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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

The Internet has become a necessity in human life, and has become a sophisticated tool for

job, social, and political success. It has become a basic tool for trading, entertainment,

communication, as well as education in contemporary world. Bill Gates says, “The Internet is

becoming the town square for the global village of tomorrow.” People from different generations

use the Internet easily wherever they go, and whenever they want. They use it for many kinds of

entertainment such as listening to music, playing online games, and using social networking. It has

changed our ordinary life at home, educational environment and at work.

It has permeated into our lives to such an extent that life without internet seems

meaningless. Today, communications through computer and internet is a part of life reality.

Nevertheless, despite the high speed of information flow and potential educational value of the

internet, there are several attributes of the internet which may foster addictive behavior. These

attributes include easy and flexible access 24 hours a day; provision of free, diversified, and

unlimited number of social networks without geographical boundaries; greater control over one's

self-presentation; and provision of numerous opportunities to fulfill the need for belongingness as

well as to escape from emotional difficulties, problematic situations, and personal hardships (Shek

et al., 2008).

According to Wenglingsky (1998), the internet continued to grow and many were

proclaiming the vast benefits computers and internet access would have on schools and academic

performance. In fact, some suggested that computers increased learning in specific academic areas

such as mathematics and science.


Kandell (1998) defined internet addiction as a psychological dependence on the internet,

regardless of the activity once logged on. Among these is whether some individuals develop

disturbed patterns of online behavior including internet addiction (Griffiths, 2000). People who

lose control over their actions in life, and in general, spend more than 38 hours a week online, are

considered to have an internet addiction (Greenfield, 1999). Excessive internet use may create a

heightened level of psychological arousal, resulting in little sleep, failure to eat for long periods,

and limited physical activity, possibly leading to the user experiencing physical and mental health

problems such as depression, OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder), low family relationships

and anxiety. Problematic internet use may be associated with subjective distress and functional

impairment (Shapira et al., 2000). Self-reported internet dependency and impaired academic

performance were both associated with greater use of all internet applications such as email and

use net newsgroups (Kubeyet al.,2001).

Internet in the form of smart phones and tablets has become an integral part of every

student's life. Although a small fraction of students use internet for educational activities in a

controlled way, however, a large percentage just keep wasting time by visiting 'non-educational'

sites. Research has shown that proportion of time a student spends on internet for educational

purpose versus non-educational activity could significantly determine their success.

Senior High school students, being young and psychologically immature are naturally

vulnerable to internet addiction, hence it is the responsibility of society, institutions, teachers and

parents to adopt measure which can keep the youth away from this nuisance. Hence, the

researchers will be determining the frequency of internet addiction among Grade 12 Students of

International School of Asia and the Pacific (ISAP) and its relationship on their academic

performance.

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Conceptual Framework

Internet addiction is defined as any online-related, compulsive behavior which interferes

with normal living and causes severe stress on family, friends, loved ones and academic

performance. Internet addiction has been called internet dependency and internet compulsivity. By

any name, it is a compulsive behavior that completely dominates the addict’s life. Internet addicts

make the internet a priority more important than family, friends and work including schoolwork.

The internet becomes the organizing principle of addicts’ lives. This research is going to discuss

the gender differences in internet addiction and the difference between the level of internet

addiction to their academic performance, which could help in utilizing the internet to facilitate

better academic performance.

In the study the level internet addiction of the respondents serves as the independent

variable of the academic performance and the academic performance is the dependent variable.

The questionnaire for the internet addiction is adapted from the worldwide use of Internet

Addiction Test (IAT) that contains 20 items as proposed by Dr Kimberly Young (a licensed

psychologist and an internationally known expert on Internet addiction), also known as 'Young's

Internet Addiction Test (Young, 1996). The questionnaire examines the level of internet addiction

among students. There are 20 items measuring the Salience, Excessive Use, Neglect Work,

Anticipation, Lack of Control and Neglect social life. For the dependent variable, namely the

academic performance measurement. The researcher will be using the General Weighted Average

(GWA) of the students to measure the academic performance of the respondents.

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Research Paradigm of the Study

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

RESPONDENTS’ ACADEMIC
LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE

INTERNET ADDICTION
 General Weighted
Average (GWA)

The figure above shows the dependent and the independent variables of the study. The independent

variable includes the profile of the respondents such as age, sex and internet addiction while the

dependent variable is the academic performance of the students. The diagram shows the

relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to explore the relationship of internet addiction on academic performance among

Grade 12 Students of International School of Asia and the Pacific (ISAP).

Specifically, it aims to answer the following questions

1. What is the level of addiction of the respondents in terms of online use?

2. What is the profile of the academic performance of the respondents?

3. Is there a significant relationship between the respondents’ level of internet addiction and

academic performance?

