pilot valve will move the pilot valve downward and the automatic
shutdown oil pipe and l discharge oil are connected. The oil pressure will drop rapidly to
actuate the pilot valve of emergency governor so that the safety oil could be discharged to
close the main stop valve and control valve.
4.7.7.5 Oil spray test
A manipulation sliding valve and two overspeed test sliding valves on the safety protection
box are used to perform the overspeed test.

The operation pilot valve could be used to select the stop bolt for oil jetting test. Three oil
ports are provided on the operation pilot valve. Rotate the pilot valve to 1# (or 2#) to make
the pressure oil enter 1# (or 2#) oil jetting test pilot valve. The pressure oil will enter the
lever of emergency governor through the oil jetting test pilot valve and move the lever
towards right (left) side. At this moment, pushing the small pilot valve of manual oil jetting
test ,the pressure oil will enter the bottom of 1# (or 2# )stop bolt of emergency governor to
actuate the 1# stop bolt at the rated speed (or slightly lower than the rated speed).
Release the small pilot valve so that the small pilot valve will recover to the top stop point
under the action of spring force to cut off the pressure oil to the bottom of stop bolt. After
the stop bolt recover to original place, the operation pilot valve will be rotated to the middle
position to cut off the pressure oil to the lever of emergency governor. The lever of
emergency tripping device will recover to its position. The oil jetting test pilot valve will
return to the bottom stop point under the action of spring force.

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Two local indicators are installed on the safety operation box to indicate the actuation of
1# and 2# stop bolts of emergency governor.
4.7.8 Setting value of EH system
No. Item Setting value Remarks
1 EH system pressure 14 MPa
Open pressure of overflow valve of
2 16.8 MPa
EH oil supply device
Nitrogen filling pressure of HP
3 9.4-9.8MPa
accumulator
Working temperature range of EH oil
4 37-60°C
in EH oil tank
Switch level setting of EH oil tank oil
level
Low alarm of EH oil level 450mm
When the oil level in EH
Pre-tripping of low EH oil level (stop
oil tank reaches the
5 heater) 370mm
setting value, the level
Tripping for low EH oil level (stop
switch will act
main oil pump) 230mm
Tripping for low EH oil level (stop
main oil pump) 230mm
output current of 4-20mA
6 Pressure transmitter when the oil pressure is
0-21MPa
7 63/HP alarm for high EH oil pressure 16.2Mpa
8 63/MP start the backup oil pump 11.2Mpa
9 63/LPalarm for low EH oil pressure 11.2MPa
63-1/LP tripping for low EH oil
10 9.8MPa
pressure
63-2/LP tripping for low EH oil
11 9.8Mpa
pressure
63-3/LP tripping for low EH oil
12 9.8Mpa
pressure
63-4/LP tripping for low EH oil
13 9.8Mpa
pressure
55°C put the cooler into
operation, cut off the
heater
37 °C low oil temperature
alarm, shutdown the
cooler
it is not allowed to start
14 23/CW-EHR
the main oil pump when
the oil temperature is
lower than 20°C, low oil
temperature alarm
Alarm when the oil
temperature is higher
than 60°C
Alarm when Indicate the 1# channel
15 63-1 /ASP
the oil actuation

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pressure is
higher than
9.6 MPa
Alarm when
the oil
Indicate the 2# channel
16 63-2 /ASP pressure is
actuation
lower
than4.2mpa
Oil pressure
Indicate turbine
17 63/OPC is lower than
overspeed
7.0 MPa
Alarm when
Indicate the high
the differential
differential pressure at
18 63-1/MPF pressure is
outlet strainer of 1#
higher than
pump
0.24MPa
alarm when
Indicate the high
the differential
differential pressure at
19 63-2/MPF pressure is
outlet strainer of 2#
higher than
pump
0.24MPa
Contact
closing when
the oil
pressure is
Indicate the turbine
lower than
20 63-1, 2, 3/AST emergency tripping. The
7.0MPa.
turbine is shutdown
diaphragm
valve has
been
actuated.
21 Actuator for HP main stop valve On-off type Working travel 0-105mm
Servo valve
22 actuator of HP control valve input current Working travel 0-68mm
is ±40mA
23 Cooling water pressure Should be 0.2~0.5Mpa
24 Cooling water temperature lower than 35℃
Rated pressure of turbine safety and
25 1.96 MPa
protection oil
4.7.9 Operation and maintenance of EH system
The control and protection system could be put into normal operation after the circulating
and adjustment test for the HP fire resistant oil system and turbine oil system.
4.7.9.1 Oil pump start condition of EH oil pump
The heater shall be started if the EH oil supply system is working at the environment with
low temperature. The EH oil supply system can not work below 20°C.
4.7.9.2 Mutual backup test and put into operation
The operator shall start one EH oil pump A on the control panel of control room. When the
pump A is in normal working, push the “mutual backup test” switch, the oil pump B will be
started. Shut down the oil pump B by push the “B pump off” switch. After the mutual
backup test, close the backup pump, EH system will be in normal working condition.
4.7.9.3 Inspection
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The operator shall record the following parameters every one hour.
Parameter name Allowable limit Record

Oil pressure of
14.0±0.5Mpa
EH system

Working oil pump running


Oil pressure at pump outlet 14.0±0.5Mpa
EH Oil level of oil tank 500-700mm
system Oil temperature of oil tank 37-60°C
System leakage situation None
PD of return oil with pressure filter <0.35Mpa
PD of cycling return oil filter <0.35Mpa

System oil
1.96±0.02Mpa
pressure

Oil level in oil tank


Safety
Oil of Oil temperature of oil tank 40-45°C
turbine Oil pressure at pump outlet 1.96Mpa
system
System leakage None
Oil pressure in upper chamber of 1.96±0.0
diaphragm valve 5Mpa
4.7.9.4 Latch on
Push the reset button in main control room. The reset solenoid valve on reset device will
be open by energizing to discharge the reset oil in upper chamber of pilot valve of
emergency governor (such reset oil is formed by the pressure oil by passing the throttle
hole with diameter of Ф4.5). The pilot valve of emergency governor will move from the
bottom stop point to the top stop point under the action of pressure oil so that the
discharge port of LP safety oil will be blocked. This safety oil will enter the upper chamber
of diaphragm valve and the diaphragm valve will be closed under the action of LP safety
oil pressure to block the automatic shutdown tripping mains (ie. AST control oil mains) of
HP fire resistant oil emergency tripping system. Thus the EH control system could be put
into operation.
When the reset oil pressure of the pilot valve of emergency governor drops to 0.45Mpa,
the 63/RS pressure switch contact on the reset oil pipe will be closed to send the signal to
DEH control system to make the reset solenoid valve to de-energize. The oil pressure in
the upper chamber of pilot valve of emergency governor could recover to 1.96MPa. Then
the reset procedures for turbine are completed.
4.7.9.5 EH alarm and supervision signal
--- Alarm
a) High EH oil pressure
This signal comes from the 63/HP pressure switch in terminal box of EH fluid power unit.
Once the oil pressure exceeds 16.2±0.05Mpa, this switch will be actuated. The reasons
for this shall be checked.
b) High EH oil temperature
This signal comes from the WP digital display control instrument. In case of alarm, it
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shows that the EH oil temperature has exceed 60°C. The reasons for this shall be
checked.
c) Low EH oil temperature
This signal comes from the WP digital display control instrument. In case of alarm, it
shows that the EH oil temperature is lower than 20°C. The heater need be put into
operation.
d) Low EH oil level
This signal comes from the level switch 71/FL on oil tank. When the level is lower than
230mm, EH oil system can not work any more. In case of alarm, it shall be noted if there is
any EH oil pipe crack and oil spraying occurred.
e) Alarm for low EH oil level
This signal comes from the level switch 71/FL on oil tank. In case the level in EH oil tank is
lower than 450mm, the alarm signal will be sent.
f) Pre-alarm for low EH oil level
This signal comes from the level switch 71/FL on oil tank. In case the level in EH oil tank is
lower than 370mm, the alarm signal will be sent.
g) Low EH oil pressure
This signal comes from 63/LP pressure switch. In case of any alarm, it shall be noted it is
possible to occur the low EH oil pressure tripping.
h) Tripping for low EH oil pressure
This signal comes from 63-1,2,3,4/LP pressure switch on EH mains. In case of its
actuation, the turbine will trip.
i) High differential pressure of strainer at outlet of EH oil pump A
This signal comes from 63-1/MPF differential pressure switch. When the oil temperature is
lower than 45°C, it is normal that the terminal block will alarm. If the differential pressure
switch alarms when the oil temperature is higher than 45°C, the outlet strainer core of
pump A shall be replaced.
j) High differential pressure of strainer at outlet of EH oil pump B
This signal comes from 63-2/MPF differential pressure switch. When the oil temperature is
lower than 45°C, it is normal that the terminal block will alarm. If the differential pressure
switch alarms when the oil temperature is higher than 45°C, the outlet strainer core of
pump B shall be replaced.
k) Turbine overspeed
This signal comes from 63/OPC pressure switch. In case of any alarm, it shows that the
OPC solenoid valves have been actuated on the OPC/AST solenoid valve group and the
unit speed is 103% of the rated speed.
l) Turbine tripping
This signal comes from 63-1/AST, 63-2/AST and 63-3/AST pressure switch. In case of
alarm, it shows that the diaphragm valve has been open or AST solenoid valve has
de-energized. The unit is in the tripping state.
m) Tripping of 1# or 2# channel
This signal comes from 63-1/ASP or 63-2/ASP pressure switch. In case of any alarm, it
shows that the solenoids on 1# or 2# channel on AST solenoid valve group have been
actuated. The inspection shall be made.
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4.8 Gland sealing system


