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On the Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language and of the sanskrit grammarians

Author(s): A. Hjalmar Edgren

Source: Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 11 (1885), pp. 1-55
Published by: American Oriental Society
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Presented to the Society May 29th, 18'78.

THE object aimed at in this paper has been a separation of

authenticated and unauthenticated verbal roots or root-forms
in Sanskrit; a general classification and description of the
former, and an attempt at determining the value and the
character of the latter.
It is a recognized fact that the majority of Sanskrit radicals
enumerated by native lexicographers and grammarians have
never been verified by modern investigation of the literature of
the Hindus. Different causes have been assigned to account for
this fact. Some scholars have expressed a suspicion that at
least a considerable portion of these strange forms are counter-
feits-products of scholastic inventiveness, which have never
entered into circulation in the living language. But others,
and, it is believed, with the weight of authority on their side,
have trusted to the disclosures of a more thorough sifting of
all the material for the justification of such forms; or have
made dialectic variations and borrowing from unrelated tongues
responsible for these pariahs rejected by classical records.
Another fact is also that not only a great number of these
problematical root-forms; but also a great many authenticated
radicals, are invested with meanings which have never been
recognized by modern researches. This also must be due to
one of two causes: either to mere invention or guessing on the
part of the native lexicographers and commentators, or else to
the existence of parallel radicals, identical in their form, but
differing in their signification.
VOL. XI. 1

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2 A. B. Edgren,

This whole subject seems, for two reasons, to deserve especial

attention. The first and more general reason is the importance,
in Indo-European etymology, of the evidence furnished by
Sanskrit roots. The value of their testimony is in exact pro-
portion to their authenticity. Indications are by no means
wanting that etvmologizers are tempted to lend an undue,
indeed often a fallacious, importance to doubtful forms, in
allowing them to stand at the side of authenticated roots, as
their full equals, supporting far-reaching conclusions: and it
might be said with truth that the structure of Indo-European
etymology, in so far as it is reared on such foundations, is
loose and unsafe. The second and more special reason is the
desirableness of facilitating a correct acquisition of the language
by disencumbering the dictionaries of what is false, and thus
misleads or unnecessarily burdens the memory of the student.
The great dictionary of Bohtlingk and Roth, which determines
the value of every root-form as far as the present knowledge of
the language permits, and which, no doubt, will for years to
come be the corner-stone of all etymological constructions on
the Aryan field, will, we hope, some day yield a satisfactory
solution of the enigma of these unidentified roots and defini-
tions. In the mean time, the following facts, mainly drawn
from that source, and the conclusions founded on them-
conclusions given with all the caution which the considera-
tion of a subtile and elusive question has constantly suggested
-may serve as a slight contribution to such a result, if only by
inviting to the subject a wider discussion than it has hitherto


By authenticated radicals is here meant all such as, given or

not given' ill native root-collections, especially in Panini's Dhatu-
pt.ha, and further explained or illustrated by native commenta-
tors, have been actually found in any personal or impersonal form
by modern researches in the Hindu literature. All forms not
thus verified have been ruled out, whatever, in other respects,
their claims might seem to be.
THE NUMBER AND CLASSIFICATION of these authenticated radical
forms must vary according to different methods followed. In
the first case a very large number of radicals catalogued in the
1 About fifty forms, found especially in the Rig-Veda, are wanting in Wester-
gaard's Radices Ling. Sanscr. [ankh (denom. ?), ar~ (?), dr, nizkh (uhnkh given), katt,
kd (=kam), kraksh, kvhup, khud, gadh, gulph, gushp, girdh, janh, jajhjh, damr, tand,
1, 2 tuC, trut, trud, dan, dudh, dhav, nid, paj, palpal, pibd, bhan, bhishaj, bhur,
bhuraj, majj. (Dhat. under masj), man, migh (-mih), myaksh, ydd, rapp, rip, red,
lam, vat, vid, vrad, vrddh, vla(n)g, fat, yuj, rush, hru.]-Many more, though found
in one sense or inflection, have others which necessitate their classification as
separate roots (as 2 arj, 2 ah, 2 uksh, 2 can, 2 da, 4 vas, 2 sarj, 2 har, etc. etc.);
or have meanings entirely different from those given by the natives.

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 3

Dhatuphathas are only convenient duplicates of one and the same

root, parallel forms corresponding to slight inflectional changes
or varieties which involve no change of sense whatever; as in the
case of dd, dad, ddy; dha, dadh; i, i, ay; vip, vep; the frequent
nasalization of roots like badh, bandh; pubh, punmbh; saj, sanj (also
sajj, by assimilation); and so on. If all such possible variations
were taken into account, the root-list would be increased beyond
endurance. In point of fact it is considerably swelled by these
parallel forms, without beginning to exhaust the possibilities; and,
moreover, the number varies somewhat according to the method
of different lexicographers (European included). The following
collection of verified root-forms (in the main though not abso-
lutely agreeing in arrangement with that of the Dhatupatha)
contains not less than 108 duplicates of the above description
(not counting stch as kar, kr, since they are not given separately
in the Dhat.). To these may be added kar, khid, 2 tan, pap,
being simply later types of the likewise extant earlier skar, skhid,
stan, spap, and implying no organic change or change followed
by modification of the meaning, but only a wearing away of the
initial consonant. Aside from these 112 duplicates, then, there
are altogether 880 radical forms which are authenticated on the
principle laid down above.
But, secondly, even these 850 forms must be considerably re-
duced in number before we have what may be fairly called
radicals. There are many forms which, in all probability, must
be considered as denominatives, and which, as such, have no more
right to occur in a root-collection than other and more evident
denominatives, which are excluded from it. It cannot, indeed, be
stated with absolute certainty which forms are denominatives;
and probably the weight of the best authority is now in favor of
the supposition that all verbs of the cur-class were ultimately of
that kind. Without resorting, however, here to this theory, and
classifying as denominatives, for the most part, only such verbs
as seem clearly derived from existing nominal bases both in form
and sense, and whose late occurrence in the language, moreover,
gives strong support to this theory of secondary formation, a
number of 48 is obtained. They are (only the 7 marked f occur-
ring also in the RV.): ans, aik, aid/kht (?), argh, artht, irshy, kath,
kirt, kuts, khan.d, gan, gand, gupt, cMrn, tir, dand, dhap, 2 patt,
path, 2 pap, pidl, pind, 2 phal, phull, mantrt, mnrg, mdrg, miipr,
mnl, 2 moksh, yantr, 2 ras, riksh, r4dp, laksh, ling, varn, vdt, vds,
vtr\, vyay, vran(?), pabd, pzl, sabhdj, sukh, sltr, sten, (compare
also nid).
Further, there are a few forms which are apparently nothing
but (for the most part older and somewhat anomalous) derivative
verb-forms (mainly desideratives) from roots existing at their
side; and with which, like other more regular derivatives of the
kind, they might be properly classed. There are about 16 of
them, viz.: kdnksh (desid. of kam), kshal (caus. of kshar), 2 kshap
(caus. of kshi), jdgar (intens. of 3 gar), daridrd (intens. of drd),

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4 A. H. Edgren,

diksh (desid. of daksh), dhiksh (desid. of dih), dip (caus. of di),

plr (caus. of par), 3 badh (desid. of bddh), bhiksh (desid. of bhaj),
miksh (desid. of mip or mih), moksh (desid. of muc), padn (desid.
of cd), hins (desid. of han), ?rnu (fr. var, vrnoti); [compare also
a few less certain as aksh (ap), naksh (nap), etc.].
Subtracting the preceding 64 forms from the number 880, there
remain 816 radical forms.
Though these figures represent the number of identified radical
verb-forms with an independent character and with their own
distinct meanings or shades of meaning, it is nevertheless gen-
erally conceded that many even of them are but the results of
older processes of linguistic change, and that not a few among
themn are referable to simpler or more primitive roots, which are
yet extant. Still the nature and scope of these processes are
very differently interpreted, and the classifications, as a conse-
quence, very diverse and uncertain.
In a limited number of cases, indeed, we need feel little or no
hesitancy. Thus, especially, there are some radicals like ramb,
lamb (both meaning 'hang down,' but the former occurring only
in its literal sense in the Rig-Veda, while the latter, with various
figurative meanings attached to it, occurs in the later language
alone), or bhan, bhan (the former 'resound, shout,' and Vedic;
the latter ' speak,' and post-Vedic) of which lamb and bhan are
evidently nothing but later forms of ramb and bhan. Such
couplets, involving no addition or loss of consonants, and no
vowel-change, are in fact but one root, and might conveniently
be so given, were it not that they often show different shades of
meaning, giving rise to different derivations, and that they occur
in different epochs, the more original forms generally alone in
the Vedic period, and the later forms (mostly alongside the
earlier) in a later stage of the language. On these grounds they
are justly held apart, being in fact separate forms; only where
the preceding distinctions are wanting have they been counted as
one. Omitting, of course, the frequent interchange between v and
b, which is optional rather than historical, there are altogether 27
such slightly varied radicals, for the most part on the r- 1- theme,
viz.: langh (ranh, raugh), lap (rap), labh (rabh), lam (ram),
lamb (ramb), las (ras), likh (rikh), lip (rip), lip (rip), lih (rih),
lu.d (lul), lup (rup), (kshal, caus. of kshar), cal and pal (car),
jval (jvar), dal (dar), phal (phar), sphul (sphur), hval (hvar),
plu(pru), mluc (mruc), plath (crath), plish (crish) ; bhan (bhan),
at (at); har (bhar), ruh (rudh).
There are also some, like 1, 2 kal, 1, 2 karsh, etc., which are
identical in form, but which follow different inflectional systems,
and which have generally developed more decided changes of
meaning. It has seemed preferable, however, for various reasons,
to arrange such forms, in the list which follows, under one head,
wherever the kinship of meaning seemed to argue convincingly
an ultimate identity; and to leave those subject to more uncer-
tainty to be separated, merely suggesting their relationship.

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 5

Reducing again the number 816, which was left above, by the
27 historically modified forms, there remain 789 radicals, which
may be considered as either entirely distinct roots, or secondary
formations chiefly by means of accretion, or vowel-change and
transposition, outside any of the ordinary grammatical processes.
The classification of the greater part of these root-words is
necessarily fraught with much uncertainty; and it is here that
individual feeling and theorizing, mostly unsupported by direct
historical evidence, have established very different principles, and
arrived at very diverse results. Leaving entirely to their worth
such bold classifications as those attempted by Fick, on the one
hand, and by Pott and others, who resort to the prefix-theory
(for an anolnalous exception comp. ?jj), on the other, and building
mainly on the principles cautiously and guardedly laid down by
Curtius in his Grundzige der Griechischen Etymologie (pp.
58-72, 4th ed'n), a tolerably correct, though no doubt very
incomplete grouping may be obtained. According to these prin-
ciples a change of roots has taken place, on some principles not
yet understood, chiefly by the suffixing of certain consonants,
more seldom by a vowel-change, and very rarely by a loss of
prefixed consonants.-The last change not being organic, or, as
Curtius calls it, a Wurzelajfection and not a TVurzelvariation, has
been treated above (p. 3).-
Thus it seems reasonable to suppose that couplets or groups of
radicals like i, 'go,' in, 'cause to go;' ci, 'observe,' cit, ' observe,
know,' cint, 'think, reflect upon;' gar, 'raise the voice,' garj,
'bellow, roar ;' si, 'bind,' siv, 'bind together, sew;' mar, ' grind,
crush,' marn, ' crush,' w,ard, 'grind, crush,' marc, 'hurt'-and
others of a similar character, are closely akin. And when, further,
we consider the prevailing tendency of Indo-European roots to
growth by means of suffixes, and that the more original meaning
can be traced in most cases, though not in all, to the simpler form,
it is natural to assume that the longer forms of the preceding
examples are later developments of the shorter, by means of the
consonantal suffixes, n, t, j, v, d, c.
When, again, we meet with pairs like pd, ' drink,' pi, 'drink;'
sddh, 'accomplish,' sidh, 'be accomplished;' raj, ' be bright,' rdj,
'shine,' and so on,-we cannot forbear to consider the latter forms
as weakenings or strengthenings of the former, and thus to admit
vowel-change as instrumental in this root-variation.
Finally, such similar forms as man, 'think,' mnd, 'think;' par,
'fill,' prd, ' fill ;' gar, ' swallow,' gras, ' swallow ;' jar, 'move near,'
jri, 'move '-evidently show a kinship: be it that the variation
of form was caused by metathesis; or, as argued recently by
Dr. Brugman (Miorphologishe Untersuchungen, I.), by means of
a vowel-suffix [prd=-p(a)r--a].
Adhering in the main to these three principles (exceptionally
an infix, and in two or three cases a prefix, beingr allowed), 156
forms have been judged to be such derivatives from simpler and
more primitive radicals. It should be remarked, however, that

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6 A. H. Edgren,

most (about 110, comp. p. 7) of these presumable branch-roots

appear side by side with their stems in the earliest monuments of
the language, and that a great part of them are shown by cor-
responding forms in other cognate languages to have existed before
the separation of the common primitive speech into its branches.
If these 156 conjectural-and no doubt, on the whole, real-root-
derivatives of extant roots be subtracted also from the sum 789,
which remained above, we arrive at a total of 633. This may be
considered as a moderate estimate of all genuine Sanskrit roots
which are really independent, in so far as, though sometimes
related, they are not derived, directly or indirectly, from one
But not only do a great many of these independent roots bear
traces of secondary foundation, though the more primitive form
is lost or unauthenticated, but several of them are so similar in
both form and seiise, that they appear to be varied developments
of some lost elementary root, or otherwise kindred forms. Thus,
for instance, we have beside kamp, ' tremble,' kup, 'be stirred or
excited' (to which two forms an original kap is wanting); beside
kan, ' be pleased, love,' kam, ' love;' beside nad, ' sound,' nard,
'roar;' beside jabh, 'snap at with the mouth,' jeh, 'gape' (by
Benfey wrongly, as it seems, considered to be an intens. of hd);
and so on. It is often a matter of great difficulty to draw the
line between these indirectly kindred radicals and those treated
above; and it has seemed preferable, in the appended classification
of root-forms, to arrange all evidently kindred onles together. By
this means a list of 587 roots and groups of related root-forms is
It must be remembered, however, that this classification nowise
aims at being exhaustive. It onlv seeks to bring together ten-
tatively those forms which have seemed to bear more evident
traces of kinship, leaving all that seemed too uncertain, by
formation or meaning, to stand by themselves. There is no
doubt that a more rigorous dealing with the subject would con-
siderably reduce this number, for much latitude may be indulged
here, but it would also, in so uncertain a field, be subjected to
many doubtful and erroneous inferences, a danger which even so
general a grouping as this cannot hope to have entirely escaped.
Such obscure questions as whether jnd, 'know,' comes from jan,
'bear, be born,' or man, 'think,' from ma (ma), 'form or measure,'
though occasionally noted, have not been considered in the arrange-
ment. Various forms like tud, tuj, both meaning ' push,' puc, pubh,
both meaning 'shine,' though they may be originally akin, have
also been left separated, in the absence of a common tit, pu.
Further, var and val, 1, 2, 3 pamn (all connected by Fick), etc.,
have been left separated for want of any closer connection in their
meanings. It has seemed preferable, in regard to such forms as
the above, to assume the possibility of their independent coexist-
ence, rather than to follow a sweeping theory of reduction.
Scarcely any account hlas been taken of prefixed consonants

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 7

though it seems to be not without significance that occasionally

words occur with kindred forms and meanings like am, kram,
dram, bAram for motion, tan, kvan, dhvan, bhan (bhan), man (2),
ran (ran), svan for sound, and some others less numerous. In
some exceptional cases a deviation from a more generally accepted
etymology has been ventured on. Thus the theory, apparently
supported by cognate languages, that bhd, ' shine,' and bhatn,
'speak,' belong to an original bha, 'speak, shine,' has not been
followed, for various reasons. The alleged support of that theory
by other Sanskrit roots which have the same two meanings is of
a very dubious character, inasmuch as those other forms (not less
than 38) are all, with one single exception, unauthenticated, and
the definitions, as will be shown fulrther on, probably artificial.
The one authenticated exception is las, which is found both in
the sense of ' shine' and ' sound,' and is by the Petersburgh
Dictionary given as one root. But it seems more probable, after
all, that las, 'sound,' is but a later form of ras, 'give forth any
loud sound, roar,' etc. (comp. old bhan, 'resound, shout'); and
which ras never means 'shine.' To this should be added, how-
ever, calksh, which, though not meaning 'shine,' is found in the
sense of 'be visible, appear; announce, say' (Petersb. Diet.);
and which is derived from kdsh, 'shine.' It seems as if here the
ineaning ' announce, say' (found chiefly when the root is comp'd
with a, praty-d, etc.) had been developed causatively through
'make apparent, etc.' As regards the root bhatn (bhan), on the con-
trary, its earliest (Vedic) sense appears to be 'resound, shout,' not
'speak,' and this latter (post-Vedic) meaning therefore to be
directly derived more naturally from the idea of sound. Besides
bha?n (bhan) seems in some way, if only by analogy, to connect
itself with a number of roots in -an (see above), meaning ' sound.'
Why not accept two different elements as well for bhd, bhan, as for
the kindred verbs cpai'v-co, Cprn-t in Greek ? The remarkable
alternative coincidence of lengthened vowel and nasalization
might be accidental, and is not found in other kindred tongues.

THE OCCURRENCE of the authenticated radicals and radical

derivatives is as follows. Of the 832 forms which remain after
the merely graphically different ones and the denominatives have
been deducted 528 occur in both the Rig-Veda and the other
literature.' Of the remaining 304 forms, 62 occur in the Rig-
Veda alone (4 others in the Atharvan alone, see note below):
dr, ij, 2 uksh, gadh, g4rdh, jaj jhi, janj, 2 jatr, 3 jarf, ji, jrv, jeh,
jri, tak, 2 tant, ta/ndt, turv, tup, tvaksAh dan, ddpt, 3 di, dutdh, drd,
dhan, dhav, dhraj, nas, , i.d, paj, praksh, phar, bhan, bhandt,
bharv, bhishaj, bhur, bhuraj, bari, bhresht, myaksh, ydd, rapp, raph,
rambt, rikhf, ript, 1 rutdht, vakc, 2 vtksh, vat, 4 vas, vrad, vrddh,
vlag, eam, pur (?) pardh, pqj, frush, sridlh.
1 The following 26 radicals occur in the Atharvan, but not in the Rik (only 4,
thus marked, in the Atharvan alone): art (AV. alone), il, kash, kuj, kshan,
kshubh, gad, cal, cesht, chd, tvar, tdv (? AV. alone), psd (AV. alone), bhds, mmv,
m?,rch, mruc, rup, lap, likh, lup, valg, vlt, cat, 1 fad, has (AV. alone).-Some other
Atharvan roots occur in the Rik in a participial form only.

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8 A. H. Edgren,

Of these 62 there are 11 (marked t), however, which have

derivative words in the later language; and others appear to be
secondary forms of also post-Vedic roots, viz.: tj (=-ej), jeh
(jabh), j4rv (jvar), cludh (dhi), dhan (dhanv), bhresh (bhrahp ?),
ydd (yd). On the whole, therefore, there are but 44 radicals
which beloing exclusively to the earliest Vedic period, and have
no connection with the later literature.
The following list contains the remaining 242 forms which do
not occur in the Rig-Veda (those 26 found in the Atharvan,
however, are so marked):
Forms with an I-sound, 1 kal, 2 kal, klath, klaen, klid, klip,
kshal, kshvel, khel, gal, galbh, calt (AV.), jalp, jval, tul, dal, dul,
palpall, plusht, phal, bal, bhal, il (AV.), mil, mlech, lagt, langh,
lajj, lap (AV.), larm, lamb, lal, lash, 1 las, 2 las, 1I, likh (AV.), lip,
lih, li, lunc, 1 luth, 2 luth, lunth lud, lup (AV.), lul, 14, lok, loc, val,
valgt (AV.), valh, vli (AV.), pal, plath, pldgh, plish, skhal, sphal,
sphul, hldd, hvalt:-with a lingual mute or nasal, at, katt, kutt,
kunth, k4n, kr4d, kvan, kshan, (=kshan), kshvid, gunth, gha(n)t,
ghatt, ghut, gh/trn, cat, cesht (AV.), jhat, ta;nk, dan, damb, di,
dhauk, tat, aat, pat, path, pant, bhat, bhan, man, mand, mred,
rat, ran (=ran), red, ruth, vesht, vran, vrid, vrud, shtiv, sphat,
sphut, hind., (+ 1 luth, 2 luth, lunth, lud from the I-series):-
terminating in a palatal, a'nch, arj, ujjhl, unch, ku(n)c, khac, khanj,
garj, gunj, canc, care, tanc, tarj,pjft, march (?), m4rch (A V.), mruc
(AV.; RV. verbal), v-j, sdc, hurch (+ klip, mlech, lajj, lip, lunc,
loc from the I-series) :-others, aAgt, artt (AV.), katth, kampt,
kash (AV.), kidnksh, kuth, kush, kft, k j (AV.), klrd, kniy,
krath, kvath, kshan (AV.), kshap, kshup, kshubht (AV.), khadt,
gad (AV.), gard, gumpht, gulph, gharsh (ghush), carnt, carv,
cint, cupt, cumb, cur, clsh, chard, chd (AV.), chur, jap, jyutt,
jvart, 1 tan, tark, tdv (AV.), timt, rap, tvan,g, tvar (AV.),
darbht, darp, daridrd, 3 dd, ddn, 2 div, diksh, du, dram, 2 drdt,
dhi(nv), dhgsh, dhvart, nard, niksh, ned, 2 par, pis, puth, pvy,
psdt (AV.), barh (brnh), bharts, bhash, bhdsh, bhds (AV.), bhuA'ksh,
bhramtt, mind, miv (AV.), yabh, raksht, ra4gh, raembh, I ras,
2 ras, raht, rds (rdp), rhikh, rilng, riph, ruth, rudht, rupt (AV.),
rush, 2 vardh, 5 vas, vdt, vdh, vith, pat (AV.), 1 pad (AV.),
pankt, cpk, sap, subh, s trksh, std, stigh, stim, styd, sthag, 2 snd,
sphdyt, had, has (AV.), hikk, hras, hrdd, hresh, hlddt.
Of these 242 forms there are 31 (marked t), however, which
have derivative words in the Rig-Veda. There remain conse-
quently 211 radicals which cannot be proved to have existed in
the language at that time. A considerable share of these are
found, however, in the other Vedas (26 in the Atharvan, of which
4 there alone) or in the Brahmanas (several there alone); and a
comparison between the whole Vedic and the post-Vedic period
would show a far smaller discrepancy here, whereas the exclu-
sively Vedic radicals would be considerably increased in number.
It is evident, also, that the absence of any form in the Rig-Veda
is no certain, nor hardly even presumptive, evidence of its non-

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 9

existence in the language at that period; since one single work of

a not large or varied extent, like the Rig-Veda, can embody but
a certain part of the language of its time.
But an examination of these 242 radicals evinces, nevertheless,
that a considerable share of them may with great probability be
considered as of later formation. Thus, as seen above, not less
than 63 radicals (only 7 of them in the Atharvan), have the
I-sound (25 initial, 25 final, 15 medial). But all I is generally
conceded to be (for the most part, at any rate) a later change of
a more original r. It is rare in the Rig-Vedic root-forms, occur-
ring altogether in but 11 out of 590 radicals (4 times as initial,
labh, lip, li, lubh; once as final, mil; and 6 times as medial, kalp,
klam, gla, mluc, mild, vla(n)g; and in the denom. jalp). The im-
mense disproportion is evident, being nearly that of 14 to 1, or of one
I-sound in every fourth root of the strictly post-Vedic material to
one in every fifty-fourth root of the Vedic. Even the assistance
of the seven Atharvan roots in I would not change very much this
discrepancy. Moreover, several of these i-forms give a more
direct proof of their late formation, inasmuch as the older r-forms
are found only in an earlier stage of the language (compare the
list below).
The preceding remarks apply also to the lingual mutes and
nasal. They also are rare in the Rig-Veda, occurring altogether
in only 12 radicals (id, kd, krid, tad, nid, pid, phan, mard,
marn (euphonic), vish/t, vid, hid). But in the other literature
they are found in 48 root-forms (only 1 of these in the Atharvan),
as is seen in the above list; the disproportion being here nearly
as that ot 10 to 1, or of one lingual in every fifth root of the strictly
post-Vedic material to one in every forty-Ininth root of the Vedic.
Even here the direct evidence of actual change is not wanting
(see below); though probably foreign elements have also entered.
It is worthy of notice that while the Rig-Veda has 100 root-
forms terminating in palatals (28 of these the palatal sibilant),
only 26 of all the non-Vedic forms (see p. 8) terminate thus
(and of these only three in the palatal sibilant): i. e. there is
four times greater frequency in a material little more than one and
a half times larger, or about one palatal in every ninth or tenth
root of the strictly post-Vedic material to one in every sixth root
of the Vedic. In regard to the remaining non-Vedic forms, no
such marked differences on a noteworthy scale have been remarked.
Another feature worthy of mention, as helping to demonstrate
the comparatively late character of many of these radicals, is that
47 of them are more or less evideiltly changes or developments of
more primitive roots, also extant, viz.:-
With an I-sound: 2 kal (-1 kal), kshal (kshar), cal (ear), jalp
(jar), jval (jvar), dal (dar), 1 phal (phar), langh (rangh), lam
(ram), lamb (ramb), las (ras), li/ch (rikh), lip (rip), lih (rih),
ltqp (rup), loc (rue), loc (rue), pal (car), flath (prath), plish (prish),
hval (hvar), sphul (sphur):-with a lingual mute or nasal, at (at),
kutt (kart), ghatt (gharsh), nat (nart), path (prath), bhan (bhat),
VOL. xi. 2

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10 A. H. Edgren,

sphat (sphar, phal?), sphut (sphat), vesht (vish):-others, anch

(ac? ), arj (ar), kdnksh (desid. kam), cakds (kdp), ga2j (gar),
gunj (gu), cint (ci), jyut (div), tim (tam), tvar (tar), diksh (desid.
daksh), daridrd (intens. drd), raksh (rip), rds (rd), rinkh (ring),
rudh (vardh).

