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1 Aufrufe6 SeitenDynamic Modeling and Control Structure Design for a Liquefied Natural Gas Process

Jan 12, 2020

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Dynamic Modeling and Control Structure Design for a Liquefied Natural Gas Process

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Dynamic Modeling and Control Structure Design for a Liquefied Natural Gas Process

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3

Marriott Marquis Hotel at Times Square

New York City, USA, July 11-13, 2007

Natural Gas Process

Arjun Singh, Morten Hovd

developed a low capacity plant which requires low

Abstract— This works deals with developing a dynamic investment cost and is easy to construct at desired sites. The

model and designing a control structure for the liquefaction plant design has been patented by SINTEF [2].

unit of a Liquefied Natural Gas process developed and This works deals with developing a dynamic mathematical

patented by SINTEF1. A detailed dynamic model for this plant

model for this plant and design of a control structure for the

is developed using GPROMS as modeling environment and

Multi-flash as a physical property package. The model is used plant to ensure stability and ease of operation. Fundamental

to investigate stability and fundamental limitations on control limitations on performance of this plant are also analyzed.

performance for the plant, and to develop a control structure This LNG plant will be referred as ‘SINTEF LNG Plant’ in

based on Relative Gain Array (RGA) analysis. this paper.

I. INTRODUCTION

transportation is often used. However, when gas

volumes are moderate, and/or transportation distances are

II. PROCESS DESCIPTION

A complete description of the process can be found at [2].

Here a brief process description is given. Fig 1 represents

large, the capital and operating costs for pipeline transport the simplified flow sheet of the SINTEF LNG plant. Some

become prohibitive. In such cases, transport of Liquefied features of the process are removed for clarity.

Natural Gas (LNG) in tankers is often the preferred choice

for bringing the gas to the market. It is quite common to NG

have a heavy upfront investment in large industrial plants

for producing liquefied natural gas (LNG) since cost per unit 13 14

of gas volume will be relatively low over the plant lifetime.

19 12

Multi-component refrigerants have been commonly used in 1 3

such plant to achieve low temperature for LNG (-160 C at 4

near atmospheric pressure). 2 11

However, there is a growing need for liquefaction of natural

gas at places where it is not possible or economically

acceptable to have a heavy investment. This includes local 5 15 16

distribution of natural gas in small markets, where plant

6

needs to be arranged at a gas pipe, while the LNG is 10

transported by trucks and small ships. For such plants low

investment costs have priority over optimal energy

17 18

utilization. Traditionally the relative investment cost for

small-scale LNG liquefaction plants increases almost

7 8 9

exponentially with decreased production capacity from

LNG

Manuscript received September 15th, 2006. This work is supported by

Fig.1 Flow-sheet of SINTEF LNG Plant

Norwegian Research Council and Gas Technology Centre a joint

collaboration between Norwegian University of Science and Technology,

Trondheim, Norway and SINTEF, Norway. In Fig.1 sub-components of plants are numbered and

Arjun Singh is a PhD student at Department of Engineering Cybernetics referred as units. Units 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 are heat

of Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

7491 (phone: +47-735-94482; fax: +47-735-94599; e-mail: arjun.singh@

exchangers. Heat Exchanger (HX) numbered 13, 15 and 17

itk.ntnu.no). are called the

Morten Hovd is a Professor at Department of Engineering Cybernetics of ‘Refrigerant HX’ and HX number 14, 16 and 18 are called

Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, ‘LNG HX’. Units 3 and 5 are separators and units 4, 6, 7, 8,

7491 (e-mail: mhovd@itk.ntnu.no).

9 and 12 are valves. Units 10 and 11 are ejectors and units 1,

1

SINTEF is an abbreviation for ‘The Foundation for Scientific and 2 and 19 represent the condenser, cooling water stream, and

Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology’ the compressor, respectively.

