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Real numbers; numerous than natural, any number you can think of ,=positive, negative,
decimals, fractions etc.

Natural; counting numbers starting from one to infinity

Ordinal numbers; counting from first

Cardinal; tells you how many members in a set ; example n(a)= 5

Whole numbers; counting numbers from zero infinity 0,1,2,3,4,5… and so on..,,

Integers; positive and negative numbers (excluding zero and fractions) …-3,-2,-1,
0,1,2,3,….son on

Rational numbers; integers, fractions, terminating and repeating decimals.

Irrationals; non- terminating and non; repeating decimal ,3.1415265359..squaroot and pie

N; the set of all natural numbers

Z; the set of all integers

Q; the set of all rational numbers

R; the set of all real numbers

Z+; the set of all positive integers

Q+; the set of all positive rational numbers

I; whole numbers plus the negative or opposite

Take note; the order in which the elements are listed is irrelevant but elements must not be

Set =is a well- defined collection of distinct objects or member.

Element – the name of each objects or member in a set.

Example of the set;
A. The collection of vowels in a word “mathematics”.
B. The collection of cities in the Philippines.
C. The set of all positive integers.

Representation of Sets;
Sets are classified in two basic methods;

1.Roster Method- elements of the set are listed within the pair of braces and are separated by
commas. { }


A. {a,e,i,}

B. {Ozamiz City, Davao, Cagayan de Oro,…Baguio City}

C. { 1,2,3,…}

2. Rule method – a phrase describing precisely the elements is enclosed in braces. {}


A. {x/x is a collection of vowel in a word ‘mathematics”}.

B. {x/x is a collection of city in the Philippines}.
C. {x/x is a set of a positive integers}.

Types of Sets
 Empty sets or null sets
 Finite & infinite sets
 Equal sets
 Equivalent sets
 Disjoint sets
 Subset
 Universal set
 Power set

Empty set – a set which does not contain any elements is called as Empty set or Null or void
set. Denoted by 0 or { }

e.g. set A= {set of months containing 32 days}

Here n(A)= 0; hence A set is an empty set.
e.g. set H= {no. of cars with three wheels}
Here n(H)= 0; hence it is empty set.

Finite set- set which contains definite or limited number of elements.

e.g. Set A={y/y is seat number in a bus}

Infinite Set= a set which contains indefinite number of elements.

1.Set A= {x/x is a whole number}
2.Set B={y/y is point on a line}

Equal Sets= given two sets K&R are said to be equal if they have exactly the same element
and write K=R. otherwise the sets are said to be unequal. A minimum of two sets.

Examples; Given; K={1,2,3,4} & R={1,2,3,4} then we write K=R.

Equivalent sets =sets with equal number of elements are considered equivalent sets.
The set have different elements but have the same number of elements.

Examples. A= {1,2,3,4,5}


They have different elements but the same number of elements.

Disjoint sets =are sets having no common elements.
Example; A= {1,2,3} not equal set but

B= {4,5,6} equivalent sets

Sets A&B are disjoints

Illustrative examples;1. T = { A,B,C} and R= {D,E} are disjoint.

2. T= {A,B,C} AND Y={C,D,E} are not disjoint.

SUBSETS = a set is a subset to a given set of every element of that set also belong to the given
set. Sets which are the part of another set are called subsets of the original set.

Example ; Given; A = { 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9} and B = { 1,4,9} then B is a subset of A.

It is represented as B C A.

=A set R is said to be subset of a set K if every element of R is also an element of K.

In symbos; R K

This means all the elements of R are contained in K.

Every set is subset of itselt. i.e A A.

Empty set is a subset of every set. i.e 0 A.

Examples; A = { 1,2,3,4,5}

B = { 2,4,5}

Then B is a subset of A.

Proper Subset = set A is a proper subset of set B if there is at least one element in B not
contained in A.

Example; A = {1,2,3,4,5}

B = { 2,4,5}

Then B is a proper subset of A.

Improper subset = A is a subset of B and A=B
Example. A= { 1,2,3,4,5}

B= { 5,4,3,2,1}

Universal set = is the set containing all elements and of which all other sets are subsets or
subset of all the sets. Is the set of all element pertinent to a given discussion.

It is designed by the symbol U

Example ; Set T = { the deck of ordinary playing cards}.

Here each card is an element of universal set.

Set A = {all the face cards}

Set B = {numbered cards}

Set C = {poker hands}

Each of these sets are subsets of universal set T.

Example; U = { a,,e,i,o,u}

A = { a,e,i}

B ={ i,o,u}

Power Set = The set of all subsets of a given set is called power set of that set.
= The collection of all subsets of a set K is called the power set of K denoted by P(K).

In P(K) every element is a set.

Example; if K={1,2} then, P(K) ={0, {1},{2}, {1,2}}

A= {1,2,3} Power Set of A = { all the subsets from A to I}


C= {2,3}
D= {1,3}

E= {1}




I= {3}

 Intersection of sets
 Union of sets
 Difference of two sets
 Complement of a set

Union of sets =let A and B be two given sets then the set of all elements
which are in the set A or in the set B is called the union of two sets and is
denoted by AUB and is read as ‘A union B’.

Example. AUB = { 1,2,3,4,5,6,8}

Some properties of Union

2. (A U B) U C = A U ( B U C ) (ASSOCIATIVE LAW)
5. U A= A (LAW OF U)
INTERSECTION OF SETS = Let A and B be two sets. Then the set of all common elements of A
and B is called the intersection of A and B and is denoted by A B.

Example. Let A= { 1,2,3,7,11,,13} and B= {1,7,13,4,10,17}

A B = {1,7,13}which contains the elements common to both A and B.
History of Venn Diagram

 Venn diagrams were conceived around 1880 by John Venn.

Born august 4, 1834
Kingston upon Hill, Yorkshire England

Died; April 4,1923 ( aged 88) Cambridge,England

Alma Mater ; University of Cambridge
Fields; Mathematics

 A Venn diagram or set diagram is a diagram that shows all possible logical relations
between a finite collection of sets.
 Is a graph that employs closed curves and especially circles to represent logical relations
between operations by the inclusion, exclusion, or intersection of the curves (Meriam-
 Are used to teach elementary set theory, as well as illustrate simple set relationship in
probability, logic, statistics and computer science.
 Consists of rectangles and closed curves usually circles. The universal set is represented
usually by rectangles and its subsets by circles.