4.8.1 Generals
Measures must be taken at the portions where the turbine rotor passes through the outer
casing to prevent the air leakage from outside into the casing and affect the vacuity of the
exhaust hood. In the meantime, the steam inside the casing must also be prevented from
its leakage to the outside, especially, to the front bearing box to lead to a mixing of the
lubrication oil with water and to the turbine house to deteriorate its environmental
conditions. The gland seal system of a steam turbine is furnished just for such a purpose.
The system adopts HTC self-seal gland system and has a rational configuration and can
secure a stable operation.
Main devices in the system: HP steam station, HP gland seal spryer, LP gland seal
sprayer, overflow valve, various stop valves, and gland steam condenser. Through the
system, gland supply bus line can be kept within the scope of 0.107~0.11MPa(a) and LP
gland supply temp within 121~150℃. The control section can be connected to the control
room acc to the real condition to regulate actuators through DCS system.
4.8.2 Gland Seal of Rotor
Gland body and sealing rings are equipped at both ends of the cylinder and the teeth on
the seal rings surround the rotor with a clearance being kept to prevent any contact
between the said teeth and the rotor surface during the turbine in operation.
During startup of the steam turbine, the condenser is evacuated and the pressure in the
cylinders is lower than the atmospheric pressure. The steam supplied to the “A” chamber
of the gland seal is leaked to the cylinder of the turbine at one side and to “B” chamber at
another side. If the gland steam condenser is in normal operation to maintain the pressure
in “B” chamber slightly lower than the atmospheric pressure, the air is leaked into the “B”
chamber through the end gland seal, forming a steam and air mixture. Then the mixture is
evacuated from “B” chamber via a port connected with the gland steam condenser (see
Fig.1).

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Fig. 1 Gland System in Turbine Startup


With increase of turbine speed, the pressure in casing HP end will increase gradually.
When it exceeds the pressure of “A” chamber, a little steam in HP casing shall leak into
the chamber “A” through gland ring. But steam in the chamber “A” shall flow into the
chamber “B” only. When the pressure in chamber “A” exceeds the supply pressure, most
steam of chamber “A” shall flow into gland bus line, other steam flows into chamber “B”
and then enters gland condenser. Steam leakage increases with load and pressure boost
and when it reaches a certain value (≈60%), the flow from the chamber “A” to the bus line
can meet LP gland demand for maintaining vacuum, HP steam source is unnecessary.
Self-seal is fulfilled. With load increase, superfluous leakage will appear in gland bus line.
Then superfluous steam shall be discharged into gland condenser through overflow valve.
So the system operates as a self-seal system (Fig. 2).

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Fig. 2 Gland System in Normal Operation


4.8.3 Gland Seal System
4.8.3.1 Steam Pressure Controller
Function of HP steam control valve is to keep pressure of gland steam within in a certain
range. The control valve serves as the air-controlled film actuator. It is equipped with an
intelligent locator and a filter relief valve. The locator can receive 4~20mADC control
signal and feed back 4~20mADC valve position signal. Therefore, the control valve can
maintain pressure for gland seal and intelligent locator in all operating conditions. The
gland seal system of the whole unit can serve as a self-seal system.
In turbine start or low load operation, HP steam source supplies steam to pressure box
through HP steam-supply control valve, and then supplies steam to all glands of turbine.
The HP steam source is from fresh steam. At this time, overflow valve is in closed state.
When the unit reaches a certain load (≈60%) and HP gland leakage is more than or equal
to LP gland demand, the overflow valve is opened, through which superfluous steam is
sent to the gland condenser. At this time, HP steam source should be closed. Then the
system operates as a self-seal system.
4.8.3.2 Steam Temp Controller
Steam temp controller in this system is used to reduce temp of gland seal steam before
entering gland, to avoid any possible distortion of gland shell and damage to turbine rotors.
It consists of HP steam-supply temp control station and LP desuperheating temp control
station. Main devices in the temp control station are desuperheating water control valve
and desuperheater. Temp signal after HP desuperheater is taken from the compared
value between HP casing inner wall temp and steam temp inside gland chamber. It is not
constant and about ±110℃. Temp signal after LP desuperheater is taken from steam
temp in LP casing rear gland chamber and set at 150℃.
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4.8.4 Gland Steam Condenser


Gland condenser accepts steam leaked from valve stem and chamber “B” with the value
slightly lower than barometric pressure, namely 0.095MPa (a). Therefore, negative
pressure is always maintained in the chamber “B”.
4.8.5 Safety Valve
Steam-supply pressure to gland system is possible to exceed the design value, so a
safety valve is arranged in the system, to release potential overpressure caused by wrong
act of control valve. It is a “sudden-open” relief valve under direct pressure action and with
set value of 0.28MPa (a).
4.8.6 Steam Filter
To prevent foreign matters from entering into the gland seals and causing damage to
the rotor, the steam filters are used in every steam supply pipelines of the gland seals and
the “Y”-shaped branch pipes shall be installed horizontally or placed on the top of the
pipes, thus ensuring an air vent by the filters themselves.
4.8.7 Operation of Gland Sealing System
4.8.7.1 Start-up
A) Under the condition that all the drain water valves on the steam turbine and steam in
taking pipelines are opened, the turning gear shall be put into service.
B) Establish a water circulation through the condenser water recycle
C) Start up the condensate water pump and establish a cooling water flow rate through
the gland steam condenser.
D) Open the vent on the condensate water system until all the residual air is discharged to
the atmosphere.
E) Make sure that the drain system of gland steam condenser is opened to the condenser.
F) Make sure that primary and secondary valves of the instruments are opened in the
gland sealing system , instruments put into serve .
G) Make sure that all manual stop valves of gland sealing pressure and temp control valve
before and after , bypass valves are in the closed state.
H) Make sure that the startup steam source temp must have a degree of superheat above
14 ℃.
I) Make sure no water in steam supply pipeline
J) Operator should confirm that steam supply temp corresponds to the measured surface
metal temp.
K) After confirm no water in steam supply pipe of control valve inlet and steam supply
temp in the allowable range, confirm the followings: bypass valve of control valve is in
closed state, open manual stop valves besides every control valve, and start steam supply
of each control valve.
L) When the steam pressure in the steam supply mainline of the gland seals is established
and the said mainline is warmed up, immediately start fan of gland condenser.
M) Make sure that each chamber of the gland seals for the cylinders has a vacuity at a low
degree.
N) Make sure that the steam in various gland seal chambers does not leak to the
atmosphere. If any leakage of steam is found, the vacuity maintained by use of the air
ejector shall be enhanced or the pressure regulating valve or the cut-off valves on various
branch lines for steam supply shall be adjusted or the opening degrees of various cut-off
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valves shall be regulated to reduce the steam pressure in the gland seal steam mainline
until the said leakage of steam to the outside is stopped.
O) Inspect the temperature in the gland seal steam supply mainline, inspect the
temperature difference between the inner wall temperature of the HP cylinder and steam
in the gland seal chambers, ensure the said difference to be less than 110℃ and the
steam temperature in the rear gland seal steam supply chamber to be between 121℃ to
150 ℃. Inspect the gland seal steam pipelines to see whether the drain inside flows freely.
P) Close the vacuum breaking valve, start up the air ejector equipment and establish a
vacuity as high as possible in the condenser. Prior to an establishment of a maximum flow
rate in each gland seals, the steam amount necessary for the gland seals will increase
with an increase of the vacuity in the condenser.
Q) If the steam turbine adopts the automatic control mode to start up, the steam turbine
shall not be stopped turning under the following conditions:
1). Low steam temp of HP gland seal
2). Large temp diff. btw gland steam supply & end wall metal
3). Not set LP gland supply temp btw Max. & Min. limits properly
If any the above mentioned case is found, turning should continue before troubleshooting.
4.8.7.2 Stop gland sealing system
A) When shut down ST need adjust average tank pressure anytime according to main
steam pressure.
B) When vacuum drop to 0Kpa and then stop sealing system after ST has shut down.
C) Stop sealing fan after stop sealing system.
4.8.8 What difference put on sealing system between hot start and cold start?
1) Cold start: first extract vacuum for condenser and then when main steam about 200℃
put on sealing .
2) Hot start : when main steam temperature is more than casing wall temperature, put
sealing system first and then extract vacuum for condenser.
4.9 Ball clean system
4.9.1 The function of ball clean system is that clean tube of condenser cooler with rubber
balls.
4.9.2 This system consists of four pumps, two ball charging box and two collectors.
4.9.3 There are two ball clean sets installed in inlet and outlet pipe of condenser cooler
water supply.
4.9.4 Start up system (cleaning)
① Turn the Ball collector at a +30°position for balls collecting and Cleaning.
② Start the inlet ball valve of the Rubber ball pump. Wait a minute.
③ Set the Ball charging box in ball casting for Cleaning mode. Start up the
turbulence disturbing speed reducer.
④ Switch on the outlet ball valve of the Ball charging box.
⑤ Start up the Rubber ball pump.