WeB19.3

the compressor, the refrigerant is partly condensed primarily (3)

dTw ( z )

by water cooling in unit 1. The vapor from unit 3 is further

cooled and partly condensed in unit 13 while the liquid from

mCp

dt

= −L ∑ Q ( z)

i

unit 3 is mixed with two refrigerant streams from unit 15 4) Boundary conditions for wall ends:

and 16. The vapor from unit 5 is further cooled and dTw (0) dTw ( L)

condensed in unit 15 and sub-cooled in unit 17 before it is = 0; = 0 (4)

flashed to a pressure of about 2-4 bar, giving the cold

dz dz

refrigerant for unit 17 and unit 18 before mixing it with the 5) Heat Transfer:

liquid from unit 5. After mixing, the refrigerant flow is Qi ( z ) = U i Ai {Tw ( z ) − Ti ( z )} (5)

divided and distributed to unit 15 and 16. The natural gas is 6) Thermodynamics and additional equations

cooled in unit 14, condensed in unit 16 and sub cooled in Ei ( z ) = mi hi ( z )

unit 18.

Uvi ( z ) = Umi ( z ) ρ i ( z )

III. DYNAMIC MODEL Umi = hi ( z ) − Pi / ρ i ( z ) (6)

A detailed dynamic model for the plant is developed in

gPROMS using Multi-flash for calculation of physical hi = f (Ti ( z ), Pi , X i )

properties for the natural gas and the refrigerant. The SRK ρ i = f (Ti ( z ), Pi , X i )

(Soave-Redlich-Kwong) equation of state is used for both

Symbols used in equations (1) to (6) are explained in Table

refrigerant and natural gas. As evident from Fig. 1, first it is

1.

essential to develop model for the main components in the

TABLE 1

plant flow sheet, namely the heat exchangers, valve,

compressor, condenser, separator and ejector. The model of Symbol Variable

the heat exchangers and condenser are based on the same i(subscript) Stream Index (h and c)

principles. A brief description of models is given below: z Axial distributed domain

m Stream mass flow rate

i

A. Heat exchangers Ei Stream Energy flow rate

for a heat exchanger having heat exchange between two Ai Stream Frontal flow area

streams is developed using energy(internal energy) and mass Stream Volumetric specific

Uvi

balances. Pressure drop in the heat exchanger is neglected. internal energy

The composition of each stream is assumed to be constant Stream Mass specific internal

Umi

from inlet to outlet. A constant heat transfer coefficient is energy

assumed for each stream. Streams (hot and cold) are Stream Mass specific enthalpy

hi

assumed to exchange heat through metal wall. The metal

wall separating the streams is assumed to have negligible ρi Stream Mass density

thermal conduction in the axial direction and infinitely fast Stream Temperature

thermal conduction in the radial direction [3]. A separate

Ti

energy balance is used for the internal energy of the metal Qi Heat flux

wall. Wall ends are assumed to be adiabatic. The models for Stream Average Pressure

both the streams and the wall are one-dimensional. Pi

Following are the key equations: Ai Heat transfer area per unit

1) Energy Balance for the hot stream: length between stream i and

z = [0, L) wall j

Ui Overall Heat Transfer

1 ∂Ei ( z ) Qi ( z ) dUvi ( z ) (1) coefficient

− + =

Ai L ∂z Ai dt Tw Wall Temperature

2) Energy Balance for the cold stream: m Wall mass

z = (0, L] Cp Wall specific heat capacity

1 ∂Ei ( z ) Qi ( z ) dUvi ( z ) (2) Xi Stream Composition

+ =

Ai L ∂z Ai dt

3) Energy balance for the wall: B Compressor

This model describes the relation between gas mass flow

rate and pressure head across the compressor. In this model,

infinitely fast dynamics is assumed within the compressor.

1348

WeB19.3

Negligible hold up and inertia of refrigerant is considered in calculation. This is a standard model from GPROMS model

the compressor. Fan Laws (affinity laws) are used to model Library.

speed dependent variations in performance, so that single

characteristic curve (head vs. flow) is enough to describe D Valves

behavior at any speed. The compression process is modeled Valves are assumed to have equal enthalpy at inlet and

as polytrophic. Constant efficiency is assumed for outlet thus making it an isenthalpic process. Also these

compressor i.e. efficiency is not assumed to vary with flow models have an equation relating mass flow rate through the

rate. Key equations are as follow: valve to the pressure difference across valve.

1) Polytrophic Head

⎡ η

⎤ E Ejectors

η CRTin ⎢⎛ Po ⎞η −1 ⎥ Ejectors are modeled as pure mixers. The mixer model

H= ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ (7) accounts for the mass balance of each component. Energy

η − 1 M w ⎢⎝ Pi ⎠

⎣ ⎦ balance is carried out for enthalpy and pressure for inlet and

outlet streams in ejector is same which is calculated from

2) Polytrophic Index

mass flow and pressure drop relationship for exit streams

η ⎛ γ ⎞⎛ η ⎞ from ejector.