THE PRODUCTIVENESS, finally, of the verified roots should be

noticed. Like germs planted in the fruitful soil of living language,
they have sprung up and borne fruit, often a hundred-fold. Or, it
might be said with more appositeness that, like living members of
the society of language, they have entered into union with other
members, and given birth to new families of words: by means of
suffixes, to nouns on the one hand; and, by means of prepositional
prefixes, to new verbs or to nouns on the other. So general is this
productiveness, and the trace of it, that it might well be called the
law of a genuine root. Out of our 832 radicals (denom. deducted),
some of them of a very late formation, 814 observe this law; and
the vast majority of these, or rather more than 700, have deriva-
tives of both kinds (only about 35 being found compounded with
prepositions, but without derived nouns or adjectives; and about
65 vice versa).
Only 18 authenticated root-forms (waiving a few uncertain ones)
appear barren and isolated in the dictionary: viz. kr.d, gard,
2 jar, tup, tvang, dan, bal, bhuraj, bhri, ruth, vrud, 1 pad, pcam,
par, puj, stigh, vith, hds. But almost every one of these appear
in a single passage only (and that nearly always in RV.);
only one of them (pad) in more than three passages. They are
therefore invested with much uncertainty in regard both to sense
and connection. Besides, bhuraj is a late derivative, and pcam is
perhaps incorrect writing for pam. This feeble exception to the
general rule is, therefore, of a wholly uncertain and insignificant
value. Possibly a closer examination may add a few forms to
these; but it is as likely to remove some of these from their
present isolated state.

The number of radical forms, graphically or otherwise distinct,

which have not been verified in use, is a little above eleven
hundred. By allowing for forms of identical meaning, on the
same principle on which this was done for the other class of
radicals, the number is reduced to somewhat less than a thousand.
An important fact, however, must be considered in connection
with this statement. It is this: not only a large part of these
forms, but also a considerable number of the authenticated radicals,
are invested with meanings incompatible with one another, and in
the latter case, with the verified sense: and many of them are
assigned to two or more conjugational systems. Were all these
meanings to be accepted as real, then such radical forms should
rightly be divided into as many radicals as the meanings warrant.
This would probably raise the total number considerably above

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 11

two thousand. In some instances (as for armb, etc.), they are thus
properly separated in the Dhatup'atha; and etymologizers are
also led, when necessary, to keep them apart. It would, however,
be an ungrateful task to try such a separation, so long as the
whole subject is involved in much doubt and shows evident cor-
ruption; and, in general, only the unauthenticated forms, but not
their varied meanings, will be considered for the present.
To determine the value and character of these doubtful forms
is a very precarious task. The following considerations seem,
however, to be strong presumptive evidence in favor of the
ungenuineness of the vast majority of them.
I. THE DISPROPORTION between authenticated and unauthenti-
cated radicals.-Some scholars of the highest authority have, to
be sure, trusted to the discoveries of a fuller investigation of the
whole literature for the justification of doubtful forms; or have
made dialectic variations and foreign borrowing responsible for
this mass of strange material. Thus Westergaard, in his Radices
Linguce Sanscritce, expresses himself in regard to the idea of fic-
titiousness: "Mira tamen assertio, quum tam paululum literse
Indicae notse sint. Puto contra quemque sibi persuasum habere
posse, eas radices, de quibus omnes grammatici consentiant, quum
literae Indicse melius cognotre fuerillt, omnes exemtplis inde sump-
tis probatas repertum iri." Benfey, in his Vollstindige Gram-
matik der Sanskritsprache, ? 140, without questioning the genu-
ineness of any radical given by native lexicographers, suggests
that dialectic usages and the engrafting of foreign elements have
caused a great diversity of forms.
A vast progress in the study of the Sanskrit literature has been
made since the Danish scholar uttered his cautious words (1842),
and still the unverified elemenlts remain virtually at the same
point as then. The very oldest records of the language have been
in the main thoroughly sifted; and all the more important parts
of the later literature, theological, philosophical, and aesthetic, have
been searched, and still over a thousand-or shall we say over
2,000 ?-alleged roots have never been met with. And we are to
believe that this host of radicals will be found chiefly in that part
of the post-Vedic literature which has not been investigated, in
spite of the fact that the vast field actually searched shows but a
very small root-increase even from the earliest monuments down
(comp. p. 8, 2, note). In view of these considerations, it seems
reasonable to suppose that we can never hope to find, at the best,
more than a small fraction of this mass in the literature.
Still, there are weightier objections than these, bearing also on
the other opinion-that the dictionary has been recruited from
dialects or unrelated tongues. We refer to:-
II. THE DIFFERENT RELATION which the authenticated and the
unauthenticated radicals sustain to the other material of the
vocabulary.-The authenticated elements (as has been pointed
out, p. 10) are, almost without exception, living germs growing
and ramifying: they have given birth to new parts of speech, and

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12 A. H. Edgren,

have in union with prepositions formed new verbs. So general

is this principle of organic development, that it could be used
with a high degree of certainty as the special touchstone by
which uncertain roots might be tested. How, then, do the unver-
ified roots come out of such an examination? Out of about 1,000
radicals (genuine forms with unverified meaning as well as inflec-
tion counted), less than 150 seem to have any possible connection
in sense with surrounding or similar nominal forms, viz.:-
anp (= ans), ag, agh, and, andh, abhr, ark, atl, ind, ul, oj, on,
kac, kaic, kat, kath, kad, kan, kanth, kand, kab, karn, kard, kal,
kall, kav, kil, kid, kiil, kel, kut, kun, kumb, kul, kup, kll ('enclose'),
krath, kla(n)d, klib, kshur, kshrndy, khaj, khur, gaj, gad, gandh,
gar (gr, 'sprinkle'), garv, gah, gu, g4, gird, gosht, granth,
ghar ('shine'), gharsh (= harsh), ghur, cand, cash, cit, cunt,
jaj, jat, ji m, tal, tik, dim, tanAk, tay, tarn, tal, ddn, dyai, dru.n,
dvar, dhi, dhish, dhor, dhvdinksh, nar, nal, nishk, pa(n)c, pand,
parn, pit, pith, piv, pun, pur, pish, phakk, bal, bid, bis, bukk,
but, bus, bhand, bhall, math, man, mal, map, mas, mdd, mdrj,
mund ur, mus, yant, ray, rek, la-n, vat, vanth, vark, varc,
valbh, vit, vet, veh, pac, path, pand, pav, cinigh, pish, punth, plrp,
p4l, pron, plak, pvabhr, sarj, sur, skhad, sthal, sthir, hath, hal.
The connection which these radical forms may have with
certain nouns or adjectives, has been noted on the very questiona-
ble supposition that the latter are all genuine. The list would be
much smaller still, were only authenticated nominal forms to be
considered. Further, it must be observed that this connection is
nearly always restricted to one of the meanings of the radicals,
that it extends frequently to but one or two words, and that it is
sometimnes of a very doubtful character. This apparent relation
may be owing to one of three causes. Either the root-forms are
genuine, and have given rise to the word or words in question; or
they have been invented or inferred by grammarians to account
for the same, or to serve as their denominatives; or, finally, the
agreement is purely an accidental one. It is probable that each of
these causes has been active; but a study of this relation, which
has often too artificial an aspect to be credited as natural, makes it
more than likely that the second cause has been especially instru-
mental in bringing it about. The fact that the greater part of
these radical forms are given without connection with any prepo-
sitions (contrary to the nature of real roots, p. 10), gives support
to this opinion. Even Bohtlingk and Roth, who maintain a cau-
tious reserve in regard to the real nature of the authenticated
root-forms generally, leaving them to stand for what they may be
worth, not unfrequently suggest such forms as the above to be
But these few radicals form but a small fraction of the whole
unidentified mass. There remain about 850, which either appear
like perfect strangers in the midst of clusters of words that might
be akin to them in form, but nowise in meaning, or else stand per-
fectly isolated in both respects (there are about 300 of the latter).

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 13

Thus, while the authenticated radicals appear like veritable pra-

jandh surrounded by a generally numerous kindred, which they
never, as a rule, entirely survive, these unverified forms have no
kindred, or have outlived them all, if they ever had any! There
seems to be no escape fiom this anomaly, except in the supposi-
tion that these forms are, for the most part, intruders of some sort.
Shall we then call them dialectic borrowings ? But the same
objection would apply also to this hypothesis. It seems, namely,
in the first place, entirely incredible that all dialectic derivatives
should have been completely left out, while such a wholesale bor-
rowing of dialectic roots took place. And, secondly, what must
the dialect have been, if this host of roots had no connection in
sense whatever with so similar classical words as those by which
they are often surrounded, or if they had no kindred whatever in
the literary language ?
'The idea that they could be borrowed from unrelated tongues, if
it was ever held, needs nio refutation. Such a borrowing could only
be sporadic, and would more likely be of nouns than of radicals.
But an equally strong argument against the genuine character
of the plurality of these forms seems to be:-
III. THE DIFFERENT RELATION between aulthenticated radicals
of kindred form and meaning on the one hand, and unauthenti-
cated ones of the same kind on the other; and the artificial aspect
of the latter.-The verified radicals of kindred form and meaning
were connected with one another chiefly by means of an exten-
sion or inniier vowel-change of the simpler root. Radicals of kin-
dred meaning without any such connection, but running on the
same scale, as kran, bhram, or dhvan, bh,an, etc., though not
wanting, are coniparatively few in number; and the longest series
of them counts but seven (or nine) verbs (tan, etc., see p. 7).
An examination of the unauthenticated forms shows that they, on
the contrary, are connected chiefly, and to a prodigious extent, on
the latter principle. Radicals with absolutely identical meanings,
and with that analogy of form which excludes the principle of
growth or decay, are so frequent, that not far from four-fifths
of the whole material in question can be arranged in groups of
such parallel forms, containing each from two or three up to
twenty or even more of them. To enumerate all such groups
would consequently amount to giving the bulk of the unverified
root-foirms. But as the scattered connections are generally
pointed out in dictionaries, a few of those larger groups which
they form when collected may here suffice as examples. Thus:
kev, khev, gev, glev, pev, plev, mev, mlev, pev; meb, peb; rn ep, lep
are all in the Dhatupatha defined by sevane or 'serve, honor:'-
armb, kamb, khamb, gamb, ghamb, camb, tamb, namb,pamb, bamb,
mamb, pamb, shamb, samb, sdmb ; camp, chawnp are all defined
by gatau (gatydm) or 'go:' met, med, mret, mred (also real),
mlet inled are defined by unmade or ' be angry :'-kakh, khakkh,
gaggh, ghagh, ghaggh are defined by hasane or ' laugh :'-marc,
marj, mdrj, m?tj, munj, mrmd, gaj, marv are all pabddrthdh or words

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14 A. H. Edgren,

meaning ' sound :'-tup, tunip, tumb, tubh, tumph, thrv, trup, cumb,
?pabh, Fuwbh, rph, riraph, ramph, Fribh, Frimbh, sribh, srimbh, all
mean ' hurt, kill :'--arb, karb, kharb, garb, gharb, carb, tarb, narb,
parb, barb, marb, larb, Farb, sharb, sarb ; parp, rarphi, raph, karv,
tharv, pharv, marv, sarv, all again mean 'go :'-etc., etc.
But, further, many of these groups represent the same meaniing,
and iun into one another; and when all words with the same defini-
tion are collected, their number sometimes reaches enormous pro-
portions. Thus especially in case of the radical forms with the
alleged meaning 'go.' Counting all unauthenticated instances (the
unverified ' go' of auth. roots, and a few Sautra-roots included) not
less than 336 radicals are said to have that sense. And it will be
found by the following arrangement that nearly all of them fall,
more or less evidently, into such groupings of analogous forms.
2 atg, taig, traiJ~, mang, rang, lang, vag ran'g, franig,
pvang, svang ; a qh, ma4'gh, vanqh ; cargh, dagh, ragh ; ank,
kaAk, tra4k, man'k, valk, 'rak, Fla'k, Frank, sraik, svaik:-
nakh, nalkh, makh, manUkh, rakh, ralikh, lakh, la'llh, vakh,
va'ikh, trakh, trai4kh, ukh ;-ikh, lilikh, trirkh, rikh, li 'kh,
fiiUkh :-phakk, makk, ywtkk, shvakk, soakk, shatkk :-tik, tik, tik,
tik, tiq, pik ; sek, srek, svek :-mask, mashk, vask, vashk, svask,
svashl, svashkh :-liig (= riig) :--ae, peac, sac, a,c, taF~c, tvaic.
mafe, vaiic, pafc, evace, sa'c ; marc :-kruSic, munc, mrunc,
mluiic; mrlap :-kcue, kuiic, grue, glue, glahe ; rch, v ich :-aj,
kshqj, dhvaj, dhva4j, raj, rej, ra'ij, va], pva., pvanj, say, saij,
sari; ~j, dhrj, dhr, dhr~j, ni', vVj :-jesh, nesh, pesh, presh, bresh,
bhesh, bhresh, bhlesh, 2 rsh, ash, pash ;-pis, bis, mis, vis, pes, yes;
biF, lif, vip, bep :-as, 1 kas, 2 kas, kais, srais :-trksh, daksh,
jaui ksh.
amb, kamb, khanib, garmb, ghamb, camp, camb, champ, tamb,
namb, pamb, barnb, manb, ramb, rimb, famb, shamb, samub, sdmb,
ksh/ttnp :--arb, kay'b, kharb, garb, gharb, carb, tarb, tharv, narb,
parb, pharv, barb, marb, ,?arv, larb, farb, sharb, sarb, sarv ;-
raph, ramph, rarph, varph :--kap, krip, krap; kep, glep, prep,
mep, rep, reb, rev, lep;--pav, Fav, danv, rinv; druv:--jam,
dram, brah/m, syam, hamm, drumirn, miln :--cay, day, nay, pay,
may, ray, vay, hay, hary, vyay (or = vi i):-kel, khel, kshvel, cel,
cell, pel, phel, vel, fel, sel ; pal, pall, phal, val, vall, fal, pall, pf:al,
fvall, sval, satl, hval; til, till :-abhr, mabhr, vabhr :-gur, ghilr,
dhlr :--an, kan, kan, can, phan, pen, yen, ven, pain, lain, pan,
fun, po., jan, dru. :--kat, kant, kan`d, nat, pat, pan.d, pat; ath,, manth, path, fvath, pvanth ; fvart, svart j--jun., dril., dr4t,
ut, Iluth, lunth, runth; hud, hul, hdd, ho.l, haun., hrud, hirad:d
it, .t, kit, si.t, smit :--dhrd, psd, vd, pfd (fai), ceyd (pyai) :-pi,
pvi, hi, vevi; pli, bli, lvi, vli :--ki, klu, gu, chyu, jyu, jhu, jhyu,
du, di, dry, dr4, dhu, dh4i, dhru, (ldri, pru, su :--(ah, ahh, ir, il,
gandh, nard, vast, fc(y)ut, sidh, not referable to any of the pre-
ceding groups).
This grouping, though not always certain, is with very few
exceptions perfectly evident. Into the whole number 336 enter

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 15

about 65 radicals verified in other sense than 'go, move.' But

these 'go'-roots, though much exceeding any others in number,
are not the only ones of abnormal numbers and obvious classifica-
tions. Another very frequent definition is 'hurt, kill' (hinsdyam,
etc.). There are about 110 forms with that meaning assigned to
them; and they can all, with very few exceptions, be arranged
into 18 or 19 groups of the same nature as those above (for exam-
ples, see p. 14). Then there are about 70 equally classifiable
forms (for examples, see p. 13), called pabddrthdlah, or words
expressing sound; 37 (see p. 16) mean 'speak, shine:' about 60
mean ' speak ;' and so on.
These facts, it seems, bear an aspect too evidently artificial to
be accepted as the natural results of linguistic processes. It
appears even that they indicate the very cause of such strings
of root-growth which, spreading and ramifying everywhere in
rank and intricate confusion, underlie the whole soil of the lan-
guage. It seems probable that the actual existence of a few similar
forms with a kindred meaninig, and perhaps also some noticed
dialectic varieties of the same word, have gradually led lexicog-
raphers to an artificial extension ad libitum of sucli kindred forms.
The first cause of the extension might have been a desire to set
up roots for certain classes of words the real elements of which
were unknown. This supposition seems confirmed by the fact,
that several words are said to be derived from un authenticated
root-forms with which they have a seeming connection in form
but none in idea. In coining these counterfeits, however, it seems
as if the guidinlg principle had been at first to model them in form
and sense on some genuine radical, rightly or falsely interpreted;
for in the greater number of instances the strings of kindred forms
clearly show such a point d'appui. Thus, in the examples given
above, kev, khev, gev, glev, pev, etc., all meaning 'serve or honor,'
lean on the real root sev of the same meaning; cay, day, nay,
pay, etc., for 'go,' may depend on ay, 'go;' 2 ang, tang, mang,
vang, etc., for ' go,' are evidently variations of 1 aig, tva4g, 'go ;'
further, an, kan, kun, can, can, 2 tan, dhaan, dhan, dhran, dhvan,
dhvran, ban, ban, man (?) van, van, all meaning 'sound,' clearly
agree with tan, kvah etc. (p. 7); and so on.
These two principles, namely, that of coining roots for certain
classes of words, and of modelling those new vocables on true
radicals not only in form, but also in sense, independently of the
word or class of words they were to preside over, would seem to
have been the beginning of the extension. Gradually, however,
these principles, false from the beginning, ran into excess in two
directions. On the one hand, the mere desire of adding a new
vocable by means of this current change by analogy, would seem
to have given rise to a host of forms, even when there were no
noun-forms to account for. In a few exceptional changes the
larger part of the alphabet is taxed for such variations. Thus,
for instance, in the series of unverified roots beginning amb, kamb,
kha,mb, gamb, ghamb, etc. (some of which stand perfectly isolated),

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16 A. H. Edgren,

only eight consonants are wanting as initials. It is worth notic-

ing that in these eight instances no nouns calling for such ficti-
tious radicals are found. The series beginning arb, karb, kharb,
garb, etc., represents a similar case. On the other hand, the
desire to account for words without known roots probably freed
itself in a limited number of cases from the prevailing principle of
dependence on other roots (especially where no suitable ones were
found), and assumed, by means of inference, meanings akin with
the word to be explained. From these inferred, and no doubt at
times rightly inferred, radicals new-derived groups again were
established. Finally some sporadic causes of a still more arbi-
trary nature may have been instrumental in the creation of new
The subject of the diversity of definitions may properly be
considered here. As was pointed out above, a large proportion
of the authenticated root-tforms have two or several irreconcilable
meanings assigned to them; and many authenticated radicals are
burthened with definitions never verified. The majority of these
definitions seem plausibly explained by the following consider-
First, the same principle which led to one fictitious meaning of
a radical also led to others: i. e., a certain analogy of form with
another radical suggested a renewed transfer of meaning; and
sometimes the desire to explain words, additional definitions.
Thus we find, for instance, in the series referred to already, that
gandh, lik, tig, dru, dhru, dhir, vast are enrolled among both the
'go-' and the ' kill-'groups.
Secondly, within the very definlitions the idea of using closely
similar words has for some reason, perhaps to cover an uncertainty
or from habit, been applied. Thus the tvo bhdfane and bhdsane,
so similar in form but different in sense, have been assigned to
not less than 37 forms, also falling into different groups, viz.:
ku'np, kttns, rtun, danp, dans, trahs, knacns, pins, bhrnp :-kup,
gtp, dhup:-ghat, ghant, ghand, tad, nat, nal, pat, put, punt,
puth, rut, ut: -pinj, niinj, tu4j, lusj, bhanj:-barh, vdrh, balh,
varh :-anh, manh, ra4gh, laAgh:-(lok, loc real in sense of ' see,'
probably originally ' shine :'- vich, vic). The two meanings in ques-
tion seem too different to be of so frequent occurrence together;
and only one root-form (or two ? comp. p. 7) having both of them
is verified in all the language. But the insufficiency of that sup-
port has been pointed out already. The weak testimony of
cpatvco, r%uli (same p.) appears also too uncertain to outweigh
the artificial aspect of the proceeding. Other definitions of a
similar character are dvarane, dpravane, dplavane; upaharane,
apaharane, avaharan?e; thdvakarane, hdvakarane, and so on.
Sometimes by prefixing the privative a, or in some other way,
two contradictory definitions for the same word are obtained: as
in hrap, hlap, klap, defined by vyaktdydm vdci and avyaktdyadm
vdci or in stirksh, defined bv a(ddare, ddare, etc.
In the third place, the real roots were subjected to many vague

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Verbal Roots of the San skrit Language. 17

and stumbling or even false interpretations, which in their turn

reacted on the others. At last, as a result of the whole artificial
system, we may suspect arbitrarily appended meanings. And
thus the dictionary became gradually burdened with a heap of
inorganic rubbish, in some parts hiding and well nigh extinguish-
ing its real life. So uncertain are the native definitions that in
some instances not one of those given to genuine radicals have
been accepted by modern investigations.
We have yet to note one more reason for considering the
majority of the unverified root-forms as spurious, namely:-
IV. THE DISCREPANCY between the number of authenticated
and unauthenticated radicals represented in cognate languages.-
Fick, in his Worterbuch der Indogermanischen Sprachen, finds
about 450 of the authenticated radicals, as here given, proved by
collateral evidence to have belonged to the original Indo-European
speech. But of the whole mass of unauthenticated forms or mean-
ings, only the following 80 have been by him accepted on such
agh, arj, u, kakh, kac, kan, kar (kill), kark, kuc (sound), ku
kuh, knu, knaly (stink), kmar, khaj, khad, kharj, khav, khd
khod, gagh, gaj, gandh, gar (sprinkle), gu, ghdtr, can, c
tip, tiv, tup, tump, tuph, tumnph, tus, trakk, tracnk, trank
trup, truph, trump, trumph, tvanc, drdgh, dhor, dhran, pa
pinj, bhrdp, bhdc, mac, may, masj (= majj), minv, muj,
mna, ramb (' sound'), lambh, vang, palbh, pas, pibh, pldkh,
skund, skhad, stak, stigh, stip, sthal, svard, hrap, hlap.
Though the evidence given in their favor be sometimes con-
vincing, it seems, however, in other instances, too weak. Thus
hrap, hlap, 'sound,' are supported only by Old Norse gjdlf-r,
'sound, roaring,' and by a reference to Lith. zleptereti and
Sanskr. jalp, ' speak lowly;-tip, stip, ' drip,- sprinkle,' by Gr.
TrpK-o0, 'bog, ditch,' rip-zo-;, 'boggy,' rfqf-T, 'water-spider,'
Lat. tipila, 'water-spider;' Lith. tep-A, tOp-ti, 'smear,' stem tap.
--Moreover, in a few of the 80 radicals, Fick has been obliged to
assign meanings different from those given in the Dhatupatha.