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⑥ Check the system’s work. From the observation borehole, the rubber balls can
been seen flowing
⑦ Cast balls to clean for 30 minutes.

4.9.5Ball collection
① Set the Ball charging box in ball collection mode.
② The rubber balls gather in the Ball charging box gradually for 60 minutes.

4.9.6 Shut down system


① Stop Rubber ball pump.
② Stop the turbulence disturbing speed reducer
③ Switch off the inlet ball valve of the ball pump.
④ Switch off the outlet ball valve of the Ball charging box.
⑤ Switch on the water discharge valve and exhaust steam valve of the Ball charging
box.
4.9.7Back wash
When the rubber ball cleaning device system is out of work, you can switch on
the differential pressure switch ,open the moving net board and set it in -10°position
to back wash in case the circulating water pipes are seriously blocked. However, this
work is prohibited when the Rubber ball cleaning device is in work.
The adjustment device of the lower funnel for different handle’s positions is
effective to increase the ball collection rate.

4.10 Bypass system


4.10.1 Protection performance
a. Safety protection performance of steam pipelines: the bypass should be able to be
quickly and automatically opened when one of the following cases occurs during the
operation of the turbo-generator :
(1) Steam turbine tripped;
(2) main steam pressure overpressure;
(3) Power generator load rejection.
b. Safety protection performance of condenser: the bypass should be able to be quickly
and automatically closed when one of the following cases occurs during the start-up or
operation of the turbo-generator :

(1) The vacuum of the condenser dropped below the set value(if parallel in , >-80KPa;if
no parallel in , >-50KPa);
(2) The temperature of the condenser is above the set value(>100℃);
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(3) The outlet temperature of the bypass valve is above the set value(>180℃);

(4) The spray water pressure is below the set value ;

(5) The water level in the hot well of the condenser is above the set value(>1050mm).

c. The bypass system should have the following interlock protection means:
(9) The bypass valve should remain closed when the water spray valve can not be
opened;
(10) The water spray regulator valve should be closed automatically when bypass valve is
quickly closed ;
(11) The water spray regulator valve should be opened automatically when the bypass
valve is quickly opened.
4.10.2 Bypass regulation performance
The automatic control system of the bypass system can ensure that the bypass system
keep the set range, the pressure and temperature can be controlled automatically
according set value. Necessary alarm signals are provided in the bypass system.
Major Parameters of HP Bypass System
Item Unit Data
inlet pressure Mpa 8.44
Inlet temperature ℃ 536
Conditions

Inlet flow T/h 178


Service

Outlet pressure Mpa 0.6


Outlet temperature ℃ 160
Quick open S <3
Quick close S <3
Water spray regulator valve
Item Unit Data
inlet pressure Mpa 1.3
Inlet temperature ℃ 42
Conditions
Service

Inlet flow T/h 49.87


Outlet pressure Mpa 0.6
Quick open S <3
Quick close S <3
Major parameters of LP bypass system
Item Unit Data
inlet pressure Mpa 0.78
Inlet temperature ℃ 273
Conditions
Service

Inlet flow T/h 37.5


Outlet pressure Mpa 0.6
Outlet temperature ℃ 160
Quick open S <3

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Quick close S <3
Water spray regulator valve
Item Unit Data
inlet pressure Mpa 1.3
Inlet temperature ℃ 42
Conditions
Service

Inlet flow T/h 3.52


Outlet pressure Mpa 0.6
Quick open S <3
Quick close S <3

4.11 Forbidden start ST conditions


Sped meter failure
Governing system can't maintain steam turbine idling or dynamic rises speed exceed
emergency governor action value after load .

Anyone valve of TV、GV、RSV、IV is leakage 、jamming or action failure.


Overspeed test of emergency governor is unqualified.
Steam turbine anyone trip protection failure .
Any one of the main steam turbine control parameters lost surveillance or any one of the main
adjustment control device failure.
Eccentricity of ST shaft exceed 76.2um .

Any one of HP startup oil pump 、EH oil pump 、lube oil pump、emergency oil pump 、jacking
oil pump failure or it auto start device failure .

Differential temperature of HP 、IP outer casing inwall up-bottom ≥ 56℃

Turning gear failure 、turning gear fixedly 、overcurrent

Steam turbine static and dynamic parts have clear metal static friction sound or other abnormal
sound.

Steam、water、 oil quality isn‘t qualified.

4.12 Tests before start ST


4.12.1 Lube oil pressure low protection test
A) Test Conditions
1) Do oil low pressure protection test before each startup of unit.
2) AC lube oil pump and turning gear keep running, DC lube oil pump standby.
3) Contact I&C to cooperate with the test. I&C protection and signal devices should be in
service. Put lube oil pressure low protection into.
B) Test Methods
1). Open bypass manual valve of DC lube oil pump auto start test magnetic valve NO.1
slowly .

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2). When lube oil pressure decreases to 0.05MPa, lube oil pressure low alarm and
interlock start DC lube oil pump , then stop AC lube oil pump .
3). Open bypass manual valve of AC lube oil pump auto start test magnetic valve NO.1
slowly .
4). When lube oil pressure decreases to 0.07MPa, lube oil pressure low alarm and
interlock start AC lube oil pump , then stop DC lube oil pump .
5). Use the same method do AC/DC lube oil pump auto start test magnetic valve NO.2 .
6). Open bypass manual valve of NO.1 channel lube oil L trip test magnetic valve. When
lube oil pressure decreases to 0.05MPa , NO.1 channel action .
7). Use the same method do NO.2 channel .
8). NO.1 channel and NO.2 channel all action ,ST trip .
9). Drainage 63/TG switch pressure . check turning gear automatically tripped.
10). After the test, recovery measures to before.
Notice: Monitors lube oil pressure. If any abnormal conditions occurred, stop the test.
4.12.2 Vacuum low test
A) Low vacuum protection test should be done in the following conditions:
1) Newly-assembling ST starts up after minor inspection and major overhaul.
2) During ST startup , low vacuum protection cut .
B) Test conditions
2) I&C protection and signal device are in good status. Low vacuum protection switches
on during test.
3) The test should be done online .
Press LV button on ETS panel to check NO.1 or NO.2 channel .
4.12.3 DC lube oil pump and DC sealing oil pump start up
1) DC lube oil pump and DC sealing oil pump must be start by remote before ST start or
stop .
4.12.4 EH Oil Low test
4.12.4.1 Test Conditions
1) HP oil pump and EH oil pump operates, open main stop valve and HP&LP governor
valves.
2) I&C personnel should cooperate to do the test.
4.12.4.3 Test methods
6). Open bypass manual valve of NO.1 channel EH oil L trip test magnetic valve. When EH
oil pressure decreases to 9.8 Mpa , NO.1 channel action .
7). Use the same method do NO.2 channel .
8). NO.1 channel and NO.2 channel all action ,ST trip .
4.12.5 Sealing oil pump interlock test
4.12.5.1 Air side and hydrogen side sealing oil pump interlock test should be done before
ST start up.
4.13 Cold start procedure
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These tests should be done before start ST as follows.


a) Turbine AC lubricate oil pump, generator sealing oil standby pump, turbine DC lubricate
oil interlock test.
b) Generator sealing oil standby pump interlock test.
c) EH oil pump interlock test.
d) Jacking oil pump interlock test.
e) Air sealing oil vapor extractor and turbine lubricate oil vapor extractor interlock test.
f) Vacuum pump interlock test.
g) Circulating water pump test.
h) Closed circulating cooling water pump interlock test.
i) Condensing water pump interlock test.
j) Interlock test for cooling water pump in generator stator.
k) HP & LP drum and deaerator water level protection test.
l) ETS channel test.
m) OPC solenoid valve test.
n) Turbine protection interlock test.
o) On-off test for all motorized valves, pneumatic valves and regulation valves.
Above tests are executed after major or minor maintenance. Some tests can be done
separately after maintenance according to actual requirement.
4.13.1 Concepts of cold and hot start up of steam turbine
4.13.1.1 The turbine start up includes cold start up, warm start up and hot start up. The
standards for identification are the metal temperature at inner wall of HP inner casing.
When the temperature is lower than 150℃, it is cold start up. From 150℃~400℃,it is
warm start up. When the temperature is higher than 400℃, it is hot start up.
Recommendation for startup time

Time from SYN. Load of


Time from rolling to rated Ratio of loading
ST status On to rated LP put
load increase
load into