=⎜ (8)

η − 1 ⎝ γ − 1 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 100 ⎟⎠

IV DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF PLANT

3) Discharge Temperature

η

The flow-sheet of the SINTEF LNG plant is constructed by

⎛ P ⎞η −1

To = Tin ⎜ o ⎟ (9) connecting the above developed models for different

⎝ Pi ⎠ components as per Fig 1. In this way we obtain a complete

4) Fan Laws dynamic model for the plant. The overall plant model has a

2 DAE index 1. The following variables were specified in

H ⎛ω ⎞ model:

=⎜ ⎟

H d ⎝ ωd ⎠

(10) A) Heat Exchangers 13,15,16,17 and 18: Frontal flow

V ω areas, heat transfer areas and heat transfer coefficients for

= each stream, length, width, wall thickness, wall properties

Vd ωd for each heat exchanger. Initial condition was given by

Symbols used in equations (7) to (10) are explained in Table specifying derivatives of all states consistent with energy

2. balance for each stream and wall equal to zero.

TABLE 2 B) Heat Exchanger 14: All data as given for other heat

Symbol Variable exchangers above in A). Since this is the heat exchanger in

H, H d Polytrophic head at operating which natural gas enters first, it is essential to specify inlet

point, at design point temperature, pressure, mass flow rate and composition for

C Compressibility factor entering natural gas. Initial condition was given by

η ,γ Polytrophic Index, Ratio of specifying derivatives of all states consistent with energy

specific heats at suction side balance for each stream and wall equal to zero.

ω ,ω d

Operating speed ,design speed C) Condenser: All data as given for heat exchangers in A)

and inlet temperature, pressure and mass flow-rate of water

V , Vd Volume Flow rate at operating

entering the compressor. Initial condition was given by

speed, at design speed

specifying derivatives of all states consistent with energy

M w ,R Molecular weight, Universal

balance for each stream and wall equal to zero.

Gas constant

D) Valves: Valve coefficients and valve openings. For valve

Po , Pi , To , Tin Suction and Discharge Pressure

9, outlet pressure is fixed and valve opening is not specified

and Temperature respectively

since mass flow rate of natural gas entering heat exchanger

14 is specified. Initial conditions were specified by

C Separators

specifying initial values to control variable valve opening.

It is assumed that the liquid and vapor are at equilibrium at

E) Separators: Volume. Initial conditions are components

all times and thus there is perfect contact between the vapor

mass fractions for i= 1: NC-1, where NC is the total number

and liquid phases. Also it is assumed that there is negligible

of components in refrigerant and temperature and Pressure.

entrainment of liquid in the vapor stream. The model

F) Compressor: The characteristic curve relating head with

accounts for the mass balance of each component. The

flow rate, polytrophic efficiency, speed and design speed

overall energy balance ensures that internal energy is

were specified. No initial conditions required as this is a

conserved. No heat addition or subtraction is included in the

completely static model.

flash calculations, thus resulting in an adiabatic UV flash

G) Ejectors: No data need to be specified for the ejectors.

The distribution of flow from the ejector is determined by

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WeB19.3

using a valve at each outlet of ejector. No initial conditions percentage deviation relative to the experimentally measured

are required since model for ejectors is static model. value.

With these sets of specifications and initial condition model Figure 4 shows the name and location of variables for which

was simulated and it was found out that plant reaches a model output is being compared with experimental data.

steady state. Fig. 2 and 3 shows the liquid level in both Table 3 shows the meaning of symbols used for

separators reaching a steady state value. Similarly Fig. 4 measurements in Fig 4 and also percentage deviation (%D).

shows LNG temperature at the exit of valve 9.