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Research Hypotheses

1. There is no significant relationship between the respondents’ level of internet addiction

and academic performance

Significance of the Study

The finding of the study will benefit the following:

Students. They would gain additional information about Internet addiction and will be aware of

the adverse effect of the excessive use of Internet.

Researchers. They would improve their skill, strategy and knowledge in engaging research.

Parents. The parents will be able to know pieces of information about their children’s online habit.

Future Researchers. This study will provide baseline data needed for future researches

and studies related to this one.

Scope and Delimitation

This study focuses on the relationship between student’s internet addiction to their

academic performance among Grade 12 Students of International School of Asia and the Pacific

(ISAP).

Definition of terms

To ensure clarity of discussion and to facilitate better understanding of the variables in the study,

the following terms were operationally and conceptually defined:

and wireless connections to connect computers and other devices to the World Wide Web.
Internet Addiction. Inability to stop internet overuse, tendency to perceive offline time as

meaningless, excessive irritation and aggression during deprivation.

Academic Performance. It is the measurement of student achievement across various academic

subjects revealed by their GWA.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter includes related literatures and related studies that would further support this

research.

Internet Use

The internet is a platform for several types of information. It used by students including

secondary students (Akin-Adaeamola, 2014). Internet usage will continue to grow as long as its

users are not denied easy access (Olatokun, 2008). Recent statistics indicate that the internet gives

people the option to access information sites as well as other sites such as social media sites,

internet games, and cyber-sex (Siraj et al. 2015). A study by Ellore et al. (2014) on the influence

of internet usage on academic performance and face to face communication revealed that as a

result of the availability of internet, most students have had access to internet on their cellphones.

This helps students to broaden their academic knowledge (Siraj, et al., 2015). The use of computer

and access to online resources according to Akende and Bamise (2017) are comparatively

important to students.

Yesilyurt et al. (2014) showed that access to a home computer and internet connection

contributes to students’ academic performance as well as self-learning skills. Considering access

and usage of the internet by secondary school students in Nigeria, Olatokun (2008) indicated that

most students believed the internet to be far better and convenient than their school libraries. The

study pointed out that students see the internet as a source for general knowledge, and it really

helps them improve their reading habits leading to an improvement in their academic performance.

Siraj et al. (2015) affirmed that students perceived the internet as a supplement for learning and

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thus contributes to higher academic feat. Ogedebe (2012) agreed that majority of students obtain

relevant information such as academic materials from the internet. This suggests that students use

the internet to enhance their study. Sahin et al. (2010) examined the use of internet resources by

university students during their course projects study. They argued that the use of trustworthy

internet resources is of vital importance for academic study, especially in higher class courses

which require an academic review of literature. Internet use for educational purpose is found by

Kim (2011) to be the habit of adolescent academic achievement. A similar study conducted by

Ruth and Adedotun (2015) posited that the source and access to information can influence the

academic performance of secondary school students.

Notwithstanding the importance attached to internet use and academic performance,

Olatokun (2008) in Nigeria maintains that secondary school students use the internet for leisure

rather than educational purposes. According to Olatokum(2008) the students usd the internet

primarily for communication, entertainment and leisure (reading and sending e-mails, online

chatting, instant messaging, playing games and downloading music videos, and reading

newspapers). Similarly, Sahin et al. (2010) noted that while university students frequently use

email and forum/chat-line in their daily life, they do not use them in their studies. Ngoumandjoka

(2012) found that the internet is not mostly used for academic purpose rather for recreational

activities. A similar work by Singh et al. (2013), brings to fore that students are more into the use

of the internet but, they are using it mainly for non-academic purposes like mailing, gaming and

social networking. This led to losses in their study schedules. This brings to the fore the

controversy among empirical studies on the influence of internet use on the academic performance

of students.

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The activities done by secondary school students on the internet have been scaled by

AkinAdaeamola (2014). The study revealed that the topmost activity done by secondary school

students is chatting, followed by downloading, watching videos online, surfing the web, using the

internet to study for school work, looking for other websites such as sports websites, reading news

online, games websites and lastly online shopping. Statistically 40% of students spend most of

their time chatting on social media daily while 14.4% of students use the internet for academic

purpose daily (Akin-Adaeamola, 2014). This agrees with the findings of Bragdon and Dowler

(2016) that there is a particular interest given that college administrators, faculty, parents, colleges’

students and others support the advantage of using technology in higher education, but the reality

is that this technology is often being used for non-academic purposes.

Students’ demographic variables are believed to have an influence on internet use and

hence academic performance. Demographic analysis revealed that males had higher frequency of

internet use in general than females (Akende and Bamise, 2017). Subsequent comparative analysis

revealed that male college students spend more time on the internet compared to female college

students (Ellore et al., 2014). Rabiu et al. (2016) identified the mobile phone as one of the gadgets

used in accessing the internet which impacts on academic performance. They found that phone

usage significantly influences academic performance among male and female senior high school

students. A case study on Labone Secondary Schools in Ghana shows that approximately girls use

the internet once a week whilst boys use the internet once a day on average or several times daily

(Akin-Adaramola, 2014). In contrast, Mami and Hatami-Zad (2014) found no significant

difference between boys and girls with regards to internet addiction. On the part of Aitokhuehi et

al. (2014), female computer literates tend to perform better than male computer literate students.

