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Social Psychology

Article# 01 On Gender Socialization


A Global Perspective on Gender
Roles and Identity

Summary:

Social determinants that affect the health and well being of young people throughout the
world, gender is a pivotal influence, with both subtle and overt, immediate as well as longer term
influences on adolescent development, resources and opportunities.

The Global Early Adolescent Study focuses on developmental issues of younger


adolescents, age 10 to 14 years, in 15 different high, middle and low-income countries across the
world. This study focuses on adolescents within low-income countries, to capture relatively
unexplored contexts for gender identity development. It offers a fascinating look into key aspects
of development during the intensification of gender socialization and gender roles that occurs
around puberty. This study is undertaken in two phases, with the first designed as an exploratory
qualitative examination of how gender is experienced across the various settings, and the second
phase intended to incorporate a longitudinal quantitative design.

Some of papers focus on two country comparisons, for example, one describes the
processes of learning gender norms among young adolescents in low-income urban areas Delhi,
India and Shanghai, China. A second paper compares gender norms about early adolescent’s
friendships in Egypt and Belgium. Another paper focuses on both youth and parental reactions to
puberty in Kenya and Nigeria, as both a cross-cultural and intergenerational comparison.
Together the papers within this supplement offer rich and innovative glimpses inside he
transitions of early adolescents and the processes by which gender socialization influences
development, opportunities in urban areas in several countries around the world. They contribute
important insights into nearly universal presence of some gender norms, even in countries that
generally consider themselves, to have high levels of gender equality.

During adolescents gender roles and gender stereotypes actually influences beliefs in a
behavior, especially, across different culture. Most societies are profoundly generated, these
gender roles and expectations affect nearly every aspect of life from infancy onward. As a result,
they underscore the importance of context in shaping the way gender is learned, enforced and
reinforced among adolescents.

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Social Psychology

Article# 02 On Violence
Emotional Outcomes for Child Witnesses to
Domestic Violence
Summary:

Domestic violence is a social problem, affecting each member of a family—including


kids, even when they are not the ones directly experiencing violence or aggression. Parents under
stress can create children under stress. For children, witnessing domestic violence can lead to the
development of many negative behavioral traits or mental health issues. Exposure alone can be
traumatic.

Children who witness violence in the home are affected in ways similar to children who
experience physical abuse. These children are also at a greater risk for both internalized and
externalized negative behaviors, which can manifest socially, emotionally, psychologically,
and/or behaviorally. Research shows us that boys exhibit more externalizing behavior, like
fighting, bullying, lying, and cheating, while girls exhibit more internalized behaviors, such as
anxiety, withdrawal, and depression.

In addition to potential problem behaviors, children also may experience psychological


ramifications which lead to difficulties in school and lower scores on assessments of verbal,
motor, and cognitive skills. Other limitations identified are slower cognitive development, lack
of conflict resolution skills, limited problem-solving skills, and even a more rigid belief in
gender stereotypes and reinforcement of male privilege. Violence puts a barrier between child
and parent, making it difficult for children to develop a nurturing bond with either parent, which
in turn can result in extreme anxiety or worry.

Studies show that separation anxiety even takes a physical toll, so children may
complain of ailments like stomachache or headache as reasons they cannot go to school. Many
children, as a result of exposure to domestic violence, become very secretive about their families
and often do not invite friends to the home. They may begin to isolate and detach from the
support that they could receive from those around them.

The National Coalition Against Domestic Violence (NCADV) has created a website to
help individuals who are in relationships plagued by domestic violence or provide people with
resources to help family members and friends who are in abusive relationships.

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Social Psychology

Article# 03 On Altruism
An Adaption for Altruism!
The Social causes, Social Effects and Social
Evolution of Gratitude
Summary:

Gratitude—a positive emotion that typically flows from the perception that one has
benefited from the costly, intentional, voluntary action of another person. The studies in this
article may help to shed light on gratitude’s evolutionary history. McCullough proposed that
gratitude possesses three psychological features that are relevant to processing and responding to
pro-social behavior: It is a benefit detector and both a reinforcer and motivator of pro-social
behavior.
Gratitude is responsive to four types of information about the benefit-giving situation:
 The benefit’s costliness to the benefactor,
 Its value to the beneficiary,
 The intentionality with which it was rendered, and
 The extent to which it was given even without relational obligations to help
McCullough also proposed that gratitude reinforces pro-social behavior because
expressions of gratitude, saying ‘‘thanks’’ increase the likelihood that benefactors will behave
pro-socially again in the future. McCullough and colleagues concluded that benefactors who are
thanked for their efforts are willing to give more and work harder on behalf of others when
future opportunities arise than are benefactors who have not been thanked. It motivates people to
behave pro-socially after receiving benefits. Gratitude may motivate pro social behavior by
influencing psychological states that support trust and a readiness to give people credit for their
accomplishments are important lubricants for positive social interaction.
Psychologists have long held that positive emotions such as happiness and amusement can
promote pro-social behavior. What may distinguish gratitude from other positive emotions in this
respect is that gratitude stimulates helping even when it is costly to the helper. Bartlett and
DeSteno (2006) found that participants in an experimentally induced state of gratitude
voluntarily spent more time completing a boring survey as a favor to their benefactor than did
participants in an amused emotional state. Trivers proposed that:
‘The emotion of gratitude has been selected to regulate human response to altruistic acts
and that the emotion is sensitive to the cost/benefit ratio of such acts’’
Trivers’ theory is also congenial to two other findings about gratitude. The first is that
people anticipate feeling more grateful to strangers, acquaintances, and friends who benefit them
than to genetic relatives who provide the same benefit. The second is that gratitude increases
people’s trust in third parties.
Evolutionary theories proposes that gratitude is an adaption for reciprocal altruism and,
perhaps, upstream reciprocity. Gratitude evolved to facilitate altruism among non-relatives;
Expressions of gratitude also reinforce benefactors for their generosity. Gratitude therefore may
have played a unique role in human social evolution and promoting altruism.
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Social Psychology

References:
Article# 01
[1]
https://www.questia.com/read/119378829/the-psychology-of-gender
[2]
Goodmark, Leigh; Flores, Juanita; Goldscheid, Julie; Ritchie, Andrea; SpearIt (9 July
2015). "Plenary 2—Redefining Gender Violence". University of Miami Race & Social
Justice Law Review

Article# 02
[1]
Brown, B.V., and Bzostek, S. (2003) Violence in the lives of children. CrossCurrents, 1,
Child Trends DataBank
[2]
Edelson, J.L. (2006). Emerging Responses to Children Exposed to Domestic Violence.
Harrisburg, PA: VAWnet, a project of the National Resource Center on Domestic
Violence/Pennslyvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence. Retrieved 0ct 3, 2013 from
michbar.org/publicpolicy/pdfs/Legislators_ResponsesDV.pdf
[3]
https://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/emotional-outcomes-for-child-witnesses-to-domestic-
violence-1011134

Article# 03
[1]
Bartlett, M.Y., & DeSteno, D. (2006). Gratitude and prosocial behavior: Helping when it
costs you. Psychological Science, 17, 319–325.
[2]
Darwin, C. (1952). The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex Chicago, IL:
University of Chicago Press. (Original work published 1871)

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