Cold 210min 0.625%/min 160min 33%

Warm 160min 0.752%/min 133min 50%

Hot 110min 1.149%/min 87min 50%

4.13.2 The cold starting procedure


4.13.2.1 Put the auxiliary equipments and systems in service before start up ST:
a) Common system should be in service
------CCCW system
Check closed circle cooling water system; put one pumps in service and one pump in
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stand-by. Supply water to cooler, and keep lube oil temperature between 40-45℃.
------ CCW system
Check CCW system; Start one water chamber vacuum pump to establish syphonage ,
when CCW is fluent, water chamber vacuum pump will be shutdown. Put two circulating
cooling water pump in service, supply cooling water to condenser and heat-exchanger of
CCCW system.
------Compressed air system
b) Lube oil、jacking oil 、sealing oil and EH oil system should be in service.
1). Check lube oil system and jacking oil system, start AC oil pump and check lube oil
pressure and supply oil to each bearing. Start one jacking oil pump and put another pump
in stand-by, check jacking oil pressure.
2). Start one EH oil pump and then put another pump into stand-by position. Check EH oil
pressure.
3). Start air side sealing AC oil pump , another pump putinto standby; Start hydrogen side
sealing AC oil pump , another pump putinto standby
c) Put the turning gear in service
d) Check condensate water makeup water system, supply demineralized water to hot
well , keep the level in normal value.
e) Check condensate water system, start one condensate pump and put another pump in
stand-by.
f) Check the vacuum system, close vacuum break valve, start two vacuum pumps.
vacuum value should < -65Kpa.
4.13.2.2 Open bypass motor valve of superheater outlet motor valve when main steam
pressure over 1bar, Main steam by-pass should be opened to control the main steam
pressure.
a) Check by-pass
-- Spray water valve should be putinto auto .
--With by-pass valve to control main steam parameter :at 2~2.5MPa(a), 300℃~350 ℃.
4.13.2.3 When LP steam pressure reach to 1 bar, LP bypass put into service
Notice: It is forbidden to Send the steam into ST or condenser before vacuum is
less than -60kpa.
4.13.2.4 Check main stop valve and governor valve closed, the casing drain valves should
be opened and then put into auto position.
4.13.2.5 Open main steam pipe by-pass valve, warming up main steam pipe to main stop
valve. Check relate drain valve should be opened.
4.13.2.6 Gland sealing system will be put into service before start turbine 15min.
a) Check gland cooler system in service.
b) Check the gland steam system, open main steam to equalizing box motor driven valve
and warming pipe.
c) When equalizing box temperature is 150-170℃, then supply gland steam to the steam
turbine.
d) Start one gland sealing fan, another is standby.

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e) Control gland steam parameter between 15-25Kpa by pressure control valve , control
LP casing gland sealing steam temperature150℃ by spray water valve .
f) Control HP & LP gland seal shouldn't leakage.
Notice: Should warm-up sufficiently when sealing system put into service.
4.13.2.7 The starting of the steam turbine:
1). Turbine TSI indication is normal. Check the governor system and protection are normal,
I & C instruments are normal. Start HP startup oil pump and AC lube oil pump , check DC
lube oil pump is auto position in.
2). Put into protections

EH PRESSURE LOW TRIP


LUBE OIL PRESSURE LOW TRIP
CONDENSER VACUUM LOW TRIP
OVERSPEED OF TSI TRIP
AXIAL DISPLACEMENT TRIP
ROTOR VIBRATION TRIP
TURBINE DIFFERENITIAL EXPANSION TRIP
GENERATOR FAULT TRIP
HP CASING TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL HIGH TRIP
OVERSPEED OF DEH TRIP
LOSS OF POWER OF DEH TRIP
EXHUAS TEMPERATURE HIGH TRIP
BEARING TEMP AND RETURN OIL HIGH TRIP
GENERATOR STATOR COOLING WATER FLOW LL TRIP

3). Check the main steam parameter: main steam pressure 20 -25bar, main steam
temperature 300-350℃. The turbine vacuum value is over –76Kpa.
4). Open main stop valve and then rolling turbine to 500 rpm with 100rpm/min rate speed.
When speed is more than 10rpm should check turning gear is rejected. If turning gear can
not disengage automatically, should disengage and stop turning gear by manual.
(Manual trip turbine test: tripped the turbine by pushing local emergency push button.
Check the friction the rotor and casing by hearing rod.)
5). Re-start the turbine and raise the speed to 500 rpm and warm up 5 minutes.
6). Raise the turbine speed to 1050 r/min with 100rpm/min rate speed and Warm up 30
minutes. Check the casing right side and left side expansion bearing body and return oil
temperature、air & hydrogen side sealing oil pressure、condensate vacuum value、lube oil
pressure and temperature. When speed 1050rpm, jacking oil pump stopped automatically.
7). If the turbine exhaust temperature is over 80℃ or speed is more than 600rpm. LP
casing spray water valve should be opened automatically.
8).During rolling, operator notice that main steam temperature is higher 55℃ than the
temperature of front casing wall, and at the main stop valve inlet, steam temperature
raising rate isn't over 2℃/min.
9). Raise the turbine speed to 2500 r/min with 100rpm/min rate speed and Warm up 30
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minutes. During turbine speed to critical speed (1200-1900rpm), especially check the
vibration. Speed rate is 500 rpm/min during critical speed.
10). Raise speed to 3000 r/min with 100rpm/min rate speed. Check the turbine’s vibration,
expansion, differential expansion and casing temperature. If main oil pump working
normal to change main oil pump.
11). Remote trip turbine test: push the emergency push button in the control room, main
stop valve and governor valve should be closed quickly, restart the turbine and raise
speed to 3000 rpm. This operation is just for over-speed test. This operation does not
need during normal start up.
12). Synchronization control:
a. When speed is 3000rpm, should check that HP start-up oil pump and lube oil pump are
stopped and put auto position . Unit should be checked overall.
b. Contact with LDC to request synchronization. After LDC promise synchronization. The
generator should be synchronized and initial load is 3 MW, then raise load to 55MW with 2
MW/min.
13). Bypass should be closed gradually to control main steam pressure. Damper should
be opened if pressure isn’t enough.
14). Open secondary and thirdly HRSG damper, and then increase pressure and
temperature gradually, set by-pass valve to make secondary and thirdly boiler main steam
pressure is over running boiler main steam pressure 5 bar, and then parallel.
NOTICE: Parallel steam operation. Pressure is more 5bar than steam header steam.
Temperature difference is less than 50 ℃
15). Control increase load rate is less than 0.625%/min, Cold startup time is 160min from
synchronization to rated load.
16). Open secondary and thirdly boilers three-way damper, open boiler isolate main steam
valve when main steam pressure over 1 bar, with by-pass valve to control the main steam
pressure. Check by-pass spray water valve and spray water isolating valve should be
opened.
17). Check LP bypass, operation is the same as HP bypass. When ST take load 33%
rated load. LP steam should be put into service.
18). Raise the turbine load to rated load with 2 MW/min.
NOTICE: Operation of LP main steam put into service.
a). ST status before LP steam put into service
cold state:33%
warm state:50%
hot state:50%
b). Permission conditions which LP steam put into service
-- LP steam temperature before LP governor valve is high 11℃ than saturated steam.
-- Unit load is more than 20℅ rated load.
-- HP and LP pressure than more than 2 .
-- LP steam pressure before LP governor valve is more 0.5bar than after LP governor
valve when LP governor valve close.
-- LP steam pressure range between 3bar---9bar.
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-- Differential temperature is ±42℃ between LP main steam temperature and after LP


governor valve casing wall temperature. (Differential temperature is ±56℃ in normal
operation.)
c) To successfully put the LP steam system into operation, the generator must parallel in
, the LP steam valve must be closing position and the main steam flow must be greater
than its allowable flow. This is to prevent serious superheat of the flow passages in the HP
section and a large amount LP steam sucked into the steam turbine resulted from the
steam turbine has only the LP steam to do working when the LP steam valve is opened
and the LP steam system is put into service.
d) Open the LP steam main stop valve, gradually open the LP steam regulating valve and
close the LP bypass valve gradually (depending on pressure) and gradually increase the
load of the unit to its rated load. Suggest load rate 2 MW/min .
19).Drainage valves should be closed at 30MW automatically.
4.13.3 Notices during start
a) During the start, condenser, deaerator, gland steam condenser, CCCW water tank,
stator cooling water tank level is normal, oil levels in all oil tanks are normal and oil
temperature are normal.
b) After starting the turbine, lubricate oil temperature should be regulated and maintained
at 42±2℃; parameters should be stable when turbine running speed is rising.
c) When running speed is <5r/min, turbine eccentricity should be supervised strictly; when
running speed is >500 r/min, unit vibration should be supervised strictly. When unit
running speed is increased to critical area, vibration should be strictly supervised and stop
the unit as emergency stop immediately if any bearing vibration reaches to 0.254mm at
any running speed.
d) During turbine speed rising, unit abrasion sound should be listened carefully at local; if
any abnormity is found, unit should be stopped for finding out the reason. During speed
rising, DEH should keep running speed if any of the following conditions occurs; if the
running speed is within critical speed range, then it should reduction of speed below
critical speed:
Vibration is higher than 0.125mm.
Expansion difference of HP and IP is high.
Bearing returning oil temperature is 65℃ higher.
Thrust bearing metal temperature is 85℃ higher.
LP cylinder steam exhausting temperature is 80℃ higher.
4.13.4 Cold start curve

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4.14 The warm starting procedure