Kim (2011) examines the effect of internet use on academic achievement and behavioral

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adjustment among South Korean adolescents and found girls more likely to use the internet to

watch online educational classes and blog more frequently and longer than boys. The study

reported that boys mostly use the internet for playing games.

A correlation analysis on students’ socio-economic background, access to internet and

performance found no significant relationship between student’s socio-economic background and

access to internet (Adegoke, 2013). The study found that students from low economic background

surf the net through their friends’ phone, their friends pay for them at cybercafés and at times they

could afford to pay at the cybercafé for themselves. According to Osunade (2003), students are

capable of paying for internet access. Adegoke’s (2013) study revealed that socioeconomic

background contributes significantly to student’s achievement while internet use has no significant

contribution to student’s achievement. Rather, when the two socio-economic background and

internet use were combined, they had a significant contribution to students’ achievement. Kim

(2011) added that parent-child relationship (closeness and conflict) were found to be vital to youth

adjustment and plays a significant role in the association between adolescent internet use and

academic and behavioral outcome.

Furthermore, controlled use of the internet can have positive influence on students’

academic performance. Research has shown that the use of the internet has positive impact

depending on the type and how it is being used (Torres-Diaz et al., 2016). In exploring the

influence of internet usage on academic performance, Ellore et al. (2014) discovered that most

university students have control over the use of internet. Kakkar (2014) opined that internet usage

can be beneficial to students in their academic set-ups and may not cause potential harm to their

mental health if used in moderation. As the internet has become an integral part of today’s life,

Singh et al. (2013) observed that it should be used as a tool for communication and acquiring of

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knowledge rather than habit forming addiction. Colleges and universities are therefore urged to

educate students about the possible negative impacts of high rate of recreational internet use on

academic success (Bragdon and Dowler, 2016).

Gender differences in Internet addiction

(Bimber, 2000). One frequently noted dimension of inequality in Internet access and usage

is gender. A number of studies have noted that women are less likely than men to use the Internet,

particularly when the technology first became accessible to the general public in the mid-1990s. 1

Gender differences in adoption rates may exist because men and women differ, on average, in

socioeconomic status, which influences computer and Internet access and use. Alternatively, men

tend to be more interested in computers than women, on average, contributing to gender

differences in Internet use (Shashaani, 1997). Others speculate that technology itself is a product

of social relations, so diffusion of new innovations favors particular social groups, such as men

(Edwards, 1995; Wajcman, 1995). Such intergroup differences tend to eventually diminish,

although not necessarily disappear altogether, as a technology diffuses over time (Compaine,

2001b). Gender differences in Internet access and usage are important because groups that have

lower usage rates risk being excluded from job and educational opportunities as well as losing

political influence as the Internet becomes increasingly important to how people live and work

(Norris, 2001). Gender differences in computer use in classrooms and at home noted by many

studies may carry over to Internet usage (e.g., Shashaani, 1997).

Previous studies conclude that women were less likely than men to use personal computers

during the 1980s but that the gender gap in computer usage has since disappeared (Kominski,

1992; Kominski and Newburger, 1999). Men and women have had similar overall rates of

computer usage since at least 1993 (Bikson and Panis, 1995; NTIA, 2002). Indeed, women are

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more likely than men to use computers and the Internet at work, in part because of occupational

differences (Bikson and Panis, 1995; Kominski and Newburger, 1999). Findings on trends in the

gender gap in Internet usage are mixed. Pitkow and Kehoe (1997) and Clemente (1998) report that

Internet users were predominantly male in 1994, but the proportion of users who are female

increased between 1994 and 1997. Katz, Rice, and Aspden (2001) similarly report that the fraction

of new Internet users who are female increased steadily over 1992-2000 and that women

constituted many new Internet users during 1997- 2000. These studies focus on gender differences

among new users, not the fraction of all users at a given point in time who are female. Bimber

(2000) finds that men were about 5 percentage points more likely than women to have access to

the Internet in 1996 and 1998 a statistically insignificant gap but the gap increased to 10 percentage

in 1999 and was significant. Hoffman, Novak, and Schlosser (2001), in contrast, report that the

gender gap in Internet access and use narrowed between the spring and fall of 1997 but then

remained flat through the spring of 1998. Magali Dufour et al. (2016), boys spent significantly

more time on the Internet than did girls. A greater proportion of the girls made intense use of social

networks, whereas a greater proportion of the boys made intense use of massively multiplayer

online role-playing games, online games, and adult sites.

