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Feedback Control Systems 6/26/2016

Feedback Control Systems

Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE,


MT
fvictor.devera@gmail.com

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech


fvictor.devera@gmail.com
fvictordevera@yahoo.com
University of the East – Manila
College of Engineering
Electronics Engineering Department

Part 0 >>Feedback Control Systems


CLASS ORIENTATION

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Course Outline
1. Introduction to Feedback Control
Systems.
2. Control system terminology.
3. Review of the Laplace transforms.
4. Introduction to system modeling and
the transfer function.
5. Introduction to LTI systems.
6. The concept of linearization.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

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Course Outline (cont’d)


7. Poles and zeros of transfer functions.
The pole-zero map.
8. Introduction to time response and
different types of test signals. First
order LTI system transient response
analysis.
9. Second-order LTI system transient
response analysis
10.Block diagram representation of
systems and block diagram algebra.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Course Outline (cont’d)


11.Signal flow graphs.
12.Stability theory.
13.Steady-state errors.
14.Sensitivity and Disturbance rejection.
15.Root Locus.
16.Controllers, Compensators, PID
Controller
17.Frequency response analysis: Bode plot,
Nyquist diagram, and Nichols chart.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

References
• Nise, N.S., “Control Systems
Engineering”, 6th Edition, John Wiley and
Sons, Inc ©2011
• Dorf, R.C., “Modern Control Systems”,
12th Edition, Pearson ©2010
• Shaum’s Outline on Feedback and
Control Systems

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

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Feedback Control Systems 6/26/2016

Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech


fvictor.devera@gmail.com
fvictordevera@yahoo.com
University of the East – Manila
College of Engineering
Electronics Engineering Department

Part 1 >>Feedback Control Systems


INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL
SYSTEMS

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Control System
• SYSTEM
an arrangement, set, or collection of things
connected or related in such a manner as to
form an entirety or whole.
an arrangement of physical components
connected or related in such a manner as to
form and/or act as an entire unit.
• CONTROL
To regulate, direct or to command.
• CONTROL SYSTEM
an arrangement of physical components
connected or related in such a manner as to
command, direct, or regulate itself or another
system.
Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Practice Exercise No.__


A. What are the purpose, or advantages of
a control system? Explain and give
examples on each.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

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Simplified Description of a Control


System

• Input
– “stimulus”, “desired response”
• Output
– “actual response”
– Composed of the Transient Response and
the Steady State Response

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Output (Response)
• Transient Response
System dependent
Based on how the systems Acquires or
Dissipates energy.
Also the “Natural Response”
• Steady-State Response
Input-dependent
Also the “Forced Response”
• Steady-State Error
The difference between the input and the
steady-state response

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Input – Output Relations

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

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Input-Output Relations

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Classifications of a Control System


• Open – Loop Control System

• Closed-Loop Control System

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Open – Loop Control System

• No problem with instability.


• Accuracy is dependent on calibration.
• No means of correcting errors.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

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Practice Exercise No.__


Give 3 examples of Open Loop
systems.
A. Indicate the system.
B. Draw its block diagram.
C. Explain briefly why it is an open-loop
system.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Closed Loop System

• Feedback – the output is measured and


compared with the input for proper control.
• More accurate and can correct errors.
• Has a possibility of being unstable.
Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Feedback
• A property of a closed-loop system which
permits the output (or some other
controlled variable) to be compared with
the input to the system (or an input to
some other internally situated
component or subsystem) so that the
appropriate control action may be
formed as some function of the output
and input.

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Characteristics of Feedback
1. Increased accuracy. For example, the ability to
faithfully reproduce the input.
2. Tendency toward oscillation or instability.
3. Reduced sensitivity of the ratio of output to
input to variations in system parameters and
other characteristics.
4. Reduced effects of nonlinearities.
5. Reduced effects of external disturbances or
noise.
6. Increased bandwidth. The bandwidth of a
system is a frequency response measure of how
well the system responds to (or filters)
variations (or frequencies) in the input signal.
Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Types of Feedback
• POSITIVE FEEDBACK
A portion of the output is added to the input
signal
Can cause oscillation or instability

• NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
A portion of the output is subtracted from
the input signal
Used in error-correction

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Positive Feedback

• The gain increases


• The system may oscillate or maybe
unstable
• Noise and distortion increases
• Bandwidth decreases
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Negative Feedback

• Gain decreases
• System is stable
• Noise and Distortion decreases
• Bandwidth increases
Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Components of Feedback Control

• INPUT TRANSDUCER – device (or sensor) that


translates the input (or “set-point”, “reference”)
to a signal that the controller understands.
• SUMMING JUNCTION – also “Mixer” or
“Comparator”, a device that adds or subtracts
the input and feedback signals for proper
control.
Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Components of Feedback Control

• PROCESS or PLANT – the device which


delivers the output or that subsystem
that varies the output parameter.
• OUTPUT TRANSDUCER – a sensor that
measures the output parameter.
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Practice Exercise No.__