TABLE 3

0.00226

Symbol Variable %D

P1 Compressor Suction Pressure -12

Liquid Volume (m^3)

Xi, i=1 3

suction for component 1

0.00224 Mass fraction at compressor

Xi, i=2 -10

suction for component 2

Mass fraction at compressor

0.00223 Xi, i=3 1.9

suction for component 3

Mass fraction at compressor

0.00222 Xi, i=4 13.7

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 suction for component 4

Time(s) Suction volume flow rate of

V -8

refrigerant through Compressor

Fig. 2 Liquid level in separator 3 reaching a steady state Temperature of refrigerant at

T1 -1.5

condenser outlet

Temperature of vapor leaving

0.00104 T2 0.07

separator 3

Liquid Volume (m^3)

T3 17

0.00102

separator 5

Temperature of hot refrigerant

0.00101 T4 11.5

at HX 15 exit

0.00100 Temperature of hot refrigerant

T5 -0.5

0.00099 at HX 17 exit

Temperature of refrigerant at

0.00098 T6 1.7

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 the exit of valve 7 and 8

Time(s) Cold refrigerant Temperature at

T7 1.9

the exit of HX 17

Fig. 3 Liquid level in separator 5 reaching a steady state Temperature of cold refrigerant

T8 -3.9

at the exit of HX 18

113.804

T9 Outlet temperature for ejector 1 8.5

Temperature of cold refrigerant

113.802 T10 11.8

LNG Temperature (K)

at the exit of HX 15

113.800 Temperature of cold refrigerant

T11 8.1

at the exit of HX 16

113.798 T12 Outlet temperature for ejector 2 5.6

Temperature of NG at the exit

T13 12.2

113.796 of HX 14

Temperature of NG at the exit

113.794 T14 3.7

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 of HX 16

Time(s) Temperature of NG at the exit 3.3

T15

of HX 18

Fig. 4 LNG Temperature at the exit of valve 9 reaching a steady state

It is clear from the table 3 that for most of the variables,

V MODEL VALIDATION model output is within 5-10% range of experimental values

of these values. There are several reasons for this inaccuracy

The steady state output from the model is verified against of model predictions such as compressor performance curve

available measurements from the SINTEF pilot plant in used in compressor model is not exact. Further a single heat

Trodheim, Norway. Comparison of model outputs and transfer coefficient is used for a stream in a particular heat

experimental data is expressed in Table 3 in terms of exchanger. However, this difference in prediction is

acceptable since this is not huge. Since the intention of this

1350

WeB19.3

work is to use this model for control studies, it has been model prediction. It also indicates that contrary to practice,

decided not to focus more on fine tuning the model and controlling only one liquid level is essential.

move to control design for this plant based on this dynamics

model. VI CONTROL STUDIES AND CONTROL STRUCTUE

T2 NG DESIGN

P1 Xi ( i= 1: NC-1) T17 T16

P2

Obtained dynamic model is linearized in GPROMS for

T1 chosen set of controlled variables and available manipulated

T12 variables. Following are the manipulated variables and

T13 controlled variables.

V TABLE 4

T10 T11 Number Controlled Manipulated

T3 Variables Variables

1 P1 Compressor Speed

T9 2 T1 Water mass flow

T14 rate in Condenser

3 Liquid Level in Valve 4 opening

T4 T7 T8

separator 3

4 T15 Valve 5 opening

5 T14 Valve 7 opening

T5 T6 6 T17-T16 Valve 8 opening

T15 7 T13 Valve 12 opening

LNG

T16 and T17 represent exit temperature of refrigerant in HX

Fig. 4 Location of measurements

14 and 13 respectively. The resulting lineaized model is of

533 states. These large number of states results due to

It is necessary to check at this state whether the model is

distributed model for all heat exchanger. These number of

capable of moving to another steady state if there are any

states needs to be reduced to make this model workable for

disturbances or change in one of the variables whose values

tuning of controllers. But before this, it is necessary to

are specified (manipulated variables such as valve

investigate stability and limitations on performance imposed

openings). It has been demonstrated that model moves to

by RHP (Right half plane) zeros and poles.

another steady state when these changes occurs thereby

indicating that plant is stable. Changes in liquid level (Fig 5)

A) Uncontrollable states

have been shown here when opening of valve 4 is increased

It has been shown in literature[4] that in a closed cycle

by 2 % at time 10000 s during simulations.

process where hold up of flowing medium is constant, and

where hold up is used as dynamic variable, this hold up

appears as pole and zero at origin in the lineaized model.