One of the studies of Hamade (n.d.) showed the distribution of students among three levels

of internet addiction. It showed that 75.6% of female no sign of addiction compared to only 46.6%

of males. Besides that, less than 25% of females are addicted to the internet and more compared

to only 46.6% of males. Besides that, less than 25% of females are addicted to the internet and

more than 50% of male students are addicted. Moreover, about 18% of males are highly addicted

to the internet but females only 6% are highly addicted. In other words, male students are more

addicted to the internet than female students such as spend time outside the house and with friends,

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and visit internet cafes, game networks and other places. This freedom will make the more time

surfing the internet and consequently become more vulnerable to internet addiction. Lee et al.

(2002) stated that numerous studies have shown gender difference in the use of digital media and

the type of service girls and boys prefer are different. Besides that based on (Subrahmanyam et al.

(2001); Bickham et al., (2003), in early teens, girls use the computer longer than boys, but for the

late-teens this trends is reversed (Park 2009). Gender differences in internet addiction can be

explained by the types of content that interest men and women. Interactive online games

characterized by power dominance, control, and violence attract more men than women. As an

example, Young (1998) observed that men tend to seek out dominant activities. Women, on the

other hand, seek out close friendships and prefer anonymous communication in which they can

hide their identity. Van Schie and Wiegman (1997) have another study which showed that boys

enjoy online games more than girls. This preference makes boys heavy users of the internet (Park

2009). However, according to Azim, Zam, and Rahman (n.d.) stated that, gender differences and

trends in age groups are often observed in many studies. One of the studies by Young (1996)

showed that middle-aged women were more prone to internet addiction than men and other age

groups. While on Davis et al. (1999) have compared gender differences in internet use. They found

that male students spend more time online than female in the public university. However, in private

university there was no significant gender differences in tern of the time spent online (Rahman

etal., n.d.). One of the studies by Barroes et al., (2001) showed that, male students were more

internet dependent than women. Dependents were for times more likely than non-dependents to

report academic impairment die to their internet use (Rahman et al., n.d.).

Park et al., (2009) concluded that: However, previous studies reported that 4.6% of girls and 4.7%

of boys among 12-18 years old Finnish youth (Lintonen et al., 2004) and total of 1.98% (2.42%

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for boys and 1.51% for girls) among Norwegain youth (12-18 years) met criteria of internet

addiction (Johansson & Gotestam, 2004)

Furthermore, Hunley et al. (2005) had a report about the amount of time spent on the

computer was similar across gender. Tsai and Lin (2004) study, found that there was no significant

gender difference in adolescents’ Internet self-efficacy, and they suggest that both genders were

competently mastering it. In another word, both genders appear now to have equivalent resources

and experience in accessing the internet. Although based on this study, gender differences in

computer use are narrow but there is gender gap in online activities and in the content that is

accessed (Lin & Yu, 2008). Mediamark Research (2005) had reported that, boys (28.9%) were

more likely to play games than were girls (11.1%). Besides that, Griffiths et al. (2004) also support

that boy tended to play games more often than did girls (Lin & Yu 2008). Tsai and Lin (2004) had

also stated that, males tended to consider the internet more as a “toy”, but females tended to view

it as a tool or as technology with which accomplish task (Lin & Yu, 2008). As previously stated,

researchers have found that male and female use internet differently, and according to The Pew

Internet and American Life (2005), man are more likely than women to use the internet more for

information gathering while women more to use in communication (McMahan, 2005).

The study of Rees and Noyes (2007) found that there is significant gender difference that

were reported for computer and internet use, internet attitudes, and computer anxiety. Although

males and female were generally used these technologies, but females are less frequent user of

technology as compared to males and that females have less positive attitude and greater anxiety

toward technology (Rahmanm n.d.). However, a study by Ferraro et al. (2007) used Italian version

of Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Result revealed that no significant differences were

found between male and female (Rahman, n.d.).

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According to Hiroshi and Zavodny (2005) internet use in different location or countries

have different result in gender differences. In the US. Internet use at various locations increased

over time among woman relative to men. In 1996 and 1998 were less likely to use internet

anywhere or at home but they were more likely to do so by 2001. Nevertheless, woman in Japan

are much less likely to use internet than men regardless of location, and this difference has not

narrowed significant over time. In general, this research had found that gender inequality in labor

markets and human capital development carries over to gender difference in IT use. In contrasting

patterns of IT access and use in US and Japan reflected differences in the structure of social

organization and labor market institution in two cultures. A study was examined the internet

addiction between male undergraduate Human Sciences students of International Islam University

Malaysia (IIUM). This study showed that there were no significant differences in internet addiction

between male and female in Human Sciences students (Rahman et al., n.d.).