4.14.1 The description for warm start:
Turbine warm start is shut down after 12 to 36 hours. Casing wall temperature of HP inner
casing is 150-400℃.
The turbine warm start, first warm by-pass pipe and main steam pipe by open drain valve.
If front main steam valve parameter: main steam temperature should be over upper
casing temperature 50℃ and overheat degree of main steam is higher than 50℃, then
warm gland steam pipe and put gland steam system in service . Next step start vacuum
pump and put by-pass system in service. Other operation is same as cold start .All these
finished, we can start the turbine.
4.14.2 Warm start procedure:
a) Put the turning gear in service.
b) Check circulating cooling water system, put two circulating cooling water pump in
service, supply cooling water to condenser and all heating exchanger.
c) Check closed circle cooling water system; put one pump in service and one pump in
stand-by. Supply water to cooler and keep lube oil temperature between 40- 45℃.
d) Check make up water system, start one pump and put another pump in stand-by,
supply desalting water to hot well and keep the level in normal.
e) Check condensate water system, start one condensate pump and put another pump in
stand-by.
f) Check high pressure feed water system, start one pump and put one other pump in
stand-by. Keep the boiler HP drum level in normal.
g) Check low pressure feed water system, start one pump and put one other pump in
stand-by. Keep the boiler LP drum level in normal.
h) Open three-way damper. By-pass valve and main steam pipe should be warm-up.
i) Main steam parameter(front main steam valve): main steam temperature should be over
upper casing temperature 50℃ and overheated degree of main steam should be higher
than 50℃.
j) Check main stop valve and governor valve closed, the casing drain valve opened.
k) Check the gland steam system, open main steam to gland steam motor driven valve
and warming up the gland steam pipe. Control gland steam parameter: 15~25Kpa, the
equalizing box and shaft seal teeth temperature difference is less than 110℃ .
i) Check the vacuum system, close vacuum break valve, Start two vacuum pumps. The
turbine vacuum value should over – 65Kpa .
m) Put by-pass system in service, control parameter: main steam temperature should be
over upper casing temperature 50℃ and overheat degree of main steam is higher than
50℃. If boiler LP drum pressure reach 1 bar, LP steam warming up pipe.
n) The starting of the steam turbine:
1). Check the governor system and protection are normal, I & C instruments are normal.
2). Open main stop valve , raise the turbine speed to 500 rpm.
3) Check friction by hearing rod.
4) Raise the turbine speed to 1050 r/min with 150rpm/min speed rate and warm up 30
minutes. Check the casing right and left expansion; bearing and returning oil temperature;
condensate vacuum ; lube oil pressure and temperature.
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5) If the turbine exhaust temperature is over 80℃, open casing spray water valve.
6) During raise turbine speed to notice main steam over-heated temperature is over 50℃,
and before the main stop valve steam temperature raise temperature speed rate is not
over 6℃/min.
7) Raise the turbine speed to 2500 r/min with 150rpm/min speed rate and warm up 30
minutes.
8) Raise the turbine speed to 3000 r/min Check the pressure of high pressure oil, If main
oil pump working normal to change main oil pump. Check the turbine’s vibration;
expansion; differential expansion and casing temperature.
9) Warming-up time should be according to practical casing wall temperature and ST
expansion.
Contact with LDC to request synchronization. After LDC promise synchronization. The
generator should be synchronized and initial load is 3 MW, then raise load to 55MW with 2
MW/min. Parallel steam raise load to full load .
11) When generator load increase to 50% rated load, LP main steam put into service.
4.14.3 The curve of ST Warm-up start shown as follow.

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4.15 Hot start procedures


4.15.1 The hot starting procedure for the block
4.15.1.1 The description for block hot start:
Turbine hot start is shut down after 2-12 hours or metal temperature of upper half casing
>400℃.
At the turbine hot starting, first warm up by-pass pipe and main steam pipe by opening
drain valve. In front of main steam valve,main steam temperature should be over upper
casing temperature 50℃ and overheat degree of main steam is higher than 50℃, then
warm up gland steam pipe and put gland steam system in service. Next step is start
vacuum pump and put by-pass system in service. All these finished, we can start the
turbine. During start up turbine,it is forbidden for the steam to cool the rotor or casing ,
otherwise different expansion over large.
Block hot start procedure:
a) Put the turning gear in service.
b) Check circulating cooling water system; put two circulating cooling water pump in
service, supply cooling water to condenser. Check closed circle cooling water system put
one pump in service and one pump in stand-by. Supply water to cooler and heat
exchanger and keep lube oil temperature between 40-45℃.
c) Check make up water system, start one pump and put another pump in stand-by,
supply desalting water to hot well and keep the level in normal.
d) Check condensate water system, start one condensate pump and put another pump in
stand-by.
e) Check high pressure feed water system, start one pump and put one other pump in
stand-by. Keep the boiler HP drum level in normal.
f) Check low pressure feed water system, start one pump and put one other pump in
stand-by. Keep the boiler LP drum level in normal.
g) Open boiler three-way damper. By-pass valve and main steam pipe should be warm
up.
h) Main steam parameter (front main steam valve): main steam temperature should be
over upper casing temperature 50℃ and overheat degree is over 50℃.
i) If boiler LP drum pressure reach 0.5 bar, put deaerator heating in service. When LP
steam pressure reach 1bar, LP bypass put into service.
j) Check main stop valve and governor valve closed, the casing drain valve opened.
k) Check the gland steam system, open main steam to gland steam motor driven valve
and warming up the gland steam pipe. Control gland steam parameter: 15~25Kpa, the
equalizing box and shaft seal teeth temperature difference is less than 110℃, then supply
gland steam to the steam turbine.
l) Check the vacuum system, close vacuum break valve, Start two vacuum pumps. The
turbine vacuum value should over – 65Kpa.
m) Put by-pass system in service, control parameter: main steam temperature should be
more 50℃ than upper casing temperature and overheated degree over 50-100℃.
n) Open the secondary and thirdly HRSG three-way damper. Open boiler isolate main
steam valve when main steam pressure over 3 bar. main steam pressure should be
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controlled by By-pass valve. Check by-pass spray water valve should be opened.
o) The starting of the steam turbine:
1) Check the governor system and protection are normal, I & C instruments are normal.
2) Open main stop valve by DEH, raise the turbine speed to 500 rpm.
3) Check the friction the rotor and casing by hearing rod.
4) Re-start the turbine and raise the speed to 3000 r/min.
5) The generator synchronizes parallel in and initial load.
6) Set by-pass valve to make secondary and thirdly main steam pressure is over running
boiler main steam pressure 1 bar, and then put three boilers in parallel operation.
7) When generator load increase to 50%,LP main steam should be put in service.
8) When the secondary & thirdly LP drum steam pressure is over running boiler LP drum
steam pressure 1 bar, LP main steam should parallel into header.
9) Put all the control system that needs to be controlled automatically in service
automatically.
4.15.2. Hot start-up curve shown as follow:

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4.15.3 Notices for hot state start


4.15.3.1 Gland sealing should be done first and then extract the vacuum.
4.15.3.2 After boiler boost, bypass system should be put into operation to improve steam
parameters to satisfy the requirements of starting the turbine.
4.15.3.3 After starting the unit, speed rise, synchronization and load should be done as
soon as possible to control the temperature rise rate, up & down cylinder temperature
difference of all metal parts, cylinder expansion and vibration to be within a normal range.
4.15.3.4 Steam temperature rise and pressure rise should be done according to starting
curves of warm state, hot state.
4.15.3.5 When main steam is supplying steam to gland sealing during hot state start, main
steam head pipes should be heated sufficiently and drainage water should be discharged
completely.
4.15.3.6 During hot state start, all main steam pipelines, guide pipe drain water and proper
drain water valve must be opened.
4.15.3.7 Load rise rate in hot state start should take ‘According to start curve and cylinder
metal temperature is not cooling down’ as principle for reaching corresponding working
conditions as soon as possible quickly .
4.15.3.8 Select qualified parameters for starting turbine according to cylinder temperature
to avoid water impact in turbine.
4.16 shut down
4.16.1 Normal Stop
4.16.1.1 Preparation before Stopping Unit
a). Start AC, DC oil pump, jacking oil pump, check running are normal and stop they .
c). Inform all personnel check the equipment system completely, collect the defects and
prepare for stop unit.
4.16.1.2 Unit stopping with sliding parameter
For normal shutdown, first quit the LP steam system and then gradually drop the electric
load. At what rate to reduce the load shall be determined by the end-user according to the
practical conditions.
a). After receiving order of stopping unit with sliding parameter, One HRSG starts to close
damper gradually ,open bypass . Main steam temperature and pressure is decreased
according to requirements of sliding parameters stop. During stopping the unit with sliding
parameter. Drop load rate <3MW/min , temperature drop rate <1℃/min and main
steam pressure drop rate <0.1MPa/min.
b). When first HRSG damper closed, outlet valve of first HRSG superheater should be
closed. If first HRSG steam pressure is high, open vent valve .
c). Second HRSG damper should be closed gradually, open bypass. reduce load to 30% .
d). Generator load should be decreased by close damper or GT load decreasing.
e). Continue to decrease load with load changing rate of <3MW/min and decrease main
steam pressure with changing rate of <0.1MPa/min.
f). When load is 30 MW, drainage valves should be opened automatically.
g).When load is 10MW, operate stably for 20min and check that drainage water valves
should be opened.

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4.16.1.3 Operations after turbine synchronization off.