Liquid Level in Separator 5

Liquid level in Separator 3

0.00225

The hold up is fixed in closed cycle process and is therefore

0.00120 an uncontrollable state. In cases where multi-component

0.00220 refrigerant is a working fluid for cycle, the number of poles

0.00110

0.00215

and zeros at origin would be equal to the number of

components in refrigerant. It is essential to remove these

0.00100

0.00210 uncontrollable states from model if model reduction is to be

carried out. However for carrying out Relative gain array

0.00205 0.00090

10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 (RGA) analysis, it is not necessary to removes these states,

Time(s) since the frequency response can be calculated also for non-

minimal models.

Liquid level in Separator 3 (left)

Liquid Level in Separator 5 (right)

B) Limitations on bandwidth due to RHP zeros and poles

Fig. 5 Changes in liquid level in separator due to change in valve 4 opening

Besides five poles and five zeros at origin, which appear due

to presence of uncontrollable states in linearized model,

In Fig.5 the model prediction is in line with the expectations.

there were no other RHP poles in system thereby implying

It is expected that liquid level will drop in separator 3 when

system to be stable which is verified by step response of

opening of valve 4 is increased and liquid level in separator

linearized model and by dynamic simulation of plant in

5 will increase since these are the only two places which act

GPROMS.

as hold up of refrigerant in cycle. Increase in one level

There were total 8 RHP zeros in the system excluding five

means decrease in other one. This has been validated by

zeros at origin due to uncontrollable states. These RHP zeros

1351

WeB19.3

dT

controllers for the plant [5].

L

C) RGA analysis T

analysis. Based on RGA pairing of controlled variables and

manipulated variables was selected. Magnitude of RGA

elements at low frequency and their sign at steady states

were the factors deciding pairings [5]. High interaction in

T

system was observed at high frequencies. Some of the

obtained pairings are contrary to the general belief of pairing

variables based on proximity. Table 5 shows the possible

pairing based on sign of RGA elements at steady state and P T

sign of steady state and magnitude of RGA elements at low

frequency. Fig. 6 shows the magnitude of RGA elements for Fig. 7 Proposed control structure for SINTEF LNG Plant

chosen pairing.

VII CONCLUSION

1

10

A detailed dynamic model for SINTEF LNG Plant is

developed and validated against available measurements.

Model was accurate enough to use it for control studies.

RGA (Magnitude)

0

10

Linearized model for above plants shows that plant is stable

i.e. moves from one steady state to another when disturbance

RGA(1,5)

10

-1 RGA(2,2) or changes in manipulate variables occur. Presence of RHP

RGA(3,3)

RGA(4,6) zeros implies that there would be fundamental limitations on

RGA(5,1)

RGA(6,7) bandwidth. RGA analysis indicates that there are lots of

RGA(7,4)

-2

10 -5

interactions in system at high frequencies. A control

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1

10 10 10 10

Frequency(rad/s)

10 10 10 structure design is proposed for SINTEF LNG plant based

Fig.6 Magnitude of RGA elements for chosen pairing among controlled on RGA analysis.

variables and manipulated variables.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

TABLE 5 Authors would like to acknowledge the help from SINTEF

Manipulated Variables Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway for providing

geometrical and process data for plant and making

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 measurements available for model validation.

1 Yes Yes Yes REFERENCES

2 Yes Yes Yes

3 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [1] O.B. Neeraas, E. Brendeng, Aa. Wallentinsen and M.

4 Yes Yes Yes Yes Mangersnes “A new concept for small scale LNG

5 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes production” AIChE Spring National Meeting, Houston,

6 Yes Yes Yes April 22-26 2001

7 Yes [2] “Method and device for small scale liquefaction of a

product gas”, US Patent No. US 6,751,984 B2

TABLE 6 [3] Y. Qu, L. Xu, X. Fang, J. Wang and S. Gu “ A new

Controlled Variable Manipulated Variable approach to heat exchanger control based on model

1 5 control” International Journal of Information and Systems

2 2 Sciences, Vol. 2, No.1, p 31-41, 2006

3 3 [4] A. Singh and M. Hovd “Dynamic Modeling and Control

4 6 of PRICO LNG Plant”, AIChE annual Meeting, San

5 1 Francisco, 2006

6 7 [5] S. Skogestad and I. Postlethwaite “Multivariable

7 4 Feedback Control, Analysis and Design” John Wiley&

Sons, Ltd, Second edition, 2005

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