Though the general conclusions from the preceding arguments

would be that the vast majority of the unauthenticated forms are
pure figments of the native grammarians, the probability still
remains that a certain percentage of them are real, and either
stored away in some unexplored part of the literature,' or, for
some reason, never recorded there.
Aside from the possible disclosures of future research, only a
careful weighing of all the evidence, external and internal, should
decide. The collateral evidence of cognate languages is of course
1 Occasionally a root which seemed lost beyond recovery or false will come to
light. Thus the roots stigh, vith (veth) play (not really a root, but from pra + i)
have been found but recently, by Dr. Schroder, in the Maitrayani-Sanhita.-Both-
lingk-Roth were able to add, in their Beitrige, a dozen roots, nearly half of which,
however, are not given in the Dhatupat.ha.
VOL. XI. 3

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18 A. B. Edgren,

of prime importance, but should not decide alone, unless very

clear. Thus, for instance, khaj, ' stir up, churn,' is supported not
only by Gr. xvx-ecoV, ' stirred-up drink,' xvi-av'-dao,' stir about;'
Lat. eoc-gtu-m, 'stirred-up drink;' Old Norse skak-a, etc.; but it
has also several clear derivatives, as khaja, ' churning,' khajaka,
bchurning-stick,' etc. :-skhad, 'split,' is supported by Gr. 0xe8,co,
'split,' Lat. scandula, 'splint,' etc., and is followed by skhadana,
'cutting to pieces :'-gudh, 'cover,' besides being assisted by Gr.
ieOco, Germ. Haut, etc., and followed by some derivatives, seems
to be the older form of guh:-gharsh seems to stand in the same
relation to harsh:--kakh, 'laugh,' is supported by Gr. xaxxr-
dco, ' laugh;' Lat. cachinn-ari, ' laugh,' etc.; but it has no deriv-
atives. Still its meaning is not one of the current coins of the
spurious vocabulary; and it stands alone with nothing to account
for, and seems to be of onomatopoetic origin. But if it be estab-
lished as a genuine radical, there is nevertheless reason to suspect
its satellites khakkh, gaggh, ghagh, ghaggh as arbitrary variations.
Much more uncertainty belongs to a form like pinj, for instance.
To be sure, the meaning 'paint' seems supported by Gr. 7rvvy-o-;,
Lat. pingo, and Slav. peg-u; but, on the other hand, it is overlaid
with such a variety of meanings besides 'paint,' as ' sound, join,
adore, kill, be strong, give, take, dwell, speak, shine'! Its natu-
ral form-derivative pinja has no connection with it in sense;
while 'paint' may be added simply to explain piibga (of uncertain
derivation), 'tawny, red.' Finally it seems in the senses of
'speak, shine' to connect itself with the suspicious groups of those
meanings given above. On the whole, therefore, the weight of
evidence appears to be less for than against its genuineness.
Whatever proportion of the unauthenticated root-forms may
be established as true, the doubtful aspect of the great majority
of them will probably remain unchanged; and this fact gives
additional weight to the warning of Curtius: " Wer nicht bloss
in Bezug auf die Laute sondern auch in Bezug auf das geistigere
Element der Sprache Genauigkeit erstrebt, der wird sich beim
Etymologisiren vor den a],uevvpv na dpva der Wurzelverzeichnisse
wohl zu htiten haben."

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 19



[Abbreviations, etc.:
*, denominative.- V., occurring in the Rik and in the Atharva-Veda (roots
occurring only in the latter thus indicated: comp. note, p. 7).- V-D., only derived
forms occurring in the Rig-Veda.-p- V., occurring in the post-Vedic (= non-Rik
or Atharva-Vedic) literature.-p- V-D., only derived forms occurring in the post-
Vedic literature.-P., found compounded with prepositions (almost always as a
new verb).-D., derived words occurring.-BR., Bohtlingk-Roth.- Curt., Cur-
tius, Griech. Etym.-F., Fick, Worterb.- Gr., Grassmann.-Dhdt., Dhatupatha.]

ans,* only with vi, 'divide; render a t, see under a t.

harmless, ward off.' [Only two ex.
a t, 'go, wander, run.' [V., p-V.; P.,
For anp (Dhat., 'divide'), not found,
from anpa, 'part'? p-V; P., D.] D.] From it:-a t, ' go about, roam.'
[p-V.; P., D.]
anh (?), 'join' (?). [Only one veryad, 'eat.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
doubtful form, andha (RV.). Other
an, breathe, gasp.' [V., p-V.; P.,
forms referred to ah, ainh belong to hi:
see Aufrecht, Z. D. M. G., xxv. 234; D.]
and BR., Nachtrige.] a m (the simple pers. form in only one
a k s h, see under a . passage), 'fasten, fix' (BR. Nachtr.);
a n k,* see under a c. part. perf. emivans, ' hurtful, destruct-
ive;' causat. 'injure;' with abhi, 'pro-
a n k h,* see under a c.
ceed violently against, torment;' with
a n g, 'go, move.' [V-D., p-V.; P., D.] sam, ' approach urgently, secure one's
From it:-i n g, 'move, stir, trem- self of; bind or unite one's self;
ble.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] determine, fix.' [Gr. 'proceed with
might, be hurtful or destructive.' Per-
a c (a i c), 'bend, curve, curl; distin- haps 'press down, fix; oppress,
guish or adorn (?).' [V., p-V.; P., injure;' with prepositions ' press
D.]. against,' etc. [V., p-V.; P., D.]
Akin :-a n k,* 'mark, brand.' [Fr.
anka (ac), ' mark'].-a n k h,* 'cling ay=i.
to, clasp; draw, check.' [Geh6rt ta r (r, r), ' set in motion, send forth or
ohne Zweifel zu anka ('hook,' fr.up, aic)
stir up; cause to reach a place
(?), BR. V., p-V.; P., D.].--d ch, (whence 'give; return; fit in or fix,'
' bend or put straight, straighten, putreach, meet; meet as an enemy,
right.' [p-V.; D.] injure.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
aj, 'drive, throw.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] From it :-a rc ( c), ' shoot forth,
beam; adorn: praise;' with sam, 'fix,
From it:-ij, ' set in motion, drive.'
[BR. Nachtr. V.; P., D.]-ej, 'set (compare ar). [In BR. divided into
itself in motion, move, stir; tremble.' three roots: i ' beam,' 2 ' shoot,' 3
[V.. p-V.; P., D.] 'fix:' in Gr. as here. V., p-V.; P.,
an c = ac.
D.]-ar c h (r ch), 'proceed against,
attack, hurt; reach, attain to; come
a inj, 'smear, anoint; adorn, honor.' into possession of.' [V., p-V.; P.]-
[V., p-V.; P., D.] 1 arj (rj), arjati, 'reach, come into

I The meanings appended to these forms comprise, in the main, the leading defi-
nitions recognized by the Petersburgh Dictionary, or by Grassmann's Rig-Vedic
vocabulary. The principles of arrangement have been pointed out above. Any
important departure from especially the former authority is noted.

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20 A. H. Edgren,

possession of, procure.' [p-V.; P., reach out, offer :' 2 apndti, ' enjoy
D.]-a r d, ' be stirred up, be shat- (food), eat.' [aKn only in perf. Both
tered; strain, hurt, torment, kill; V., p-V.; P., D.]
(stir by prayer ?) ask, beg.' [V., p-V.; From or akin with it: - a k s h,
'reach, meet; obtain.' [V., p-V.; P.,
P., D.]-1 a r s h (r s h), arshati, ' glide
onward, flow, jet; run past.' [V., D.]-n a k s h, ' reach, arrive at.' [V.,
p-V.; P., D.]-1 n a , napati, 'reach,
p-V.; P., D.]-2 a r s h (T s h), rshati,
'push prick.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]- hit, fall to the share of.' [V., p-V-D;
r. ' set one's self in motion, proceed,P., D.]-i , ' get in one's power,
go away; set in motion, raise, hurl; master; command, possess, dispose
promote; raise (the voice): amnounce.' of.' [V., p-V.: D.]
[V., p-V.; P., D.]-ri, r , 'set free,I as, 'be.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
let flow; flow; dissolve; separate,
scatter.' [V., p-V.; P.. D.]-r i c, 2 a s, 'hurl, shoot, throw or drive away.'
' empty, set free; give up, abandon.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
[Fr. ri. In Zend ' pour out.' V., 1 a h (only in perf.), 'speak.' [V.,
p-V.; P., D.]-Compare also arth,*
p-V; P., D.]
rip etc., esh.
2 a h, 'join, string together, prepare.'
a r g h,* see under ar h. [V., p-V.; P., D.]
a r c h (r c h), see under a r. Akin:-n a h, ' bind, tie on, put on.'
[V., p-V.; P., D.]
1 a rj (rj), see under a r.
2 a rj (r nj), rnjati, I be stretched, run
out in a straight line, spring forward;
d n c h, see under a c.
strive after, desire.' [V., p-V.; P.,
D.] dp, 'reach, attain to, meet; come to
Akin:-2 r aj, 'make straight, set the possession of, obtain, win; (pass.
right; lead, command.' [Gr.; BR. refl.) reach its end, be full or complete.'
only 1 raj: comp. note to 1 raj. [Traces of ap in apas, apnas. [V.,
V., p-V.; P., D.] From this :-2 r dj, p-V.; P., D.]
rule, command. [Gr.; BR. only 1 rdj: d r, 'praise' (?). [Comp. ar, arc. V.;
see raj above. V., p-V.; P., D.] D.]
a r t (r t), only one ex. (AV.) with anu, 8, ' sit; dwell, tarry, settle; sink or
' seek to gain, invite' (?); and one with lie down, come to an end.' [Connected
abhi (?). [BR., Nachtrage. V. (only with as? Comp. Curt., 568. V.,
AV.); P. D.] p-V.; P., D.]
a r t h,* ' strive after, wish.' [Fr.
artha (art), 'aim, work.' V., p-YV.;
P., D.] i, (a y, i), 'go, move; go to or away,' etc.
a r d, see under ar. [V., p-V.; P., D.]
From it :-i n, i n v, ' cause to go
ar d h, see under 1 vardh. forth, drive (away); force; promote;
a r p (r p)=rip (? BR.; see note to rip). exercise power over, master, possess.'
[inv is from in, as this from i. V.,
1, 2 a r s h (r s h), see under a r. p-V.; P., D.]-is h, five conj'l forms:
a r h, 'deserve, be worth; have a right; 1 ishyati, ' set in rapid motion, hurl,
be obliged, fall due; be forfeited.' send; raise (the voice), announce;
[V., p-V., P., D.] stir; promote;' with anu (' set one's
Akin:-a r g h,* only two ex., 'have self in motion after,' whence) ' strive
a value, be worth.' [Rather denom. after, seek, seek to win, search:' 2
of argha (arh), than older form of arh, ishndti= 1, without anu : 3 ishdti, only
BR. p-V.; P., D.] with anu and = 1: 4 eshati, with or
without anu, 'strive after, seek to
a v, have joy, be pleased; be pleased reach or win:' 5 icchati, with or
with, favor, help, protect, promote, without anu, ' strive after, seek, seek
like; wish.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] to win. wish, long for; intend.' [By
a p (a n p): 1 apnoti, ' reach, arrive at; BR. divided into five separate roots.
come into the possession of, obtain; Three simple forms of eshati given in
get in one's power, master, be able; sense of ' seek,' etc.; but ' they might

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 21

also be referred to esh.' 1, 2, 5 V., 2 u k s h, see under 2 vaksh.

p-V.; 3, 4 p-V.; P., D.]-- s h, ' hurry
or run away, flee.' [Perhaps a desid. U C) 'like to do, delight in'; ucita, 'suit-
of i. V., p-V.; P., D.]-y d, 'go, able, just right.' [V., p-V. ; P., D.]
proceed, go to or run away, etc.; utjjh,
go see 2 h d (under 1 hd).
or appeal to.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]-
y d c (fr. yd), ' approach appealingly,u n, c A, 'glean.' [pra-unc, 'verwischen,'
apply to, entreat, pray.' [V., p-V.; BR.: 'wischen' original meaning, F.
P., D.]-yadd (fr. yd), only in pres. p-V.; P., D.]
partic.: 'proceeding in union with,
u (n) d, 'spring (of water), flow out;
proceeding.' [Gr.; BR., 'closely con-wet, bathe.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
nected or in union with.' V., p-V-D. ?
u bj, 'hold or bend down, compress.'
D.]-v y a y*, ' do away with, expend,
squander.' [Fr. vyaya (vi, i). p-V.]rV., p-V.; P., D.]
i n g, see under a n g. u b h, ' hold together, bind, fetter.'
[V., p-V.; P., D.]
id h (indh), 'kindle.' [V., p-V.; P.
D.] u s h, see under 1 v a s; (also =1 v a s,
v ap).
i n (i n v), see under i.
in dh=idh.
inv=in. 4 n k h, only one ex. with ni, 'roar or
i , keep still, become quiet.' [BR. grunt (as an animal eager for food).'
give a R.-Vedic form, but Gr. with [V., p-V.; P., D.]
Aufrecht and Miiller read it il. [V. al r n t, see under v a r.
(AV.), p-V.; P.. D.] I ~ h, see under v a h.
i s hA, see under i.
2 4 h, ohate, 'mark, observe; suppose,
judge; be considered as; lie in wait,
watch.' [V., p-V.; P., D.].

k s h, ' see, behold, perceive.' [Desid.

of a lost at, from which akshi,
e j, see 'under
V., p-V.; P., D.]
e dh, see under vardh.
i n k h, ' swing, shake.' [V., p-V.; P.,
D.] e s h, 'glide, creep.' [By Gr. derived
from 1 arsh; ' Vgl. ish und 1, 4 ish,'
tj, see under aj. BR. V., p-V.; P., D.]
d, ' implore, beg; honor (by sacrifices,
etc.)'. [V., p-V.; P., D.]
z r, see under a r. k a t t, see under k a r sh.

I r s h y,* 'envy.' [Probably contrac- k a t t h ('display or proclaim loudly,'

tion of irasy. p-V.; D.] whence) ' boast, vaunt; extol, praise;
z p, see under a p. blame, revile.' [p-V.; P., D.]
k a t h,* ' converse; tell, relate, ex-
I s h, see under i.
plain, command.' [Probably fr. kath-
f h ' strive after, long for.' [V-D., am, 'how;' 'declare how.' p-V.;
p-V.; P., D.] P., D.]
k a d, only in cakdda kadanam (RAmay-
ana), ' he wrought a destruction' (BR.).
U 'cheer, urge' (BR.);-' call out, an- [p-V.; D.]
nounce' (Gr.) [Perhaps shorter formk a n, 'be contented or pleased; take
of av, BR. Only 3 ex.: 2 V., 1 A.V.;
P., D.] pleasure in, seek to gain, love.' [V.,
p-V., P., D.?]
1 u k s h (v a k s h), ukshati, ' scatter in Akin:-k a m, ' desire, long for;
drops, sprinkle, make water.' [vaksh love; have sexual intercourse with.'
only in perf. V., p-V.; P., D.] [V., p-V.; P., D.]-k d (=-- kan), only

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22 A. H. Edgren,

one part. form, ' desire, love.' [V.; roots, but consider them as originally
D.]-k d n k s h, ' desire, long or wait one. Gr. gives one root, and consid-
for, expect.' [Irreg. desid. of kam. ers ' draw furrows' as the first mean-
p-V.; P., D.]-c a n, 'rejoice at, de- ing, from which the others. Possibly
light in.' [Only in two aorist-formsto be separated into two roots of
(one doubtful). V.; p-V-D.; D.] which one akin to 1 kar, which see.

k a m, see under k a n. Both V., p.V.; P., D.]

From it (through PrAkrit) :-k a tt,
k a m_p, 'tremble, shake.' [V-D.,
'haufeln (Anziehen der Erde um die
p-V.; P., D.] versetzten Pflanzen):' BR., Nachtr.
Akin:-k up, 'be moved, stirred, [Two ex. p-V.; D.]
or agitated, be excited, be angry.'
[V., p-V.; P., D.] 1 k a 1, kalayati. ' drive, push on;
convey, bear; do, perform; provide
1 kar (kr, skar), 1, 2, 5, 8 conj'l with; notice, consider.' [p-V.; P.,
classes, ' do, make, perform,' etc. [Gr.
D.]-2 k a 1, kdlayati, ' drive or push
and F. suppose skar (in askrita, etc.) along.' [p-V.; P., D.]
to be the original form: first mean-
ing, 'cut, fashion.' In that case it 2 k a 1, see above.
might be akin to kart, 'cut;' kutt k a p (k Ip), see under I k a r.
(see kart); chur ' cut;' par, pur, 'split,
kill;' (karsh, ' cut the soil (?), plow'). k a s h, ' rub, scratch, scratch out or
V.. p-V.; P., D.] away.' [V. (only AV.), p-V.; P., D.]
Akin:-/k alp, 'be arranged, be
k a s, 'go, move,' (with ud, ' split').
right; accord, agree; (with dat.) [Only one ex. in simple form. V.,
be fitted or favorable for, serve to,
cause; be arranged, become, happen; p-V.; P., D.]
(acc.), produce, prepare.' [V., p-V.;k 4, see under k a n.
P., D.]--k r i, ? buy.' [Comp. the
double meaning of Germ. handeln,. k d n k s h, irreg. desid. of k a m, see
under k an.
'act, trade.' V., p-V.; P., D.]
kd p, ' shine, be lustrous; be visible,
2 k a r (k r), cakarti, 'think of, men-
tion with praise.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] appear.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
Akin:-k ir t (k r t),* ' mention, Akin:-c a k ds, ' shine.' [By redu-
relate, communicate; mention with plication of kdp. p-V.; P., D.]-
praise, praise.' [Fr. kirti (2 kar), c a k s h, 'be visible, appear; see, per-
' mention.' V-D., p-V.; P., D.] ceive; announce, say (in this sense
chiefly with the preposition d, and
3 kar (kr, k r, kir), kirati, 'pour
comp's vy-d, sam-d, etc.).' [By redu-
out, scatter, hurl; strew or heap over.' plication of kdp. Comp. what is said
[V., p-V.; P., D.]
on p. 7. V., p-V.; P., D.]
1 kart (krt), krntati, 'cut, cut to
pieces, cut off or away, split: destroy.'
k d s, 'cough.' [Akin with kash ? p-V.;
P., D.]
[See 1 kar. V., p-V.; P., D.]
Akin:-k ut, k ut t, ' split, crush; kir (kr)= 3 kar.
strike, pound.' [p-V.; P., D.]
k i r t (k r t),* see under 2 k a r.
2 k a r t (k r t), krnatti, ' spin, twist.'
k u kc .
[V., p-V.; P., D.J
Akin with it:-c a r t (c r t), ' bind,
tie, connect.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] k u () e, 'be contracted or bent, be
rounded or curled.' [p-V.; P., D.]
k a rp (k rp) = krap.
k u t, k ut t, see under 1 kart.
k a r p (k r ), 'grow thin or lean.'
k n nth, 'be blunt or dull;' (DhAt.
[V., p-V.; P.. D.]
' be maimed or lame, be lazy'). [Only
k a r s h (k r sh), 1 karshati, ' draw, the part. form kunthita, alone or with
drag, drag along, bend (a bow); draw vi, found. p-V.; P., D.]
to one's self or into one's power, over-
power; press to and fro, torture; k u t s,* ' revile, scold, show contempt
draw furrows, plow: '--2 krshati, for.' [Fr. kutas, 'whence ?', BR.
' draw furrows, plow.' [BR. give twop-V.; P., D.]

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 23

except in the partic. form kldnta,

k u t h, ' stink.' [Only kuthita (with
'tried,' etc. [p-V.: P., D.]
pra, ' decay'), and once caus. kothay-
ati. p-V.; P., D.] Akin:-p r a m, ' be weary; weary
one's self, exert one's self; mortify
k up, see under ka mp. one's self, perform acts of penance.'
k u s h, 'tear, tear asunder or out,[V., p-V.; P., D.]
knead.' [p-V.; P., D?] kli d, 'ie damp or moist.' [p-V.;
P., D.]
ki (ku), 'see, behold' (Curt. 64); or
' have in one's mind' (BR.). [Proba-
Ak I , kli9ndti, 'torment. injure': kli-
bly in one of these senses giving kavi, pyate, ' be tormented, suffer.' [p-V.;
'wise, singer,' etc. The only form P., D.]
found is d-kuvate, ' intend,' BR. Dhat.
' sound, shout.' V-D., p-V.; P., D.] k v a n, ' sound, ring, cry.' [p-V.;
P., D.]
k 4], 'coo, hum, groan,' etc. [V.
(only AV.), p-V.; P., D.] k v a t h, 'cook, boil.' [p-V.; P., D.]
kzA d, see k l. k shan - kshan.
k 4 n, 'contract, shrink together or k s h a d, ' carve or distribute (meat);
cower.' [BR., Nachtr. p-V.; P., D.] carve for one's self. take (food), con-
k A r d, 'leap, play.' [p-V.; P., D.] sume.' [Only five ex. (4 V.). V.,
Akin with it:-kr- d, ' play, sport, p-V.; P., D.]
make fun.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] kshan (kshan), see under 2 kshi.
kAl (k&d), 'burn, scorch.' [Only five
1 k s h a p, ' be abstinent, do penance.'
times (RV. kal). [V., p-V.; P., D.] [Akin to ksham through the unau-
k n l y, only one ex. with abhi, ' mois-thenticated k s h a mp, ' endure' ?
ten, wet.' [p-V.; P., D. ?] p-V.; P., D.]
2 k s h a p, ' destroy,' causat. of ks h i,
k r a k s h ' roar' (?). [Only in part.
which see.
Atm. Onomatopoetic ? V., D.]
krath, 'give vent to joy, be wan- k s h a m, 'be patient, submit; endure,
ton.' [One ex., BR., Nachtr. p-V.; bear, be contented with; pardon, suf-
P., D.] fer.' [Comp. 1 kshap. V., p-V.; P.,
k r a n d, 'neigh, roar, crack, wail.'
[V., p-V.; P., D.] k s h a r, 'flow, glide; flow apart or
away, disappear; pour out.' [V.,
k rap (karp, k rp), 'long, grieve; p-V.; P., D.]
moan.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] From it (as causat.):-k s h a l, kshd-
k r a m, 'go, proceed, go through; golayati, 'wash off.' [kshal (kshalati),
or apply one's self to.' [V., p-V.; as a variation of kshar given in the
P., D.] DhAt., but not found. p-V., P., D.]
k r i, see under 1 k a r. k s h a l, see under kshar.
k r i d, see under k a r d.
k s Ad (kshai), 'burn, parch.' [By
k r u dh, 'become angry.' [V., p-V.; Gr. connected with 2 kshi, ' destroy':
P., D.] by Brugman, Morphol. Untersuch'n,
krup, 'cry, shriek; cry against, with ghas. V., p-V.; P., D.]
abuse.' [Comp. kraksh. V., p-V.; 1 k s h i, 1 ksheti, 'dwell, abide': 2 ksha-
P., D.] yati, ('dwell in' whence) 'possess,
k r 4 d, 'make thick' (?). [Only once exercise authority over, rule.' [More
in the Kgth.-recen'n of Yaj. V.] original form in kshd, 'dwelling,'
kshatra, 'dominion.' BR. give two
k I a t , 'turn round or form itself roots, but suggest their ultimate iden-
into balls' (BR.). [Only one ex., kla- tity. V., p-V.; P., D.]
than, in the VYjasaneyi-sahh. p-V.; 2 k s h i, 'destroy, annihilate, harm;
perish' (Gr.). [Original form ksha in
k I a m, ' become tried or exhausted or
tuvi-ksha, etc. V., p-V.; P., D.]
lax; wither, pine.' [Hardly found Causat. of this (BR.): 2 k shap, 'de-