1) When the load decreases to minimum value , then generator parallel off .
2) Press ‘Turbine Trip’ button , check and make sure that all the HP & LP main steam
valves, HP & LP governor valves.
3) After turbine trips, make sure that turbine HP & IP main steam valves, governor
valves are closed. Stop vacuum pump.
4) When running speed decreases, pay attention to critical vibration and listen to sound
in cylinder.
5) AC lubricate oil pump start automatically after turbine trips, checking lube oil normal .
otherwise start it manually; if oil pressure decreases, DC lubricate oil pump should
start interlock, otherwise start it manually.
6) Make sure that running speed of turbine decreases and vacuum breaking valve is
prohibited to open when running speed is high then 2000r/min if there isn’t
emergency .
7) Superheater oulet valve is closed after HRSG dampers closed. In order to avoid
affect vacuum when superheater oulet valve is closed, make sure drain valve before
bypass valve is close which discharge to atmosphere. Bypass is close after
superheater oulet valve is closed , make sure that there is no steam or drainage
water with pressure enters into condenser when vacuum is broken .
8) During idling time, the lubricate oil temperature should be controlled in normal range.
Sealing oil/hydrogen differential pressure regulation should be normal, air/hydrogen
side sealing oil differential pressure balancing valve regulation should be normal.
9) When running speed decreases to 1050r/min, start the jacking oil pump
automatically ; Check all bearing jacking oil pressures are normal.
10) When turbine running speed is 600r/min, check LP cylinder temperature.
11) When running speed decreases to be lower than 400rpm, vacuum is allowed to be
broken.
12) When running speed is 0, put into turning gear locally. Records the idle time of rotor.
After turning gear putting into operation, record rotor eccentricity, HP & IP cylinder
expansion, differential expansion, first stage temperature and axial displacement
periodically.
13) Condenser vacuum is broken to zero when speed is 0, stop steam supplying for
gland sealing, close all lines of steam source of gland sealing and stop gland steam
air fan.
14) EH oil system operation according to actual requirements.
15) Condenser pump can be stopped if there isn’t condenser water user and exhaust
casing temperature< 50℃.
16) Stop open cooling water pump according closed cooling water temperature and cccw
user.
17) Turning gear can’t stopped until the inner wall metal temperature of the HP inner
casing is below 150℃.
18) If long time shut down, generator within the H 2 should be displacement into air condition,
sealing oil tank levels should be supervised strictly to avoid oil inflow generator when
displacement.
19) Sealing oil system can be stopped after displacement finished and turning gear stop.

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20) Stop the lubricate oil system of the turbine.


21) Closed cooling water pump whether can stop according to closed cooling water
users.
22) Circulating water pump whether can stop according to users.
23) Stop desalting water pump according to users.
24) Equipment maintaining and isolation for maintenance after shutdown should be done
well.
4.16.2 Notices for stopping the unit
4.16.2.1 Turbine and HRSG should cooperate well during showdown. Main steam
pressure, temperature and liquid level should be supervised strictly When close HRSG
damper or decrease GT load. Pay attention the decreasing speed of steam temperature
and cylinder wall temperature, steam temperature decreasing speed should less than
1℃/min. If steam temperature decreases acutely 50℃ within 10min, turbine should be trip
by manual.
4.16.2.2 During decreasing load, all water levels should be normal.
4.16.2.3 TSI should be supervised strictly during sliding stop, stop the turbine immediately
if any abnormal is found.
4.16.2.4 Active power of generator can’t decrease to 0 before parallel off , avoid to produce
inverse power.
4.16.2.5 Make sure that running speed decrease after trip. Vacuum breaking valve is
prohibited to open when running speed is higher than 2000r/min. Unless there is
emergency.
4.16.2.6 Check jacking oil pump running whether normal when speed <1050r/min .
4.16.2.7 All drain with pressure to condenser should be closed before condenser vacuum
is broken . When vacuum is at zero, stop the gland sealing system.
4.16.2.8 Records the idle time of rotor. Put turning gear into operation after rotor is static.
Recording rotor eccentricity, HP & IP cylinder expansion, differential expansion, first stage
temperature and axial displacement periodically after turning gear putting into operation.
Lube oil temperature should be within 38~42℃ during turning gear running, keep sealing
oil system of generator running normally. Cylinder metal temperature changing is
monitored strictly to avoid cold steam or cold water into turbine.
4.16.2.9 Turning gear should keep in running until HP inner cylinder metal wall
temperature is less than 150℃. All relevant turbine proper maintenance is prohibited to
avoid cold air into cylinder during turning gear running,. If there is any special situation
occurs, it should be reported to general engineer.
4.16.2.10 keeping one circulating water pump running after shut down and stop
condenser water pump according to actual situation.
4.16.2.11 When load ≤100MW, record the cylinder temperature once per hour until the
highest temperature point decreases to 100℃.

5. Protection logic of turbine


Interlock Condition
Item Unit Alarm Trip
≥0.8 ≥1
Axial displacement mm
≤-1 ≤-1.2

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≥6 ≥6.5
Relative expansion of HP casing mm
≤-2.8 ≤-3.3
≥6 ≥6.5
Relative expansion of LP casing mm
≤-4.5 ≤-5
Rotor vibration μm 125 254
Lube oil pressure(63-1/LBO or 63-3/LBO)
MPa 0.05
and( 63-2/LBO or 63-4/LBO)
Temperature of bearing return oil ℃ ≥65 ≥75
Alloy temperature of the thrust bearing ℃ ≥85 ≥95
Alloy temperature of the journal bearing ℃ ≥95 ≥105
temperature of the lower half of HP casing
℃ ≥41 ≥55
is lower than that of the upper half
Exhaust pressure KPa(abs.) ≥20 ≥25
Exhaust temperature of the exhaust ≥120
℃ ≥80
casing ≥80(15min)
Generator breaking water protection T/h ≤23.3 ≤17.5

6. Special operation
6.1 Tests of steam turbine
6.1.1 Local and remote emergency shut down test
6.1.1.1 Test of tripped ST by manual
Push emergency shut down button in local when unit speed 3000r/min and check main
stop valve, governor valve closed fully.
6.1.1.2 Test of start ST remotely
Reset unit and keep speed 3000r/min,and then push emergency button in CCR control
panel, check main stop valve and governor valve closed fully.
6.1.2 Main steam stop valve and governor valve tightness test
6.1.2.1 Governor valve tightness test
1) ST keeps speed 3000r/min,
2) To be sure HP start lube oil pump running, AC and DC lube oil pump standby, HP and
LP bypass put on normally.
3) It is better to keep rated pressure, if can not keep rated pressure, test pressure must be
not less 50% rated pressure, and then keep high vacuum.
4) Contact I&C to send HP and LP governor valve tightness signal by DEH. HP and LP
Main valve open , HP and LP governor valve close . record vacuum 、 main steam
pressure and idling time.
In formula :

P
n = × 1000r / min
P0

P — ST main steam test pressure,MPa;

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P o — main steam rated pressure,MPa


5)If speed down to less than formula speed ,the test is qualified
6) Trip manual after test was finished, recovery speed to 3000r/min.
6.1.2.2 Main stop valve tightness test
1) ST keeps speed 3000r/min,
2) To be sure HP start lube oil pump running, AC and DC lube oil pump standby, HP and
LP bypass put on normally.
3) It is better to keep rated pressure, if can not keep rated pressure, test pressure must be
not less 50% rated pressure, and then keep high vacuum.
4) Contact I&C to send HP and LP main valve tightness signal by DEH. HP and LP Main
valve close , HP and LP governor valve open . record vacuum 、 main steam pressure
and idling time.
In formula :

P
n = × 1000r / min
P0

P — ST main steam test pressure,MPa;


P o — main steam rated pressure,MPa
5)If speed down to less than formula speed ,the test is qualified
6) Trip manual after test was finished, recovery speed to 3000r/min.
6.1.3 Overspeed test
6.1.3.1 General introduction:
a. Overspeed test should be done in the following conditions:
b. New-assembling ST 、 after minor inspection and major overhaul.
c. After emergency governor adjusted.
d. Before load rejection of ST test.
e. Shutdown for one months and re-start.
f. ST units have been in operation for more than 2000 hours.
6.1.3.2 It is forbidden to do overspeed test in the following conditions:
a. HP and LP main stop valve and governor valves cannot close tightly.
b. ST can’t keep 3000rpm on no load.
c. Speed meter fault.
d. ST vibrations exceed the maximum value.
6.1.3.3 Test conditions
a). After steam turbine has been operated 4 hour on loading 10%-15% rated load,
generator parallel off with grid.

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b). it is forbidden to do spray oil before emergency governor overspeed test.


c). Tightness test of HP and LP main stop valve and governor valves is qualified.
d). ST can easily shutdown by local and remote emergency buttons.
e). HP oil pump, AC&DC lube oil pump standby.
f). Unit vibration values are normal.
g). Monitoring parameter are normal include bearing vibration and temperature and so on
when unit is running on 3000r/min.
h). Local and remote trip test 、Time of main valve and governor valve close 、valve
tightness test and emergency governor spray oil test all above test are certification.
i). Electric overspeed protection test is qualified.
j). All protections and monitoring gauge are normal in service.
6.1.4 Over speed test method and process
6.1.4.1 ST OPC over-speed test procedure
1) Open over-speed test menu on DEH, and select the button of the OPC over-speed
test.
2) Set target speed to 3091rpm, raise rate is100r/min.
3) When ST speed increase to 3090r/min, OPC protection active, and governor valve
shall be closed.
4) .Reset OPC over-speed test button, target speed is set to 3000r/min automatically,
when ST speed decrease to 3000r/min, OPC protection solenoid valve switch off,
governor valve shall be opened, maintain ST 3000r/min operation.