Describe typical sensors that can
measure each of the following:
A. Linear position
B. Velocity (or speed)
C. Nongravitational acceleration
D. Rotational position (or angle)
E. Rotational velocity
F. Temperature
G. Pressure
H. Liquid (or gas) flow rate
I. Torque
J. Force
Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Classifications of
Control Systems
BASED ON ITS APPLICATIONS
• Process Control
Also “INSTRUMENTATION”
Parameters: Temperature, Pressure, Flow
Rate, Liquid Level, Acidity, Viscosity, etc.
Used in manufacturing systems and similar
industries
• Motion Control
Also “Servo Systems”
Parameters: Position, Speed, Acceleration
Used in mechatronic systems, robotic
applications, vehicular systems, etc.
Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Practice Exercise No.__


Give an example of a process control
system.
A. Describe the system based on its
application and the parameter that is
being controlled.
B. Draw the control system block diagram.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

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Practice Exercise No.__


Give an example of a motion control
system.
A. Describe the system based on its
application and the parameter that is
being controlled.
B. Draw the control system block diagram.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Types of Control Systems


BASED ON ITS NATURE OR CONSTRUCTION
1. Man-Made
All components are man made (does not
occur naturally)
2. Natural including Biological
No part is made nor intervened by humans.
3. Both Man-made and Natural
There is a human intervention in the control.
Or, a naturally occurring phenomenon is
being controlled by a man-made device.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Example No. ___


Man-Made Control Systems
• All components are man made (does not
occur naturally)
A. Automatic Air Conditioning system
(Temperature Control)
B. Dam (Water Level Control)
C. Antenna Positioning System (Position
Control)
D. AGC – Automatic Gain Control (Signal Level
Control)
E. Power Supply Units (Voltage regulation)

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Example No. ___


Natural (Including Biological) Control
Systems
• No part is made nor intervened by humans.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Example No. ___


Natural (Including Biological) Control
Systems
• No part is made nor intervened by
humans.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Example No. ___


Both Man-made and Natural (Hybrid)
Control Systems
• Man riding a Bike
Desired
Speed and
Direction

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

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Analog and Digital Control


Systems
• ANALOG Control Systems
Process only continuous time or continuous
data signals (analog).
• DIGITAL Control Systems
Processes (at one or more points in the
system) signals that are discrete time,
discrete data or sampled data.
The signals are discrete in time and in
amplitude.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Examples of Early Control


Systems

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Float Regulators
• The first applications of feedback control
appeared in the development of FLOAT
REGULATOR mechanisms in Greece in the period
300 to 1 B.C.
• The water clock of Ktesibios used a float
regulator.
• An oil lamp devised by Philon in approximately
250 B.C. used a float regulator in an oil lamp for
maintaining a constant level of fuel oil.
• Heron of Alexandria, who lived in the first
century A.D., published a book entitled
Pneumatics, which outlined several forms of
water-level mechanisms using float regulators.

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Water-Level Float Regulator


• The first historical
feedback system,
claimed by Russia, is
the WATER-LEVEL
FLOAT REGULATOR
said to have been
invented by
I.Polzunov in 1765 .
The float detects the
water level and
controls the valve that
covers the water inlet
in the boiler.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

First Automatic Feedback


Controller
• The first automatic
feedback controller
used in an industrial
process is generally
agreed to be James
Watt's FLYBALL
GOVERNOR,
developed in 1769
for controlling the
speed of a steam
engine.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Selected Historical Developments


of Control Systems

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

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Selected Historical Developments


of Control Systems (Cont’d)

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Automatic Control Systems


• MANUAL CONTROL
Control with human intervention.
• AUTOMATIC CONTROL
A device or a process that work by itself.
No human intervention or control.
• AUTOMATION
The control of a process by automatic
means.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Example No. ___


• An ELECTRIC SWITCH is a manufactured
control system, controlling the flow of
electricity. By definition, the apparatus or
person flipping the switch is not a part of
this control system.
• Flipping the switch on or off may be
considered as the input. That is, the input
can be in one of two states, on or off.
• The output is the flow or non-flow (two
states) of electricity.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

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Example No. ___


• A simple control
system which
automatically turns
on a room lamp at
dusk, and turns it
off in daylight.
Draw the functional
block diagram.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Example No. ___


• A Human being
reaching an
object.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Example No. ___


• Automobile steering control system

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Example No. ___


• Aircraft’s attitude
varies in roll, pitch
and yaw.
• Roll stabilization
control system:

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Example No. ___


• A temperature control system operates
by sensing the difference between the
thermostat setting and the actual
temperature and then opening a fuel
valve proportional to this difference.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Example No. ___


• Rotating Disk Speed Control (Open-
Loop)

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Example No. ___


• Rotating Disk Speed Control (Closed-Loop)

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Example No. ___


• A closed-loop automatic toaster. Draw
the functional block diagram.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Example No. ___


• Antenna Azimuth position control
system.