In the words of J. Yen et al. (2009), the study entitled “The association between harmful

alcohol use and Internet addiction among college students: comparison of personality,” adopting

the Chi-square test for analysis, male college students are more prone to Internet addiction than

female ones. Likewise, Gnisci et al., (2011) adopted the point-biserial correlation analysis and

concluded that male college students are more likely to be dependent on the Internet than their

female counterparts. Some studies suggest that Internet addicts are primarily shy teenage boys, but

the number of teenage girls addicted to the Internet is increasing Chou and Hsiao (2000) “Internet

addiction, usage, gratification, and pleasure experience: the Taiwan college students' case,”

Lichan Liang et. Al (2016), Males were more likely to use the Internet for pleasure and

less likely to surf the Internet to search for information, compared with females. Although both

males and females were prone to surfing the Internet alone, males were more likely to go online

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with friends compared with females. These findings suggest that gender-specific preventative and

interventional strategies should be developed to reduce Internet addiction.

Time Spent on the Internet

It has been recently reported that adolescents today spend a significant amount of their time

on the internet for multiple purposes (Olatokun, 2008; Krischne and Karpinski, 2009; Ogedebe,

2012; Singh et al., 2013; Bragdon and Dowler, 2016). Evidence abound that excessive internet use

has been associated with problems of maintaining daily routines, school performance, and family

relationships (Rickert, 2001). A study conducted by Bragdon and Dowler (2016) on college

students’ technology use and academic performance indicated that upperclassmen spent

significantly more time using technology for academic and work related purposes, whereas

underclassmen spent more time using cell phones, online chatting and social networking.

According to Olatokun (2008), a large proportion of secondary school students in Nigeria had been

involved to some extent in using the internet in their everyday lives for about four to five years

now. Ogedebe (2012) observed that Nigeria tertiary students prefer browsing the internet overnight

to that of the day. Research shows that most students spent an average of 2570.6 (42.8 hours) per

week engaging in some form of technology (Bragdon and Dowler, 2016).

Krischne and Karpinski (2009) carried out a study on Facebook and academic performance.

Facebook users and non-users reported comparable average daily internet use and the highest

category endorsed was between 1 and 2 hours pay day. However, Facebook users were recording

lower GPA and spending fewer hours per week studying on average than non-users. According to

Singh et al. (2013), because of non-focused approach (mailing, gaming and social networking) as

well as diversity of knowledge on the internet on particular topics, students tend to waste time on

the internet. Similar activities (Chatting, e-mail and browsing websites) have been identified by

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Samual (2010) in an attempt to evaluate internet usage among secondary school students in public

schools in Lagos State. Evidence from Denizli on the effects of technological devices on student’s

academic success suggested that most students have been late in submitting their assignments

because they spend more time on social media instead of doing their homework (Yesilyurt et al.,

2014). However, Singh et al. (2013) found that students with focused approach go deep in subject

and primarily use internet for academic purpose. These students do not waste time because of

proper management of time, focus of search areas and reducing the social networking sites to

minimum. Despite great concerns over excessive internet use, Siraj et al. (2015) concluded that

high internet usage brings better academic results as students get the opportunity to enter the

information world.

Level of Internet Addiction in Adolescent

According to Pallanti et al. (2006), Internet addiction can be found at any age and in any

social condition, but most of the research major attention has been focuses on adolescent because

adolescent seem to be a critical period of addiction vulnerability. The research of Van Rooij and

Van den Eijinden (2007) had reported that, using internet has become one of the most popular

leisure-time activities among adolescent in Western societies. Adolescents in Netherlands of ages

between 11 to 15 use the internet for leisure activities and for adolescents aged 14 and older regard

internet usage as an important leisure-time acitivity than watching TV (Van den Eijiden et al.,

2009). According to Lin and Wu (2009). Older adolescents appear to be more dependent on the

internet than younger adolescent. Recent studies have found that 19.8% of adolescent in the world

have internet addiction and furthermore, it is associated with hostility (Huang et al., 2009). The

first widely “wired” generation now a day are preteens and teens and according to eMarketer

(2004). The number of preteens and teens online in US. Grew streadily from 26.6 million in 2000

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to 34.3 million in 2003 and nearly one half of all youngsters were online (Lin & Yu, 2008).

However, a recent survey from Forrester Research (2005) had revealed that consumer between the

age of 12 and 17 in North America were often online daily and average almost 11 hours per week.

On the other hand, a surver by Taiwan Network Information Center (2008), should that the internet

population in Taiwan has reached 15 million. Among them, internet user of age under 20 accounted

for about 2.86 million. Furthermore, the two groups with the highest rates of internet usage were

12 to 15 years old which is 98% and 16 to 20 years old that is 95.6% (Lin & Yu, 2008).

