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Department of Mathematics
Central University of Kerala
M.Sc. Mathematics (2019-2021 Batch)
FIRST SEMESTER ESA (November 2019)

(1) State Generalized pigeonhole principle. [2]


(2) Define Boolean Algebra. Give an example of a Boolean albegra [2]
(3) Define (a) Spanning Subgraph of a graph (b) Adjacency matrix of a graph G (c)
Incidence matrix of a graph G (d) Self-complementary graphs (e) Diameter and radius
of a graph G (f) Define block in a graph. (g) vertex -cut and vertex connectivity (h)
edge-cut and edge connectivity (i) tree and forest
(4) Let G be a connected graph with at least three vertices. If e(u, v) is a cut-edge in G,
then show that either u or v is a cut-vertex. [2]
(5) Every connected graph G with n ≥ 2, contains at least 2 vertices which are not
cut-vertices. [2]
(6) vertex-chromatic number of G. Find the Chromatic number of K10 , Cn .
(7) Clique and Clique number of a graph G. What is clique of a tree?
(8) Edge coloring and edge-chromatic number of graph
(9)

(6) (a) Use Pigeonhole principle to solve: How many students must be in a class toguar-
antee that at least two students receive the samescore on the final exam, if the
exam is graded on a scale from 0 to 100 points? [5]
(b) Use Pigeonhole principle to solve: How many integers must we choose from 1 to
99 in order to guarantee that at least two distinct pairs of them will have the
same total? [3]

(7) (a) Find the atoms of D(30), the set of dividers of 30. [4]
(b) Let A = {2, 3, 6} ⊆ X, where X = {1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18}. What are the maximal
elements, minimal elements, maximum, minimum, lower bounds, upper bounds,
glb and lub of A? [4]

(8) (a) Draw the Hasse diagram for


(a) {1, 2, 3, } × {1, 2, 3, 4} under lexocographic order.
(b). {1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18} , all positive divisors of 18, with the relation ’divides’. . [4]
(b) Consider f (x) = x2 + 1 ∈ R[x]. Construct an extension field E of F such that
α ∈ E and f (α) = 0 using 8(a). [4]

(9) (a) Prove that the set Z with usual order is not well ordered. Is the set Z with the
ordering 0 ≤ 1 ≤ −1 ≤ 2 ≤ −2 ≤ 3 ≤ −3 . . . describes a well order on Z. Is the
set R with usual order is well ordered? Justify your answer. [3]
(b) Prove that the set Z with usual order is not well ordered. Is the set Z with the
ordering 0 ≤ 1 ≤ −1 ≤ 2 ≤ −2 ≤ 3 ≤ −3 . . . describes a well order on Z. Is the
1
set R with usual order is well ordered? Justify your answer. [5]

(c) Incidence matrix of a graph G

(10) (a) Given 8 different natural numbers, none greater than 14. Show that at least
three pairs of them have the same difference. . [4]
(b) Six computers on a network are connected to at least one other computer. Show
there are at least two computers that are have the same number of connections
. [4]

(c) In a box there are 10 black socks and 12 blue socks and you need to get one
pair of socks of the same colour. Supposing you can take socks out of the box
only once and only without looking, what is the minimum number of socks you’d
have to pull out at the same time in order to guarantee a pair of the same color?
(d) Every point on the plane is coloured either red or blue. Prove that no matter
how the colouring is done, there must exist two points, exactly a mile apart,
that are the same colour.
(e) Show that if 101 integers are chosen from the set of {1, 2, 3, . . . , 200} then one
of the chosen integers divides another.
(f) State Peano’s axioms. Prove that, if n ∈ N , then there exists m ∈ N such that
σ(m) = n
(g) State and prove the first form of Induction: Let ⊂ N . If S has a least element
then it is unique.
(h) A man hiked for 10 hrs and covered a total distance of 45 miles. It is known that
he hiked 6 miles in the first hour and only 3 miles in the last hour. Show that
he must have hiked at least 9 miles with in a certain period of two consecutive
hours.
(i) The circumference of a circle wheel is divided into 36 sectors to which the num-
bers 1, 2, . . . , 36 are assigned in some arbitrary manner. Show that there are
three consecutive sectors such that the sum of their assigned number is at least
56.
(j) Find the generating function for the difference equation an = 2an−1 + 4an−2 with
a0 = 1, a1 = 3
(11) (a) Prove Havel and Hakim Theorem: A sequence S : d1 , d2 , . . . dn and n ≥ 2, d1 ≥ 1
is graphical if and only if the sequence S1 : d2 −1, d3 −1, . . . dd1 +1 −1, dd1 +2 , . . . , dn
is graphical [4]
(b) Check whether the degree sequence 3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 1 is graphical or not.
(c) Check whether the degree sequence 5, 5, 5, 5, 2, 2, 2 is graphical or not. [4]
(12) (a) Prove that for any graph G, the following statements are equivalent:
(i) G is a tree.
(ii)G is connected and m = n − 1
(iii) G is acyclic and m = n − 1
[5]
(b) Every tree T on n vertices (n ≥ 2) contains at least two vertices of degree 1. [3]
(c) Prove: The number of distinct trees on n vertices is nn−2 (Cayleys formula for
the number of distinct trees).
(d) Apply Prim’s shortest path algorithm to find the shortest path of the graph
using a weighted graph given below.

(e) Define and Eulerian graph. Prove that a connected graph G is Eulerain if and
only if every vertex has even degree.
(f) Define and Eulerian graph. Prove that if connected graph G contains exactly
two vertices of odd degree say x and y, then, it contains a (x, y)- Eulerian trail.
(g) Define and Eulerian graph. Prove that if connected graph G contains 2k ≥ 2
vertices of odd degree then E(G) can be partitioned into k sets E1 , E2 , . . . , Ek
such that each Ei indices a trial.
(h) Define Hamiltonian path and Hamiltonian graph. Prove that if a graph G on
n(≥ 3) vertices such that deg(u) + deg(v) ≥ n, for every pair of non adjacent
vertices u and v, then G is Hamiltonian
(13) (a) Define isomorphism of graphs. Give example of isomorphic and non isomorphic
graphs. Justify your answer. [5]