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24 A. H. Edgren,

stroy, remove.' [Probably through grieved; be weary or enervated.'

ksha. p-V.; P., D.]. [Gr. and F. refer it to khad. [V.,
Akin:-k shan (ks ha n), 'hurt, p-V.; P., D.]
wound, break;' (atm.) ' be hurt.' [Fr.
kAhu , 'pene percutere.' LV., p-V.;
original ksha? V. (only AV.), p-V.;P.]
P., D.]
k h e l, 'swing, shake, rock.' [Comp.
k s hip, 'throw, hurl; scatter, pour;kshel. p-V.; D.]
cast away, reject; despise, scold;
k h y a, originally 'behold, see' (BR.,
(throw and) hit; throw down, destroy;
pass away (time); set down.' V., Gr.); the simple verb found only in
p-V.; P., D.] pass. and causat.: pass. 'be known,
be noted or famous'; caus. 'make
k s h u, ' sneeze.' [Onomatopoetic ?
known, announce, reveal; praise.'
p-V.; P., D.] [Gr. connects it with 2 ci. BR. sug-
ks h u d, 'pound or stamp, crush gest
by its possible connection with
pounding or stamping.' [V., p.V.; caksh. V., p-V.; P., D.]
P., D.]
k s h u d h, 'hunger.' [V., p-V.; P.,
D.] g a n,* ' count, sum up, number; count
k s h up, in one passage in Ramanana: as, consider; take into consideration.'
meaning? BR., Nachtr. [Fr. gana, 'flock.' p-V.; P., D.]
g a n d,* denom. of ganda, ' cheek.'
k s h u b h, ' be moved or agitated (es-
[Only one ex. p-V.]
pecially of liquids, but also fig.), trem-
ble; stumble (morally).' [V. (only
g a d, ' utter, express, speak.' [V. (only
AV.; V-D.); p-V.; P., D.] AV.), p-V.; P., D.]
k s h n u, 'whet, sharpen.' [V., p-V.; g a d h, only in gadhita. with d, ' clung
P., D.] to,' and with pari, 'clung around,
k s h v i d, 'produce any inarticulate embraced.' [V.; P., D.]
sound, hum, buzz, roar,' etc. [kshvid, ga r (gach), 'go, move, come; go
same meaning, given in Dhat., but not. away, pass; go to (with acc.), attain
found used. p-V.; P., D.] to.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
Varied form:-1 gd, jigdti, 'go,
k s h v e 1, 'leap, play.' [Comp. khel.
come; go or attain to.' [V., p-V.;
p-V.; D.] P., D.]
1 gar (gr, gr grndti, 'call out
(to), invoke, hail; proclaim, relate;
k h a c, 'leap or step forth' (?); khacita, praise, extol.' [Thus BR.; Gr. con-
'filled (or mingled) with; furnished nects it with giri, 'hight, mountain,'
or adorned with' (BR., Nachtr.). and others, and supposes 'raise, ex-
[p-V.; P.] alt' as the first meaning. Comp. 3
k h a nj, 'limp.' [Only khanjan, twice.jar. V., p-V.; P., D.]
p-V.; D.] From it:-g a rj (gr j), 'bellow,
roar, thunder.' [p-V.; P., D.]-g a r d,
k h a n d,* ' break in pieces, divide; ' emit a sound, roar' (DhAt.). [Only
shatter; interrupt; disappoint, de- one ex., BR., Nachtr. p-V.]-g a r h,
lude.' [Fr. khanda, (khand, 1 Atm., ' complain; make complaint against,
'break,' not found) 'break, piece.' blame, accuse.: [V., p-V.; P., D.]-
p-V.; P., D.] gur (g u r) found simple only in
k h a d, 'be firm or hard.' [Only onegurta, ' approved, welcome, pleasant.'
partic. form. V-D., p-V.; D.] [The comp'd forms all contain the
idea 'utter, express:' gur, 'express
kh a n, 'dig, dig or root up; burypleasure at, hail'? V., p-V.; P., D.]
(=nikhan).' [V., p-V.; P., D.] -g/nrdh, 'praise.' [Only one ex.
k h 4 d, 'chew, eat, devour.' [V., p-V.; Fr. gu r. V.]
P., D.] 2 g a r (g r, g i r), girati, gildti,
k hi d (s k h i d, only in infinit. skhiddm, 'swallow, devour; eject (= udgar).'
AV.), 'press down; be depressed or [V., p-V-.; P., D.]

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 25

From it :-g r a s, 'eat, devour, swal- g t r (with ud, in sense of ' raise')
low.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] = gur.

3 g a r (jd g a r, intens., only form

g 4 r d h, see under 1 gar.
found). 'be awake or watchful, watch;
guard, attend.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] g r a (n) t h, ' tie or string togeth
unite, fasten; begin' (BR., Nacht
g a rj (g rj), see under 1 gar. [V., p-V.; P., D.]
g a r d, see under 1 gar. g r a b h (g r a h), ' seize, take.' [grabh
g a r d h (g r d h), ' strive after, covet, usual form in RV.; grah prevailing
be greedy of.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] form in AV., and the only one in the
later literature. V., p-V.; P., D.]
g a r h, see under 1 gar.
gras, see under g a r.
g al, 'drip, trickle, fall away, disap-
grab = grabh.
pear; fall, tumble.' [gar, ' sprinkle,'
in Dhat., not found used. p-V.; P., g la h, 'play with dice, gamble.'
D.] [p-V.; D.]
a lb h, 'be bold or determined.' g l (g 1 a i), 'be weary, faint, fade;
[p-V.: P., D.] be averse to, dislike.' [By Brugman,
1 g d, see under g am. Morphol. Untersuch'n, derived from
gal. V., p-V.; P., D.]
2 g d (g a i), gdyati, ' sing; proclaim or
sing about in verse, praise in song;
sing to (acc.).' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
g d h, ' drive into, penetrate; hide one's g h a t, 'be busy with, strive, endeavor;
self, be lost in.' [gah, in DhAt., not reach, attain, succeed; come to pass.'
found used: comp., however, note to [V., p-V.; P., D.]
janh. V., p-V.; P., D.] g h a tt, see under g harsh.
gu 'sound' (DhAt.); only in redupli-
g h a r (g h r), 'besprinkle, drop on.'
cated forms, 'cause to sound, speak
[V., p-V.; P., D.]
out, proclaim.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
g h a r s h (g h r s h), ' rub, grind; rub
From it: -gu ij 'hum, buzz.'
[Simple form guj of Dhat. not or tear open, make sore; rub in.'
p-V.; P., D.] [p-V.; P., D.]
From it:-ghatt, 'rub or touch
g u nj, see under g u.
gently in passing, graze; strike
g u n t h, ' close, cover.' [p-V.; P., D.] shake, set in motion; touch
g up,* see under pd. with words, revile.' [p-V.; P.. D.]-
ghush, same as gharsh. [Only 2
g u (m)p h, see under gushp. ex., causat. with ni, ' crush by stamp-
gur (ggr), see under 1 gar. ing, pound.' p-V.; P., D.]
g h a s, ' consume, devour, eat.' [V.,
g u ip h, only one ex. of uncertain
meaning. [BR., Nachtr., perhaps p-V.; P., D.]
= gumph, 'form in a series, enjoy by From it by redupl'n:-l j a k sh,
turns'? p-V.; D.] jakshiti, ' devour, eat.' [V., p-V.; P.,
g us hp, only in gushpita (RV.), g ' en-
h u t, only with ava, 'cover, veil;'
twined or twisted together.' [Not
and vyd, 'turn round.' [p-V.; P.]
given separably by BR. or by Gr.;
but referred to guph, which is said to 1 g h u s h, gh6shati, ' sound loudly;
be derived from (BR.) or to be identi- cry out, announce loudly, proclaim;
cal with (Gr.) gushp. See also F., I., fill with noise.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
p. ~7. V.] 2 g h u S h, see under g harsh.
From it:-g up h (gu mp h), ' twine
or string together.' [guph only one g h 4 r n, 'move to and fro, shake,
ex.; gumph three, BR., Nachtr. See waver, quiver.' [p-V.; P., D.]
remark under gushp. p-V.; D.] g h r d, ' smell, scent; smell or snuff
g u h, 'cover, veil, hide.' [V., p-V.;at; kiss (esp. with abhi).' [V., p-V.;
P., D.] P., D.]
VOL. XI. 4

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26 A. H. Edgren,

c a k, only forms cakita (alone or with 2 c i (k i), ciketi (early form), cinoti
pra), ' terrified, intimidated, trem- classic form), 'observe, gaze upon,
bling ;' and (uc)cakanti, ' look up, see.' investigate, seek.' [Often identified
[BR.; Dhat., ' be contented; resist; with 1 ci; and with vi- the meanings
shine.' p-V.; P., D.] (' search out,' etc.) of the two roots are
c a k d s, see under k d 9. very similar. V., p-V.; P., D.]
Akin:-c it, 'observe, notice: in-
c a k s h, see under k d p. tend, have in view, desire; know,
understand; make one's self noticed,
c a n c, ' leap, jump.' [p-V.; D.]
appear, be known.' [V., p-V.; P.,
c a t, ' be separated or loosed, fall off.'D.] From this:-c int, 'think, have
[Comp. cal. p-V.; P., D.] an opinion; reflect; think of, reflect
upon, consider.' [p-V.; P., D.]-
cat, ' hide 'one's self;' (caus. ' cause Comp. also khyd.
to hide;' whence, ' drive or scare
away).' [Uncomp'd only in part. pr. 3 c i, cayate, 'detest, hate; take revenge
and past. V., p-V.; P., D.] on, punish.' [Thus BR.; by Gr. not
separated from 2 ci. Comp. 4 ci. V.,
can, see under k an.
p-V.; P., D.]
can d(?) see cand. 4 c i (c d y), cdyati, ' be timid or appre-
c am, 'take into one's mouth (esp. hensive about (acc.), fear;' (Atm.) 'act
drink), lap.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] timidly or with reverence.' [Comp.
3 ci. V., p.V.; P., D.]
c ar, go, move, travel; go or run C i t, see under 2 c i.
through; pass (one's time or life), be;
go to, (fig.) practice; attend to.'C[V.,
i n t, see under 2 c i.
p-V.; P., D.] c u d, ' whet, sharpen (Gr.); incite,
Akin:-c a 1, ' move one's self, stir,
drive on, speed, procure rapidly;
quiver; set one's self in motion, start,
further, help; press with a request,
set out, depart; march; depart from urge, demand; determine.' [V., p-V.;
one's track, get in disorder; swerve, P., D.]
desert (abl.).' [Later form of car. V.
(only AV.; RV-D.), p-V.; P., D.] CUp, 'move.' [Only two ex. V-D.,
-2 jar (j r), jarati, 'move on, p-V.; P., D.]
move near, approach.' [V.]-j r i, c u m b, 'kiss.' [p-V.; P., D.]
' go, move' (?). [Only in tpa jirayati,
'proceed to,' Gr.; 'extend,' BR. The cur, 'steal.' [p-V.; D.]
deriv. parijri, ' running about,' Gr.; c r n,* see under ca r v.
'running about or spreading around,'
BR. V.; P., D.]-pal, only with ud c Ss h, only in pass., ' boil, flow vio-
(pra-ud, 8am-ud), 'fly or start up, lently;' caug. 'suck out.' [BR.;
Dhat. ' suck.' [p-V.; P., D.]
arise.' [Dhat. 'go.' Found only in
partic. pr. and past. p-V.; P., D.]
c esh t, 'move the limbs, struggle,
strive; move, be busy; do; exercise;
c a r , ' repeat; cover over with (also
gleichsam verdoppeln, BR.).' [p-V.; visit.' [V. (only AV.); p-V.; P., D.]
P., 1).] c y u, 'shake, move, stir, start; go forth
cart (c rt), see under 2 k a rt. or away; flow or fall out, trickle;
fall away, perish; bring about, make.'
c arv, 'crush, chew.' [p-V.; D.] [V., p-V.. P., D.]
Akin:-c i r n*, ' reduce to powder,
1 c h a d, chddayati. ' cover, veil; con-
crush.' [Fr. cirna (carv), 'dust, pow-
ceal, hide; protect.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
der.' p-V.; P.]
2 chad (chand), see under Vcand.
c a 1, see under c a r.
c h a r d (c h r d), ' pour upon, sprinkle'
c d y=4 ci. (only one ex.); caus. 'pdur out;
1 c i, cinoti, 'place in order, arrange, vomit.' [p-V.; P., D.]
pile up, build; collect, gain; set with, chd (co), 'cut.' [Only with prep'ns.
cover.' [See note to 2 ci. V., p-V.; Akin to khan? V. (only AV.), p-V.;
P., D.] P., D.]

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 27

chid, 'cut off or to pieces, split, Akin :-j a rj (?), jarjita, ' mangled,
pierce; interrupt; destroy.' [I.-Eur. wounded,' found (twice, p-V.), but
skid(h). V., p-V.; P., D.] probably for jarjarita, (jarjara, jar),
c h u r, 'scratch or cut in, engrave, BR.- u r (jir), ' decay; become de-
crepit or old, perish.' [v., p-V.; P.,
etch;' (caus. 'adorn by rubbing; D.]
powder'). [See 1 kar. p-V.; P., D.]
2 j a r, see under c a r.
3 ja r, jarate, ' crackle, roar (of the
fire); call out; call on, invoke.' [BR.;
j a n h, intens., ' strike with the wings Gr. ' sing,' whence fig. ' crackle.'
or feet, kick.' [Gr., Nachtr., makes Comp. 1 gar. V., p-V-D.; P., D.]
it an intens. of gah (=gdh), 'hide Akin :--jalp, 'speak indistinctly,
one's self.' Comp. also Benfey, Gott. mutter; speak about; address.' [Comp.
gel. Anz., 1866, p. 742, etc. V., p-V.; jap. V-D., p-V.; P, D.]
P., D.] ja rj (?), see under 1 j a r.
1 jaksh, see under ghas.: j a ip, see under 3 j ar.
2 ja ksh, see under has. j a s, 'be tired out or exhausted.' [V.,
j aj hj h, 'fly or hiss like a spark' p-V.; P., D.]
(BR.). [Only one pr. part. Comp. j g a r, see under 3 gar.
next. Onomat. V.]
j a nij, 'fly or hiss like a spark, glim-1 ji, jdyati, 'gain, gain by victory,
mer' (?). [Dhat. 'fight.' Only one acquire, conquer; gain a victory over,
pr. part. Comp. jajhjh. V.; D.] vanquish, surpass.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
From it :-jy d, ' conquer, over-
j a n, ' generate, bear, produce, cause; power; oppress, fleece, deprive; be
procure;' (Atm.), 'be generated,' etc. oppressed,' etc. [V., p-V.; P., D.]
[V., p-V.; P., D.]
2 j i, jinoti, 'enliven, quicken.' [Only
jap, 'mutter or whisper; pray to orin prd jin6shi, RV., 438, 1. Gr. as
call in 'a low voice.' [Comp. jaip. here; BR. refer it to pra-jinv. V.;
p-V.; P., D.] P., D.]
j a b h (j a m b h), snap at or seize with strom it:, i n v, ' st tir, be active;
the mouth.' [Comp. Kuhn, Zeitschr., grant (prayer) satisf )romote, favor;
I. 123. V., p-V.; P., D.] P., DJ-jiv, 'live; rev r.' [V., p-V.;
ive; gain one's
Akin :--j e h, 'gape, yawn; pant, liveliood.' [By redu
breathe heavily.' [Gr., with Ben- V., -V.; P., plication of ji.
fey, connects it with hd; BR. with be stirring or active
press forward,
jambh, jrambh. V.; P.]- r am b h ; set in rapid
(jr m b h), 'open the jaws, yawn; help.' [Comp. jinv. stir; further.
open (also of flowers), spread, stretch, (vi)? [op-V.; earlier gvi
arise; feel well or at ease (= have j . p p. , I
elbow-room, BR.); fly back (of a bow, j i n v, see under 2 ji.
= 'be stretched out, BR.; = snap).' j- v see under 2 ji.
[V., p-V.; P., D.] j u r see under 2 j
a r.
j a m (?), such a root seems supported J u r (j a r), see under 1 j
by jamad in jamadagni, but its mean- j ush, 'be satisfied
r pleased;ol be
ing is unknown. By some considered pleased with,ke, enjoy,
love;li resort
= gam, ' go;' by others said to mean to with pleasure, dwell
'consume' (DhAt.), ' blaze.' P.7 D.] in.' [V., p-V.;
ja m b h = ja b h. j , see under 2 ji.
1 j a r (j r), jdrati, jiryati, 'decay, be j t, seejh a t
worn out, moulder, become old or de-
crepit; be digested, dissolved.' [Orig- J) r =ju r.
inally ' rub to pieces.' Comp. Kuhn j r v, see underjv a r.
Zeitschr. 9, 29, . 1; Curt. 130.V. h, see under h.
p-V.; P., D.] j e h, see under j a b h.

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28 A. H. Edgren,

jn a, ' know; perceive, learn; recog- t a n, tanoti (tanvate), ' extend, stretch;
nize, approve.' [Akin to jan? V., last; spread, diffuse itself (of light);
p-V.; P., D.] shine; extend to, grant, cause.' [Curt.,
230, and others connect 2 tan, 'thun-
j y d, see under I j i. der,' as a secondary meaning, with
jyut, see dyut. this, but the connections seem forced.
j r a m b h (jrm b h), see under j abh. BR., Benf., Corssen, Pott and Gr. con-
nect it with stan. V., p-V.; P., D.]
j r i, see under c a r. Akin :-t ay, stretch, extend.' [Com-
jv ar, 'be hot or feverish.' [V-D.,pare pass. of tan. p-V.; P. D.]
p-V.; P., D.] 2 t a n, see under s t a n (and note to 1
Akin:-j O r v, 'consume by heat,
scorch, burn.' [Simple form in ni-jur,
etc. V.; P.]-j v a 1, ' glow, blaze; t a n d, ' relax, let go, grow weary.
burn.' [Later form of jvar. p-V.; [V., p-V-D.; D.]
P., D.] t ap, 'give out heat, be warm, shine
j v a 1, see under jv ar. (of the sun); warm, heat, make glow-
ing, shine upon; be burnt or burn
j h a t, only in uj-jhatita (v. 1. uj-j.tita),
up; be pained; cause pain, torture;
'brought into confusion.' [p-V.; P.,
D.?] chastise, mortify.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
tam, ' lose one's breath, suffocate,
faint away, perish, be exhausted; be
t a -n k, 'cover' (?); vi-tankita, ' stamp- still or immovable, grow stiff.' [V.,
ed, marked; laden with.' [BR.; p-V.: P., D.]
compare also Nachtr. p-V.; P., D?] Akin with it: -tim, 'be quiet or
immovable.' [Dhat., 'be moist or
wet.' p-V.; D.]-Comp. also s tim.
dam, 'resound as a drum.' [Only tar (tr, tir; turin optat.), 'pass
one ex. p-V.; D?] across (esp. a river, etc.), or through
or over, cross or speed over;' (fig.
d a n b, only with vi, ' imitate, equal;
'perform, succeed in; master, over-
mock, fool; distort.' [DhAt. ' throw, power; help across, save,' etc.). [V.,
hurl.' p-V.; P.] p-V.; P., D.]
d , see under 2 d i. From it:-t a r d (t r d), ' bore thro',
cleave, split open; set free.' [V.,
d h a n k, 'approach' (caus. ' bring, pro- p-V.; P., D.]-tir.* ' accomplish, per-
cure'). [p-V.; P., D.] form successfully.' [Fr. tira (tar),
' shore;' = ' bring to the shore.' Only
one ex. p-V.]-t u r (t uz r), ' press for-
t a A s, ' shake, move to and fro; shake ward, hurry on; overpower' (Gr.).
or pour out (fig. a wish).' [According [Shorter and older form of tvar (BR.),
to Gr., from 1 tan; comp. also unau- which see below. V., p-V.; P., D.]
thenticated tas .= upakshepe. V., p-V.; --turv (tirv), ' advance victoriously;
P.] overpower, conquer, overtake; help
to conquer; save.' [Fr. tur. V.; P.,
t a k, ' shoot forth, dart (esp. of birds), D.] - t r d (tr a i), 'protect, guard,
speed.' [V.; P., D.] save.' [Originally ' help across.' V.,
t a k s h, see under tvaksh. p-V.; P., D.]-t r u t, t r u d, 'be split
t a n c, only with d (and abhyd), ' cause
or rent, burst; be left out or lost'
(BR., Nachtr.). [Fr. tard. p-V.; D.]
to flow (towards).' [p-V.; P., D.] -t v a r, 'speed, hurry.' [Later form
tat, 'rumble.' [Only one ex. p-V.; of tur, which see above. V. (only
D.] AV.), p-V.; P., D.]
t a d, ' strike, chastise with blows, t a r k, ' suppose; try to form an idea
knock; strike a musical instrument, about, conjecture; reflect on, consider,
play; knock against, (whence) partly think of; expect.' [Weber, origin-
eclipse; multiply.' [Gr. connects it ally 'turn, twist, torquere.' p-V.;
with tard. V., p-V.; P., D.] P., D.]