Based on Pallanti et al., (2006) research, 5.4% of the sample included 275 students with the average

of 16.67 ± 1.85 years and consisted of 52.4% males and 47.6% females. This research also shown

that in Italy, internet usage had a slower diffusion than in other countries. However, in another

research from China Internet Network Information Center (2006) had shown that 123 million

people had gone online, of which 14.9% were teenagers below 18 years old and it has concluded

that internet addiction is currently becoming a serious mental health problem among Chinese

adolescents. Chou and Hsiao reported that the incidence rate of Internet addiction among Taiwan

college students was 5.9%. Wu and Zhu indentified 10.6% of Chinese college students as addicted

to Internet (as cited in Gao et al. 2007). Based on Chen et al. (2005), the majority of online gaming

crime in Taiwan is theft (73.7%) and fraud (20.2%) and their research found that the age of

offenders is low with 3.3% between ages 15 to 20 years of age, 8.3% under 15 years old (Wan &

Chiou, 2007)

According to Park et al. (2008), there are more adolescent using the internet than any other

age group in South Korea. Based on their research 97.3% of South Korean adolescents between

the age of 6 and 19 years used the internet in 2005. Moreover, a study has investigated the

prevalence of internet addiction among South Korean adolescents been made. In this study 903

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adolescents participated and 10.7% of them scored high on the Internet Addiction Scale and these

youths were considered at high risk for internet addiction. This phenomenon occurs because South

Korea is an internet-based society that provides numerous middle and high school adolescents with

easy internet access and Internet addiction among South Korean is serious.

Internet Addiction and Academic Performance

The internet has become an integral part of student’s life. Many students used the internet

mainly for educational activities; however, several students wasted their time by visiting

inappropriate sites, unrelated to education. A study revealed that academic success was determined

by how the students utilize the internet, whether it is for education purpose or non-educational

activities (Li et al., 2014). The heavy usage of the internet has shown adolescents visiting chat

rooms which resulted them to stay up late hence affected their focus and attention in class that

leads to the deterioration of their academic performance (Leung & Lee, 2012). The studies on the

effect of internet addiction on academic performance have been consistently reported on negative

associations. In other words, if the students are addicted to the internet, their academic performance

decreased; their study habit declined, increased in absenteeism, and skipped exams (Yeap et al.,

2016). One study conducted at a small private university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania found that

the longer the time spend on the internet the lower the Grade Point Average (GPA) of the students

(Mishra et al., 2014). Most of the time spent on the internet by students are social networking

system (SNS) and online gaming activity and it shows the inability of the students to avoid misuse

of the internet (Livingstone & Helsper, 2010). The internet addiction also led to academic failure

and negative consequences to campus life (Chou, Condron & Belland, 2005; Douglas et al., 2008).

The poor academic performance will force the students to drop out from universities or colleges

(Li et al., 2003). The study among medical students at the Army Medical College, Rawalpindi,

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India, found that the longer the students spent time on the internet, the less their marks in the

professional examination (Khan et al., 2016). A similar study among students in South Korea

revealed that students who were using the internet for educational purposes obtained a better

academic performance. In contrast, a lower academic achievement was associated with the misuse

of the internet for a social and recreational purpose (Kim, 2011). Findings from a research done to

see the correlation of internet addiction to academic performance have shown that adolescents

often missed their classes and have low social skills due to the misuse of the internet (Leung &

Lee, 2012).

Olatokun (2008) noted that the greatest obstacles to the full exploitation of the internet are

inadequate access, inherent risks and problems such as pornography, scams among others. Though

evidence showed that students have interest in internet resources than other sources, they have

been challenged (Sahin et al., 2010). Therefore, it is necessary that internet access is made

available at all hours and instructors or lectures should refer students to educational websites for

more relevant information (Osunnade, 2003). It has been found that internet access is low among

senior high school students. Apart from access, it is disheartening to note that some students cannot

even operate a computer despite the number of years spent in secondary school (Samual, 2010).

According to Ruth and Adedotun (2015), information sources that are mostly available to Nigerian

students are their teachers and lesson notes while library and internet facilities are the least

available to them. Meanwhile, the internet can be used for knowledge acquisition by serving as an

alternative to outdated books (Osunade, 2003). However, access to a computer and internet

connection contributes to students’ academic performance (Yesilyurt et al. 2014). There is a

significant difference in the academic performance of students with internet access and those

20
without internet access. Considering the positive and negative impacts of the internet, Yesilyurt et

al. (2014) opined that the positive influence outweighs the negative impacts.

(Sampath Kumar & Manjunath, 2013) in quantitative studies has found that teachers and

research scholars have been using the internet to support their research and teaching. Using the

internet, it's had a positive impact on their academic performance, namely by writing research

papers further help in doing better research and provide a better learning experience. Besides,

according to (Sushma et al., 2014) the more time spent with the Internet, the higher a student

addicted to the internet. The study showed that the time spent on the internet is becoming a measure

of academic achievement. The use of the Internet beyond the time will not be a hint of academic

success.

The use of internet widely used by students can have a positive impact on students and a

key factor for the students in achieving summative grade and left the course early (Garcia et al.,

2015). Besides, according to (Ahsan Ul Haq & Sohail Chand, 2012) the use of Internet by students

adversely affecting their academic performance. These negative effects are more to male students.