6.1.4.2 Electric over speed test procedure


1) Start HP oil pump & AC lube oil pump.
2) Open over-speed test menu on DEH, select the button of the electrical over-speed
test, OPC over-speed is be closedown , target speed is set to 3310 rpm .
3) When actual speed has exceeded to 3090 rpm, OPC protection should not act, when
actual speed has exceed to 3300rpm, 110%over speed protection signal is sent out
to ETS for shut down ST, main throttle valve & governor valve shall be closed quickly,
in order to prevent system fault, when actual speed has exceeded 3310 rpm, manual
trip.
4) Reset ETS 110%over speed protection signal, renew to catch on ST, raise ST speed
to 3000r/min.
5) Electric overspeed test contain TSI and ETS electric overspeed test. Other one
protection must cut when one electric overspeed test doing .

6.1.4.3 ST Mechanical over-speed test procedure


1) Start HP oil pump & AC lube oil pump.

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2) Switch the operational slide valve of the emergency governor test to NO.1 position,
NO.1 oil spray indicator button step out, NO.2 fly ball on working condition, first go on
testing for NO.2 fly ball.
3) Open over-speed test menu on DEH, select the button of the mechanical over-speed
test, target speed is set to 3360 rpm, OPC & 110% electrical over-speed are be
closedown automatically.
4) When fact speed is over 3090 rpm, OPC over-speed protection should not act, when
fact speed is over 3300 rpm, electrical over-speed protection should not act, when
fact speed is between 3300rpm to 3360 rpm, NO.2 emergency governor fly ball
should act, NO.2 emergency governor indicator light alarm, then main throttle valve
and governor valve are closed.
5) In order to prevent mechanical over-speed fault, when rotation speed is over
3360rpm, hardware protection module of the OPC & 110 over-speed signals send out
signals to ETS at one time.
6) Record to reset speed (the light alarm signal disappear), renew to catch on steam
turbine, raise speed to 3000r/min.
7) Testing for NO.1 emergency governor fly ball in the same way.
8) Mechanical over-speed test will be doing total twice.

6.1.5 Emergency Trip Governor Oil Spraying Test Procedure


6.1.5.1 Test condition
1) Steam turbine is first started after installation and major overhaul.
2) Operators have completed a comprehensive inspection of main and auxiliary
equipment, after the speed of steam turbine reaches to 3000rpm.

6.1.5.2 Test Procedure


1) Operator control the speed of steam turbine to 2900r/min by DEH
2) Rotating operating slide valve handle point to NO.1 oil spraying slide valve.
3) Press down the valve handle of the NO.1 oil spraying slide valve and keep it.
4) Operator increases steam turbine speed to fly ball of emergency governor active,
NO.1 indicator red light alarm, record active speed.
5) Resets alarm signal, operator decreases steam turbine speed to alarm light off,
records reset speed.
6) Testing of NO.2 emergency governor fly ball by the same method, record active
speed and reset speed.

6.2 Routine operation and notice during normal operation of steam


turbine
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Normal operation parameter and alarm setting


No. Items Unit Value Remark
1 Load MW 185
2 Frequency Hz 50±0.5
3 Main steam pressure MPa 8.4
4 Main steam temperature ℃ 536
5 Main steam flow t/h 532
6 Exhaust temperature ℃ ﹤50℃ 80℃ alarm
120℃ trip
7 Lube oil pressure Mpa 0.15 0.05 trip
8 Inlet oil pressure of main oil Mpa 0.98
pump
9 Outlet pressure of main oil Mpa 1.96
pump
10 Metal temperature of the ℃ ﹤85℃ 85℃ alarm
thrust bearing 95℃ trip
11 Equalizing box pressure Kpa 15-25
12 Outlet oil temperature of oil ℃ 38℃~42℃
cooler
13 Metal temperature of the ℃ ﹤95℃ 95℃ alarm
journal bearing 105℃ trip
14 Main oil tank level mm 0
15 Axial displacement mm -1~0.8 ≥1 trip
≤-1.2 trip
16 Bearing return oil ℃ 65℃alarm 75℃ trip
temperature
17 Differential expansion of HP mm -2.8~6 ≥6.5 trip
casing ≤-3.3 trip
18 Differential expansion of LP mm -4.5~6 ≥6.5 trip
casing ≤-5 trip
19 Condenser vacuum Kpa -93 -80 Kpa alarm
-75 Kpa trip
20 Vibration of the shaft
21 DEH oil pressure Mpa 14~16.2
22 Low supply oil pressure of Mpa 11.2 Start standby pump
EH
23 Low supply oil pressure of Mpa 9.8 trip
EH
24 Supply oil temperature of EH ℃ 37~60
25 Oil level of control oil mm 450 Low alarm
26 Oil level of control oil mm 370 Stop heater
27 Oil level of control oil mm 230 Stop oil pump
28 H 2 pressure Mpa 0.3
29 Sealing oil pressure Kpa Higher than 40Kpa alarm
H 2 pressure
50
30 Generator stator cooling Mpa ﹤0.3
water
31 Differential pressure mm ﹤60
between H 2 and air side water
sealing oil column

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6.3 Change over the standby oil cooler during normal operation of steam
turbine
1) Open oil charge valve ,Open slowly the vent valve of oil side of standby oil cooler.
Discharge air completely to ensure the oil side of the standby oil cooler is full of oil.
Open the inlet oil valve of oil cooler slowly to avoid the sudden oil pressure drop.
(The inlet oil valve of standby oil cooler is open position fully, and outlet oil valve is
close position fully.) Pay more attention to the change of the oil temperature, oil
pressure and oil lever of the main oil tank.
2) While opening the oil outlet valve of standby oil cooler, open the cooling water valve
in time. Keep the oil temperature 40±2℃ to avoid the high temperature oil that has
not been cooled down go into bearing directly. (Discharge air completely to ensure
the water side of the standby oil cooler is full of water. The inlet water valve of
standby oil cooler is close position fully, and outlet water valve is open position fully.)
3) Open the inlet water valve of standby oil cooler gradually. And adjust the oil
temperature as 40±2℃.
4) Pay attention to the oil tank lever while put the standby oil cooler in service. If the oil
level drops, the vent valve of the water room of the oil cooler can be open to check
oil cooler whether leakage .
5) Close cooling water inlet and outlet valve of oil cooler which need to be cleaned and
repaired
6) Close oil side inlet and outlet valve of oil cooler which need to be cleaned and
repaired
7) Close oil charge valve between two oil coolers, discharge the oil and water inside
the cooler which need to be cleaned and repaired. At this time, you can start
cleaning or maintaining this oil cooler.
8) After the cleaning and maintenance, close the discharge valve, open oil charge
valvevalve between two oil coolers and vent valve to make the oil refill and flow in
the oil cooler. At this time, oil cooler is back to standby status.
6.4 Half cleaning of condenser during normal operation of steam turbine
1) Decrease steam turbine to 50 % rated load.
2) Close the air extraction manual valve of the half condenser that needs cleaning.
3) Close the inlet water valve of the needs cleaning half condenser. Pay attention to the oil
temperature of oil cooler.
4) Close the outlet circuit cooling water valve of half condenser and close fully manually.
5) Open the vent valve of water room of half condenser.
6) Open the drain valve of water room of half condenser.
7) Make sure the water side of half condenser isn’t water. Inform the maintenance
department to clean the half condenser.
8) De-energize the inlet and outlet water valve of condenser circulate cooling water.
6.6 Operation after half condenser cleaning
1) Close the drain valve of the water room of half cleaning condenser.
2) Energize the inlet and outlet water valve of half condenser circulate cooling water.
3) Open the inlet circulating cooling water valve 20% to fill the half condenser. Close the
inlet valve as the water room is full of water.
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4) Open the outlet water valve of the half condenser fully. Pay attention to the oil
temperature of oil cooler.
5) Open the inlet circulating cooling water valve of half cleaning condenser fully.
6) Open fully the air extraction manual valve of the half cleaning condenser.
7) Increase the steam turbine to rated load gradually.
6.7 Routine works for steam turbine