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 29

t a rj, 'threaten; blame, revile.' [p-V.; trut (trud), see under tar.
P., D.]
t v a k s h, only in (RV.).
t a r d, (tr d), see under tar. 'prevailing in power, superior.' [Ac-
tarp (t.rp, trmp), 'be sated or cord'g to Dht. = taksh, 'create, effect.'
slaked, be satisfied or pleased.' [V., Orig'l form tvak, Curt., 235. Comp.
p-V.; P., D.] the deriv. tvakshas, 'activity, active
power, vigor.' V.; D.].
tar s h (tr s h), 'thirst.' [V., p-V.; Akin:-taksh, 'fashion (esp. of
P., D.] wood, also fig.), build, chisel; create,
t a r h (tr h, t- n h), ' crush to pieces, prepare; cut off, split.' [Comp. note
grind, squash.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] to tvaksh. V., p-V.; P., D.]
t d y, see under t a n. t v a I g, ' leap, gallop.' [Only two ex.
t 4 v, only once (in AV.), vitdvati, p-V.]
for which BR. suggest vidhdvati. t v a r, see under t a r.
t ij, 'be or become sharp; sharpen;'
t v i s h, ' be in violent motion, be agi-
(caus. ' sharpen; goad on, incite.')tated; stir up, revive; glitter, sparkle.'
[V., p-V.; P., D.] [V., p-v-D.; P., D.]
t i r, see under t a m. tsar, 'creep; creep up to, gain by
t r,* see under tar. sneaking.' [V., p-V.; P.. D.]
t u, 'have power, be capable, succeed.'
[V., p-V.; P., D.]
da n p=da.
t u (n)j, ' strike, push, impart a rapid
or violent motion to, hurl; press out, d a s (?) only the caus. from da.n-
hurl forth, squirt out; impel, incite, sayas (RV., 964, 1), 'didst chastize,'
urge on.' [V.; P., D.] Gr. [BR., with Nirukta, refer it to
t u d, 'push, prick, goad, lash, bruise.' dansi = karman. Orig'l meaning
[V., p-V.; P., D.] 'show, teach' (Gr.). V., p-V-D.;
t u r, see under t a r.
d a k s h, 'do right; be competent or
tu r v, see under t a r.
strong.' V., p-V.; D.]
t u 1, ' lift; lift and weigh, balance, From it (as desid.):-diksh 'pre-
pare one's self for the performance of
examine cautiously, test; make equal
in weight, esteem equal, match, com- a sacred rite (esp. the Soma offering).'
[Orig'ly, ' try to make one's self com-
pare.' [Comp. dul. p-V.; P., D.]
petent.' p-V.; P., D.]
1 t u , t6fate, 'drip.' V.; P., D.]
da g h, 'reach, attain to.' [Not found
2 ttu, see under tush.
uncomp'd: with pa9cd(t), ' fall behind,
t u s h, ' become quiet or appeased, fall short
be of;' ati, 'reach above, pass
pleased; satisfy, please.' [V., p-V.; beyond;' d, ' attack, inflict harm;'
P., D.] pra, 'fall.' V., p-V.; P., D.]
Kindred or same root:-2 t u ,, ' be d a n d, * ' chastise, punish.' [Fr.
quiet; pacify.' [In two RV., and two danda, 'rod.' p-V.; D.]
AV. passages.]
dad=l dd.
t l r, see under t a r.
dadh=l dhd.
t y aj, 'leave, abandon, reject; go away
d a n, 'be straight; straighten, correct
from, quit; let go, give up; neglect;
give away; send or shoot off.' [V., [Only two ex., besides the uncert.
p-V.; P., D.] desid. diddhsate, by BR. referred here.
t rap, 'be embarrassed or ashamed.'
[p-V.; P., D.] d a b h (d a m b h), ' bring harm upon,
injure; deceive, betray.' [V., p-V.;
t r a s, ' tremble, shudder.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
P., D.]
dam, 'be tame(d) or gentle; (gen'ly)
tr d (trai), see under tar. tame, subdue.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]

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30 A. H. Edgren,

Akin:-y a m, ' hold together or d a r p (d r p), 'see, perceive (atm. be

back, check, curb; hold, bear, sus-seen, appear).' [Only in gen'l tenses.
tain; lift, swing; hold or reach forth,
V., p-V.; P., D.]
offer, send forth (of light, voice or
dar h (drh, dr h), see under dhar.
song), raise (a cry, etc.); (atm.) keep
quiet or passive, obey, be faithful.' da l, see under 1 dar.
[Through dyam fr. dam. Comp. Curt.
p. 570, Kuhn, 11, 12, etc. It seems d a p (d a n p), ' bite.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
hard to reconcile fully the various d a s, ' be exhausted, waste away.' [V.,
meanings. BR. in the main as here. p-V.; P., D.]
Gr., orig'ly ' control by something From it:-d d s, only with abhi, ' be
held out, as by a string or the arm,' hostile to, pursue.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
whence, 'check,' etc., etc. V., p-V.;
dah, 'burn, consume by fire.' [V.,
P., D.] Akin with this:-y a t, ' con-
nect, join; (atm.) join or unite one's p-v.; P., D.]
self (with), meet; seek to join or to 1 d a (dad, d dy), ddddti, dadate, ddti,
reach, strive towards or after, seek dadmi, (part. daddyan), 'give, bestow.
devotedly; join in contest, attack.' grant; put, place, apply, direct; (d a d),
[Comp. part. yata, from yam. V., p-V.; bring along, bear, keep, preserve.'
P., D.]-y a n t r,* 'curb, restrain.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
[Fr. yantra (yam), ' restraint.' p-V.;
2 dd, dyati, ' bind.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
P., D.]-1 y u, yanti, yundte, 'harness,
attach, bind, hold fast; draw to one's3 dd (d ai), ddyati, only in ava-ddta,
self, take possession of; unite, mix.' 'purified, pure:' and with vi-ava (part.
[V., p-V.; P., D.] From this :-y uj, pr. and past), 'be diffused brightly.'
' yoke, harness (fig. apply, fix, arrange, [DhAt. 'purify.' p-V.; P., D.]
make use of, employ, etc.); join. con- 4 d d (d o), see under d a y.
nect, (fig.) add; join with (instr.),
bring into the possession of, bestow d d n, see 4 d d, under day.
on; order; fix in one's mind, remem- ddy =l dd.
ber,' etc. [V., p-V.; P.. D.]-y u d h
'join in contest,' i. e.) 'fight, combat;d d , ' serve or honor (a god); offer;
fight and conquer.' [Gr. connects it grant, bestow.' [d a f in dapasy. etc.
with 2 yu, 'ward off.' Comp. Curt., Curt.. p. 64, derives it fr. dd, 'give.'
Benf., etc. V., p-V.; P., D.] V., p-V-D.; P., D.]
dam bh --dabh. d d 5, see under das.

day, 'divide, allot; divide asunder,

1 div (?) see div.
destroy; share, take part in, sympa- 2 d i v, devati, only with pari, 'lament,
thize; repent (-- feel an iinner dishar- moan.' [Dhat. 'bring into misery.'
mony).' [V.. p-V.; P., D.] Part. form dyuna, referred here, in
Akin :-4 d a' (do), ddti, ' cut, mow; d-dyAna (?), pari-dygna, ' brought into
divide.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]-dd n, misery.' p-V.; P., D?]
'cut off.' [One ex. (AV. PrAt.); BR.,
Nachtr. D.] d i p, 'point out, show; direct, assign:
bestow (as a gift).' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
1 d a r (d r, dr), d.rnati, 'burst, fall
asunder; burst, tear open or to pieces,
di h, 'smear, spread over, around, plas-
rend.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] ter; stroke.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
From it:-d a 1, ' split, crack; open, From it (desid.):-d h M k s h, ' wish,
blossom.' [p-V.; P., D.] to anoint.' [One p-V. ex.]

2 d ar (dr), driyate, only with d 1 di, di'yati, 'fly, soar.' [Comp. 2 di,
(abhi-d, etc.), ' regard, heed.' [p-V.; div. V., p-V.; P.]
P.] p-Vedic form :-d i, 'fly.' [Only
with prep'ns. p-V.; P., D.]
daridr ,see under dram.
2 di (dtdi, didi), see under dyut.
d a rp (d rp), 'become mad or crazed;
3 d i, see under d h t.
be arrogant' [p-V.; P., D.]
d i k s h, see under d a k s h.
d a r b h (d r b h), ' string together, tie
in bunches.' [V-D., p-V.; P., D.] didi, dtdi =2 di.

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 31

didhi=dhi. 1 dr d, see under dram.

d tp, see under dy u t. 2 d r d (d r a i), drdyati, ' sleep.' [V-D.,
d t v (d i v ?), 'play (about, gen., p-V.; P., D.]
dat., ace.), play at dice; wager; d r Ut, see under d r am.
sport; (cast, hurl; beam, shine ?).' dr ru h, ' harm, seek to harm.' [Orig-
[The root div is gen'ly given instead inally 'bend' ? Probably fr. a root
of div (so Dhat., BR., Gr.), but the dhru, yet found as a verbal. V.,
theme is always div-. The inferred
and commonly accepted meanings p-V.; P., D.]
'cast, beam, shine' seem too ques- Akin:-dh r v (dhurv), 'bend,
tionable (supported, at best, by acause to fall, injure.' [Fr. dhvar, be-
single doubtful example). div be-low. V., p-V.; D.]-d hvar (d h v r),
comes dyu in its other forms, as the 'bend, cause to fall.' [Connected
noun div, dyu. Comp. dyut.] with druh through dhru, yet found as
a verbal. V-D., p-V.; D.]-h ur c h,
d u (d 4), 'burn, be consumed (fig. by ' go crookedly, swerve, be lost.' [Fr.
pain, etc.); burn (fig. cause pain or hvar, below. p-V; P., D.]-h r u,
grief, torment, etc.'). [Old form dunv ' be bent or crooked.' [By Gr. made
in part., etc. p-V.; P. D.] identical with hvar. V., p-V.; P.,
dugh = duh. D.]-h v a r (h v r), ' bend one's course
from the right direction, go crookedly
d u d h, see under d h .
or astray; bend; bend down;' [V.,
du 1, 'swing, shake.' [Only in part.p-V.; P., D.] - h v a 1, 'go astray,
pr. and past. Dha,t. 'raise or lift up,swerve, be lost; stumble, fall.' [Later
swing.' If so, connected with tul? form of hvar. p-V.; P., D.]
p-V.; D.] dr,l 'see under dram.
d u s h, 'be spoiled, become bad or dv
is h, 'hate, loathe.' [V., p-V.;
rupted or defiled; commit a sin.' [V..
P., D.]
p-V.; P., D.]
du It (dug h), 'milk, extract (fig. an
advantage, etc.); yield milk, emit, let
flow (fig. things desired, etc.).' [V.,
p-V.; P., D.] dhan, dhanv, see under d h/.
dil du. d ham (d hmd), ' blow, blow or
d y u t, ' beam, shine.' [If thebreathe out; hurl forth; fan; inflate;
root div,
'shine' is real, then dyut would be blow (an instrument); manufacture
derived from it (div = diu). V., p-V.; by blowing, melt.' [By Gr. derived
P., D.] from dhg. V., p-V.; P., D.]
Akin :-j y u t, ' shine.' [V-D., p-V.; d ha r (dh r), 'hold or bear, support;
P., D.]-l dil (didi, didi), di'dyati, (fig. contain, confirm; keep, preserve;
'beam, shine; shine forth.' [V., p-V.; retain, possess; bring, etc.).' [V.,
P., D.]--d (p, 'blaze, burn.' [Old p-V.; P.. D.]
causat. of di, above. V., p-V.; P., D.] From it:-dar h (d rh, d r h),
d r a m, only intens. dandramyamdna,'make firm or constant, fix, fasten;
' running or wandering about.' [Dhat.(Atm.) be firm,' etc. [V., p-V.; P., D.]
'run about, wander.' p-V.; D.] dharsh (dhrsh), 'be bold or cour-
Akin:-d a r i d r d (intens. of drd,ageous; have courage (to do), dare.'
below), 'be poor' (lit. 'wander about V., p-V.; P., D.]
as a beggar'). [Set up as a root to ex-
plain daridra, ' beggar.' p-V.]-1 dr d,d h a v, see under d h .
drdti, 'run, speed.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]1 dh a (dad h), dadhdti, 'put, set,
-dr u, 'run, speed; run away; run place; (fig. bring; give, assign; cause:
against, attack suddenly; become bear,
hold; fix, determine; assert,
flowing, melt.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]- etc.).'
[V., p-V.; P., D.]
dru , 'hurry after, pursue' (Gr.);
'fetch a blow, hit' (BR.). [Only 2 dh d (dhe), dhdyati, 'suck, drink.'
once in part. dr.ndna. V., D. (verbal [V., p-V.; P., D.]
in comp'n).] 1, 2 dhd v, see under dhu.

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32 A. B. Edgren,

d h i (d h i n v), 'satisfy, rejoice, n a ks h, see under lap.

please.' [p-V.; P., D.] n a t, see under n a rt.
d h i (d dh i), ' appear, seem; perceive,
n a d, ' swing, vibrate; sound, roar,
consider; wish?' [V., p-V.; P., D.] neigh.' ['vibrate' hardly except in
Akin:-3 d i with accha, 'direct caus., 'cause to vibrate or tremble.'
one's mind upon, turn affectionately Gr. considers it as an intens. and
towards.' [In three RV. ex.; for caus. develop't of the meaning
dhi perhaps, by faulty writing. V.; 'sound.' V., p-V.; P., D.]
P., D.]-dhy d (dhyai), ' think of, Akin:-n a rd, 'roar, cry,' etc.
consider, have in mind.' [V., p-V.; [p-V.; P., D.]
P., D.]
n and, 'be satisfied or pleased.'
d h i k s h, see under d i h. [V., p-V.; P., D.]
dhu=dhu. na b h, burst, tear.' [V., p-V.; P.,
dh urv=dh r v. D.]
d h 4 (d h u), ' shake, shake off orndown,
am, 'bend, bow; bend or submit
move rapidly to and fro; fan, kindle; to; avoid; change.' [V., p-V.; P.,
shake one's self, bristle up.' [V., D.]
p-V.; P., D.] nay= n.
From it:-du dh, only in dodhat,
n a r t (n r t), ' dance, act on the stage.'
'rushing, boisterous;' and dudhita,
'confused.' [By redupl'n of dhl. [V., p-V.; P., D.]
From it :-n a t, ' dance.' [p-V.;
V.; D.]-d h an, 'cause to run, set P.,
in D.]
rapid motion.' [By short'g of dhanv,
n a r d, see under n a d.
below. V.; P., D.]-d h a n v, ' run,
flow; cause to run.' [Fr. dhav.1V.,n a p, n'dati, napyati, ' be lost, per-
p-V.; P., D.]-d h a v, 'run, flow'?
V.; P., D.]-l dhdv, 'run, flow, ish, disappear.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
stream forth; run, hasten (to or 2 n a , see under a V.
or against; swim.' [V., p-V.; P.,
n a D.]
s, 'join, (esp. sexually).' [V.; P.]
-2 d h d v, ' wash or rub off, cleanse,
polish.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] n a h, see under 2 a h.
- Comp. also dh a m and d h up.
ndt h, older n 4 dh, 'be in need, seek
d h 4 p], * ' fumigate; obscure withhelp, beg.' [In the older lang. only
mist.' [Den. of dh4pa, BR.; caus. nddhamdna, nddhita, ndthita (RV.
of dhA, Gr. V., p-V.; P., D.] twice). V., p-V.; P., D.]
dh l rv (dhurv), see under druh. n i n s, ' kiss, greet' (Gr.). [V.; D.]
d h 4 s h, in -dhlshita, by BR. (Nachtr.) n i k s h, ' pierce.' [V. (only AV., ex-
considered to stand for dhrshita. cept the inf. vi-nikshe, RV.); P., D.]
dh mn d=dham.
n ij, ' wash, clean.' [Comp. nag-na,
d h y d (d hy ai), see under d h i. anj. V., p-V.; P., D.]
dhraj, 'move or glide on.' [V.; n i (n) d, ' scoff, deride, blame.' [V.,
P., D.] p-V.; P., D.]
dhvan s (dhvas), 'fall or dash to n i (n a y), ' lead, guide, direct; lead or
pieces, be scattered, be destroyed; take away; lead on or bring on, bring
be strewn or covered with' (only in along, bring into a condition; pass
dhvasta). V., p-V.; P., D.] away (time), spend; bring to conclu-
Akin with it: -1 d h v an, 'be cov- sion, settle,' etc. [V., p-V.; P., D.]
ered or closed.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
nid, 'bring together or bring to
1 dh v a n, see under d h vans. rest' (?). [Only one RV. ex. BR.
2 dh v an, dhvanati, ' sound.' [V-D.,make it a denom. of n.tda, 'resting-
p-V.; P., D.] place:' Gr. objects. V.; D.]
d hv ar (dhvr), see under druh. 1 n u (n 4), nauti, ' roar, shout, exult;
dh vas = dhvans. praise in song.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 33

2 n u, navate, ' move, move away.' [V., I

3 p ar (p r), pri
p-V.; P.] vi-d, 'be busy (about).' [p-V.; P.,
n u d, ' push, push on or away; drive D.]
away, dispel.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] parc (pr c), see under 1 par.
n e d, only with ati, ' foam over, over-p a lp 4 1, ' wash in lye.' [p-V.; D.]
flow.' [Simple form nad in nadi, nada.
p-V., P., D.?] 1 p a --sp a , which see.
2 p a ,* pdrayati, ' bind.' [Fr. pdea,
'rope, fetter.' p-V.; P.]
1 p d, V. pdti; V., p-V. plbati (gen'ly
pivati), 'drink.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
p a c, ' cook, bake, roast; ripen, com- From it:-1 p i, piyate, 'drink.' [V.,
plete, digest.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] p-V.; P., D.]
p a j, only in perf. intens. with apa, 2 p d, pdti, 'protect, keep; watch, ob-
'yield (BR.), or start back terrified.' serve.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
[V.; P., D.] Akin:-g up,* 'guard, protect, hide;
(gupta, guarded, hidden, secret).'
p a t hA, ' speak or read aloud, deliver, [Only in general tenses. Secondary
mention, declare.' [By some derived
fr. prath. p-V.; P., D.] root from gopay (go-pd, 'cow-herd.'
'guard.' V., p.V; P., D.]-2 pat,*
p a n, 'buy in, barter; wager, stake.' patyate, 'master, rule; possess, share
[V-D., p-V.; P., D.] in, be fit for.' [Orig'ly causat. of
1 p a t, patati, ' fly, speed through the pati (pa, older pa. Curt., 377, Kuhn
air; move downwards, fall or sink Zeitschr., 4, 317), 'lord.' But BR.
down; fall upon, attain, hit; fall or derive pati from this pat. V., p-V.:
happen into.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] P., D.]-p dl,* ' guard, protect.' [By
native grammar'ns considered as a
2 pa t,* see under 2 p a. causat. of pd: but rather denom. of
p a t h,* 'bring upon a path.' [Only ex. pdla (pd), 'guardian.' p-V.; P., D.]
apipdthayati. Prob'ly denom. of pathi,p a l,* see under 2 p a.
'path,' BR.: or orig'l verb, 'go,' Gr., pi -- 2p t.
Curt. p-V.; P.]

pin = p i 9.
p a d,t 'fall, sink down (esp. by exhaus- -1

pisi s I=pis h.
tion), perish; go to, proceed towards,
reach.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
pi n d,* ' roll into a lump or ball.' [Fr.
p a n, 'be admirable; admire, praise.' pinda, 'lump.' p.V.; P.]
[V., p-V-D.; P., D.] p i n v, see under 2 p .
1 p a r (p r; p 2 r), prnzati, ptparti,p i b d, only in pibdamdna, 'firm, com-
paryate, 'fill, sate; nourish, satisfy;pact.' [V., p-V.; P.]
bestow, spend liberally (dat. of pers.);
p i P (p i i y), 'cut rightly, fashion;
be filled,' etc. [Caus. p urayati, 'fill;
heap over; overwhelm,' in Dhat. given adorn, equip.' [p-V.; P., D.]
as a sep'te root. V., p-V.; P., D.] p is ]h (p i n s h), ' crush, grind.' [V.,
From it:-parc (p r c), 'fill en-p-V.; P., D.]
tirely, give lavishly: fill up, mix,
mingle.' [V., p-V.; P.. D.] From i s, ' extend' (?). [Dhat. ' go.' p-V.;
this:-praksh (prksh), 'fill, sate.' D.]
[Thus Gr.; BR. omit the root, refer-1 p i, see under I p d.
ring one only of its three forms to
parc. V.; P., D.]-prd, 'fill.' [V., 2 pi (pi, pyd =pyai, pydy), pay-
p-V.; P., D.]-Perhaps also pr i, ate (V.), pydyate (V., p-V.), 'swell, be
which see. full or exuberant, flow over, be fat;
cause to swell,' etc. [V., p-V.; P.,
2 p a r (p r), pipdrti, piprdti, ' bring
across or to (acc.); fig. further, help;From it:-p in v, 'cause to swell
protect, save, conquer,' etc. [V., or overflow, pour forth; swell, over-
p-V.; P., D.] flow.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
VOL. XI. 5

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34 A. H. Edgren,

3 p i (p iy), p'yati, ' abuse, mock, pl u s h, see under p r u.

despise.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] p s 4, see under b h as.
ptd, 'press; oppress, torment.' [V.,
p-V.; P., D.]
p y 3pi .
p h a n, only caus., 'cause to leap;'
p u t h, only in caus., ' crush, dash to
and intens., ' leap, jump.' [Gr. con-
pieces.' [p-V.; D.] nects it with phar, through pharn.*
p u s h, ' thrive, prosper, bloom; cause V., p-V.; P., D.]
to thrive or develop, bring up, nour-
ph a r, see under sphar.
ish, further, increase, exalt; enjoy,
receive; display.' [V.., p-V.; P., D.] I p h a l, see under sphar.
p 4, 'make clean or bright, purify;' 2 p h a ,* phalati, 'bear fruit (also
fig. ' clear by thinking, discriminate, fig.); obtain fruit (= reward),' BR.,
think out, invent; express clearly; N achtr. [BR. separate 1, 2 phal,
atone.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] making the latter den. of phala, 'fruit,'
of which they give no deriv'n. It may
p 'Vj,' honor, receive with honor, adore.'perhaps be orig'ly identical with 1
[V-D., p-V.; P., D.] phal (comp. phull). p-V.; P., D.]
p i y, 'putrefy, stink.' [V-D., p-V.;p h u 1 l,* see under sp h a r.
P., D.]
p i r, 2d calls. form of 1 p a r (p r).
pyd (pydy, pyai= )-2 p.
banh (bdh, vanh), 'be firm or
p r a k s h, see under 1 p ar. strong.' [Only once in the causat.
p r a c h, ' ask for, inquire about, seek; banhayante, ' strengthen ;' and in the
seek or solicit.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] part. bddha, with prep'ns. BR. con-
nect it with barh. The simple bah
p r a t h (p r t h), ' spread, extend, dif-
wanting, except in deriv'ns. V.,
fuse.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] p-V.; P., D.]
p r d, see under 1 p a r. 1 badh = bandh.
p r t, please, rejoice, cheer; oblige; 2 badh=vadh.
be pleased,' etc. [Fr. par, ' fill, sate,
satisfy'? V., p-V.; P., D.] 3 b a dh, desid. of bd dh.
b a n d A (b a d h), ' bind, fasten, fetter
p r u, 'move on, hurry, leap.' [Only
with prep'ns ati, 'leap over, run make prisoner; unite, combine; con-
away,' etc. Comp. plu. V., p-V.; nect (in verses), compose; bind or
P., D.] attach or direct (one's mind, etc.) to;
Akin :-p r s h, ' spurt, sprinkle, bind a sacrificial victim, sacrifice;
wet.' IComp. plush, below. V., 3-V.; put on (fruit), strike (roots); produce,
P., D.-p u (plav), ' float, swim; cause.' [V., p-V.: P., D.]
hover, fly, run; run away.' [Only 1 b l r h (v arh, b r h, v rh), brhati,
once in RV. Later form of pru. V., 'move violently, tear, tear up.'
p-V.; P., D.]--p lus h, ' scatter sparks,
[Without prep'ns only with muala,
burn; (besprinkle DhAt.).' [Comp. 'root.' V., p-V.; P., D.]
prush, above. V-D., p-V.; P., D.] 2 barh (brh, vrh, brnh, v.ri-h),
p r u t h (p r o t h), ' snort (as a horse), brhati, brnhati, ' make fat or strong,
pant.' [V., p-V.; P.; D.] strengthen, increase, further.' [V.,
p r u s h, see under p r u. p-V.; P., D.]
p r o t h = p ru th. 3 barh (brh, vrh, brnh, vrnh),
br'nhati, vdrhati, ' roar, bellow.'
plav =plu. [p-V.; D.]
p1 id y, 'begin, undertake.' [Not b a 1, only one intens., ' whirl.' [p-V.]
really a root, but from pra + i. See
note, p. 17.] b d h, see under v a dh.
plu (p l av), see under pr u. bdh= banh.