This is based on the behavior of male students are more active and spend a lot of time on Internet

makes them unable to focus on their academics. Moreover, (Rouis, Limayem, & Sangari, 2011)

argued in their research that many students use Internet with an extroverted personality can lead

to poor academic achievement. It indicates that the personality of a person while using Internet

play a role whether the academic performance can be achieved or not.

In a research article, Ying-Fang Chen and Samuel S. Peng (2005-2006 academic year juniors)

A study done on a variety of randomly selected University students in Taiwan showed that heavy

Internet users and non-heavy Internet users differed significantly on a number of dimensions. Non-

21
heavy users had better relationships with administrative staff, academic grades and learning

satisfaction than heavy Internet users. Tuckman (1975) defined academic performance as the

apparent demonstration of understanding concepts, skills, ideas and knowledge and proposed that

grades clearly depict the performance of students. Heavy users were more likely than non-heavy

Internet users to be depressed, physically ill, lonely, and introverted.

Ngoumandjoka (2012) categorized internet users into heavy and light users. In his view,

academic work is the main reason students use the internet on campus. Students who were

classified as heavy users were found to use the internet more for recreational purpose than the light

internet users. His study further argued that the more the internet is used for academic work the

more it is perceived to exert a positive influence on academic grades. Several authors (e.g Torres-

Diaz et al., 2016) equally agreed that internet usage has a positive impact on academic

performance. They opined that students who tend to use the internet more on educational materials

are less likely to fail their examinations. Therefore, the disadvantages of lack of access to internet

surpass the advantages. Also, people who perform interactive activities with peers and teachers or

when they make a balance use of internet tools for their course work tend to have greater academic

performance (Torres-Diaz et al., 2016). In Nigeria, the impact of computer literacy on students’

performance in secondary school has been explored by Aitokhuehi et al. (2014). They found that

computer literate students performed better than noncomputer literate students. Similar results

have been obtained by Samual (2010) when he evaluated the impact of internet usage among

secondary school students in Nigeria. His study found internet usage to be low among public

schools in Lagos compared to their counterparts in the developed world.

Internet has become a daily commodity in most people’s lives. However, the addictive-like

features of the internet make any individual who excessively use it a potential victim of its negative

22
effects. Some of its negative effects include impaired sleeping patterns, social relationships break-

ups, job losses, mental and physical health as well as poor academic performance (Ngoumandjoka,

2012). Psychological issues ranging from mood swings to altered behavior, withdrawn attitude

and loneliness have been reported by Singh et al. (2013) to be the main effect of using the internet

mainly for social networking and mailing. This is because they remain in some sort of virtual world

of the net. Turel and Toraman (2015) found in their study that as academic performance of students

deemed successfully increases, their internet addiction average decrease. This implies that, internet

addiction influences the academic performance of students. Aitokhuehi et al. (2014) also noted

that computer literate students who are not addicted to the use of computer facilities perform better

than those who are addicted to its usage. Kakkar (2015) established a significant effect of internet

addiction on students’ performance and mental health. Categorically, he revealed that students

who were in the server and profound group of internet addiction were found to have detrimental

effect on their academic performance and metal health rather than the students who use the internet

moderately. Similarly, results have been obtained by Austin et al. (2011) in their study that

categorized internet users into light, moderate and intense users respectively. They discovered that

students that use the internet at school and at home (moderate use) produce higher grades than

those that do not use the internet. Also, students that only use the internet at school (light users)

obtained lower grades compared to those that did not use the internet.

Despite great concerns over excessive internet use, Siraj et al. (2015) concluded that high

internet usage brings better academic results as students get the opportunity to enter the

information world. It is reported that addiction to internet is a good protector for student’s social

skills and academic achievement (Mami and Hatami-Zad, 2014). A relationship between internet

addiction and academic performance showed that the average internet addiction level of male

23
students, vocational school students and verbal field students were determined to be higher than

more academically sacksful students (Turel and Toraman, 2015). This supports the idea that

control use of internet can have positive influence on student’s academic performance (TorresDiaz

et al., 2016; Ellore et al., 2014; Kakkar, 2014). Moreover, it is necessary that students are taught

how to use computer facilities to search for valid information relating to their academic work

(Mami and Hatami-Zad, 2014; Aitokhuehi et al., 2014). As a result, it is necessary that government

and stakeholders make available computer sets with internet facilities to all secondary schools for

students and teachers to use in the teaching and learning process to enhance academic performance

(Aitokhuehi et al., 2014).

According to a journal of Education and Sociology done in Pakistan, Muhammad Musaud

Asdaque (2010). The use of the internet is one of the major factors affecting the academic

performance and social life of university students. The number of hours spent on internet will

affect the grades of students depending on if the internet is used for study purpose or social

purposes. Many studies have been conducted regarding the type of information the end-users seek

and obtain on the Internet and in which circumstances they prefer electronic sources to paper

sources(Tenopir et al.2003).Also , students can gain from others’ knowledge and experiences,

participate in chatrooms, share ideas and solutions.