System Concept

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Example No. ___


• Antenna Azimuth position control
system.

Detailed layout.
Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Example No. ___


• Antenna Azimuth position control system.

Schematic
diagram:

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Example No. ___


• Antenna Azimuth position control
system. (Continued)

Functional
Block Diagram:

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

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Practice Exercise No.__


Give an example of a natural (including
biological) system that employs
A. negative feedback and
B. positive feedback.

For each example, draw (and label) the


block diagrams and explain their
operation.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Practice Exercise No.__


Give an example of a control system that you
think does not yet existed in home use. Or it is
existing already but needs to be redesigned.
A. Draw and explain the system.
B. Identify the input and output
parameter/variables.
C. Draw the open-loop control system block
diagram.
D. Remodel the system to make it a closed loop
system, and draw the control system block
diagram.
E. Explain why the system should be made (or
not) into a closed loop system.
Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Practice Exercise No.__


Answer the following questions:
A pressurized tank must maintain a gas at 325 psi. A
pressure sensor is used to measure the condition of
the controlled variable. As the gas cools, the
pressure in the tank decreases. When it drops to 300
psi, a valve is opened, which allows steam to flow to
a heat exchanger inside the tank. The additional
steam heats the gas and causes the pressure to rise.
Identify:
A. The manipulated variable
B. The input signal
C. The controller
D. The process or plant
E. The feedback transducer
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Practice Exercise No.__


A “sun tracking” automatic closed-loop
mechatronic system is to be used to position a
solar panel so that the sun’s ray is always normal
to its surface.
A. What is the input signal?
B. What should be the input transducer? How
should it work?
C. What should be the process/ plant? How can it
provide the actual response?
D. What is the input transducer?
E. How can the error signal be derived?

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

The Design Process


The control system design process is itself a
closed-loop system.
1. Transform requirements to physical
systems.
2. Draw a functional block diagram.
3. Create a schematic.
4. Develop a mathematical model (block
diagram or a signal flow graph).
5. Reduce the block diagram (or find the
transfer function).
6. Analyze and (Re)Design.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Practice Exercise No.__


A “sun tracking” automatic closed-loop
mechatronic system is to be used to
position a solar panel so that the sun’s ray
is always normal to its surface.
A. Transform requirements to physical
systems.
B. Draw a functional block diagram.

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Analysis and Design Objectives


• Transient Response
The transient time should not be too fast or
too slow. The transient time objective
depends on the application.
• Steady-State Response
The steady state error should be zero (ideal)
for the designed input type to the system.
• Stability
The system should be stable, otherwise, it
will not be useful.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Test Waveforms Used in


Control Systems Design

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Test Waveforms Used in


Control Systems Design (cont’d)

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

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Test Waveforms Used in


Control Systems Design (cont’d)

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Practice Exercise No.__


Consider the input signal for a position
control system. Give an example (and
explain each) of an object, a system or
anything that gives a signal considered as:
A. Step
B. Ramp
C. Parabolic

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Design Methods
• Design by Analysis
Accomplished by modifying the
characteristics of an existing or standard
system configuration.
• Design by Synthesis
Accomplished by defining the form of the
system directly from its specifications.

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Practice Exercise No.__


An autofocus camera will adjust the
distance of the lens from the film by using
a beam of infrared or ultrasound to
determine the distance to the subject.
A. Sketch a block diagram of this open-
loop control system, and briefly explain
its operation.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Practice Exercise No.__


Land-based public utility transportation system in the
future can be “intelligent”. Every PUV such as taxis,
jeepneys, and buses operating in Mega Manila can be
equipped with a device that automatically measure its
present location, traffic condition, road condition
(flood, roadblocks, etc), passenger info (current load,
passenger waiting queue on stations, etc) and local
weather situation. Data from these measurements will
be uploaded periodically towards a network of data
hubs which collects, analyze and gives information
back to individual PUVs for proper routing and
guidance to where they should be deployed to pick-up
passengers, and generally to ease-out the traffic. Draw
the functional block diagram of this control system.
Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

Practice Exercise No.__


A common example of a two-input control
system is a home shower with separate
valves for hot and cold water. The
objective is to obtain a desired
temperature of the shower water and a
desired flow of water. Sketch a block
diagram of the closed-loop control system.

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Practice Exercise No.__


Control systems are aiding humans in
maintaining their homes. The robotic vacuum
cleaner is an example of a mechatronic
system under active control that relies on
infrared sensors and microchip technology to
navigate around furniture. Describe a closed-
loop feedback control system that guides the
robotic vacuum cleaner to avoid collisions
with obstacles.

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

End of Part 1

Introduction to Control Systems


17 Examples
15 Practice Exercises

Feedback Control System © Fernando Victor V. de Vera, ECE, M.Tech

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