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 35

b u d h, ' awake, be awake or watch- b h a 1, only caus. with ni and sam,

ful; (gen'ly) observe, notice. perceive, 'perceive.' [p-V.; D.]
know, learn to know; consider as.'
b h a s h, i bark, bark at.' [p-V.; D.]
[V., p-V.; P., D.]
b h a , ' chew, crush; consume.'
b r ', ' speak, say ' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
[Comp. bharv. V., p-V.; P., D.]
From it:-p s d, ' chew, devour.'
[V. (only AV.; RV. has the verbal
b h a k s h, see under b h aj. -psd); P., D.]
b h aj, ' apportion, distribute; bestow,
b h d, 'shine, appear.' [Comp. note to
bring; receive as one's portion, share,
bhan and bhdsh. V., p-V.; P., D.]
enjoy; practice; resort or go to; be From it:-b h d s, ' shine, beam;
attached to, love, worship.' [V., p-V.;appear, be evident.' [V. (only AV.),
P., D.] p-V.; P., D.]
From it:-b h a k s h, ' enjoy, con-
b h d mn, 'be wrathful.' [Only two ex.
sume (in older lang. gen'ly = 'drink ;'
in later lang. = 'eat'), devour.' [V., V., p-V.; P., D.]
p-V.; P., D.]-b h i k s h (old desid. of b h a s h, ' speak, say, prattle.' [Curt.,
b h aj), ' wish to share, desire, ask for, 407, and others connect this root, as
beg.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]-s abh dj,* well as bhan, with bhd. p-V.; P., D.]
'honor.' [Fr. sa and bhdj (bhaj), b h d s, see under b h d.
' sharing.' p-V.; P., D.]
b A a AJ, 'break, fracture; bend.' [V., b h i ks h, see under b h aj.
p-V.; P., D.] b h i d, ' split, burst, make a hole in;
b h a t, only a caus. form, 'hire.' divide; open (of flowers); interrupt;
[p-v.; D.] betray, disclose; set at variance;
disturb, change; distinguish.' [V.,
bhan, see under bhan. p-V.; P., D.]
b h a , ' sound, resound; shout' (BR.). b h i s aj, ' heal.' [Second'y root of
[Curt. 407, and others connect this uncert. deriv'n, and found only in
root, as well as bhdsh, with bhd. RV.; D.]
Comp., in regard to this, what is said
on p. 7. Gr. defines it ' speak, pro-b h i, 'fear, dread; be anxious about.'
claim.' V.; P.] [V., p-V.; P., D.]
From it:-b h a n, ' speak.' [Comp. From it :-b h y a s, ' fear, tremble.'
note to bhan. p-V.; P., D.] [One ex. in RV. and one in SV.; P.,
b h a n d, ' be hailed or praised' (BR.);
' shine, beam' (Gr. and Dhat.). [V.,b h u n k s h, once in bhunkshita (Ram-
p-V-D.; D.] Ayana), acc'g to Comment.= bubhuk-
shita (bhuj); BR., Nachtr.
b h a r (b h r), ' bear, carry; contain,
possess; bear or take away; bring, 1 b h uj, bhujdti, 'bend, turn aside.'
procure; bear. endure; bear, sustain, [V., p-V.; P., D.]
nourish; support, keep in one's pay;2 b h uj, bhunakti, bhuiijati. ' enjoy,
raise (the voice or a sound).' [V. have the pleasure or benefit of, use,
p-V.; P., D.]
eat or drink; be deserving; be of
Akin:-h a r (h r), 'bear, carry; service to, serve; pass through (a
bring, procure; carry or tear away, period).' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
seize (unlawfully), rob; take or strip
off, sunder; receive (a gift); takeb h u r, 'move rapidly to or fro, shake,
hold of, master, overpower; hold flicker.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
back.' V., p-V.; P., D.] Akin (BR.):-b h u r aj, 'gush forth,
bharj (bhrj)-bhrajj. boil' (?). [Gr. connects it with bhrajj.
Only in one RV. passage.]
b h a r t s, 'threaten, rebuke, berate.'b h u r aj, see under b h u r.
[P-V.; P., D.]
b h a r v, ' chew, consume.' [Only twob h 4, 'become, come into existence,
arise; happen, take place; come into
ex. Comp. bhas. V.; D.] or be in any state or condition, be.'
bhar p (bhr)-=bhranC. [V., p-V.; P., D.]

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36 A. H. Edgren,

From it:-bhulsh, 'be active or 1 m a n (1, 2, 4, 8 classes), 'mean, think,

stirring, make effort, strive after, pre- think of, intend, wish; per-
pare;' (caus. 'adorn).' [By BR. divided
ceive, know; have consideration for,
into two roots: 1, only with prep'ns, esteem, honor; approve; be consid-
and indicating motion; 2, 'exert one's ered, appear.' [Comp. md, with which
self.' By Gr. as here. V., p-V.; P., it is by sense connected. V., p-V.;
D.] P., D.]
b h y a s, see under b h . From it:-2 m a d (orig'y 2 m an,
only form in RV.), madati, ('hesitate')
bhra py (bhraf, bharp, bhrp), Curt., p. 101: hence), 'tarry, delay,
'fall (away or apart or down); disap- still.' [Comp. Gr., 2 man; BR. give
pear, be lost; be separated from or pari-namanydt under mnd, and refer
deprived of.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] the other two Ved. forms mamandhi
Prob'ly akin with it:-b hr es h, and amaman to 2 mad, mand. They
'totter, stumble.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] seem, however, to belong to man as
b h r a jj (b h a rj, b h rj), ' fry, roast.'a verb of the hu-class. The RV.
form mamdttana, by BR. referred to
[V., p-V.; P., D.]
2 mad, is by Gr. referred to I mad.-
b h r a m, ' roam, wander about, move
In Qatap. BrAhm. madati occurs. The
to and fro; turn round; waver, be two roots ought perhaps rightly to
embarrassed or confused; roam be separated. V., p-V.; P., D.]-
through,' etc. [V-D., p-D.; P.,
m D.]
a n t r,* ' speak, utter; take counsel,
bhra = bhrahn. deliberate; counsel, advice: conjure
with a magical formula.' [Fr. mantra
b h r dj, 'shine, glow, be bright.' [Gr.
(man), 'instrument of thought (speech,
connects it with bhrajj. V., p-V.;sacredP.,speech or text, counsel, etc.).'
D.] V., p-V.; P., D.]-m n , mandmi,
b h r , ' wound' (BR.); ' be angry,only with prep'ns: anu-, 'recognize;'
d-, 'mention; consider,' etc. [Orig'ly
ish' (Gr.). [Only in one RV. pas-
sage.] indentic. with man. V., p-V.; P., D.]
b h resh, see under bhrai/ . 2 man=2 mad.

mant r,* seeunder 1 man.

m an h, see under m a h. man d=mad.
m ajj (in DhAt. m as), ' sink or dive
1 ma r (m r; Dhat. m r), mrndii,
down; sink under, be lost, perish; 'grind, crush.' [V., p.V.; P., D.]
bathe.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] Akin :- 2 m a r (m r), marati (V.);
mriyate, 'die, decease.' [Orig'ly =
m a n (?), only in manita, as noun
1 mar ? V., p-V.; P., D-m a r c,
'murmuring' (?) [Comp. BR., Nachtr.
p-V.; D.] 'hurt, injure.' [V., p-V.; D.] -
m a r c h (m r c h), 'be destroyed, per-
m a n d, ' adorn.' [p-V.; P., D.] ish.' [Only one ex. p-V.]--m a rj
m a th (m a n th), -stir around or rub
(m r j), ' rub or wipe off, clean; adorn,
violently; excite (fire) by rubbing;prepare properly; (Atm.) cleanse one's
churn; beat up; agitate, shake; self, etc.; wipe off (impurities from
grind, crush; distress.' [V., p-V.; one's self) upon some one else (loc).'
P., D.] [V., p-V.; P., D.]-m arn (m r n),
'crush, thresh.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]-
1 m a d (m a n d), madati or rmandati m a r d (m r d), 'press hard, crush,
(V.), mddyati, (orig'ly 'gush forth.' grind to pieces; rub; rub away,
of water: hence gen'ly) 'rejoice, feel annihilate.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]-
(esp. heavenly) bliss, delight, revel, m a r 9 (m r p), 'stroke, touch, mul-
be intoxicated; rejoice, gladden in- gere; touch mentally, consider, re-
toxicate.' [BR. give 'rejoice' as the flect on.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] -
orig'l meaning, and consider 'gush, mraksh (mrksh), 'rub, curry.'
boil ' as a fig. extension of that sense.
[V., p-V.; P., D.]-m rad, 'rub.'
V., p-V.; P., D.] -=mard. Only two ex., with prep'ns.
2 m a d (2 m a n), see under 1 man. V., p-V.; P,, D.]-m r i t, 'decay,

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 37

crumble.' [V. (verbal), p-V.; P., D.] m i t h, ' meet, unite; meet as rivals,
-m I d (m I a i), ' decay, wither, lan- wrangle: revile.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
guish.' [Fr. 2 mar? Comp. Brug-
m i d, ' become fat (fig. richly reward-
man, Morphol. Untersuch'n (mr +d).
V., p-V.; P., D.] ed).' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
Akin :-m in d, ' be attached to or
2 mn a r (m r), see under 1 mar. drawn towards, feel affection for.'
marc, see under 1 m ar. [Comp. in sense snih. BR. do not
separate mid, mind; but as each
m arch (mrch), see under 1 mar. is found with its distinctive meaning
only, and mind is not Vedic, a separa-
m a rj (m rj), see under 1 m a r. tion seems called for. Identified de-
n a r d (m r d), ' be mild or gracious rivat's, meda, etc., point only to mid.
(towards), pardon, spare.' [Akin to p-V.]
mard in sense of 'stroke gently'?
Comp. mred. V., p-V.; P., D.] m i n d, see under mid.
m i 1, ' unite, meet, come together; oc-
m a r n (m r n), see under 1 mar.
cur.' [p-V.; P., D.]
m a r d (m r d), see under 1 mar. Akin :-m il, 'close (up the eyes),
m a r d h (m r d h), ' be weary, neglect;wink; vanish; collect.' [V., p-V.;
forget, forsake, contemn.' [V., p-V.;
P., D.]
P., D.] mn i p (?) only in the desid. form:-
miksh, ' mix, stir up, give a relish
m a r p (m Tr ), see under 1 mar.
to; (atm.) be mixed.' [Thus BR.:
m a r s h (m r s h), ' forget, neglect; Gr. (with the nat. comment'rs) consid-
bear patiently.' [Comp. mardh. V., ers miksh as a desid. of mih, and
p-V.; P., D.] meaning ' besprinkle, give relish to.'
m a h, 'elate, delight, cheer, stir up: V.,Akin
p-V.; P., D. (i. e. mi9).]
:-m i 9 r,* ' mix.' [Fr. mi9ra
esteem highly, honor; (Atm.) rejoice,'
(mip ?), 'mixed.' p-V.; P., D.]
etc. [Orig'ly ' be great or high.' V.,
p-V.; P., D.] m i p r, see under m i p.
Akin:-m a t h, 'be grand or mi sh, 'open the eyes; blossom.'
happy (Gr.); bestow ( = make rich or P., D.]
[V., p-V.;
happy), give.' LV., p-V.; P., D.]
m i h (m i g h, m e g h), * pour out, make
1 m d~ nt e, mimtte, mdyate. ' water,
meas- sprinkle; emit seed.' [migh
ure, mete; measure out, grant; ar-(megh) only in nimeghamdna, twice in
range, form, build.' [Some derive RV. The form miksh by Gr. and nat.
man, 'think' from this root (ma);comment'ors referred here as a desid.,
comp. mi below. V., p-V.; P., D.] is by BR. referred to mis, which see.
Akin:-I m i, minoti, ' build, erect,
V., p-V.; P., D.]
establish; measure; estimate, recog-
1 m i-2md.
nize, perceive.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
2 md (1 mi), mindti, 'low, bleat.' 2 ?n i=2 mi.
[The form vi-mayanate, RV., 886. m i l, see under m i 1.
10 is by RV. referred here; but by
Gr. to a root may, 'go.' V., p-V.; m i v, 'move.' [Only with prep'ns.
P., D.] V. (only AV.), p-V.; P.]
m d r g,* see under m r g. muc, 'loosen, set free; let go; (atm.)
1 m i, see under 1 m d. be loosed or set free.' [V., p-V.; P.,
2 m i (2 m ), minati, miyate, ' diminish,From it:-1 m o k s h, mokshate, set,
lessen, annul; injure, transgress, frus- free, deliver.' [Desid. treated as a
trate; miss (one's way); (Atm.) be sep'te verb.]-2 m o k s h,* mokshayati,
diminished,' etc. [V., p-V.; P., D.] 'set free, deliver, wrest away; let
1 m i k s h, see under m i r. flow.' [Fr. moksha (muc), 'release.'
p-V.; P., D.]
2 m iksh - myaksh.
m u d, 'be glad or joyous, take pleasure.'
m i g h = m i h. [V., p-V.; P., D.]

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38 A. H. Edgren,

murch= m rch. y a k s h, only with pra, ' speed or

press onward; strive after, attain to.'
m u s h, ' steal, rob, plunder.' [V.,
[By Gr. connected with a lost yah,
p-V.; P., D.] and 0. H. Germ. jagon. V., p-V-D.;
m u hI 'be lost, wander; be perplexed P., D.]
or embarrassed, loose one's presence y aj, 'honor, worship; worship with
of mind, stupid; fail.' [V., p-V.; P., sacrifices or oblations, sacrifice.' [V.,
D.] p-V.; P., D.]
m 4 r c h (m u r c h), ' become firm or y a t, see y a m, under d a m.
solid or strong, take shape; become
torpid or senseless, faint away; growy a n t r,* see yam, under dam.
firmer or stronger or more intense; y a b h, 'future.' [p-V.; P., D.]
cause to sound powerfully.' [V. (only
y a m, see under dam.
AV.), p-V.; P., D.]
y a s, ' seethe, boil, bubble; make exer-
m A 1,* milati, only with nd, 'be rooted
tion ;' (esp'ly with d, ' make exertion,
up, be eradicated.' [mlt, ' be rootedstrive, trouble or weary one's self').
or firm. Fr. mula, ' root.' p-V.; P.,[V., p-V.; P., D.]
D.] From it:-y e s h, ' boil up or over,
m r g,* mrgayate, 'chase, pursue; hunt; gush.' [Only three ex. [V., p-V.;
seek.' [Fr. mrga, 'deer.' V., p-V.; P., D.]
P., D.
y 4, see under i.
megh= mih. y a p, see under i.
1 m a k s h, desid. of m u c, which
y d d,see.
see under i.
2 m o k s h,* see under m u c. 1 y u, see y a m, under dam.
m n 4, see under m a n. 2 y u, yuyoti, 'remove, separate, pro-
tect (from abl .); ward off; stay away,
m y aksh (2 miksh), 'be fixed be (in),
separated.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
be' (BR.); 'sparkle, micare ' (Gr).
From it :-y u c h, 'yield, turn or
[As second'y root, but whencego
? away;'
V.; (with pra, 'be absent: be
P.] careless '). [By Gr. treated as a form
m r a k s h (m r k s h), see under 1 mar. of 2 yu. V.; P.]
m r a d, see under 1 mar. y u c, see under 2 y u.
nm r i t, see under I m a r. y uj, see y a m, under dam.
m r u c, only with ni (abhi-ni). 'go y u d h, see y am, under d am.
down, set (of the sun).' [Dhat. 'go. yup, 'make smooth or level; efface,
Comp. mluc. V. (RV. only verbal), obliterate; confuse.' [V., p-V.; P.,
p-V.; P., D.] D.]
From it: -ml u c 'go down, go to
rest.' [ni-mluc, also go down.' V.,y e sh, see under y as.
p-V.; P., D.]
m r e d, only caus. with d, 'repeat;'
and atm. with upani (comp. mard),
'gladden, make happy.' [p-V.; P.] r a h h, ' cause to flow, hasten on;
m id (m a i), see under mar. (Atm.) flow on.' [The form rahgh,
alluded to by KAlidAsa, but nowhere
m li c h (m I e c h), 'speak barbarously, found in real use. V., p-V.; P., D.]
talk an unintelligible or foreign lan- Akin :-I a n g h, ' leap over, cross;
guage.' [p-V.; D.] transgress; surpass; ascend.' [Comp.
m I u c h, see under m ruc. note to raih, above. p-V.; P, D.]
m l up, said to be another form of 1 raksh rakshati, 'watch, guard,
m 1 u c; only in upamlupta, abhimlupta, protect, save; heed.' [V., p-V., P.,
' concealed, withdrawn.' [p-V.; P.] D.]
mlech = mlich. 2 r aksh, see under r i.

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 39

r a c, ' fabricate, form, make, produce; Akin :-1 r an (r an), ranati, ran-
adapt;' racita, 'provided (with).' [V., yati, i take pleasure, rejoice; delight.'
p-V.; P., D.] [Comp. 2 ran. [V., p-V.; P., D.]-
r a n v, ' delight.' [Fr. ran or denom.
1 r aj (r a iij), 'be bright or white;of ranva (ran), ' agreeable.' Only
glow, redden, be red; (fig.) be affected
one ex. V-D. ?, p-V.; D. ?]- lam,
by any strong feeling.' [BR. give 'enjoy (sexually).' [For older ram.
only this raj, from which rdj, rdja.Only one ex. p-V.; D.]
etc.; Gr. as here, driving rdja from
two rdj. Comp. Curt., 153. V., p-V.; r a rn b, 'hang down (loosely).' [V.
P., D.] p-V.; P., D.]
From it:- 1 r d j, ' be splendid, From it:-I amb, 'hang down;
shine, be distinguished.' [Comp. note hang on or from, (with ava) depend;
to raj, above. V., p-V.; P., D.] cling to, hold to; drink down, lag
behind, tarry.' [Later form of ramb.
2 r aj, see under 2 a rj (and comp. 1
p-V.; P., D.]
1 rambh - rabh.
ranj- 1 r aj. 2 ram bh , see under 2 rd.
r a t, 'give forth a loud sound, howl,
cry, roar,' etc. [p-V.: P., D.] 1 ras, see under 2 rd.
r a n = ran. 2 r a s,* rasayati, rasati, rasyati, 'taste.'
r a n v, see under r am.
[Prob'ly rasayati from rasa, 'juice'
and the remaining to later form'ns,
r a d, ' scratch or cut (by any instru- BR. p-V.; D.]
ment), gnaw, crush; dig or open r a h, 'leave, give up, surrender;'
(esp. roads); open (rivers, =) give a
free course to (rivers); give, dispense (rasila, 'left, separated, free, without').
(gifts -= give a free course to them).'
[Connected with radh ? V-D., p-D.;
P., D.]
[Thus Gr.; BR. give same meanings;
but a somewhat different develop't: 1 r , r ad t i, ' grant, give, give up.' [V.,
'scratch; dig (a road); lead (rivers) p-V.; P., D.]
into a course; lead or bring (some- 2 r a (ra i), rdyati, ' bark; bark at.'
thing) to (one).' V., p-V.; P., D.] [Dhat. ' sound.' Prob'ly orig'ly ra,
r a d h (r a n d h), ' be subject to (dat.);' sound,' still retained in are, an
subject, deliver into one's (dat.) power;interj'n of calling. Comp. ras, below;
subdue.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] and F., I., 187. Only three ex. V.,
p-V.; P.]
1 r an (ran), see under r am. Akin :-2 r a n (r a n), ' sound, ring.'
2 r a n (r a n), see under 2 rd. [By BR. classif 'd with 1 ran, 'delight,'
though defined as here, and suggested
r an d h = radh. to be a sep'te root. Formed in anal-
r a p, see under 2 r d. ogy with tan kvan, etc. (see p. 7).
p-V.; P.]-rap, ' prattle, talk, whis-
r ap p, only with pra, ' be sufficient;'
per.' [Later form lap, below. V.,
and vi, 'be abundant or exuberant,p-V.; P., D.]-r am b h, ' roar ;' with
swell.' [V.; P., D.] upa, 'fill with sound, make resound.'
[Only two ex. Comp. ribh, below.
r ap h, only once in raphita, ' injured,
miserable' (?). [V.; P., D.] p-V.; P., D.]-1 r a s, rasati, 'give
r a b h (rambh), ' seize, grasp.' forth
[V., a loud sound, roar, yell, neigh,'
p-V.; P., D.] etc. [Later form las, below. p-V.;
From it:-I a b h, ' grasp, catch; P., D.]-rds (v. 1 rd ), 'scream,
procure, find; obtain, receive; pos- howl.' [Fr. ras, above. p-V.; P.,
D.]-riph, 'utter a rough or bur-
sess; grasp mentally, perceive.'
[Comp. Id. V., p-V.; P., D.] ring sound, snarl.' [p-V.; P., D.]-
r i b h (r e b h), ' crackle, creak; mur-
r a m, 'bring to repose, calm, stop; mur, prattle; speak aloud, shout (to).'
pause, rest, like to stay (by, loc.); be[With abhi, 'bark at.' Comp. rambh,
pleased with, take delight in, love;above. V., p-V.; P., D.]--1 ru,
dally with, futuere, couple (of deer);rauti, ravdti, ruvati, 'low, roar, yell,
please, make happy.' [V., p-V.; P., hum.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]--ru d,
D.] ' wail, howl, weep; deplore.' [V.,

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40 A. H. Edgren,

p-V.; P., D.]--l ap, 'prattle, talk; 2 r u, rdvate, ' break or dash to pieces.
murmur; wail.' [Later form of rap,
[V., p-V.; P., D.-
above. V. (only AV.), p-V.; P., D.] From it:-r uj, ' break, shatter;
-l as, 'sound.' [Fr. ras, above. afflict, pain.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]-
Comp. note to 1 las. p-V.; P.] ruth, ' torment.' [Only part. atm.
1 r aj, see under I r aj. p-V.]-r up, 'suffer racking pain.'
[Later form lup, 'break,' below. V.
2 r dj, see under 2 arj. (only AV.; RV.-D.); p-V.; D.]-
r d dh, see under ardh. 1 up, ' break to pieces ; pounce

upon; oppress; rob, plunder.' [V.
(only AV.), p-V.; P., D.]-la, ' cut,
r ds (v. 1. r adp), see under 2 cut off or down, cut to pieces, destroy.'
r a.
r i (r i), see under a r.
[p-V.; P., D.]
r u c (r u t, in ru9ant), ' shine, beam, dis-
r i kh, 'scratch, tear.' [V. (only one play splendor, be adorned; appear
ex. drikha in RV.); in the later lan- beautiful (to, dat.), be pleasing, please
guage likh. Comp. r i . V., p-V-D.;
(dat.); be pleased, desire (dat. or acc.);
P., D.] make bright or resplendant.' [Comp.
Later form: -Ii k h, ' scratch, fur-
varc. V., p-V.; P., D.]
row; mark by scratching, engrave, Akin :--l o k, ' see, perceive.' [p-V.;
inscribe, write, paint.' [V. (only
P., D.]-lo c, ' see, look.' [Only with
AV.), p-V.; P., D.] prep'ns. p-V.; P., D.]
r in k h, see under r i A g.
r uj, see under 2 r u.
r i n g, 'creep (of infants), move slowly.'
r u t h, see under 2 r u.
[p-V.; D.]
r u d, see under 2 r
Akin:-r i n k h, 'creep (of children), d.
go slowly.' [One ex. p-V.; D.] 1 r u d h, see under v a r d h.
r i c, see under a r. 2 r ut d h, runadhi, 'stop, check, arrest;
withhold, retain; sustain; enclose,
r ip, 'smear; deceive.' [V., p-V-D.;
P., D.] cover; stop up, fill; oppress.' [V-D.,
From it:-lI p (li m p), ' smear, p-V.; P.]
soil; stick on, glue to.' [V., p-V.; r up, see under 2 r u.
P., D.]
1, 2 ru p = ruc and rush.
r ip h, see under 2 r d. rush (ru ), rushati or ru9ati, 'be
r i b h (r e b h), ee under 2 r d. crossed or vexed, be angry; displease,
disgust.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
r i p (a r p ?), ' tear or pluck off; graze;
break, hurt.' [Gr. connects this and r u h, see under 1 v ardh.
the following with ar, giving arp (rp)r l k s h* ' make thin or lean; smear,
as the interm'te form. The only ex.
of arp is ar9asdna, which BR. give soil.' [By BR. derived from rfuksha
(fr. rush), ' rough, dry, lean, arid.'
sep'ly as an adj. of uncert. deriv'n.
The connection between rush and
They refer arp to rit, but without
ruaksh in all senses does not seem clear.
noticing it there. V., p-V.; P., D.]
Akin:-lii, ' tear or pluck off; p-V.; P., D.]
r up,* 'give form or shape to, repre-
hurt.' [p-V.; P., D.]-2 ra k s h, 'hurt,
injure.' [Prop'ly rksh=rip, rish, BR. sent.' [Fr. r8pa, ' form,' p-V.; P.,
Only in one AV.-passage (RV.-D.); D.]
D.]-r i s h, ' be hurt or wounded; r sh, ' strew or cover with dust:
meet with disaster, fail, miscarry; smear.' [Mostly in r4shita. Comp.
hurl, harm.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] raksh.* p-V.; P., D.]
r i s h, see under r i . r ej, ' shake, cause to tremble, stir;
r h, 'lick, caress.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]tremble, quiver, flicker.' [V., p-V.;
Later form:-lih, 'lick; lick up, P., D.]
sip.' [p-V.; P., D.] r e d, only in pr. part. with a-, 'non
r i = ri. fallens' (BR.). [p-V.; D.]
1 r u, see under 2 rd. rebh= ribh.

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 41

1, 2 laks h,* see under lag. 2 u t h, see under I u 1.