Teens spend approximately 2.3 hours online a day, 80 percent of that time, on social

networking sites (Roiworld, 2010). Students who multi-task between social networking sites and

homework are likely to have 20% lower grades than a student who does not have a social

networking site in visual range (Lenhart, A, 2009). Also, many researchers believe that excessive

use of the internet has the potential to become an addiction (Griffiths, 1995, 2000). Some,

involvement on the Internet begins to have serious, negative consequences. When such

24
consequences are minimized or ignored while Internet use increases, Internet dependence is

occurring. As of 2005, it is estimated that 6% of users are Internet dependent (Villanova

Counseling Center). The internet can act as a major distraction to students if not properly managed.

(Sampath Kumar & Manjunath, 2013) in quantitative studies has found that teachers and

research scholars have been using the internet to support their research and teaching. By the use

of the internet, it's had a positive impact on their academic performance, namely by writing

research papers further help in doing better research and also provide a better learning experience.

Besides, according to (Sushma et al., 2014) the more time spent with the Internet, the higher a

student addicted to the internet. The study showed that the time spent on the internet is becoming

a measure of academic achievement. The use of the Internet beyond the time will not be a hint of

academic success.

25
CHAPTER III

RESEACRH METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES

This chapter presents and discusses the research design, locale of the study, respondents and

sampling procedure, research instrument, data gathering procedures and statistical treatment employed in

the conduct of the study.

Research Design

This study employs a descriptive correlational research design in assessing the relationship of Level

of Addiction of Senior High School (SHS) students of International School of Asia and the Pacific (ISAP)

towards their Academic Performance (AP).

Locale of the Study

This research will be done at International School of Asia and the Pacific (ISAP), located at

Alimanao Peñablanca, Cagayan. This school offers Senior High School program that started since School

Year 2017-2018.

Research Instrument

In assessing the level of internet addiction of the respondents, the researcher will utilize a

standardized INTERNET ADDICTION TEST (IAT). It consists of 20 items that measures mild, moderate

and severe level of internet addiction. Items will be rated on a scale of 0 (does not apply) to 5 (always).

The Internet Addiction Test (IAT; Young, 1998) is a 20-item scale that measures the presence and

severity of Internet dependency among adults. Dr. Kimberly Young developed the IAT to assess symptoms

26
of Internet addiction and compulsivity in a variety of test settings. For the adopted scale, reliability

coefficient Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.90 and Spearman Brown value was calculated as 0.86,

constituting to an acceptable to excellent level of reliability. Validity and reliability analysis were reviewed

about the adoption of Internet Addiction Test and it was concluded that the results that were found was in

the acceptable ranges.

The IAT total score ranges, with the higher the score representing the higher level of severity of

Internet compulsivity and addiction. Total scores that range from 0 to 30 points are considered to reflect a

normal level of Internet usage; scores of 31 to 49 indicate the presence of a mild level of Internet addiction;

50 to 79 reflect the presence of a moderate level; and scores of 80 to 100 indicate a severe dependence upon

the Internet.

Sampling Techniques

Slovin’s formula sampling technique will be utilized in selecting the respondents in the study. This

technique will be used to make sure a fair and equal representation of the variables of the study. The number

of respondents will be based on Slovin’s formula. This will be used to help the researchers to compute the

appropriate sample size from the large population of Senior High School students of International School

of Asia and the Pacific.

Data Gathering Procedure

For the researcher to conduct the study among students of International School of Asia and the

Pacific (ISAP), the researchers will implement the following actions. First, the researchers will write a letter

that will be noted by the adviser and will be given to the Principal of the International School of Asia and

the Pacific (ISAP) for approval in floating the questionnaires and asking the respondent’s General Weighted

27
Average. Second, to be able to gather all necessary information from every respondent, the researcher will

give the approval letter by the Principal to every professor of Grade 12 Senior High School student and will

decide to administer the tests/questionnaires considering the respondents’ availability of time. The

researchers will provide an informed consent to each of the identified respondents for gathering data. Then

data will be obtained on level of internet addiction by administering Internet Addiction Test (IAT). They

will be fully informed that the results of the test will be kept with utmost confidentiality and the data that

will be gathered will be used for research purposes only.

Statistical Analysis

The study will utilize the following statistical tools needed in the interpretation and analysis of the

data that were gathered.

In order to determine the profile of the respondents, the frequency count and percentage distribution

will be employed.

Chi square will be utilized to determine significant difference between the profile and internet

addiction of the respondents.

The study will utilize Chi square and T-test to determine the significant effect between Academic

Performance of Grade 12 Senior High School students of International School of Asia and the Pacific

(ISAP) and their level of addiction towards Internet together with their respective profile variables.

28
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