No. Work content Date Shift Operator Supervisor Requirement


When
20/AST-1、2、3、4 Vice duty Light and sound are
1 Once per shift changing --
I&C signal test operator normal
shift
Clean trash remover
Clean it timely if it is
2 outlet of circulating water Once per shift Inspector --
dirty
pump strainer
Calibration of local &
Duty
remote water level Indications on meters
3 Once per shift operator, --
indicators of deaerator are in consistent
inspector
and condenser
Turbine AC & DC oil pump
interlock, manual start Once every Morning Duty should run for more
4 Unit chief
test, HP standby pump month shift operator than 30min
start test
Condenser water pump Once, every Morning Duty
5 Unit chief
transfer month shift operator
Once, every morning Duty Measuring insulation
6 Mechanical vacuum pump Inspector
month shift operator before start
Closed circulating water Once, every Morning Duty Measuring insulation
7 Inspector
transfer month shift operator before start
Open circulating water Once, every Morning Duty Measuring insulation
8 Inspector
transfer month shift operator before start
HP&LP feed water pump Once, every Morning Running should be
9 Inspector --
start test month shift more than 30min
AC sealing Oil pump Once, every Morning
10 Inspector Unit chief
transfer month shift
Gland steam air fan Once, every Morning Duty
11 Inspector
transfer month shift operator
DC oil pump should
DC sealing oil pump start Once, every Morning Duty
12 Unit chief continuously run for
test month shift operator
more than 10min
Stator cooling water pump Once, every Morning Duty
13 Unit chief
transfer month shift operator
Turbine oil tank air
discharging air fan and
Once, every Morning Duty
14 generator air side air Inspector
month shift operator
discharging air fan
transfer
Turbine vacuum tightness Once, every Morning Duty
15 Unit chief
test month shift operator
Stator water tank, main oil
Once, every Morning
16 tank and air discharging Inspector --
month shift
point hydrogen
17 Main steam valve, Once per year Unit chief Shift Execute after
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No. Work content Date Shift Operator Supervisor Requirement


governor valve tightness manager shutdown every year
test
Generator hydrogen Once, every Morning Duty
18 Inspector
leakage detection test month shift operator
Turbine HP main steam
Once, per Morning Duty Contact with I&C to
19 valve & governor valve Unit chief
week shift operator complete it
moving test
Oil filter front and rear
Differential Vice duty Duty
20 Oil filter transfer differential pressure
pressure high operator operator
≥0.05Mpa
Work before and after maintenance

No. Item Requirement


Two tests after major maintenance, action
running speed is 3300~3330r/min, running
1 Turbine over speed
speed difference between two actions
<18r/min
Oil jetting for emergency protector and filling oil After maintenance or 6 ~ 12 months after
2
speed rise test maintenance
3 Turbine, boiler, generator main protection tests After unit major & minor maintenance
4 Auxiliary equipments interlock and protection tests After unit major & minor maintenance
5 Motorized valve and pneumatic valve test After unit major & minor maintenance
After major maintenance or regulating speed
6 Turbine speed regulation system captive test
regulation system
7 Main steam valve, governor valve tightness test Before and after major maintenance
Safety valve calibration of HP&LP system, and After major maintenance or safety valve
8
HRSG steam& water system regulation

7. Trouble shooting
7.1 General rules for troubleshooting

7.1.1 Guideline for troubleshooting: Ensure the safety of persons, electric grids and
equipment .
7.1.2 When an accident happen , all the persons on duty shall persist in working at their
posts, timely identify the cause and scope of the accident according to the phenomena,
dispose it in time and report to the shift engineer.
7.1.3 When the accident jeopardizes the safety of persons or equipment, the person on
duty shall rapidly and decidedly eliminate the danger to the persons and equipment .
Afterwards, the person on duty shall immediately report to the shift engineer.
7.1.4 When an accident occurs to a unit, all the persons on duty shall deal with the
accident timely and correctly under the uniform direction of the leader on duty, identify the
nature of the accident and the conditions of the equipment items to decide whether the
unit can restart and resume operation. Relevant posts shall make all preparations for any
accident predicted.
7.1.5 When any person not on duty arrives at the spot of the accident, he or she shall not
perform operation or disposal at his or her own discretion without an approval of the
engineer or leader on duty. When it is found that the safety of persons or equipment are
indeed jeopardized, one can take measures and then report the leader on duty.

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7.1.6 When any special accident beyond the scope of the present regulations occurs, the
person on duty shall timely deal with it under the precondition of guaranteeing the safety
of persons and equipment according to the operation knowledge and experience.
7.1.7 When dealing with an accident, relevant maintenance persons shall immediately
arrive at the spot unconditionally.
7.1.8 In the process of dealing with an accident, when the person on duty receives an
order that will jeopardize the safety of the person or equipment , he or she shall resolutely
reject the order and report to the superior by skipping a grade.
7.1.9 During the process of dealing with an accident, the person on duty shall timely
collect all parameters, pictures and accidental records for analysis of the accident.
7.1.10 During the accident, no matter how emergency, it is not permitted that the persons
on duty in the CCR to energize and start the equipment before local Inspection person
isn’t contacted.
7.1.11 When accident jeopardizes the plant service power supply, it will be insulated on the
basis of guaranteeing the safety of persons and equipment to insure the plant service
power supply as possible.
7.1.12 When accident occurs during the period of shift hand over, the handing over and
taking over the shift shall be stopped and the accident shall be disposed of by the person
handing over the shift. The person taking over the shift can offer assistance when pass
approval of the person handing over the shift. Handing over and taking over the shift shall
be performed after accident dealing with finished.
7.2 Emergency shut down conditions and procedure
7.2.1 Emergency shut down conditions
7.2.1.1 ST over speed to 3360 r/min,over speed protection not act.
7.2.1.2 ST vibration is very high.
7.2.1.3 There is metal rubbing noisy in ST inner clearly.
7.2.1.4 ST water hammer happened.
7.2.1.5 Axial displacement + 1.0 mm or - 1.2 mm , meanwhile thrust bearing
temperature increase to 95℃.
7.2.1.6 Shaft sealing sparking, friction between rotor and stator.
7.2.1.7 Generator and exciter firing and fuming.
7.2.1.8 Return oil temperature is more than 75℃.
7.2.1.9Lube oil pressure is less than 0.05Mpa.
7.2.1.10 Lube oil system is on firing but can’t stamp out. Affect unit safety.
7.2.2 Emergency shut down procedure
7.2.2.1 Push emergency button at once and then confirm main stop valve, HP and LP
governing valve closed. The load was dropped 0MW.
Generator parallel off and then check speed should decrease. Record rotor idle time.
7.2.2.2 Start up AC lube oil pump immediately. Checks lube oil pressure normal.
7. 2.2.3 Stop vacuum pump, open break vacuum valve, open LP casing spray water valve.
7.2.2.4 Keep hotwell level normal.
7.2.2.5 Should notice vibrations of bearings, noise and idle time.
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7.2.2.6 When rotor is static put turning gear on. If turning gear motor cannot start, rotor
must be run by manual.
7.2.2.7 Speed to zero ,the vacuum to zero. Stop gland seal and stop gland seal fan.
7.2.2.8 Other operations accord to normal shut down procedure.
Attachment: Saturation steam pressure, temperature comparison table (listing
according to pressure)
Pressure Temperature Pressure Temperature Pressure Temperature
(MPa) (℃) (MPa) (℃) (MPa) (℃)
0.001 6.982 0.040 75.89 2.7 228.06
0.0015 13.034 0.050 81.35 2.8 230.04
0.0020 17.511 0.060 85.95 2.9 231.96
0.0025 21.094 0.070 89.96 3.0 233.84
0.0030 24.098 0.080 93.51 3.1 235.66
0.0035 26.692 0.090 96.71 3.2 235.66
0.0040 28.981 0.10 99.63 3.3 237.44
0.0045 31.034 0.12 104.81 3.4 239.18
0.0050 32.90 0.14 109.32 3.5 240.88
0.0055 34.6 0.16 113.32 3.6 244.16
0.0060 36.18 0.18 116.93 3.7 245.75
0.0065 37.65 0.20 120.23 3.8 247.31
0.0070 39.02 0.25 127.43 3.9 248.84
0.0075 40.32 0.30 133.54 4.0 250.33
0.0080 41.53 0.35 138.88 4.5 257.41
0.0085 42.69 0.40 143.62 5.0 263.92
0.0090 43.79 0.45 147.92 5.5 269.94
0.0095 44.83 0.50 151.85 6.0 275.56
0.010 45.83 0.60 158.84 6.5 280.83
0.011 47.71 0.70 164.96 7.0 285.80
0.012 49.45 0.80 170.42 7.5 290.51
0.013 51.06 0.90 175.35 8.0 294.98
0.014 52.58 1.0 179.88 8.5 299.24
0.015 54.0 1.1 184.06 9.0 303.31
0.016 55.34 1.2 187.96 9.5 307.22
0.017 56.62 1.3 191.6 10 310.96
0.018 57.83 1.4 195.04 11 318.04
0.019 58.98 1.5 198.28 12 324.64
0.020 60.09 1.6 201.37 13 330.81
0.021 61.15 1.7 204.30 14 336.63
0.022 62.16 1.8 207.1 15 342.12
0.023 63.14 1.9 209.79 16 347.32
0.024 64.08 2.0 212.37 17 352.26
0.025 64.99 2.1 214.85 18 356.96
0.026 65.87 2.2 217.24 19 361.44
0.027 66.72 2.3 219.54 20 365.71
0.028 67.55 2.4 221.78 21 369.79
0.029 68.35 2.5 223.94 22 373.68
Critical Critical
0.030 69.12 2.6 226.03
22.115 374.12

HTOM-B-04 R e v. O Issue Date: 2010/02/15 64/64