I a g, ' adhere, stick; clasp; follow I u d, see under I u 1.

closely; meet.' [V-D., p-V.; P., D.]
1, 2 lu n t h, see 1 l u t h, and l u l.
Akin with it:-1 1 a ks h,* lakshay-
t p, see under 2 r u.
ati, ' mark, denote; consider; notice,
perceive, see.' [Fr. laksha (lag), I u b h, 'be perplexed or in disorder;
mark.' p-V.; P., D.] From this: (gen'ly) desire eagerly (=-be dis-
--2 laksh, lakshate, 'notice, per-
turbed in mind, BR.; F., p. 201.);
ceive.' [p-V.]--/i A g* (only withallure
d, (= pratilubh):' lubdha, 'desir-
and one lingya), 'clasp the limbs.'ing, covetous, greedy.' [V., p-V.;
[Fr. linga (lag), 'limb.' Also one P., D.]
ling of 10 class, 'inflect according to
gender.' p-V.; P., D.] 1 71, ' stir about, agitate.' [p-V.; P.,
I a n gh , see under r a n h. Akin:-2 ltu t h, luthdti, ' roll, wel-
I a jj, ' be ashamed, blush.' [p-V.; ter.' [p-V.; P., D.]-Z u d, only caus..
P., D.] 'stir, stir up, set in motion, make
uneasy.' [p-V.; P., D.]--2 l un t h,
t ap, see under 2 r d. linthati, ' stir up, set in motion.'
I a b h, see under r a b h. [BR. make 1 lunth a caus. of this.
arnm see under ram. p-V.; P., D.]
t a, see under 2 r u.
a 1, ' play, sport, dally.' Causat. ' loll
the tongue.' [p-V.; P., D.] I o k, see under r u c.

lash, 'wish, desire.' [p-V.; P., D.] I o c, see under r u c.

1 as, 'shine, glitter; appear; play.'

[BR. also refer 2 las, ' sound' here;
v a n h = b a nh.
but this comes no doubt fom 1 ras,
' roar, sound,' which root never means
1 vak=vac.
' shine.' p-V.; P., D.]
2 las, see under 2 r d. 2 v a k, 'roll, revolve.' [V., p-V-D
I d, 'take, grasp.' [Only in Idtva. From it :-v a c, ' proceed by reg-
Comp. labh, rabh. p-V.; D.] ular motion or crookedly, totter, reel,
li k h, see under r ik h. roll on; sneak along.' [V., p-V.; P.,
I i n g,* see under l a g. 1 v aksh = I uksh.
lip (limp), see under rip. 2 v a k s h; 'grow, become great or
I i , see under r i p. strong.' [Only in perf. and caus.
V.; P., D.]
I i h, see under r i h.
Weakened form:-2 u k s h, ' grow
1 i, liyate, ' cling or press closely to, up, grow strong.' [V.; P., D.]
adhere or stick; settle down or perchv a c (1 v a k), ' speak, say, tell, declare,
upon; cower down or hide in; disap- announce; blame.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
pear.' [Gr. connects it with ri, ar;
but the meanings are too different. v aj (' be active or strong, be power-
V., p-V.; P., D.] ful') only in caus. (v dj), ' urge to
speed, spur, incite; speed.' [Thus
2 1t, only intens. leldyati, ' totter, shake, Gr.; BR. make vdj in all cases a
tremble.' [p-V.; D.] denom. of vdja (vaj ?). Comp. Kuhn's
I u c, ' pluck, pull, pull out, peel.' Zeitschr. 3, 335; and Curt. 159. V.,
p-V.; P., D.]
[p-V.; P., D.]
v a A c, see under 2 v a k.
1 tu t h, lothayati, ' plunder, rob.'
[Only three ex. p-V.; P., D.] v a n t, ' divide.' [Only one ex. p-V.;
From it:- 1 I .un t h, lunthayati, ' rob,
plunder; peel.' [BR. make it caus. v a t, with api, ' receive mentally, con
of 1 luth. p-V.; P., D.] prehend.' [Only 3 ex. V.; D.]
VOL. XI. 6

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42 A. H. Edgren,

v a d, ' speak, say, declare, name.' [V., grow or prosper; cheer up, animate,
p-V.; P., D.] inspire; increase, grow, prosper,' etc.
From it:-v a n d, ' praise, honor, [V., p-V.; P., D.]
greet.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] Akin: - ar d h (r dh), ' prosper,
thrive, succeed; further, cause to
v a d c (b a dh), 'slay, kill, destroy.'
[Acc'g to Panini only in aor. and
succeed, accomplish; satisfy.' [V.,
p-V.; P., D.]-e d h, 'grow, be great,
prec.; but found also in fut. and pot.,
in spec. tenses passive, and once thrive, be happy.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
-r a dh, ' succeed, be accomplished;
vadhati (BR., Nachtr.). V., p-V.; accomplish,
P., carry through.' [Comp.
From it:-b d d h, 'press or drive
vrddh. V., p-V.; P., D.]-I ru d h,
rodhati, 'grow, sprout.' [Qnly two
away, dispel; oppress, torment; force ex. V., p-V.; P., D.]--r u h, ' ascend,
apart.' [Comp. Kuhn's Zeitschr. 12,
mount; grow up, grow, develop, in-
120; F. 156. The desid. bibhatsati
crease, prosper; grow together, heal;'
set up as a sep'te root 3 badh. V., (rf.dha, also ' spread abroad, diffused,
p-V.; P., D.]-vyadh (3 vidh), generally known'). [Fr. rudh, above.
' pierce, penetrate, smite, shoot, V., p-V.; P., D.]-vrddh, 'stir up,
wound; injure, harm; goad on, spur in- on' (BR.); ' be great or strong
cite; shake, move.' [V., p-V.; P., or D.]
powerful' (Gr.). [Comp. rddh.
v a n, see under 3 v a. Only in a few RV. ex. D.]
v a n d, see under v a d. 2 v a r d h (?), ' cut off.' [vardhdpa-
1 v ap, vapati, ' shear, graze.'yati,
[V., Weber, Krshnaj. p-V.; D.]
p-V.; P., D.] v a r s h (v r s h), 'rain, pour down.'
[V., p-V.; P., D.]
2 v ap, vapati, 'strew, scatter, sow.'
[V., p-V.; P., D.] v a r h = barh.
v a m, 'vomit, eject.' [V., p-V.; P., v a 1, ' turn, turn to; burst forth, show
D.] itself ;' (valita, 'accompanied by').
1 v a r (v r, v r),' envelop, cover, [p-V.; P., D.]
enclose, surround; confine, obstruct; v a l g, 'go by leaps, jump, speed.'
restrain, check, guard.' [See note to
[V. (only AV.; RV.-D.), p-V; P., D.]
2 var, below. V., p-V.; P., D.]
Akin:-- rnu, ' surround, wrap.'v a 1 A, only with u'pa and pra, ' test by
[Fr. var through vrnoti. By Gr. not a question, propose a riddle to' (BR.).
sep'd fr. var. V., p-V; P., D.?]- [p-V.; P.]
v a r n,* 'paint, depict.' [Fr. varna
v a p, see under 3 v d.
(var), 'paint.' p-V.; P., D.]
1 v a s, ucchati, 'be bright, shine.' [V.,
2 v a r (vr, vr) ' choose, prefer, wish,
love.' [Perhaps from 1 var, as 'en- p-V.; P., D.]
close mentally.' BR. as here. Dhgt. From it:-u s h, 'burn, consume,
gives only one v.r (vrnoti, vrnd ti,destroy; punish.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
varati) for 'eligere, tegere,' etc. 2 V a s, vdste, ' put on a dress or cover-
Comp. also varj. V., p-V.; P., D.] ing, take form. appear; enter into.'
[V., p-V.; P., D.]
v a rj (v rj, v r ij), ' turn, twist; turn
over (the sacred grass, Gr.: BR., un-
3 v a s, vasati, 'stay, dwell, linger, re-
twist and strew it out); turn away; main; be, pass; devote one's self to.'
divert; (Atm.) appropriate, choose.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
[V., p-V.; P., D.] 4 v a s, ' direct (an attack) against, at-
var n,* see under 1 var. tack.' [V.; P.]
v art (v r t), 'turn, roll, roll on (fig. 5 v a s, only with ni, 'cut down, kill;'
pass on, take place; tarry in a place, and pari, ' cut out.' [p-V.; P., D.]
exist, live; be (as a reg. copula); pro-
v a Ah, 'lead, convey, bring, bear, carry,
ceed, act; use,' etc. [V., p-V.; P.,
D.] cause; bear, endure; pass (time);
cause to flow, carry along or away;
1 v a r d h (v r d h), vdrdhate, vr'dhate, travel, ride; blow (of the wind).' [V.,
' raise, increase, strengthen, cause to p-V.; P., D.]

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 43

From it *-1 ai h, ahati, ' move, push; 1 v i d h, vidhdti, ' be devoted to, wor-
change, modify.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] ship, honor; present as a devotional
1 v 4, vdti, 'bow: blow on; exhale offering, dedicate; be propitious' (Gr.).
(incense), spread (of incense).' [V., [V., p-V.; P., D.]
p-V.; P., D.] 2 v i d h (v i n d h), vindhate, ' be empty,
Akin:-2 v a (v a i), vdyati, ' blow; be wanting or lacking (instr.).' [V.,
(gen'ly) be weary or languid, be ex- (p-V., Valakhya); D.]
hausted (=- dying wind, Gr.).'-- 3 v i d h -- vyadh.
v d t (?)* ' blow, fan.' [Fr. vdta (v d),
' wind.' Very doubtful form. p-V.] v i n d =1 v i d.
2 v 4, see under I v d. v in dh = 2 vidh.
3 v (t, ' desire, seek to win.' [Only inv ip (v ep), ' be in a swinging or trem-
part. and desid. V., p-V.; P., D.] bling motion, tremble, quiver; shud-
Akin:-v a n, ' like, love, desire; der.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
obtain, procure, master, conquer, gain;
v i p, ' settle down, enter, go in, repair
dispose of, possess; make ready, pre-
pare.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]-v a f, 'wish, (to), go to, fall to (one's, acc.) share;
happen into.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
demand, order; long for; insist upon,
assert.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]-v nch,v is he, 'be active; bring about, per-
' desire, love, like; assert.' [V., p-V.; form, do; gain; rule; consume.' [V.,
P., D.]-v en, 'long, yearn, desire; p-V.; P., D.]
envy.' [By redupl'n fr. van. V., 1 v i, veti, ' seek with eagerness, strive
p-V.; P.. D.] after; enjoy; grasp, procure; attack.'
4 v d (v e), vayati, 'weave, braid; (fig.)[V., p-V.; P., D.]
compose.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] 2 v i, veti, 'impel, set in motion; stir
V a n c h, see under 3 v d. up, incite; send.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
v d t (?),* see under 1 v d. 3 v i, only in intens., ' flutter (of the
v d p (I v a s), 'low, roar, scream,heart), tremble.' [Orig'ly 'flap with
the wings,' BR. Only two ex. V.,
crow.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
p-V.; P., D.?]
2 v as,* 'fill with odors, perfume, Akin :-v ij (v y aj), 'fan, cool by
spice.' [Fr. vdsa, ' perfume.' Comp. blowing; besprinkle.' [p-V.; P., D.]
1 va. p-V.; P.]
V ij, see under v .
v d a, only with pra, ' press.' V[p-V.; i d, ' make firm, fix; be firm or hard.'
[V., (p-V. ?); D.]
1 V ic, ' sever, separate, winnow.' [V., V I r,* 'act manly or bravely.' [Fr.
p-V.; P., D.] vtra, 'hero.' V., p-V.; D.]
2 vic =vyac. veth = vith.
v ij, 'start; dart or jet forth; start
v e n, see under 3 v d.
back, turn and flee in terror;' vigna.
v ep - vip.
'startled, agitated, alarmed.' [V.,
p-V.; P., D.] v e s h t (v is h t), ' twine round, cling
to; envelop, dress (refl.).' [visht ex-
V i t h (v e t h), ask, beg' (?). [Onlycep'ly
once:in the older lang. (once vishtita
see note, p. 17.]
in RV., also in AV.). Gr. 'clothe,
v i d (v ind), 1 vindati, 'find, discover, surround,' and derived from vif(?).
get, obtain, bring about, find (a wife), V., p-V.; P.; D.]
marry; seek, turn to; feel, consider; v y a c (2 v i c), 'embrace, encompass,
befall, concern: '-2 vetti, ' find out, grasp.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
learn to know; perceive, know, un-
derstand; know as, declare, call; no- vyaj= vij.
tice; experience; believe. suppose.'
V y a t h, 'stagger, reel, stumble, swerve;
[In MahAbhAr. vindati used in sense be agitated, be disturbed in mind (by
of vetti, BR. Both forms V., p-V.; pain or fear), despair.' [Simpler
P., D.]
form in vithura. V., p-V.; P., D.]

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44 A. B. Edgren,

vy adh (3 vidh), see under vadh. 2 pad, see under 1 f ad.

V y a ,* see under i. p a p, ' curse, swear; promise on oath;
v y d (v y a i), ' cover, envelop.' [V., (Atm.) adjure, entreat.' [V., p-V.; P.,
p-V.; P., D.] D.]
V r aj, 'go, proceed, move; go or at- p a b d,* 'sound; tell, call.' [Fr. pabda,
tain to (any state or condition).' [V.. ' sound.' p-V.; P.]
p-V.; P., D.]
1 p a m (p iXm), famyati, 9imyati, 'work
v r a n bra a n), ' sound' (?), Dhat. zealously, busy or weary one's self;
[Only in vranatiti vranas, Sugruta, prepare, arrange.' [Comp. note to 2
2, 2, 1.-vran,* vranayati is a de- 9am. 9amyati, 9imyati in parallel pas-
nom. of vrana, 'wound.'] sages. V., p-V.; D.]
v r a d, 'become soft or ripe.' [Only
one ex. V.: D.] 2 p a m, pdmyati, ' become quiet or ap-
peased, cease, sink to rest, be extin-
vra pc, 'cut off or down, split.' guished.' [Gr., F. and others consider
[Comp. vrka. V., p-V.; P., D.J 1, 2 Sam identical, in sense of ' weary
v r d d h, see under 1 vardh. one's self, grow quiet.' BR. as here.
Comp. Curt., p. 104. p-V.; P., D.]
v rd, 'be abashed or ashamed.' [p-V.; Akin:-p c a m, ' quiet, smother.'
D.] [Prob'ly by faulty writing or from
v r u d, only vru.dita, ' sunk down, lost.' 9am. Only in one RV. passage.]
[p-v.] 3 pa m, famayati, 9dmayati, with ni,
v I a g (v I a ng), ' twist the neck, throt- 'become aware, perceive, burn, hear,
tle' (BR.); ' press hard, pursue' (Gr.). learn.' [By F. referred to 1, 2 9am.
[Connected with varj? V.; P.] p-V.; P., D.]
V If, 'press or cause to fall together.' 4 pa m, famndti, 'harm.' [Only one
[V. (only AV.), p-V.; P., D.] p-V. ex.]
1 p a r (p r), ' break, burst, split; de-
cay.' [Comp. 1 kar. V., p-V.; P.,
p a n s, ' speak or repeat in a solemn D.]
manner, recite (esp. a verse, etc. to Akin :--p 4r, ' crush, kill.' [Only
the gods); praise; proclaim, an- once (RV.), 9clrta. Gr. as here; BR.
give ?frta sep'ly, without any other
nounce.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] definit'n than that of Naighant., kshi-
Akin:-1 d s (2 p i sh, p is, in some
forms), ' reprimand, correct, punish pra. V.]
(in words), check; command, govern; 2 par, 'only in frta (also with d),
instruct, teach; praise; announce, 'boiled, roasted.' [Orig'ly 'glow.'
confess.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] The arrangem't followed here in the
p a k, ' be able or competent, can; give main that of Gr., who gives fir (for
help, aid, favor, grant, give in.' [BR. par, to which he also refers 9irta), fr.
give two roots, but suggest that 2 fak which frd, 9ri. BR. give car ==rd,
may be considered as a transit. to 1 where frta is found. They further
fak. The desid. fiksh 'try; learn; give two fri, one 'cook' = -rd, and
help, wish to give,' by some regardedone 'mix, Kep(Mvvt,' independent. V.,
as a sep'te root. V., p-V.; P., D.] p-V.; P., D.]
From it:- r d (yrai), only in
p a n k, 'be sad or shy; suspect, sup- crdta, 'cooked,' and in caus., 'cook,
pose.' [V-D., p-V.; P., D.] boil, bake.' [Comp. note to far,
p a t, fdtayati, ' cut in pieces, cut off, above. V., p-V.; P., D.]-cr i,
sever.' [By Panini said to be a caus. 'glow; cook. boil, ripen, finish off,
of 2 fad. V. (only AV.), p-V.; P., D.] gar machen (namentlich den Soma
durch warme Milch),' Gr. [BR. 2
1 pad, 'fall off or out.' [V. (only fri, as a sep'te root, ' mix (the Soma,
AV.), p-V.; P., D.] etc.)'; comp. note to far, above. V.,
Prob'ly akinu :--2 a d, ' distinguish p-V.; P., D.]
one's self, triumph, prevail.' [Only in
perf. and perf. part. V.] 3 par = 9ri.

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 45

1 p a r d h ( r d h), cardha(ya)ti, ' show (atm.) adorn one's self,' etc. [BR.
one's self bold or strong, be defiant, give a sep'te root 9ubh, ' glide or pass
mock.' [V.; P., D.] on nimbly,' to explain a few RV. pas-
sages, by Gr. referred here; and they
2 p a r d h ( r d h), 9ardhate, ' break
omit 'shine' from this 9ubh. Comp.
wind.' [p-V.; P., D.] 9uc, cubh. V., p-V.; P., D.]
p a 1, see under c a r. ] pu s , s ushyati, 'dry, dry up, wither,
languish.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
p a s (2 c d s), I hew or cut down, slaugh-
ter.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] 2 p u s h, see under z v a s.
p d (c i, 3 i), ' whet, sharpen; (fig.)
p (later f v d4, v i), ' swell, increase,
make eager or bold or strong; hasten, grow; be thriving or powerful.' [Thus
promote, help; (Atm.) be eager,' etc. Gr.; BR. refer Ved. forms in 9U- to a
[By BR. divided into two roots: see, sep'te root 1 9a, 'be superior or vic-
however, Gr. V., p-V.; P., D.] torious;' and later forms in CA-, cvay-,
Desid. :- n, (;i9dhsati, ' whet.' etc. to 9vd (9vi, 2 9u), 'swell.' V.,
[Treated as sep'te root.] p-V.; P., D.]
c d n, see under C d. p r, see under 1I a r.
1 c d s (2 F ish, 9 is), see under can s. p c a n d (later c a n d ?), only the intens.
2 pa s -= as. form cani9cadat, 'shining.' [By BR.
referred to cand; by Gr., as it seems
p i = ad. with better reason, to fcand. 9candra
p i ij, 'give forth a sharp or shrill and candra point to both these root-
sound, ring, tinkle,' etc. [V., p-V.; forms, and BR. give ?cand as the
P., D.] original one. V., p-V-D.; P., D.]
Akin:-2 c ha (n) d, chandati, chad-
p i m= 1 a m. ayati, 'appear, seem; seem good,
please; try to seduce.' [V., p-V.;
1 p i s h, cinshati, ' leave, leave remain-
ing;' (gen'ly in pass. fishyate, 'be P., D.]
left, remain'). [Rare except with pC a m, see under 2 9 a m.
prep'ns, esp'ly vi, 'distinguish,' etc.
cp Cu t ( c y u t), ' drip, trickle.' [V.,
V., p-V.; P., D.]
p-V.; P., D.]
2 pish, (is) = 1 cds, see under p n a t h, 'pierce, penetrate.' [Prob'le
9ah s.
earlier form knath given, but not
2 p i, 'lie, lie down or quiet; sleep.' found in use. V., p-V.; P., D.]
[V., p-V.; P., D.] p y d (4 ), 'curdle, congeal.' [V. (RV.
2 p g, 'give way, disappear, be de-only 9ita), p-V.; P., D.]
stroyed.' [p-V.; P., D.] p r a t h, ' become loose or weak, yield,
3 p = cd. crumble; weaken, make defenceless.'
4 pi=-cy d. [V., p-V.; P., D.]
Later form:- 1I a t h, 'become loose,
p ' k, 'sprinkle, drizzle.' [p-V.; D.] crumble, yield.' [p-V.; P., D.]
p 1* ' do habitually, practice, enjoy.'pr am, see under k lam.
[Fr. clla, 'habit.' p-V.; P., D.]
pr a (mn) b h (v. 1. s r a m b h), only with
p u c, 'flame, shine, beam; glow, burn vi (mostly alone), 'confide (in, loc.),
(fig. be pained, grieve, wail, etc.).' trust, depend on.' [Mostly vi9rabda,
[Thus BR.; by others divided into 'trusting, confident.' The root alone,
two roots. Comp. cubh, fudh. V., 'support one's self, lean,' Gr. V-D.,
p-V.; P., D.] p-V.; P., D.]

p uj, only in Clcujdna, ' boastingpror d (9 r a i), see under 2 p a r.

self-reliant'?. [V.] p r i (3 9 a r), ' x?ivu, lean; lean or put
(against, upon, etc.); apply, bring;
pu (n) d h, 'purify.' [Comp. 9uc, cubh.
V., p-V.; P., D.] (atm.) lean one's self (on, loc.); be
attached, be found, be; resort to,
p u (m) b h, ' shine, glitter; adorn, have recourse to; become.' [V., p-V.;
beautify, attire; prepare, make fit; P., D.]

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46 A. H. Edgren,

p r i s h, ' join, connect.' [V., p-V-D.; sad, sidati, ' sit, sit down; besiege,
P., D.] lie in wait for; sink down (fig. col-
Later form :-c I i s h, 'adhere or lapse, decay, perish; be despondent,
cling to, clasp, embrace, join.' [p-V.;be low-spirited; be distressed or in
P., D.] need, etc.).' [V., p-.V.; P., D.]
p r ?, see under 2 a r. s a n (2 s d), 'gain, procure, obtain, pos-
1 p r U, crnoti, 'hear, listen; be atten-sess, procure (for another), bestow.'
[V., p-V.; P., D.]
tive; listen to (a teacher, etc.), learn,
find out.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] 1 sap, see under 1 s d.
From it:-- r u sh, 'hear (Gr.), listen
2 s ap, only in one corrupt passage,
to.' [With certainty only in crosha-
mdana, by BR. defined 'complaisant, sdpayan, 'futuens' (? BR.). [p-V.;
confiding.' 9roshan, 'roshantu might
also be referred to pru. V.; P (?), D.]s a b h (j,* see under b h aj.
2 prtu, see under s a r. s a r (s r), 'move or hurry on, glide,
pr u s h, see under 1 p r u. flow, flow away.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
From it:-1 sarj (srj), srjati, ' let
p I a t h, see under r a th. loose, send forth, fling, hurl; throw
or pour out; let go, set free; pub-
pI d g h, ' have confidence (in, dat.);
lish; procreate, produce, beget; pro-
speak confidently, boast, be proud;
duce, procure, give.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
flatter, praise.' [p-V.; D.]
-s arp (s rp), 'creep, crawl.' [V.,
p si s h, see under 9 r is h. p-V.; P., D.]-2 rru, 9ravati, 'be
p v a (/n) c, 'open itself, receive in open set in motion; flow apart, be dis-
solved or disconnected.' [Varied
arms' BR.; 'bend,' with ud. 'arise; form or incorrect writing for sru,
open,' Gr. [Only a few RV. forms below V., p-V.; P., D.]-sr , 'flow,
somewhat differently treated by BR.
and Gr., and not all quoted by the stream; trickle; let flow, emit, shed;
former. V.; P., D.] flow or trickle away, slip away, fail,
perish; flow (from), originate.' [V.,
p v a s, ' blow. hiss, pant; breathe; p-V.; P., D.]
sigh.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
Akin:-2 cush, <f shati, 'hiss.' 1 s a rj (s rj), see under s a r.
[V.; P., D.] 2 s a rj, sdrjati, ' creak.' [V., p-V.;
P., D.]
p v d, c v i = f u, which see.
p v i t, ' be white or bright, shine.' s a rp (s rp), see under sar.
[V., p-V-D.; P., D.] s a = - s a c (see note).
s a s, ' sleep, be inactive or idle.' [V.,
p-V.; P., D.]
s h t i v, 'spit, spit out.' [p-V.; P., s a h, see under s a g h.
D.] 1 s d (s o), syati, ' bind, connect; yoke,
fetter.' [Only with prep'ns, esp'ly ava,
'unbind, unyoke; (fig. desist, cease;
stop, stay; abide by, decide upon,
s a g i, 'bear, be able to bear; com-
etc.).' V., p-V.; P., D.]
prehend' (Gr.). [Only in 3 passages.
Akin:-s a c (s a p c), ' be connected
V., p-V.; D.] or associated or together with; be
From it:-sa h, 'overpower, con- near, belong to; possess; be attached
quer, 'master, check; be able; bear, to, serve; follow, seek; pursue.'
endure, suffer, allow.' [Though ' bear' [Sev'l RV. forms sa~c occur, referred
seems to be orig'l meaning, ' over-
by both BR. and Gr. to sac: only one
power' is the one prevailing in the sa9casi, in VAlakhilya, and the noun
RV. V., p-V.; P., D.] satcat (RV.), are by BR. referred to
s ac (s a p c), see under 1 s d. a sep'te root sa9c, 'stop, withhold.'
They seem, however, both explainable
s aj (s ajj, s a nj), see under 1 s d. under sac. The two roots (sac, saVc)
s a nj -s aj. should perhaps be considered as

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 47

closely connected, but not as identi- s u ks h,* ' gladden, delight.' [Fr. sukha,
cal. V., p-V.; P., D.]-saj (sajj, 'joy.' p-V.; D.]
in pass., by assimil'n; s a inj), ' cling,
be attached or connected, adhere, s u (mn) b h ' stifle' (?). [Only two ex.
stick.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]-1 s ap, p-V.; D. ?]
' adhere or be devoted to; strive S 4 after,
-=- su.
seek to reach.' [Akin to sac, and
orig'ly sakv, Kuhn, 9, 17. The verb- S l c, ' point out, indicate, show, betray.'
form sapary, 'honor,' not in the Dhat., [By BR. considered as a denom. ?
seems connected with this as a denom. p-V.; P., D.]
fr. a sapar (fr. sap). V., p-V.; P.,s D.]
t r,* see under 1 s d.
-s i, ' bind, twine around; connect.'
s 4 d, see under svad.
[By weak'g of orig'l sa. V., p-V.;
P., D.]-s z v (s i v), ' bind or stitchs8
r k h, ' care for, regard.' [p-V.;
gether, sew.' [Fr. si. V., p-V.; P., D.]
D.]-s ev, 'be connected with; tarry
in a place, stay or dwell in or by; sev, see under 1 sd.
attend to, serve, honor; be attached sk a (n) d, ' leap, spring, spirt, be
to, devote one's self to, cultivate, prac- ejected or hurled forth, be spilled, fall
tice; enjoy (sexually).' [Comp. sac, out; cover (of animals, bespringen).'
above. V., p-V.; P., D.]-s 2 t r,* [V., p-V.; P., D.]
'tie or string together; declare, etc.,
s ka r =- kar.
in a Sutra.' [Fr. s'ltra (siv), ' thread.'
p-V.; P., D.] s k .t, ' cover, heap over; protect.'
2 s d san. [V., p-V.; P., D.]
s k h a 1, ' stumble, reel, falter, slip, err,
s a d hi, 'reach the goal or be accom-
fail; stammer; stick.' [p-V. ; P., D.]
plished, succeed; carry out, adjust,
sk h i d =- khid.
set in order; accommodate one's self,
obey.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
s t a n, ' thunder, roar, groan.' [V.,
Akin:-1 s idh, sidhyati, 'reach
goal, be accomplished, succeed; be the
p-V.; P., D.]
Akin :-2 t a n, tanyati, ' thunder,
valid, be proved; be healed.' [Comp. resound.' [Comp. note to 1 tan. V.,
also 2 sidh, by Gr. connected with
p-V-D.; D.]
this. V., p-V.; P., D.]
s t a (On) b h, 'fix firmly, prop up
S i, see under I s d. (whence) reach to: check; (atm.)
s i C, 'pour out; emit; sprinkle.' [V., become stiff or rigid.' [V., p-V.; P.,
p-V.; P.; D.]
1 s i d h, see under sddh. s tar (s t r, s t r), 'strew, scatter.
diffuse; spread over, cover; throw
2 s i d h, sedhati, ' scare or drive away,
away or down (an enemy, etc.'). [V.,
ward off.' [Thus BR.; by Gr. refer- p-V.; P., D.]
red to 1 sidh, 'proceed straight to s t d, (s t a i), only in stedyant, ' stealthy,
one's goal,' in a caus. sense, ' drive on
or away'? V., p-V.; P., D.] secret.' [V. (only AV.), p-V. (BR.,
Nachtr.); D.]
i v(s v), see under 1 sd. Akin:-s ten,* 'steal, rob.' [Fr.
stena (std), ' thief.' p-V.]
s u (sg ): 1 su, sunoti, ' press out (esp'ly
s t ig h, 'seize, attack.' [See note, p.
Soma juice):'-2 su (su), savati, suvtcti,
'set in motion, cause, produce; des- 17. p-V.]
tine (for), consecrate, empower:'-3 s t i m, only in stimita, ' heavy, dull,
su (su), savati, sauti, saste, 'bring forth, quiet; wet'?. [Comp. tim. p-V.;
generate, beget, bear.' [For the con- D.]
nect'n of these roots comp. Gr. ; Curt., raise in s extol
p. 397; Pott, Zeitschr., 6, 365; F., p. tu extol
230: some excluding 3 su. Orig'] [V., p-V.; P., D.]
meaning 'set in motion, send or From it:-s t u b h, 'shout for joy,
bring forth'? All three V., p-V.; exult, praise.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
P., DT.] st e n,* see under s td.

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48 A. H. Edgren,

s ty d (s ty a i), ' coagulate, grow thick sp h a t, only in sphatita, ' split open,
or solid.' [p-V.; P., D.] torn.' p-V.; P., D.]-sp h ut, 'split
open, burst; expand, blossom.' [Fr.
st h a g, 'veil, cover.' [p-V.; D.] sphat. p-V.; P., D.]
s t h d, 'stand, stand still; stay, abide,
remain, endure, be in any state or sit-
sp ha 1, only caus. with d, 'strike,
slap; hurl; tear;' and sam, 'strike
uation; abide (by, loc.); desist (from,
on or dash to pieces.' [Comp. sphar
abl.), etc.; stand or take place upon,and sphur. p-V.; P., D.]
mount.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
sp h d (y), only in sphiyante (BR.,
s n d, sndti, ' bathe, perform ablution.'
Nachtr.), ' are fattened;' and san-
[V., p-V.; P., D.] sphdna, ' growing fat, being fattened.'
s n i , 'be adhesive, be sticky or [By Brugman, Morphol Untersuch'n,
moist; have affection, be attached (to,derived fr. 1 sap. V-D., p-V.; P., D.]
loc. or gen.), love.' (Caus. smear,
sp h u t, see under sp h ar.
anoint, make pliant or submissive,'
sp h u r, ' impart a sudden motion to,
BR.; ' make fat, melt, whence destroy,
kill,' Gr.). [V., p-V. ; P., D.] jerk; throb, quiver, tremble; flash,
appear suddenly, be revealed.' [Comp.
sn t, 'yield any liquid (esp. mother'ssphal. V., p-V.; P., D.]
milk), flow.' [p-V.; P., D.] From it:-sp h u 1, only in sphulita,
s p a n d, 'move with a quick motion,'revealed, appeared.' [p-V.; D.]
throb, kick.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] sp tt rj (sp h t rj), ' make a low noise,
rumble, roar; break forth, appear.'
s p a r (sp r), * gain by struggle or con-
test; save, set free, protect; subdue.'[In latter sense comp. sphur. Per-
[Comp. Gr. V., p-V.; P., D.] haps 'break forth,' whence 'begin to
From it: - spardh (sp r d h, rumble.' V., p-V.; P., D.]
sp irdh), 'struggle, compete, rival;
strive for.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]- sp h u 1, see under sp h u r.
sparh (sprh), 'be eager to gain, s m a r, ' remember, think of; be mind-
desire; envy.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] ful of; record, declare, teach; remem-
ber with regret, long.' [V., p-V.;
sp a r dh (sp r d h), see under spar. P., D.]
sp ar p (sp r ~), ' touch, feel, stroke;
s m i, 'smile, smile sweetly or with a
reach, attain, affect; feel, experience.' blush; (whence fig.) bloom (of flow-
[V., p-V.; P., D.] ers).' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
sparh (sp .r h), see under spar. s y a (n) d, 'flow, run, pass or move
sp a p (p a ), ' see, behold, perceive; on.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
consider; (atm.) live to see, experience.'
s r a, (n) s, 'fall off or asunder, crumble
[pac in the pres't formations; spac down; hang loosely.' [V., p.V; P.,
in remaining tenses and caus., but
only in the older language. V., p-V.;
P., D.] s r i d , ' make a false step, stumble,
fail.' [V.; D.]
sp d r dh = spardh.
sp h a t, see under sp h a r. S r v (sr iV), 'fail.' [Only 3 ex.
V., p-V.; D.?]
sph a r, only in caus., ' tear apart, s r u, see under sar.
open, spread; draw (a bow).' [p-V.;
P., D.] s v a (n)j, ' clasp, embrace.' [V.,
Akin:-p h a r, only in intens.,
p-V.; P., D.]
' tear its way, advance with might' (?).
[Only once in a corrupted and artifi-v a d (s u a d, s v d d), ' make palatable
cial Vedic hymn, 932, 7. BR., with or agreeable, sweeten, spice; taste
Sayana refer it to par, 'fill;' Gr., good: relish, enjoy.' [By BR. divided
' strew,' to sphur. V.; D.]-1 p h a 1, into two roots: 2 s v a d, ' put aright
- split, burst; deflect, rebound.' = tame,' to which sud. V., p-V.;
[Comp. also 2 phal.* p-V.; P., D.] P., D.]
-p h u 1 1,* ' expand, blow.' [Fr. phulla Akin:-s A d, ' sweeten, make agree-
(1 phal), 'burst open.' p-V.; P.]- able, beautify; bless; put aright,

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 49

heal.' [See note to svad. V., p-V.; Akin :-2 h d, jahdti, 'leave, aban-
P., D.] don, reject, omit; emit.' [V., p-V.;
s v a n, ' sound, rush, roar.' [V., p-V.; P.,D.] From this:-ujj h (fr. ud+ ha),
'leave, abandon; avoid.' [p-V.; P.,
P., D.]
D.]-h ?a s, 'race, contend in running.'
s v ap, ' sleep, go to sleep; lie dead.' [V., p-V.]
[V., p-V.; P., D.] 2 h d, see under 1 h ad.
1 a r, svarati, ' emit a sound, re-
sound; sing, praise in song.' [V., h d s, see under 1 h d.
p-V.; P., D.] h i, 'set in motion, impel. cause; pro-
2 s v a r, svarati, ' shine.' [V., p-V.; mote, favor, honor; procure.' [V.,
P., D.] p-V.; P., D.]
s v d = sva d. A i n s, see under h a n.

s v i d, 'sweat.' [V., p-V.; P., h

i c kc, ' hiccough.' [Onomat. p-V.;
h i n d, one ex. of uncert. meaning.
h a d, ' cacare.' [p-V.; P., D.] [p-V.; P.]
h i d (h i d. h e d), ' be angry or hostile;
h a n, (g h a n), ' strike, hit; strike down,
slay, kill; destroy, ruin.' [V., p-V.; offend; be frivolous;' (orig'ly 'pull,
P., D.] pluck'?, BR.). [V., p-V.; P., D.]
From it (desid.):-h i n s, ' hurt, h u, 'pour (esp. clarified butter, BR.:
wound, injure.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] sacrificial libation, Gr.) into the fite,
1 h a r (h r), see under b h a r. sacrifice.' [V., p-V.; P., D.]
2 h a r, (hr, h ), hrnite, 'be angry.' h u r c h, see under d r u h.
[Orig'ly ghar, 'burn'? V., p-V.; h - hv da.
P., D.]
Akin:-hhri, ' be ashamed, blush.' he d (hel)= hid.
[IT., p-V.; P., D.] h e s h, 'neigh.' [Comp. hresh. V.,
h a r (y), 'wish, yearn after; love,p-V.; P., D.]
like.' [V., p-V.; P., D.] n u u, ' put out of the way, drive away;
h a r s h (h r s h), 'bristle or become deny, excuse one's self.' [V.. p-V.;
erect (as the hair of the body: hence) P., D.]
be intensely moved (esp. by joy), It r a s, ' become small, diminish.' [p-V.;
rejoice:' or the reverse develop't of P., D.]
meaning (BR.). [Probable orig'l form
gharsh (ghrsh) given, but not quotable, h r d l, ' sound.' [p-V.; P., D.]
except in deriv'ns ghrshu, etc. Per- h r i, see under 2 h a r.
haps orig'ly ' be intensely moved,'
and connected with 2 har and hary. h r zu, see under d r u h.
V., p-V.; P., D.] h r e s h, 'neigh.' [Comp. hesh. p-V.;
h a s, ' laugh, laugh at, (fig.) bloomD.](of
flowers).' [Comp. smi. V. (only h AV.;
I d d ' cool or refresh one's self.'
in RV. the verbal has and deriv.);
[V-D., p-V.; P., D.]
p-V.; P., D.]
h V ac r (h v r), see under d r u h.
From it:-2 j a k s h, 'laugh.' [By
redupl'n. Only two partic. forms. h v a l, see under dr u h.
V., p-V.; P., D.]
h v d (h v a i, h a), 'call, invoke.' [Per-
1 h 4, jihite, ' rush up, run away, yield, haps two verbs: 1 hu, from which
turn and flee, run to.' [V., p-V.; hv-d: comp. Brugman, Morphol. Un-
P., ID.] tersuch'n.]
VOL. XI. 7

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50 A. H. Edgren,


3 va bhi

ka sru

I ga 4 va (ve) 1 mi (= mA) hru

2 ga 9va 2 m ( 2m 2 mi) plu

cha hva ril (= ri) kshu
ja 9a kri su (1, 2,3)
sta ksha prn hu

stha 1 sa (so) bhrl kl (-ku)

1 da 2 sa (= san) gri ja
2 da psa hrl da (-ndu)
3 da 1ha li dha
4 da (do) 2ha' 21 pa
1 dha i vIll bha
2 dha 1 ci 1 vl drt
mna 2Ci 2 vi bra
sna 3 Ci 3 vi
1 p~ 4 ci 9vi
2 pa lji 19i sft (s= u)
bha 2ji 2 91i hfi (= hvA)
1 ma. dhi 3 1 ( Q) cak
2 ma pi (= pi) 4 gi (: ey) tak
dhma 1 mi hi 1 yak (= vae)

2mi u 2 yak
khya smi sku 9ak
ya ri gu 9ik
stya jri firnu lok
dhya 9gri kshnu dhauk
pya (= 2 pi) vli tu hikk
vya a stu
9i (= 9A) Stu tank
1 kshi du
1 ra 2 kshi dhu (= dhii) tark
2 r~ Si 1 nu rikh
ghra i 2 nu likh
tra di snu sukh*
1 dra 1 dl hnu aikh*
2 dra 2 di 1 yu riAkh
daridra 3 dl 2 yu inkh
pra didi (= I dl) cyu Ainkh
9ra dhl 1 ru sthag
didhl (= dhl) 2 ru lag
mla nl dru vlag
I pil pru mrg*

2 pl 1 gru aig

2 va 3 pl 2 9ru tvang

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 51

ing mlich bhanj nid

ring yuch svanj (= svaj) pid
ling mlech (= mlich) safj (- saj) krid
marg* anich inj vid
valg vaiich tunj (- tuj) hid
dagh unich nbj vrud
sagh arch 1 arj lud
9lagh march 2 arj kfd. (= kl)
stigh miirch garj krfid
migh (= mih) hurch jarj (?) red
dugh (= duh) aJ tarj mred
megh (= mih) paj bharj (= bhrajj) hed (= hid)
langh bhaj marj khand*
argh* yaj varj gand*
tyaj 1 sarj dand*
khac 1 raj 2 sarj mand
pac 2 raj sphurj pind.*
vyac bhuraj ujjh hind
dhraj Jajhjh mard
vraj at gan*
9vac (=9vanc)vaj ghat pan
svaj cat phan
yac bhishaj jhat bhan
ric saj tat man
1 vie sabhaj* nat ran
2 vie (= vyac) 1 raj pat vran
sic 2 raj sphat kvan
bhr'ij bhat kshan (= kshan)
kuc tij rat kfin
muc nlj kut (= kutt) marn
rue vij ghut varn*
Vlj sphut ghfirn
mluc vii jut (?) cfirn*
9ue tuj katt at
sic 1 bhuj ghatt cat
loc 2 bhuj kutt. 1 pat
anc (= ac) yu.i vant 2 pat*
canc ruj visht (= vesht) yat
tafic 9UJ cesht vat
vanc ktj path 9at
9vanc Pfti ruth va't*
kufic (= kuc)ej 1 luth cit
lufie rej 2 luth mrit
majj kunth 9vit
bhrajj gunth 9c(y)ut
pare lajj lunth jyut
marc sajj (= saj) tad dyut
vra9c anj vrid cint
sa9c khafnj kshvid art
prach ja_j id 1 kart

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52 A. -H. Edgren,

2 kart sad gurd jan

cart had kfird 1 tan
nart khad gadh 2 tan
vart yad dadh (= 1 dha) stan
kirt* hrad 1 badh (= bandh) dan
kath* hlad 2 badh (-vadh) dhan
9nath sva'd (= svad) 3 badh pan
path* khid vyadh bhan
math skhid (= khid) radh 1 man
vyath chid vadh 2 man (= 2 mad)
krath nid inadh 1 ran
grath bhid badh 2 ran
prath mid radh van
9rath klid vradh 1 dhvan
klath vid (1, 2) sadh 2 dhvan
9lath svid idh svan
kvath ud sridh kshan
nath (= nadh) kud 1 vidh san
mith cud 2 vidh han
vith tud 3 vidh (= vyadh) dan
kuth nud I sidh 9an
puth mud 2 sidh in
pruth rud dudh ven
veth (= vith) trud budh sten*
proth (= pruth) kshud yudh jap
katth sfid 1 rudh tap
manth (= math) ned 2 rudh rap
granth (= grath) skand krudh krap
arth* cand (?) 9udh trap
ad 9cand kshudh lap
kad chand (= 2 cha ,d) edh 1 vap
skad (= skand) tand bandh 2 vap
khad nand randh (= radh) 9ap
gad spand indh (= idh) 1 kshap
1 chad bhand vindh (= 2 vidh) 2 kshap
2 chad mand (= mad) 9undh (= 9udh) 1 sap
dad (= 1 da) syand (= syad) ardh 2 sap
nad krand gardh svap
pad vand spardh ap
1 mad nind (= nid) mardh lip
2 mad mind 1 vardh rip
syad vind (= vid, l) 2 vardh vip
rad und (= ud) 1 9ardh kship
mrad 9abd* 2 9ardh dip
vrad pibd gltrdh kup
vad ard sp-irdh gup*
svad chard an cup
1 gad tard kan yup
2 9ad nard khan rup
kshad mard can lup

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 53

mlup kam ghar t-fr

kshup gam car pfr
dhftp* cam 1 jar g9fr (= 1 9ar)
r-fp* 9cam 2 jar sfitr*
vep (- vip) jam 3 jar mantr*
kamp dam tar yantr*
tarp tam star migr*
darp dam 1 dar 1 kal
sarp dham 2 dar 2 kal
kalp nam dhar skhal
jalp yam 1 par gal
gushp ram 2 par cal
raph kram 3 par dal
riph dram spar 1 phal
gu(m)ph bhram phar 2 phal*
gulph 9ram sphar sphal
damb lam bhar bal
ramb klam 1 mar bhal
lamb vam 2 mar lal
cumb 1 gam smar val
skabh 2 9am 1 var jval
jabh 3 9am 2 var hval
stabh 4 9am jvar 9al
dabh ksham tvar kshal
nabh bham dhvar il
yabh tim 1 svar mil
rabh stim 2 svar ml
grabh ay (= i) hvar 911
labh day 1 9ar tul
ribh nay (= nl) 2 9ar dul
ubh vyay* 3 9ar (= qri) sphul
stubh cay (= 4 ci) kshar lul
lubh t'ay sar kill
9ubh day (= 1 da) tsar palpill
kshubh sphay 1 har mil*
subh pyy (= 2 pl) 2 har khel
rebh (= ribh) pily (= 3 pi) ar kshvel
skambh (--skabh) knity kir (= 3 kar) hel (= hid)
jambh (= jabh) paly ir phull*
stambh (= stabh) hary tir* av
dambh (= dabh) irshy* vir* dhav
1 rambh (= rabh) ar gur plav (= plu)
2 rainbh 1 kar cur tav (?)
jrambh 2 kar chur dhar
9rambh 3 kar jur shtiv
9umbh (= cubh) skar (= 1 kar) tur div
sumbh(= subh) 1 gar sphur sriv (= sriv)
darbh 2 gar bhur siv
galbh 3 gar gfur (= gur) jiv
am jagar jfr (= jur) div

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54 A. H. Edgren,

miv kash 1 raksh 2 las

sriv bhash 2 raksh 1 vas
sev lash kraksh 2 vas
ranv bhash praksh 3 vas
dhianv ish (1-5) mraksh 4 vas
inv (- in) pish laksh* 5 vas
jinv mish 1 vaksh (--uksh) khvas (
dhinv (=d hi) rish 2 vaksh 9vas
pinv 9rish tvaksh gas
carv 9lish niksh sas
bharv vish bhiksh has
turv tvish 1 miksh as
dhurv (= dharv) 2dvish miksh(=myaksh)kas
jlXrv I 9ish Iksh eakas
dh-frv 2 9ish (= 19as) diksh das
a9 (1, 2) ish dhiksh bhas
da9 ush I uksh ras
1 nag kush 2 uksh Vas*
2 nag 1 ghush r-fksh* 9as (= 9as)
1 moksh has
1 pa9 (= spa9) 2 ghush
2 pa9 jush 2 moksh* pis
spa9 tush ka'iksh aAs*
bhra9 dush bhuhksh tafis
va9 push sOrksh dafis (?)
k'a9 mush I arsh srans
d'a9 rush 2 arsh dhvafis
ra9 (rrs) prush karsh (1, 2) 9afis
vag 9rush gharsh nifis
di9 plush tarsh hifis
pi9 I 9ush dharsh kuts*
rig 2 9ush marsh bharts
li9 dhOXsh (= dhrsh) varsh I ah
kli9 bh-Xsh harsh 2 ah
vi9 ratsh l as dah
i9 esh 2 as nah
1 tu9 yesh kas bah (- banih)
2 tu9 bhresh ghas mah
I ru9 (= ruc) hresh jas rah
2 rug (=rush) hesh das grah (- grabh)
kru9 pifish (= pish) nas glah
dafi9 (= dag) aksh bhas vah
bhraA9 caksh yas sah
piti9 (= pig) 1 jaksh bhyas gah
rap9 2jaksh 1 ras vah
ar9 (?) taksh 2 ras* dih
kar9 daksh gras snih
dar9 naksh tras mih
spar9 bhaksh sras (== sranls) rih
bhar9 (= bhrani) yaksh hras lih
mar9 myaksh 1 las ih

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Verbal Roots of the Sanskrit Language. 55

guh 2 filh rafih sparh

duh jeh vafih (= baafh) 1 barli
muh afih (= ah) arh 2 barh
ruh jafih garh 3 barh
druh bafih tarh varh (= barh)
1 fih maihb darh valh

Corrigenda :--Add to the note, p. 7, etc., 2 raksh (AV. alone), std.-p. 3, line 23
from top, read 880 for 850.-p. 28, read dhauk for .dhank.-p. 35, read bhishaj for

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